Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y1: A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and ADP. The activated P2Y1 receptor signals through the G-PROTEIN-coupled activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE C and mobilization of intracellular CALCIUM.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y: A subclass of purinergic P2 receptors whose signaling is coupled through a G-PROTEIN signaling mechanism.Sex-Determining Region Y Protein: A transcription factor that plays an essential role in the development of the TESTES. It is encoded by a gene on the Y chromosome and contains a specific HMG-BOX DOMAIN that is found within members of the SOX family of transcription factors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Purinergic P2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.HMGA1a Protein: An 11-kDa AT-hook motif-containing (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) protein that binds to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA. It is the full-length product of the alternatively-spliced HMGA1 gene and may function as an architectural chromatin binding protein that is involved in transcriptional regulation.Uridine Diphosphate: A uracil nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Yersinia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus YERSINIA.Amino Acid Transport System y+LAmino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Genes, Y-Linked: Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.Gelsemium: A plant genus of the family LOGANIACEAE (classified by some botanists as Gelsemiaceae). The sometimes used common name of trumpet flower is also used for DATURA.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Acidiphilium: A genus in the family ACETOBACTERACEAE consisting of chemoorganotrophic, straight rods with rounded ends. They are aerobic and acidophilic.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Suramin: A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Alcohol Amnestic Disorder: A mental disorder associated with chronic ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) and nutritional deficiencies characterized by short term memory loss, confabulations, and disturbances of attention. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Receptors, Purinergic P2X: A subclass of purinergic P2 receptors that signal by means of a ligand-gated ion channel. They are comprised of three P2X subunits which can be identical (homotrimeric form) or dissimilar (heterotrimeric form).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.High Mobility Group Proteins: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Oligospermia: A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Amino Acid Transport System y+Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mice, Inbred C57BLProtein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Infertility, Male: The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.Silene: A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. The common name of campion is also used with LYCHNIS. The common name of 'pink' can be confused with other plants.Sex Chromosome Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Azoospermia: A condition of having no sperm present in the ejaculate (SEMEN).Seminal Plasma Proteins: Proteins found in SEMEN. Major seminal plasma proteins are secretory proteins from the male sex accessory glands, such as the SEMINAL VESICLES and the PROSTATE. They include the seminal vesicle-specific antigen, an ejaculate clotting protein; and the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Injections, Jet: The injection of solutions into the skin by compressed air devices so that only the solution pierces the skin.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Retinoblastoma: A malignant tumor arising from the nuclear layer of the retina that is the most common primary tumor of the eye in children. The tumor tends to occur in early childhood or infancy and may be present at birth. The majority are sporadic, but the condition may be transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Histologic features include dense cellularity, small round polygonal cells, and areas of calcification and necrosis. An abnormal pupil reflex (leukokoria); NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; STRABISMUS; and visual loss represent common clinical characteristics of this condition. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2104)Mutant Proteins: Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.Receptors, Neuropeptide: Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Apraxias: A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Balantidiasis: Infection by parasites of the genus BALANTIDIUM. The presence of Balantidium in the LARGE INTESTINE leads to DIARRHEA; DYSENTERY; and occasionally ULCER.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Drug Partial Agonism: Drug agonism involving selective binding but reduced effect. This can result in some degree of DRUG ANTAGONISM.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 220.127.116.11), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Receptors, Purinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Human Migration: Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.RNA, Small Cytoplasmic: Small RNAs found in the cytoplasm usually complexed with proteins in scRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL CYTOPLASMIC).src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Apyrase: A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 18.104.22.168.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Begomovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.Turner Syndrome: A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Lutetium: Lutetium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Lu, atomic number 71, and atomic weight 175.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Yttrium: An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Y, atomic number 39, and atomic weight 88.91. In conjunction with other rare earths, yttrium is used as a phosphor in television receivers and is a component of the yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) lasers.Benzazepines: Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.Casts, Surgical: Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Benzazepines: Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Iron Overload: An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Agouti-Related Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.Oseltamivir: An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.Pyrrolidinones: A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Ticlopidine: An effective inhibitor of platelet aggregation commonly used in the placement of STENTS in CORONARY ARTERIES.PhosphoproteinsNeisseria meningitidis, Serogroup W-135: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis found mostly in Africa.Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind gastrointestinal hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Most gastrointestinal hormones also act as neurotransmitters so these receptors are also present in the central and peripheral nervous systems.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Platelet Activation: A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Tephrosia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains tephrorin, tephrosone, and C-prenylflavonoids.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Adenofibroma: A benign neoplasm composed of glandular and fibrous tissues, with a relatively large proportion of glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
MN1 is a gene found on human chromosome 22, with gene map locus 22q12.3-qter. Its official full name is meningioma ( ... in myeloproliferative disorders results in fusion of the ETS-like TEL gene on 12p13 to the MN1 gene on 22q11". Oncogene. 10 (8 ... in myeloproliferative disorders results in fusion of the ETS-like TEL gene on 12p13 to the MN1 gene on 22q11". Oncogene. 10 (8 ... "MN1 affects expression of genes involved in hematopoiesis and can enhance as well as inhibit RAR/RXR-induced gene expression". ...
These gene candidates include certain variations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1 alpha, and CYP1A1 genes, ... Genes. Acne appears to be strongly inherited; genetics explain 81% of the variation in the population. Studies ... among others. The 308 G/A single nucleotide polymorphism variation in the gene for TNF is associated with an increased risk ... Acne susceptibility is likely due to the influence of multiple genes, as the disease does not follow a classic (Mendelian) ...
Genes. Number of genes. The following are some of the gene count estimates of human chromosome 16. Because ... Gene list. See also: Category:Genes on human chromosome 16.. The following is a partial list of genes on human chromosome ... So CCDS's gene number prediction represents a lower bound on the total number of human protein-coding genes. ... "HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee. 2017-05-12. Retrieved 2017-05-19.. *^ "Chromosome 16: Chromosome summary - Homo sapiens". ...
This affects their function of gene regulation. In general, genes that are active have less bound histone, while inactive genes ... Repressed genes. Three histone modifications are particularly associated with repressed genes: Trimethylation of H3 ... Hannon Bozorgmehr J (Oct 2019). "The origin of chromosomal histones in a 30S ribosomal protein". Gene. doi:10.1016/j.gene. ... Histone gene transcription is controlled by multiple gene regulatory proteins such as transcription factors which bind to ...
Different genes on different loci would need to be selected for another fly species. The genes expressions are mapped in a ... the older the egg is the more of the particular gene is expressed. However, all of the genes are expressed in varying ... Gene expression studies. Although physical characteristics and sizes at various instars have been used to estimate fly ... This is done by breaking the stages down into smaller units separated by predictable changed in gene expression. Three ...
Genes. PEX genes encode the protein machinery ("peroxins") required for proper peroxisome assembly, as described above. ... Genes that encode peroxin proteins include: PEX1, PEX2 (PXMP3), PEX3, PEX5, PEX6, PEX7, PEX10, PEX11A, PEX11B, PEX11G, PEX12, ... doi:10.1016/j.gene.2009.09.014. PMID 19818387.. *^ Gabaldón T, Capella-Gutiérrez S (Oct 2010). "Lack of phylogenetic support ... for a supposed actinobacterial origin of peroxisomes". Gene. 465 (1-2): 61-5. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2010.06.004. PMID 20600706.. ...
Kaplan AS, Levitan RD, Yilmaz Z, Davis C, Tharmalingam S, Kennedy JL (January 2008). "A DRD4/BDNF gene-gene interaction ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene. ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • receptor binding. • neurotrophin TRKB receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • GO: ... The BDNF protein is encoded by a gene that is also called BDNF, found in humans on chromosome 11. Structurally, BDNF ...
Gene therapy. Gammaretroviral and lentiviral vectors for gene therapy have been developed that mediate stable genetic ... For example, the gag gene is translated into molecules of the capsid protein, the pol gene is translated into molecules of ... Rous sarcoma virus contains the src gene that triggers tumor formation. Later it was found that a similar gene in cells is ... transcribing and translating the viral genes along with the cell's own genes, producing the proteins required to assemble new ...
Gene. The human TNF gene (TNFA) was cloned in 1985. It maps to chromosome 6p21.3, spans about 3 kilobases and ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • protein binding. • protease binding. • ... negative regulation of gene expression. • protein localization to plasma membrane. • positive regulation of protein catabolic ... positive regulation of gene expression. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via ...
Hallmarks include mutations to the alpha-synuclein gene, SNCA, as well as PARK2, PINK1, UCHL1, DJ1, and LRRK2 genes, and ... A gene called c9orf72 was found to have a hexanucleotide repeat in the non-coding region of the gene in association with ALS ... To date, multiple genes and proteins have been implicated in ALS. One of the common themes between many of these genes and ... Entrez Gene. "BDNF". United States National Center for Biotechnology Information.. *^ Kim J, Inoue K, Ishii J, Vanti WB, ...
In nature, such genes exist in several different forms and are therefore said to have multiple alleles. A gene with more than ... Traits controlled by two or more genes are said to be polygenic traits. Polygenic means "many genes." For example, at least ... An organism that has two identical alleles for a gene is said to be homozygous for that gene (and is called a homozygote). An ... Many other genes have multiple alleles, including the human genes for ABO blood type. ...
Gene. The AKR1B1 gene lies on the chromosome location of 7q33 and consists of 10 exons. There are a few putative ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • aldo-keto reductase (NADP) activity. • electron carrier activity. • oxidoreductase ... Graham A, Brown L, Hedge PJ, Gammack AJ, Markham AF (April 1991). "Structure of the human aldose reductase gene". The Journal ... Graham A, Heath P, Morten JE, Markham AF (March 1991). "The human aldose reductase gene maps to chromosome region 7q35". Human ...
Kaplan AS, Levitan RD, Yilmaz Z, Davis C, Tharmalingam S, Kennedy JL (January 2008). "A DRD4/BDNF gene-gene interaction ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene. BDNF ... The BDNF protein is encoded by a gene that is also called BDNF, found in humans on chromosome 11. Structurally, BDNF ... Common SNPs in BDNF gene. BDNF has several known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), including, but not limited to, ...
Gene and regulation. P-selectin is located on chromosome 1q21-q24, spans , 50 kb and contains 17 exons in humans. P- ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • heparin binding. • oligosaccharide binding. • lipopolysaccharide binding. • calcium- ... P-selectin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SELP gene. ... Pan J, Xia L, McEver RP (April 1998). "Comparison of promoters for the murine and human P-selectin genes suggests species- ...
Gene and transcription. Obestatin is encoded by the same gene that encodes ghrelin, a peptide hormone. The mRNA produced ... Seim I, Amorim L, Walpole C, Carter S, Chopin LK, Herington AC (2010). "Ghrelin gene-related peptides: multifunctional ... removing the ghrelin gene from mice did not significantly reduce food intake. No secretory convertase is capable of cleaving ... a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, opposes ghrelin's effects on food intake". Science. 310 (5750): 996-9. doi:10.1126/ ...
Gene regulation. Main article: Regulation of gene expression. At the cellular level, homeostasis is carried out by ... At the cellular level, receptors include nuclear receptors that bring about changes in gene expression through up-regulation or ... several mechanisms including transcriptional regulation that can alter the activity of genes in response to changes. ...
MDR1 gene mutation. Recent research at Washington State University indicates that, in addition to many other herding ... breeds, approximately 15% of the English Shepherd population is subject to the MDR1 gene mutation. Dogs that are tested ...
Gene therapy. Gene therapy typically involves the use of a non-infectious virus (i.e., a viral vector such as the adeno- ... SNCA gene mutations are important in PD because the protein which this gene encodes, alpha-synuclein, is the main component of ... Genes implicated in the development of PD include SNCA, LRRK2, GBA, PRKN, PINK1, PARK7, VPS35, EIF4G1, DNAJC13 and CHCHD2. ... The gene used leads to the production of an enzyme that helps to manage PD symptoms or protects the brain from further damage.[ ...
Gene prediction. References. *^ a b Shine, J.; Dalgarno, L. (1975-03-06). "Determinant of cistron specificity in ... Gene Expression Technology. 185. Academic Press. pp. 103-114.. *^ Stormo, Gary D.; Schneider, Thomas D.; Gold, Larry M. (1982- ... Gene annotation. The identification of RBSs is used to determine the site of translation initiation in an unannotated ... "Genes & Development. 15 (13): 1593-1612. doi:10.1101/gad.891101. ISSN 0890-9369. PMID 11445534.. ...
Epigenetic gene silencing of DNA repair genes occurs frequently in NSCLC. At least nine DNA repair genes that normally function ... Epigenetic promoter methylation in DNA repair genes in NSCLC Gene Frequency of hyper- (or hypo-) methylation DNA repair pathway ... ALK gene rearrangements. Up to 7% of NSCLC patients have EML4-ALK translocations or mutations in the ROS1 gene; these ... Gomes A, Reis-Silva M, Alarcão A, Couceiro P, Sousa V, Carvalho L (2014). "Promoter hypermethylation of DNA repair genes MLH1 ...
If a resistance gene is transferable, it could lessen the effect of the use of antibiotics. Out of ten common antibiotic genes ... Transferable Resistance Genes. One important consideration to determine the safety of Lactobacillus fermentum is ... In order for L. fermentum to be considered as a potential probiotic, it must not contain any transferable resistant genes. ... They are considered potential vectors of antibiotic resistance genes from the environment to humans or animals to humans. ...
Natural products genes. S. lacrymans' genome encodes six annotated polyketide synthases (PKS1-PKS6), 15 nonribosomal ... NPS3 and its adjacent clustered aminotransferase gene (AMT1) were also found to be up-regulated during co-incubation with ... One genome is from Serpula lacrymans S7.9 (v2.0). The genome assembly is 42.73 Mbp, with a predicted number of 12789 genes. The ... second genome is from Serpula lacrymans S7.3 (v2.0). The genome assembly is 47 Mbp, with a predicted number of 14495 genes. The ...
Gene and protein expression. About 20,000 protein-coding genes are expressed in human cells and nearly 70% of these genes ... Some 250 of these genes are more specifically expressed in the esophagus with less than 50 genes being highly specific. The ... Many genes with elevated expression are also shared with skin and other organs that are composed of squamous epithelia. ... "Expression of Human Skin-Specific Genes Defined by Transcriptomics and Antibody-Based Profiling". Journal of Histochemistry & ...
Gene. The human CysLTR2 gene maps to the long arm of chromosome 13 at position 13q14, a chromosomal region that has long ... The gene consists of four exons with all introns located in the genes' 5' UTR region and the entire coding region located in ... "Entrez Gene: CYSLTR2 cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2".. *^ Thompson MD, Takasaki J, Capra V, Rovati GE, Siminovitch KA, ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • protein binding. • G-protein coupled peptide receptor activity. • signal transducer ...
Gene ontology. Molecular function. • calcium ion binding. • protein binding. • ankyrin binding. • gamma-catenin binding. • beta ... "Entrez Gene: CDH1 cadherin 1, type 1, E-cadherin (epithelial)".. *^ Fleming TP, Papenbrock T, Fesenko I, Hausen P, Sheth B ( ... Berx G, Becker KF, Höfler H, van Roy F (1998). "Mutations of the human E-cadherin (CDH1) gene". Human Mutation. 12 (4): 226-37 ... Mutations in this gene are correlated with gastric, breast, colorectal, thyroid, and ovarian cancers. Loss of function is ...
Genes contained within the family: 15 Approved Symbol. Approved Name. Previous Symbols. Synonyms. Chromosome. ...
Gene Siskel Film Center. of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. 164 N. State Street , Chicago, IL 60601 *. Hotline: ( ... THE GENE SISKEL FILM CENTER IS AVAILABLE FOR RENTAL. Dynamic location for presentations meetings, trainings, and luncheons. ... From September 27 through 29, the Gene Siskel Film Center and Hibernian Transmedia invite you to whoop it up Irish-style with ... and Animation at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago in collaboration with the Gene Siskel Film Center and the Video ...
Please see our Protein phosphatases, catalytic subunits page to view the PPP1C genes, along with all other PPP genes. ... Genes contained within the family: 181 Approved Symbol. Approved Name. Previous Symbols. Synonyms. Chromosome. ...
Gene activation, the first step of protein production, starts less than one millisecond after a cell is stretched-hundreds of ... Cells will ramp up gene expression in response to physical forces alone, a new study finds. ... "The genes near the nuclear periphery cannot be activated even if you stretch them, whereas the genes that are close to the ... Force triggers gene expression by stretching chromatin More information: "Force-induced gene up-regulation does not follow the ...
These genes, and the proteins they encode, are important new potential targets for novel drugs that could selectively cut off a ... has uncovered a set of genes that are turned on, or expressed, at high levels only in the blood vessels that feed tumors in ... Among the genes identified was CD276, a gene that encodes a protein located on the cell surface, as well as other known and ... NCI Researchers Discover Genes That Are Turned On at High Levels in Tumor-Associated Blood Vessels of Mice and Humans. ...
Among genes coding for eCB catabolic enzymes, expression of MGLL was lower in tumour tissue while PTGS2 was increased. It is ... Altered mRNA Expression of Genes Involved in Endocannabinoid Signalling in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tongue. ... expression of genes coding for the components of the eCB system in tumour and non-malignant samples from SCCOT patients. ...
Much attention has recently focused on a gene fusion, TMPRSS2:ETS-related gene (ERG), that is frequently found in aggressive ... At the same time the literature indicates clearly that loss of expression of the PTEN tumour suppressor gene is also linked to ... These values were then converted to log base 10 and plotted against the Ct data points for the target gene or RuBisCO to ... Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) is one of the most studied tumour suppressor genes that influences a wide range of ...
... and ex vivo gene transfer. This was the first NIH Office of Recombinant DNA Activities-approved trial of human gene therapy for ... Carducci M. A., Ayyagari S. R., Sanda M. G., Simons J. W. Gene therapy for human prostate cancer. Cancer (Phila.), 75: 2013- ... GM-CSF gene-transduced PCA vaccines represent only one of several new approaches to active specific immunotherapy of PCA, which ... GM-CSF gene-transduced PCA vaccines increased antibody titers against prostate tumor cell line-associated antigens. This ...
Tags: Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Animal Model, Blood, Blood Cancer, Bone, Bone Marrow, Cancer, Cell, CRISPR, Drugs, Gene, Genes, ... By employing special gene scissors, CRISPR, we have been able, using an animal model, to study around 100 genes at the same ... The Lund researchers found that the gene CXCR4 is essential for the leukemia stem cells survival. When they cut off this gene ... The new method using gene scissors means that the researchers can effectively control which gene is turned off, making it ...
In 2018, AbbVie paid Voyager $69 million to develop gene therapies for the treatment of Alzheimers and other diseases linked ... Working with partner Neurocrine Biosciences, Voyager is testing a gene therapy designed to enable Parkinsons patients to ...
... brings you the latest research into genetic and cell-based technologies to treat disease. It also publishes ... Celebrating 25 Years of Gene Therapy To celebrate 25 years of Gene Therapy, the Editor-in-Chief has selected 25 of the most ... 25 Years of Gene Therapy. To celebrate 25 years of Gene Therapy, the Editor-in-Chief has selected 25 of the journals most ... Integrating gene delivery and gene-editing technologies by adenoviral vector transfer of optimized CRISPR-Cas9 components * ...
MN1 is a gene found on human chromosome 22, with gene map locus 22q12.3-qter. Its official full name is meningioma ( ... in myeloproliferative disorders results in fusion of the ETS-like TEL gene on 12p13 to the MN1 gene on 22q11". Oncogene. 10 (8 ... in myeloproliferative disorders results in fusion of the ETS-like TEL gene on 12p13 to the MN1 gene on 22q11". Oncogene. 10 (8 ... "MN1 affects expression of genes involved in hematopoiesis and can enhance as well as inhibit RAR/RXR-induced gene expression". ...
Eugene "Gene" Martynec (born 28 March 1947) is a Canadian musician, composer and record producer. ... From 2000 to 2004 he curated Eugenes Sunday Series an exploration of new music and other art forms at Artword Theatre. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gene_Martynec&oldid=868294371" ...
Gene Demby is the politics editor of Huffington Post BlackVoices. He was HuffPost BlackVoices managing editor following its ...
Eugene Allen Hackman was born in San Bernardino, California, the son of Anna Lyda Elizabeth (Gray) and Eugene Ezra Hackman, who ... Eugene Allen Hackman was born in San Bernardino, California, the son of Anna Lyda Elizabeth (Gray) and Eugene Ezra Hackman, who ... McLean Stevenson/Gene Hackman/George Carlin/Gloria DeHaven (1974) ... Himself - McLean Stevenson, George Carlin, Gene Hackman, ... Steve Allen, John Wayne, Carol Channing, Charles Nelson Reilly, Terry-Thomas, Jo Ann Pflug, Gene Hackman (1972) ... Himself - ...
Gene Upshaw, a Hall of Fame guard for the Oakland Raiders, was head of the NFL Players' Assn. for a quarter of a century, ... Gene Upshaw, a Hall of Fame guard for the Oakland Raiders, was head of the NFL Players Assn. for a quarter of a century, ... Gene Upshaw, a Hall of Fame guard for the Oakland Raiders, was head of the NFL Players Assn. for a quarter of a century, ... Gene Upshaw, a Hall of Fame guard for the Oakland Raiders, was head of the NFL Players Assn. for a quarter of a century, ...
GENE-TOX provides genetic toxicology (mutagenicity) test data from expert peer review of open scientific literature for more ... GENE-TOX covers the years 1991 - 1998. It is no longer updated. ... Download over 3214 GENE-TOX records.. Download GENE-TOX Data ... Download GENE-TOX Data. Terms and Conditions Get the Data via Bulk Download. ... than 3,000 chemicals from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). GENE-TOX was established to select assay ...
db=gene,term=PA4221,query=1,qty=2,blobid=NCID_1_20256912_22.214.171.124_9001_1576399065_364261814_0MetA0_S_MegaStore_F_1, ... See fptA (PA4221) Fe(III)-pyochelin outer membrane receptor in the Gene database. ... Gene. Genes and mapped phenotypes. Search database. Gene. All Databases. Assembly. Biocollections. BioProject. BioSample. ...
Marvel.com is the source for Marvel comics, digital comics, comic strips, and more featuring Iron Man, Spider-Man, Hulk, X-Men and all your favorite superheroes.
Friedman M.T., West K.A., Bizargity P., Annen K., Jhang J.S. (2018) Gene Genius. In: Immunohematology and Transfusion Medicine ...
db=gene,term=SUSD3,query=1,qty=223,blobid=NCID_1_266601728_126.96.36.199_9001_1550533365_1826726879_0MetA0_S_MegaStore_F_1, ... susd3 in Homo sapiensMus musculusRattus norvegicusAll 223 Gene records ... Gene. Genes and mapped phenotypes. Search database. Gene. All Databases. Assembly. Biocollections. BioProject. BioSample. ...
The gene: A gene is a sequence (a string) of bases. It is made up of combinations of A, T, C, and G. These unique combinations ... An official definition: According to the official Guidelines for Human Gene Nomenclature, a gene is defined as "a DNA segment ... DNA: Genes are composed of DNA, a molecule in the memorable shape of a double helix, a spiral ladder. Each rung of the spiral ... History of the gene: 1869-1970:. *1869 - The chemical material DNA is discovered in cells but its real functions are not known ...
g gaba gaes gakr gall galv gamm gani gard garr gas-t gast gate gaus gbbc gbwa gchn gcwa gdse geez geme gene generat genn genu ...
Gene Expression. Tag archives for Creationism. Egypt & evolution & the Muslim world. Posted by Razib Khan on November 26, 2009 ...
ProteinSignificantlyBRCA1 and BRCA2GenomeSearchExpressionTherapyHeredityFoundScientistsVariantsCopiesActivity of genes2018Organism'sCRISPRGeneticistsIndividual genesTumourAffectsDiseasesHumansMutations in the p53 geneBreast or ovarian cancerOccursObesity geneMyriad GeneticsAdvancesMicroRNAHelps regulateDifferentially expressedGenetic traits2020OncogeneTherapiesMC4REvolveSequenceApproachesPatentsNucleicOntologyNucleotidesTumorBiochemicalCancerIncreasesLiving organismsRegulatesOrganismGene'sAdenovirusNormal gene
- Exposure to the Gelsemium s. 2c dilution (the highest dose employed, corresponding to a gelsemine concentration of 6.5 × 10(-9) M) significantly changed the expression of 56 genes, of which 49 were down-regulated and 7 were overexpressed. (homeopathycenter.org)
- Fisher exact test, applied to the group of 49 genes down-regulated by Gelsemium s. 2c, showed that the direction of effects was significantly maintained across the treatment with high homeopathic dilutions, even though the size of the differences was distributed in a small range. (homeopathycenter.org)
- However, as we noted at the time, there's another issue that remains unresolved, which concerns the huge database of DNA that Myriad Genetics has built up over years of sequencing the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes that have variants linked to cancer. (techdirt.com)
- All women have BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, but only some women have mutations in those genes. (cdc.gov)
- If you have a family history of breast cancer or inherited changes in your BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, you may have a higher breast cancer risk. (cdc.gov)
- Section IV, In Silico Assessment of Regulatory cis-Elements and Gene Regulation, and Section V, Cardiac Single Network Polymorphisms, emphasize new analytical approaches for deciphering the functional elements buried in the 3 billion nucleotides of the human genome and other model genomes. (springer.com)
- Junk DNA makes up 97% of the DNA in the human genome, and, despite its name, is necessary for the proper functioning of the genes. (factmonster.com)
- Scientists are working toward identifying the location and function of each gene in the human genome (see Human Genome Project ). (factmonster.com)
- The most common method is inserting a normal gene into a non-specific location within the genome with the goal of replacing a non-functional gene. (brighthub.com)
- Genome editing (often referred to as "gene editing"), on the other hand, is a group of technologies that allow scientists to precisely insert, delete, or replace DNA at a specific locations within a crop's DNA. (fmi.org)
- Since 2006, genome-wide association studies have found more than 50 genes associated with obesity, most with very small effects. (cdc.gov)
- The genome, or the ensemble of DNA together with all its associated proteins, is an information-processing machine that helps regulate the transcription of the very genes encoded within the DNA. (pnas.org)
- 2013-10-14T04:27:33-04:00 https://images.c-span.org/Files/352/201310140429081002_hd.jpg Kelly Happe talked about her book, The Material Gene: Gender, Race, and Heredity after the Human Genome Project , in which she discusses the cultural and social impacts of the study of genomics. (c-span.org)
- Some viruses store their genome in RNA instead of DNA and some gene products are functional non-coding RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
- Now that behavioural geneticists know that genes affect mental ability at all ages, they will be able to search more vigorously for the genes that lie at the root of intelligence, says Plomin. (newscientist.com)
- The study of inherited cancers has given cancer molecular biologists the opportunity to search for genes that are critical in normal cell development and cancer. (google.com)
- Mustanski compares the study's approach to a search for doctors in a town of 40,000 people, a number that roughly corresponds to the number of human genes. (webmd.com)
- and doctoral student Erfan Mohagheghian discovered that mechanical forces on cells can boost gene expression in the nucleus. (phys.org)
- Cells will ramp up gene expression in response to physical forces alone, a new study finds. (phys.org)
- One class of histones, known as Histone H3, appear to prevent force-responsive gene expression when methylated at an amino acid known as lysine 9. (phys.org)
- The researchers found they could suppress or boost force-responsive gene expression by increasing or decreasing H3K9 histone methylation. (phys.org)
- The scientists also tested whether the frequency of an applied force influenced gene expression . (phys.org)
- By comparing the gene expression profiles of endothelial cells from regenerating liver to those derived from tumor-bearing livers, the researchers found 13 distinct genes that were selectively overexpressed (turned on to a greater degree than other genes) during disease-related angiogenesis. (nih.gov)
- Here we have investigated, at the mRNA level, expression of genes coding for the components of the eCB system in tumour and non-malignant samples from SCCOT patients. (diva-portal.org)
- Among genes coding for eCB catabolic enzymes, expression of MGLL was lower in tumour tissue while PTGS2 was increased. (diva-portal.org)
- 2008). "MN1 affects expression of genes involved in hematopoiesis and can enhance as well as inhibit RAR/RXR-induced gene expression" . (wikipedia.org)
- 2009). "Prognostic importance of MN1 transcript levels, and biologic insights from MN1-associated gene and microRNA expression signatures in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia: a cancer and leukemia group B study" . (wikipedia.org)
- Cardiac Gene Expression: Methods and Protocols presents both cutting-edge and established methods for studying cardiac gene expression. (springer.com)
- Section I, Cardiac Gene Expression Profiling: The Global Perspective, discusses several different approaches to examining, identifying, and analyzing changes in transcriptome gene expression. (springer.com)
- Section II, Cardiac Gene Regulation: Gene-Specific mRNA Measurement in the Myocardium, outlines more sensitive and gene-targeted expression methods. (springer.com)
- The main interest of our lab is to understand the physical basis underlying molecular mechanisms of gene expression. (google.com)
- Such gene expression experiments allow bioscientists to diagnose different diseases, quickly screen thousands of drug candidates for efficacy and safety and even learn the functions of newly discovered genes. (technologyreview.com)
- Companies and academics have begun creating uniform formats for representing gene expression data, designed to work on any computer ( see table below ). (technologyreview.com)
- Next in line: molecular and chemical structure representations and drug trial data, as well as gene expression data. (technologyreview.com)
- Participants hope that a gene expression standard will emerge by year's end. (technologyreview.com)
- Further studies in humans will be needed to determine whether drugs that can 'turn up' the action of the ATOH1 gene can help treat people with colorectal cancers who have reduced expression of this gene. (www.nhs.uk)
- Human gene therapy seeks to modify or manipulate the expression of a gene or to alter the biological properties of living cells for therapeutic use. (fda.gov)
- Image 2: Expression of an cancer gene in ancestral metazoan (blue color). (redorbit.com)
- Microarrays contain oligonucleotide or cDNA probes for comparing the expression profile of genes on a genomic scale. (mathworks.com)
- Determining if changes in gene expression are statistically significant between different conditions, e.g. two different tumor types, and determining the biological function of the differentially expressed genes, are important aims in a microarray experiment. (mathworks.com)
- A publicly available dataset containing gene expression data of 42 tumor tissues of the embryonal central nervous system (CNS) is used for this example. (mathworks.com)
- to filter out genes with very low absolute expression values. (mathworks.com)
- You can now compare the gene expression values between two groups of data: CNS medulloblastomas (MD) and non-neuronal origin malignant gliomas (Mglio) tumor. (mathworks.com)
- Conduct a t-test for each gene to identify significant changes in expression values between the MD samples and Mglio samples. (mathworks.com)
- The definitive rapid-publication journal covering all aspects of human gene therapy through original investigations into the transfer and expression of genes in mammals, with in-depth coverage of DNA, RNA, and cell therapies. (liebertpub.com)
- The 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs play a major role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, the term usually refers to gene expression in the laboratory. (news-medical.net)
- These configurations help form the expression system of the cell by regulating DNA replication and gene expression. (news-medical.net)
- The enzyme that synthesizes RNA (RNA polymerase) binds to promoter sequences along with transcription factors that either activate or repress promoters, therefore regulating gene expression. (news-medical.net)
- The Plant Gene Expression Center is located in Albany, CA and is part of the Pacific West Area . (usda.gov)
- Blood cells taken from the obesity-risk group also had higher levels of FTO gene expression and more ghrelin mRNA than the low-risk group. (ucl.ac.uk)
- During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. (wikipedia.org)
- Therefore, a broad, modern working definition of a gene is any discrete locus of heritable, genomic sequence which affect an organism's traits by being expressed as a functional product or by regulation of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
- In a Phase I human gene therapy trial, eight immunocompetent prostate cancer (PCA) patients were treated with autologous, GM-CSF-secreting, irradiated tumor vaccines prepared from ex vivo retroviral transduction of surgically harvested cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- Working with partner Neurocrine Biosciences, Voyager is testing a gene therapy designed to enable Parkinson's patients to convert levodopa into dopamine. (fiercebiotech.com)
- To celebrate 25 years of Gene Therapy, the Editor-in-Chief has selected 25 of the most innovative papers to highlight the journal's impact on the field over the past 25 years. (nature.com)
- To celebrate the 22nd ASGCT Annual Congress we are delighted to share with you a collection of Gene Therapy papers that reflect the themes of the conference. (nature.com)
- In response to the death of a young man undergoing gene therapy in September, the Food and Drug Administration has ordered the suspension of two similar experiments on humans. (wired.com)
- Approximately 200 patients have been treated with P53 gene therapy in Schering-Plough's clinical trials thus far, with no fatalities. (wired.com)
- The adenovirus has been used to carry genes into the body to facilitate gene therapy for some time, according to Marshall Summar, director of the Metabolic Disorders Clinic at Vanderbilt University. (wired.com)
- Summar doesn't see the FDA ruling as a major setback for the future of gene therapy treatments. (wired.com)
- The Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) regulates cellular therapy products, human gene therapy products, and certain devices related to cell and gene therapy. (fda.gov)
- CBER has approved both cellular and gene therapy products - a list of these products may be found here . (fda.gov)
- Cellular and gene therapy-related research and development in the United States continue to grow at a fast rate, with a number of products advancing in clinical development. (fda.gov)
- Provides in-depth coverage of the technological advances in cell and gene therapy that promote the development of gene therapy applications into effective therapeutics. (liebertpub.com)
- The leading journal for publishing data relevant to the regulatory review and commercial development of cell and gene therapy products. (liebertpub.com)
- What is Gene Therapy? (brighthub.com)
- Right: Gene therapy using an adenovirus vector. (brighthub.com)
- Why is Gene Therapy Difficult? (brighthub.com)
- Gene therapy has proven very difficult for genetic scientists and engineers. (brighthub.com)
- In order for the therapeutic methods to be adopted by a cell, several rounds of gene therapy must take place to make the cell retain the information for a long period of time. (brighthub.com)
- The fact that much of the gene therapy used in modern cases must utilize viral vectors poses a number of potential problems to patients such as: toxicity levels and the possibility that the virus could evolve to attack other sections of a cell. (brighthub.com)
- What is Germ Line Gene Therapy? (brighthub.com)
- Germ line gene therapy uses a concept in which the benefits of the modifications can be passed on through successive generations. (brighthub.com)
- Which Type of Illnesses Could Gene Therapy Cure? (brighthub.com)
- A variety of illnesses and diseases could possibly be cured by gene therapy. (brighthub.com)
- Gene therapy researchers have achieved the most promising results yet in head and neck cancer patients with a combination of gene therapy and chemotherapy. (wired.com)
- The study is the first gene therapy trial in any disease to get past Phase I FDA trials to be accepted for publication in a scientific journal. (wired.com)
- The next step in proving gene therapy's merit is a pivotal Phase III trial, said Dr. French Anderson , a gene therapy expert at the University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine. (wired.com)
- First, the researchers combined chemotherapy with gene therapy. (wired.com)
- Gene therapy alone isn't yet strong enough to do the job, he said. (wired.com)
- Anderson said Onyx Pharmaceuticals , the company that sponsored the study, plans a Phase III trial soon that, if successful, could result in the FDA approving gene therapy as a viable treatment. (wired.com)
- Gene therapy studies have been under fire since last September when 18-year-old Jesse Gelsinger died after being treated at the University of Pennsylvania's Institute for Human Gene Therapy . (wired.com)
- Gelsinger was the first patient to die as a direct result of gene therapy, and his death put the field as well as the public on alert. (wired.com)
- After scrutiny from the FDA as well as the U.S. Senate, school officials said experiments at the gene therapy institute will be limited to experiments on animals in the future. (wired.com)
- Federal regulators also plan investigations of 70 other gene therapy experiments in the United States. (wired.com)
- But since then, several researchers have seen promising results in four studies using gene therapy. (wired.com)
- Four boys in France with a disease called severe combined immunodeficiency (also known as boy-in-the-bubble disease) are still healthy a year after being treated with gene therapy. (wired.com)
- Anderson said that gene therapy finally seems to be showing its promise after a very bad year, and treatments should be available in three to five years. (wired.com)
- There was considerable concern in gene therapy as to whether it was going to work any time in the near future. (wired.com)
- The new data suggests that gene therapy has turned the corner and we are going to soon see a number of successes. (wired.com)
- The 4th Annual Gene Therapy for Rare Disorders will focus exclusively on overcoming the late-stage commercial challenges drug developers face when delivering gene therapies to market. (rsc.org)
- Why a Special Issue on Gene Therapy? (hindawi.com)
- ROCHESTER, NY (2/6/97) Researchers are optimistic that promsing results obtained in gene therapy experiments involving rats with Parkinson's disease could someday be applied to the treatment of humans. (accessexcellence.org)
- While this work is a long way from clinical application in humans, it is a prime example of the potential of in-vivo gene therapy in the brain,' says graduate student Derek Choi-Lundberg. (accessexcellence.org)
- Using gene therapy to spur the brain to produce vital substances suggests a promising, less invasive route for a variety of neurological disorders, including Parkinson's. (accessexcellence.org)
- Gene therapy has the potential to do that. (accessexcellence.org)
- Gene therapy has the potential to be a tailor-made therapeutic with increased specificity and decreased side effects that can offer a "cure" for many disorders. (merlot.org)
- The aim of this book is to provide up-to-date reviews of the rapidly growing field of gene therapy. (merlot.org)
- Chapters cover a large range of topics including methods of gene delivery, and identification of targets with several papers on cancer gene therapy. (merlot.org)
- If more people become aware of the true nature and potential of gene therapy, perhaps we can achieve the full benefit of such an innovative approach for the treatment of a range of diseases, including cancer. (merlot.org)
- You just viewed Novel Gene Therapy Approaches . (merlot.org)
- We found that force can activate genes without intermediates, without enzymes or signaling molecules in the cytoplasm," said University of Illinois mechanical science and engineering professor Ning Wang, who led the research. (phys.org)
- ETS-related gene ( ERG ), that is frequently found in aggressive prostate cancer. (spandidos-publications.com)
- The Lund researchers found that the gene CXCR4 is essential for the leukemia stem cells' survival. (news-medical.net)
- Obesity is in your genes, according to a study which found that one in six people inherits a trait which makes them feel less full after eating. (telegraph.co.uk)
- Mutations in the HCFC1 gene have also been found in individuals with X-linked intellectual disability. (medlineplus.gov)
- Genes aren't just found in humans - all animals and plants have genes, too. (kidshealth.org)
- The identification of the ATOH1 gene "could open the door to revolutionary new treatments" says the newspaper, referring to new research that has found 'turning on' the gene could suppress bowel cancer in mice and humans, plus eye tumours in fruit flies. (www.nhs.uk)
- In their fruit fly study the researchers found that when introducing an overactive Ato gene into flies susceptible to eye tumours it almost completely stopped the development of eye tumours. (www.nhs.uk)
- The research group can now show that the gene is found in 100% of these tumors, which means that a genetic test can easily be used to make a correct diagnosis. (redorbit.com)
- It builds on previous studies that have consistently found evidence of genetic influence on sexual orientation, but our study is the first to look at exactly where those genes are located," says researcher Brian Mustanski, PhD, a psychologist at the University of Illinois at Chicago. (webmd.com)
- Ambiguous gene test results are most often found in women who are not white. (kqed.org)
- Men with the high-risk genes found pictures of high-fat foods more appealing than the low-risk men. (bbc.co.uk)
- While the advocates won a trial court ruling in 2010, an appeals court found that isolated genes could indeed be patented , the Wall Street Journal reported. (businessinsider.com)
- But "similar genes are found as far back in evolution as yeast," he adds, "so it is part of an ancient mechanism and is presumably acting in innate immunity. (scientificamerican.com)
- Because of the social, political, and cultural implications, his results - inevitably headlined 'Gay gene found' - were hailed globally as a major breakthrough. (thestar.com)
- No 'gay gene' had been found, nor ever would be. (thestar.com)
- Scientists at the Salk Institute have found a specific gene in worms (there's a very similar one in people) that is directly involved in the longevity effect . (slashdot.org)
- In a study published in the journal Nature , British and American researchers said they had found for the first time a human gene that influences how people respond to flu infections, making some people more susceptible than others. (news24.com)
- They found that once these animals contracted flu they had far more severe symptoms than mice with the IFITM3 gene. (news24.com)
- The researchers then sequenced the IFITM3 genes of 53 patients who had been hospitalised with seasonal or pandemic flu and found that a higher number of them had a particular variant of IFITM3 compared to the general patient population. (news24.com)
- Working with hairless mice, researchers found that a synthetic compound called CP-31398 helped stabilize damage in the tumor-suppressing p53 gene. (washingtonpost.com)
- The scientists observed that H3K9 methylation was highest at the periphery of the nucleus and largely absent from the interior, making the genes in the interior more responsive to stretching. (phys.org)
- Scientists from University College London studied 359 men who either had two copies of the high-risk gene, or two copies of a genetic variant thought to cause low risk of obesity. (telegraph.co.uk)
- For the first time, scientists have uncovered a direct link between a gene and fat production in the body - a discovery that may hold the key to tackling obesity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Scientists discovered that when this gene was silenced in mice, it resulted in a dramatic reduction in white fat. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The result comes as a surprise to most scientists, who had expected that a lifetime's experience would gradually wash out any role that genes might have played in determining mental abilities. (newscientist.com)
- In order to create the transgenic chickens, scientists used the gene-editing technology known as CRISPR, or Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat. (organicconsumers.org)
- While scientists have made great strides in mapping out genomes of entire organisms, much remains unknown about the purpose of individual genes and how they interact with one another. (organicconsumers.org)
- Also, the scientists managed to correct the gene and erase its harmful effects. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Scientists fix the faulty gene that most likely causes Alzheimer's. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- To create a bioengineered - or bioengineered crop variety - scientists generally remove a gene from one organism and introduce that gene to a different organism at the cellular level. (fmi.org)
- While most gene edited crops are not yet being grown by farmers, examples of gene-edited crops created by scientists include non-browning mushrooms, waxy corn, slow-growing cabbage, and mildew-resistant grapes. (fmi.org)
- The patients want full access to their genetic information because they know that the understanding of genes and their variants is constantly evolving, and they want to be able to proactively monitor their own cancer risk and that of their family members as scientific knowledge and clinical interpretation of genomic information advances. (techdirt.com)
- What makes the E4 variant of this gene so much more harmful than other variants? (medicalnewstoday.com)
- More specifically, the researchers wanted to locate and understand the fine yet crucial difference between the E3 and E4 variants that makes the APOE4 gene so devastating. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Several of these genes also have variants that are associated with monogenic obesity, a phenomenon that has been observed in many other common conditions. (cdc.gov)
- Some genes with variants that have been associated with obesity are listed in the Table . (cdc.gov)
- Genes can acquire mutations in their sequence, leading to different variants, known as alleles, in the population. (wikipedia.org)
- The recessive types of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) result from mutations in both copies of the COL7A1 gene in each cell. (medlineplus.gov)
- Each of your parents has two copies of each of their genes, and each parent passes along just one copy to make up the genes you have. (kidshealth.org)
- The researchers also looked at whether either copy of the ATOH1 gene (people usually have two copies) was switched off or absent in human MCC and CRC cells grown in the laboratory, and taken directly from patients (42 CRC patients and four MCC patients). (www.nhs.uk)
- Applying stem cell technology to skin cells from people with Alzheimer's who had two copies of the APOE4 gene, Dr. Huang and his team created neurons. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The researchers also created brain cells using skin cells from people who didn't have Alzheimer's and had two copies of the APOE3 gene. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- People have two copies of the FTO gene - one from each parent - and each copy comes in a high and a low-risk form. (bbc.co.uk)
- Those with two-high risk copies of the FTO gene are thought to be 70% more likely to become obese than those with low-risk genes. (bbc.co.uk)
- When both copies of these genes are functioning, people are able to control their food intake. (medicinenet.com)
- Having four copies of this gene would be expected to increase activity of this enzyme and lower levels of glycine in the brain," she continued. (medscape.com)
- By employing special gene scissors, CRISPR, we have been able, using an animal model, to study around 100 genes at the same time. (news-medical.net)
- Researchers have used CRISPR-Cas9 and other gene-editing technologies to create cows that can tolerate warmer temperatures (so they can be raised in the tropics), goats with longer cashmere wool and rabbits and pigs with bigger, leaner muscles. (organicconsumers.org)
- As an example, the CRISPR system has generated a lot of excitement in the scientific community because it is believed to be faster, more accurate and more efficient than other existing gene editing methods. (fmi.org)
- Unlike conventional CRISPR, this approach does not make changes to genes, but instead increases the activity of targeted genes. (medicinenet.com)
- Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) is an important tumour suppressor gene that is often inactivated in cancer. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Phosphatase and tensin homologue ( PTEN ) is one of the most studied tumour suppressor genes that influences a wide range of cellular processes including survival, proliferation, adhesion, migration, metabolism and differentiation. (spandidos-publications.com)
- AML is the result of acquired genetic changes in the blood-forming stem cells and among other things affects genes that control the cells' maturation and growth. (news-medical.net)
- Alternative polyadenylation (APA) affects most mammalian genes. (biomedcentral.com)
- An international team of researchers has discovered why people with a variation of the FTO gene that affects one in six of the population are 70 per cent more likely to become obese. (ucl.ac.uk)
- The new method using gene scissors means that the researchers can effectively control which gene is turned off, making it possible to study the gene's function and thus better understand how diseases arise. (news-medical.net)
- With the advent of molecular biology applications to medicine, gene maps and the chromosomal locations of genes are available as tools for the identification of predisposition for various diseases. (google.com)
- These results demonstrate that CRISPRa can be used to up the dosage of genes in diseases that result from a missing copy, providing a potential cure for certain forms of obesity as well as hundreds of other diseases," Matharu added. (medicinenet.com)
- Gene therapies are redefining the treatment of rare diseases. (rsc.org)
- While the EU considers the potential role of new innovative techniques to protect harvests from pests and diseases, on the other side of the Channel, the UK is getting ready to open the door to new gene-editing technologies post-Brexit. (euractiv.com)
- It has long been known to be a highly potent cancer gene in animals, but for a long time there was no evidence of the gene being involved in the development of tumors in humans. (redorbit.com)
- Because the gene has been conserved in evolution all the way from Hydra to humans, we are now able to analyze biological and biochemical functions of the myc gene in detail and draw conclusions for the human organism", adds Klaus Bister. (redorbit.com)
- Evidence suggests that mutations in the p53 gene promotes uncontrolled cell growth and potentially cancer. (google.com)
- Once the skin is exposed to UVB it leads to mutations in the p53 gene, and it becomes nonfunctional, and then you see induction of skin cancer " explained study lead author Mohammad Athar, a professor of dermatology at the University of Alabama, Birmingham. (washingtonpost.com)
- The company controls the tests given to women to see if they carry mutations on the genes that may predispose them to breast or ovarian cancer, and the research related to the genes. (kqed.org)
- The case centers on two Myriad Genetics patents for genes that show whether women have increased chances of getting breast or ovarian cancer. (businessinsider.com)
- When junk DNA occurs within a gene, the coding portions are called exons and the noncoding (junk) portions are called introns. (factmonster.com)
- a deregulated myc gene occurs in about 30 % of all human cancers. (redorbit.com)
- When the albino condition occurs, the genes that determine skin colour are present but not expressed. (britannica.com)
- This example shows how to identify differentially expressed genes from microarray data and uses Gene Ontology to determine significant biological functions that are associated to the down- and up-regulated genes. (mathworks.com)
- You will use the t-test and false discovery rate to detect differentially expressed genes between two tumor types. (mathworks.com)
- In any test situation, two types of errors can occur, a false positive by declaring that a gene is differentially expressed when it is not, and a false negative when the test fails to identify a truly differentially expressed gene. (mathworks.com)
- The ERG oncogene is activated in >50% of prostate cancer cases, generally through a gene fusion with the androgen‑responsive promoter of transmembrane protease serine 2. (spandidos-publications.com)
- To get a better understanding of the deregulation process caused by the oncogene, we would have to know which genes are regulated by myc and which of these are important for cancers", says Klaus Bister from the Institute of Biochemistry at the University of Innsbruck. (redorbit.com)
- Researchers are currently using versions of the vector to experiment with gene therapies for breast cancer, melanoma, and lung cancer. (wired.com)
- Summar agreed with the FDA decision, and said that researchers have been working on a better version of adenovirus to carry gene therapies. (wired.com)
- Incorporating insights from 80+ industry-leading speakers, this conference will delve into the key regulatory, reimbursement, clinical and manufacturing hurdles that need to be overcome to realize the commercial potential of gene therapies. (rsc.org)
- Join 600+ of your colleagues to accelerate the progress of the next generation of gene therapies. (rsc.org)
- A gene is a sequence (a string) of bases. (medicinenet.com)
- Chemically, each gene consists of a specific sequence of DNA building blocks called nucleotides. (factmonster.com)
- Environmental exposures during critical periods of human development can cause permanent changes in a gene's activity without changing the sequence of the gene itself. (cdc.gov)
- A gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA which codes for a molecule that has a function. (wikipedia.org)
- genes that are responsible for disease development ď Ž There are four approaches: 1. (issuu.com)
- Focuses on cutting-edge research and applications to find and examine new approaches using nucleic acids in therapeutics including oligonucleotides, gene modification, aptamers, RNA nanoparticles, ribozymes, and more. (liebertpub.com)
- Several approaches to gene editing have been developed. (fmi.org)
- They also plan to scrutinize further genes affected by the identified mutations through human genetics and animal model approaches. (psychcentral.com)
- Gene Patents stories at Techdirt. (techdirt.com)
- One is the 2013 judgment striking down gene patents . (techdirt.com)
- Last year, Quest Diagnostics Inc. spent $740 million to buy a company that owns rights to some patents on human genes. (wsj.com)
- An end to gene patents could be a 'positive development,' she said, 'because it would open new opportunities to develop new testing services based on gene. (wsj.com)
- But recently, a federal judge declared that Myriad's patents on the breast cancer genes are invalid because they patent a part of nature. (kqed.org)
- The Dartmouth College Institutional Biosafety Committee for Clinical Gene Transfer (IBC-CGT) is a multidisciplinary committee charged with the review of clinical protocols involving gene transfer as defined in the NIH Guidelines For Research Involving Recombinant Or Synthetic Nucleic Acid Molecules , March 2013. (dartmouth.edu)
- In recent years, the p53 tumor suppressor gene has become the center of many cancer biology studies. (google.com)
- In this scenario, Valerie provides a sample of blood and tumor biopsy tissue to conduct DNA analysis for the p53 gene. (google.com)
- Once treated and repaired, the UVB-exposed p53 mouse gene resumed its normal cancer-preventing activity, inhibiting the spread and proliferation of tumor cells. (washingtonpost.com)
- Vaccination with irradiated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting gene-transduced cancer vaccines induces tumoricidal immune responses. (aacrjournals.org)
- The Schering-Plough researchers are using a different version of the adenovirus vector to carry a different gene, the P53 gene, into cancer tumors, to find out if it can stop or slow the uncontrolled cell division that creates cancer tumors. (wired.com)
- It is unclear how COL7A1 gene mutations are associated with an increased risk of a certain cancer called squamous cell carcinoma in people with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, particularly RDEB-sev gen. (medlineplus.gov)
- The procedures used to obtain such information include DNA isolation and the analysis of mutations in hotspot areas in cancer-related genes, such as p53. (google.com)
- At the molecular level, cancer formation is characterized by changes in genes, such as p53. (google.com)
- Because it appears to be of major significance, there is great importance to study how this gene functions in normal cells compared to cancer cells. (google.com)
- The _Daily Express _ has reported on a gene that can "turn off" cancer. (www.nhs.uk)
- A new cancer gene has been discovered by a research group at the Sahlgrenska Academy. (redorbit.com)
- The gene causes an insidious form of glandular cancer usually in the head and neck and in women also in the breast. (redorbit.com)
- The cancer caused by this new cancer gene is called adenoid cystic carcinoma and is a slow-growing but deadly form of cancer. (redorbit.com)
- Previously it was thought that fusion genes pretty much only caused leukemia, but our group can now show that this type of cancer gene is also common in glandular cancer," says Stenman. (redorbit.com)
- We suggested back in 1986 that the MYB gene might be involved in this form of cancer, but it's only recently that we've had access to the tools needed to prove it," says Stenman. (redorbit.com)
- The research group has also looked at the mechanism behind the transformation of the normal MYB gene into a cancer gene. (redorbit.com)
- To find the causes for cancer, biochemists and developmental biologists at the University of Innsbruck, Austria, retraced the function of an important human cancer gene 600 million years back in time. (redorbit.com)
- The insert shows the activity of the cancer gene myc in these cells. (redorbit.com)
- So, once again, the worst impact of health policy -- the policy to allow genes to be patented -- falls on the people most likely to have the worst breast cancer outcomes. (kqed.org)
- Certain mutations in the BRCA genes make cells more likely to divide and change rapidly, which can lead to cancer. (cdc.gov)
- They argue that allowing one company to patent genes will interfere with research into potential cancer cures. (businessinsider.com)
- FRIDAY, Dec. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Research is shedding new light on sunscreens that might someday prevent or treat skin cancer by reversing dangerous gene mutations caused by overexposure to the sun. (washingtonpost.com)
- A more widely held view about the origins of industrial cancers, for example, is that exposure causes mutations in the DNA of all, or most, workers, and that these mutations sometimes land - at random - in a cancer-causing gene. (nytimes.com)