Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Xanthine Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Allopurinol: A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.Oxypurinol: A xanthine oxidase inhibitor.Molybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Hypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Aldehyde Oxidase: An aldehyde oxidoreductase expressed predominantly in the LIVER; LUNGS; and KIDNEY. It catalyzes the oxidation of a variety of organic aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds to CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, and also oxidizes quinoline and pyridine derivatives. The enzyme utilizes molybdenum cofactor and FAD as cofactors.Pteridines: Compounds based on pyrazino[2,3-d]pyrimidine which is a pyrimidine fused to a pyrazine, containing four NITROGEN atoms.Uric Acid: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.Ketone Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for KETONES.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Tungsten: Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.Hydroxides: Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Tungsten Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain tungsten as an integral part of the molecule.Theobromine: 3,7-Dimethylxanthine. The principle alkaloid in Theobroma cacao (the cacao bean) and other plants. A xanthine alkaloid that is used as a bronchodilator and as a vasodilator. It has a weaker diuretic activity than THEOPHYLLINE and is also a less powerful stimulant of smooth muscle. It has practically no stimulant effect on the central nervous system. It was formerly used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, pp1318-9)Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)Coenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.Metalloproteins: Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Urate Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC 1.7.3.3.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Dithionite: Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Nucleobase Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of nucleobases such as PYRIMIDINES and PURINES across membranes.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Guanine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of guanine to form xanthine. EC 3.5.4.3.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Purine-Pyrimidine Metabolism, Inborn ErrorsAldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Pterins: Compounds based on 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Cyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Receptors, Purinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Xanthopterin: 2-Amino-1,5-dihydro-4,6-pteridinedione. Pigment first discovered in butterfly wings and widely distributed in plants and animals.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Flavins: Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.Veillonella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.Allantoin: A urea hydantoin that is found in URINE and PLANTS and is used in dermatological preparations.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Rhodobacter capsulatus: Non-pathogenic ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed and found in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESUricosuric Agents: Gout suppressants that act directly on the renal tubule to increase the excretion of uric acid, thus reducing its concentrations in plasma.Purine Nucleotides: Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)BenzaldehydesHyperuricemia: Excessive URIC ACID or urate in blood as defined by its solubility in plasma at 37 degrees C; greater than 0.42mmol per liter (7.0mg/dL) in men or 0.36mmol per liter (6.0mg/dL) in women. This condition is caused by overproduction of uric acid or impaired renal clearance. Hyperuricemia can be acquired, drug-induced or genetically determined (LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME). It is associated with HYPERTENSION and GOUT.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.2-Chloroadenosine: 2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.Sodium Nitrite: Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Gout Suppressants: Agents that increase uric acid excretion by the kidney (URICOSURIC AGENTS), decrease uric acid production (antihyperuricemics), or alleviate the pain and inflammation of acute attacks of gout.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.2,6-Dichloroindophenol: A dye used as a reagent in the determination of vitamin C.GuanineDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Receptors, Purinergic P1: A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).AcetophenonesPurine Nucleosides: Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.Iodides: Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Pentoxifylline: A METHYLXANTHINE derivative that inhibits phosphodiesterase and affects blood rheology. It improves blood flow by increasing erythrocyte and leukocyte flexibility. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. Pentoxifylline modulates immunologic activity by stimulating cytokine production.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.NADH Tetrazolium Reductase: Catalyzes the reduction of tetrazolium compounds in the presence of NADH.Adenosine-5'-(N-ethylcarboxamide): A stable adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonist. Experimentally, it inhibits cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase activity.Onium Compounds: Ions with the suffix -onium, indicating cations with coordination number 4 of the type RxA+ which are analogous to QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (H4N+). Ions include phosphonium R4P+, oxonium R3O+, sulfonium R3S+, chloronium R2Cl+Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
  • Recent genome-wide association studies have led to validation of the in vitro model constructed from each functional analysis of urate transporters, and identification of novel candidate genes related to urate metabolism and transport proteins, such as glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP), PDZK1 and MCT9. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a first step to creating a comprehensive atlas of gene-expression patterns during Drosophila embryogenesis, we examined 2,179 genes by in situ hybridization to fixed Drosophila embryos. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cDNA clones are available for 70% of all Drosophila genes [ 14 , 15 , 16 ], providing a convenient source of templates for generating specific hybridization probes for the majority of genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Classic studies in Drosophila suggest that the position of a gene along a chromosome arm can affect the outcome of the recombination process, with proximity to the centromere being associated with lower crossing over. (g3journal.org)
  • In this report we describe the design of TALENs for a number of different genes in Drosophila, and we explore several parameters of TALEN design. (g3journal.org)
  • Mining for pigment-associated Drosophila melanogaster genes indicated the presence of all ommochrome pathway genes and most pteridine pathway genes and DE analyses further indicate a possible role for the pteridine pathway in theridiid color patterning. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a demonstration of how these strains can be used to study a particular gene, we have analyzed the developmental role of the Drosophila EGF receptor homolog. (biologists.org)
  • 1989 ) Coordinately and differentially mutable activities of torpedo , the Drosophila melanogaster homolog of the vertebrate EGF receptor gene. (biologists.org)
  • 1990 ) Analysis of cis -acting requirements of the Rh3 and Rh4 genes reveals a bipartite organization to rhodopsin promoters in Drosophila melanogaster . (biologists.org)
  • 1983 ) New heat shock puffs and beta-galactosidase activity resulting from transformation of Drosophila with an hsp70-lacZ hybrid gene. (biologists.org)
  • These mutations reduce or eliminate the activity of xanthine dehydrogenase. (nih.gov)
  • Interest in the selection of mutations affecting L-proline catabolism in Aspergillus nidulans is heightened by the involvement of one of the very few examples of a cluster of functionally related genes in an eukaryote and by an increasing awareness of the biological phenomena in which proline and proline catabolism participate. (cambridge.org)
  • As sas A-60 is unlinked to the prn gene cluster, specifying the gene products necessary for L-proline catabolism and as L-proline, a precursor of L-glutamic γ-semialdehyde, is highly toxic to sas A-60 strains, this forms the basis of a powerful positive selection technique for obtaining a number of types of prn mutations. (cambridge.org)
  • Many of these prn mutations can be directly classified according to the gene product(s) affected on the basis of growth phenotype with respect to L-arginine and L-ornithine utilization, proline-dependent resistance to certain toxic amino acid analogues and effect on supplementation of proline auxotrophies. (cambridge.org)
  • The availability of both a positive selection technique and an extensive nutritional screening system has enabled the identification of fourteen spontaneous deletion mutations, recognized as extending into the prn B gene, specifying the principal L-proline permease, and into at least one other prn gene. (cambridge.org)
  • A genetic disease manifested by cataracts and cognitive problems that caused by mutations in the OCRL1 gene. (rarediseasesnetwork.org)
  • We generated mutations in the MMR gene Msh6 and analyzed recombination between highly polymorphic homologous chromosomes. (genetics.org)
  • Mutations for these gene products occur as autosomal recessive, spontaneous, or X-linked. (medscape.com)
  • Knockout mutations were isolated in several genes in which such alleles were not previously available. (g3journal.org)
  • 8,9 This pharmacological effect of polyphenols is of importance because NO has vasorelaxant and antiaggregatory properties, and in the longer term, it induces the expression of genes protective of the cardiovascular system. (ahajournals.org)
  • Apparent expression of genes involved in cofactor de novo synthesis and salvage pathways suggests that these micronutrients play important roles for cholesterol degradation in sludge communities. (asm.org)
  • Accordingly, we hypothesized that XO influences β-adrenergic responsiveness and expression of genes whose products participate in deranged EC coupling. (physiology.org)
  • A phylogenetic profile of a gene indicates the presence or the absence of this gene in each organism by an entry of 1 or 0 in a long vector. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While most fungal organisms exhibit a low or modest gene targeting frequency, homologous recombination dominates at essentially a 100% frequency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( 22 ), making this budding yeast a significant model organism. (asm.org)
  • They report that a gene present in every organism from yeast to humans may very well provide the explanation for the extended lifespan observed in lower animals and probably primates, including humans. (life-enhancement.com)
  • Since all cells of a given organism have the same set of DNA instructions, individual cells can function properly if they invoke only those genes that pertain to their unique character and purpose. (life-enhancement.com)
  • During severe liver damage, xanthine oxidase is released into the blood, so a blood assay for XO is a way to determine if liver damage has happened. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of three Rhamnus alaternus leaves extracts on antigenotoxic and gene expression level effects was respectively investigated in a bacterial assay system, i.e. the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37 and in human K562 lymphoblast cell line. (nih.gov)
  • These results were in accordance with those obtained when we tested the antigenotoxic and antioxidant effects of the same extracts with, respectively the SOS chromotest and the xanthine/xanthine oxidase enzymatic assay system. (nih.gov)
  • ddPCR ™ Evagreen assay for gene expression analysis. (bio-rad.com)
  • To examine this phenomenon molecularly, we developed an assay that measures meiotic crossovers and noncrossover gene conversions between allelic transgenes inserted into different genomic positions. (g3journal.org)
  • Another reaction catalyzed by xanthine oxidase is the decomposition of S-Nitrosothiols (RSNO), a reactive nitrogen species, to nitric oxide (NO), which reacts with a superoxide anion to form peroxynitrite under aerobic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, we have performed a cross-species comparison to reveal conserved gene expression between stem cells and subtype-specific and prognosis gene signatures, and correlated gene expression to in vivo mammary gland development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We evaluated the usefulness of PCR amplification of a portion of the Nocardia 16S rRNA gene and subsequent restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) for species identification. (asm.org)
  • We report here the results of our examination of the utility of an REA procedure for the identification of these organisms based on a portion of the 16S rRNA gene, a region for which extensive base pair sequence information exists for many microorganisms, including many Nocardia species. (asm.org)
  • Plasmodium species lack identifiable genes encoding key components of the NHEJ pathway and also exhibit a high frequency of homologous recombination ( 21 , 51 ). (asm.org)
  • By deep sequencing both RNA-seq and normalized cDNA libraries from pooled specimens of each species we were able to assemble a comprehensive gene set for both species that we estimate to be 98-99% complete. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In vitro development of mammalian embryos during preimplantation period from the 1-cell to the blastocyst stages is known to be arrested at a stage characteristics for the species when zygotic gene activation (ZGA) occurs. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The transcriptional characterization of these mammary stem-like cells and their differentiation-induced gene expression patterns is here made widely accessible and provides a basis for research on mammary stem-like cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since the spectra of substrates of many of these multidrug transporters overlap ( 25 ), it is intriguing why bacteria, with their economically organized genomes, harbor such a large set of multidrug efflux genes. (asm.org)
  • A large proportion of the genes in microbial genomes remains uncharacterized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If several gene clusters show the same coevolution pattern across different genomes it is reasonable to infer they are functionally related. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Computational tools based on sequence homology have proved to be most broadly applicable for effective and accurate functional annotations of genes in newly sequenced genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The analysis demonstrated that two 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase-encoding genes seem to be key in regulating ABA biosynthesis to induce seed and bud dormancy. (frontiersin.org)
  • This section includes genomic Reference Sequences (RefSeqs) from all assemblies on which this gene is annotated, such as RefSeqs for chromosomes and scaffolds (contigs) from both reference and alternate assemblies. (nih.gov)
  • Since xanthine oxidase is involved in the metabolism of 6-mercaptopurine, caution should be taken before administering allopurinol and 6-mercaptopurine, or its prodrug azathioprine, in conjunction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HLA-B*5801 gene test is used to identify those at risk for serious side-effects to a medication called allopurinol. (mayo.edu)
  • A positive test result means you have the HLA-B*5801 gene variant and have a higher risk of developing a potentially life-threatening reaction to allopurinol. (mayo.edu)
  • If you test positive for the HLA-B*5801 gene variant, you should not take allopurinol. (mayo.edu)
  • If you test negative for the HLA-B*5801 gene variant, allopurinol therapy may be recommended. (mayo.edu)
  • It is still possible for you to have side effects with allopurinol even if you do not have the HLA-B*5801 gene variant. (mayo.edu)
  • Which gene affects my response to allopurinol? (mayo.edu)
  • Variants in a gene called HLA-B can affect how you respond to allopurinol. (mayo.edu)
  • What problems can patients with the HLA-B*5801 gene variant have when taking allopurinol? (mayo.edu)
  • The genes baeSR are part of a putative operon, yegMNOB baeSR . (asm.org)
  • 7 ] is a popular technique that utilizes chromosomal proximity information to discover putative functional linkages between genes close to each other on the chromosome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CRISPR/CAS9 provided an extremely efficient system for targeted gene disruption and for site-specific insertion of selectable markers through homologous recombination. (asm.org)
  • Transcriptional response of genes involved in cell defense system in human cells stressed by H2O2 and pre-treated with (Tunisian) Rhamnus alaternus extracts: combination with polyphenolic compounds and classic in vitro assays. (nih.gov)
  • Use the PrimePCR lookup tool to find assays and panels for your genes of interest. (bio-rad.com)
  • Bio-Rad collaborated with Biogazelle, leaders in real-time PCR research, to design and experimentally validate PCR primers for gene expression assays across the human and mouse transcriptomes. (bio-rad.com)
  • The acid-induced genes represented only five functional grouping categories, including eight genes involved in metabolism, nine associated with cell envelope structures or modifications, two encoding chaperones, six regulatory genes, and six unknown genes. (asm.org)
  • Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics approaches on ULT had revealed several genes that underlined the effectiveness and the adverse events of medications for gout. (intechopen.com)