The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
An antiviral derivative of THYMIDINE used mainly in the treatment of primary keratoconjunctivitis and recurrent epithelial keratitis due to HERPES SIMPLEX virus. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p557)
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising many species infecting mammals. Viruses of this genus cause generalized infections and a rash in some hosts. The type species is VACCINIA VIRUS.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A mild, eruptive skin disease of milk cows caused by COWPOX VIRUS, with lesions occurring principally on the udder and teats. Human infection may occur while milking an infected animal.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the K serogroup of ESCHERICHIA COLI. It lives as a harmless inhabitant of the human LARGE INTESTINE and is widely used in medical and GENETIC RESEARCH.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates. It may also catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotide triphosphates, diphosphates, thiamine diphosphates and FAD. The nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolases I and II are subtypes of the enzyme which are found mostly in viruses.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A disseminated vesicular-pustular eruption caused by the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINIS), the VACCINIA VIRUS, or Varicella zoster (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It is usually superimposed on a preexisting, inactive or active, atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC).
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Skin diseases caused by viruses.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
An autosomal recessive neurocutaneous disorder characterized by severe ichthyosis MENTAL RETARDATION; SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA; and congenital ICHTHYOSIS. It is caused by mutation of gene encoding microsomal fatty ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE leading to defect in fatty alcohol metabolism.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
A subfamily of the family POXVIRIDAE, containing eight genera comprising all the vertebrate poxviruses.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
A viral disease infecting PRIMATES and RODENTS. Its clinical presentation in humans is similar to SMALLPOX including FEVER; HEADACHE; COUGH; and a painful RASH. It is caused by MONKEYPOX VIRUS and is usually transmitted to humans through BITES or via contact with an animal's BLOOD. Interhuman transmission is relatively low (significantly less than smallpox).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
"Vaccinia Virus Infection & Temporal Analysis of Virus Gene Expression". JoVE. Retrieved March 17, 2013. Chancellor, Jeffery C ... "Development of Vaccinia Reporter Viruses for Rapid, High Content Analysis of Viral Function at All Stages of Gene Expression". ... The researchers utilize fluorescent protein-based reporters to monitor and analyze the function of the Vaccinia virus. This ... Rubins was involved with was the life-cycle analysis of a family of viruses including the smallpox virus. ...
"Entrez Gene: DUSP3 dual specificity phosphatase 3 (vaccinia virus phosphatase VH1-related)". "DEXA data for Dusp3". Wellcome ... Najarro P, Traktman P, Lewis JA (2001). "Vaccinia virus blocks gamma interferon signal transduction: viral VH1 phosphatase ... This gene maps in a region that contains the BRCA1 locus which confers susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer. Although ... Dual specificity protein phosphatase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DUSP3 gene. The protein encoded by this ...
"Marker gene swapping facilitates recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara production by host-range selection". Journal of ... "Joint production of prime/boost pairs of Fowlpox Virus and Modified Vaccinia Ankara recombinants carrying the same transgene". ... and vaccine design of recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) or Fowlpoxvirus. Siccardi developed a recombinant MVA- ... "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 mimics a hidden monomorphic epitope borne by class I major histocompatibility complex ...
Vaccinia virus D5 and HSV Primase are examples of AEP-helicase fusion as well. PolpTN2 is an Archaeal primase found in the TN2 ... The gene coding for it is found in a prophage. It bears homology to ORF904 of plasmid pRN1 from Sulfolobus islandicus, which ... In viruses such as the herpes simplex virus (HSV-1), primase can form complexes with helicase. The primase-helicase complex is ... Whereas the presence of AEP in eukaryotic and archaeal viruses is expected in that they mirror their hosts, bacterial viruses ...
"Protection from rabies by a vaccinia virus recombinant containing the rabies virus glycoprotein gene". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U ... A report from early 2013 revealed that a female baby born with the HIV virus displayed no sign of the virus two years after ... Katz, M. H.; Gerberding, J. L. (1997). "Postexposure Treatment of People Exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus through ... Watts, DH (13 June 2002). "Management of human immunodeficiency virus infection in pregnancy". The New England Journal of ...
... is usually a plasmid or virus designed for gene expression in cells. The vector is used to introduce a specific gene into a ... D E Hruby (1990). "Vaccinia virus vectors: new strategies for producing recombinant vaccines". Clin Microbiol Rev. 3 (2): 153- ... Examples of plant virus used are the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), potato virus X, and cowpea mosaic virus. The protein may be ... Gene therapy is a promising treatment for a number of diseases where a "normal" gene carried by the vector is inserted into the ...
In another experiment, knockdown of SEPTIN4 resulted in decreased infection of cells by vaccinia virus. "Human PubMed Reference ... Septin 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the gene SEPTIN4. The gene is 2,698 base pairs long, contains one gt-ag ... The gene is 2,698 base pairs long, contains one gt-ag intron, and is oriented on the minus strand of DNA. The pre-messenger has ... "C17orf47 Gene(Protein Coding) - Chromosome 17 Open Reading Frame 47". Retrieved 2016-02-29. "Tissue ...
This motif is present in a vaccinia virus integral membrane protein, A36, that is required for transport of the virus from the ... FAM63B is a protein which in humans is encoded by the gene FAM63B. This gene is highly expressed in humans. The FAM63B gene is ... Dodding, M. P., Mitter, R., Humphries, A. C., & Way, M. (2011). A kinesin-1 binding motif in vaccinia virus that is widespread ... The discovered function of FAM63B protein is a transporter of vaccinia virus in the human genome. FAM63B contains a bipartite ...
... terminus of mRNA by soluble guanylyl and methyl transferases from vaccinia virus". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72 (7): 2525-9 ... "Entrez Gene: RNMT RNA (guanine-7-) methyltransferase". Ensinger MJ, Martin SA, Paoletti E, Moss B (1975). "Modification of the ... In humans, mRNA cap guanine-N7 methyltransferase is encoded by the RNMT gene. The systematic name of this enzyme class is S- ... 1998). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. VIII. 78 new cDNA clones from brain which code for ...
... a non-genetically modified vaccinia virus isolate (laboratory name LIVP6.1.1) with an inactive thymidine kinase gene. The ... "Imaging a Genetically Engineered Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus (GLV-1h99) Using a Human Norepinephrine Transporter Reporter Gene". ... 2013). "Vaccinia virus-mediated melanin production allows MR and optoacoustic deep tissue imaging and laser-induced ... "Phase I clinical trial of a genetically modified and oncolytic vaccinia virus GL-ONC1 with green fluorescent protein imaging ...
"Determination of functional effects of mutations in the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21) using recombinant vaccinia virus". ... Several severe mutations have been associated with LOCAH: the deletion of the CYP21A2 gene, small gene conversions, the p. ... The causes of LOCAH are the same as of classic CAH, and in the majority of the cases are the mutations in the CYP21A2 gene ... Due to the high degree of homology between the CYP21A2 gene and the CYP21A1P pseudogene, and the complexity of the locus, ...
"Identification by mass spectroscopy of three major early proteins associated with virosomes in vaccinia virus-infected cells". ... Gene. 331: 165-76. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2004.02.019. PMID 15094203. Murcia-Nicolas A, Bolbach G, Blais JC, Beaud G (January 1999 ... NACC1, a novel member of the POZ/BTB (Pox virus and Zinc finger/Bric-a-bracTramtrack Broad complex), but which varies from ... Virus Research. 59 (1): 1-12. doi:10.1016/S0168-1702(98)00114-2. PMID 10854161. Abhiman S, Iyer LM, Aravind L (February 2008 ...
A recombinant vaccinia virus expressing influenza A proteins and IL-15 promoted cross protection by CD4+ T cells. A Brucella ... "Entrez Gene: IL15 interleukin 15". Tagaya Y, Kurys G, Thies TA, Losi JM, Azimi N, Hanover JA, Bamford RN, Waldmann TA (December ... While influenza A virus expressing IL-15 stimulates both innate and adaptive immune cells to decrease tumor growth mice. ... The human IL-15 gene comprises nine exons (1-8 and 4A) and eight introns, four of which (exons 5 through 8) code for the mature ...
"A human homolog of the vaccinia virus HindIII K4L gene is a member of the phospholipase D superfamily". Virus Research. 48 (1 ... PLD3 was first characterized as a human homolog of the HindIII K4L protein in the vaccinia virus, having a DNA sequence 48.1% ... In 2017, the PLD3 gene was identified as one of the novel genes linked to spinocerebellar ataxia, another neurodegenerative ... similar to the viral gene. The PLD3 gene in humans is located at chromosome 19q13.2, with a sequence comprising at least 15 ...
Kwon, J.-A.; Rich, A. (2005-08-26). "Biological function of the vaccinia virus Z-DNA-binding protein E3L: Gene transactivation ... One example of a Z-DNA binding protein is the vaccinia E3L protein, which is a product of the E3L gene and mimics a mammalian ... A future implication of these findings includes reducing Z-DNA binding of E3L in vaccines containing the vaccinia virus so ... it has also been found to play a role in the level of severity of virulence in mice caused by vaccinia virus, a type of ...
"Vaccinia virus D10 protein has mRNA decapping activity, providing a mechanism for control of host and viral gene expression". ... Parrish S, Moss B (December 2007). "Characterization of a second vaccinia virus mRNA-decapping enzyme conserved in poxviruses ... Soulière MF, Perreault JP, Bisaillon M (April 2009). "Characterization of the vaccinia virus D10 decapping enzyme provides ...
"The vaccinia virus E3L protein interacts with SUMO-1 and ribosomal protein L23a in a yeast two hybrid assay". Virus Genes. 21 ( ... This gene is co-transcribed with the U42A, U42B, U101A, and U101B small nucleolar RNA genes, which are located in its third, ... Uechi T, Tanaka T, Kenmochi N (2001). "A complete map of the human ribosomal protein genes: assignment of 80 genes to the ... As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, there are multiple processed pseudogenes of this gene dispersed through ...
In order to create the vaccine, researchers took the prior Modified Vaccinia Ankara virus and added four genes from the HIV ... The vaccine is based on the Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus used during the 1970s to help eradicate the smallpox virus. ... Lacking Vaccinia Virus Gene C6L Enhances Memory HIV-1-Specific T-Cell Responses". PLoS ONE. Public Library of Science. 6 (8): ... MVA-B, or Modified Vaccinia Ankara B, is a particular HIV vaccine created to give immune resistance to infection by the human ...
... cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B gene and induction of neutralizing antibodies via its expression in recombinant vaccinia virus ... Single-cycle viruses are also widely used as vaccine vectors, carrying genes from other viruses. In the early 2000s, a ... His research in the early 1970s was in the field of plant viruses, including tobacco rattle virus and tobacco necrosis virus, ... Minson's group called the resulting virus a "disabled infectious single cycle" (DISC) virus; similarly disabled viruses are ...
This gene encodes a member of the vaccinia-related kinase (VRK) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. This gene is widely ... "Members of a novel family of mammalian protein kinases complement the DNA-negative phenotype of a vaccinia virus ts mutant ... "Entrez Gene: VRK1 vaccinia related kinase 1". Sugimoto J, Yamauchi T, Hatakeyama T, Isobe M (1999). "Isolation and mapping of a ... with structural similarity to vaccinia virus B1R kinase". Genomics. 45 (2): 327-31. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.4938. PMID 9344656. " ...
... cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B gene and induction of neutralizing antibodies via its expression in recombinant vaccinia virus ...
This gene encodes a member of the vaccinia-related kinase (VRK) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. This gene is widely ... with structural similarity to vaccinia virus B1R kinase". Genomics. 45 (2): 327-31. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.4938. PMID 9344656. ... "Entrez Gene: VRK2 vaccinia related kinase 2". Blanco S, Santos C, Lazo PA (2008). "Vaccinia-related kinase 2 modulates the ... While several transcript variants may exist for this gene, the full-length nature of only one has been biologically validated ...
They altered the DNA of cowpox virus by inserting a gene from other viruses (namely Herpes simplex virus, hepatitis B and ... activity of vaccinia virus recombinants expressing the hepatitis B virus surface antigen and the herpes simplex virus ... replacing structural genes but leaving non-structural replicase genes intact. The Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus have ... US Patent 4722848 - Method for immunizing animals with synthetically modified vaccinia virus Ulmer, J. B.; Donnelly, J. J.; ...
Because of this, RAB2B deficiency allows for vaccinia virus to replicate itself. After DNA stimulation, RAB2B attaches itself ... Ras-related protein Rab-2B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAB2B gene. RAB2B is required for protein transport ... RAB2B is a human protein whose gene is located in the fourteenth chromosome. It has a core made of basic elements such as ... The expression pattern of the human RAB2B gene reveals a transcript in kidney, prostate, lung, thymus, and colon, and a lower ...
Liu, T.; Kirn, D. (2008). "Gene therapy progress and prospects cancer: oncolytic viruses". Gene Therapy. 15 (12): 877-884. doi: ... "From ONYX-015 to Armed Vaccinia Viruses: The Education and Evolution of Oncolytic Virus Development". Current Cancer Drug ... The E1B-55kDa gene has been deleted allowing the virus to selectively replicate in and lyse p53-deficient cancer cells. ... Adenovirus varieties have been explored extensively as a viral vector for gene therapy and also as an oncolytic virus. Of the ...
Transgene uses three types of vectors: Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA); Vaccinia virus and adenovirus. TG4010, a specific active ... The core of Transgene's discovery platform is gene transfer. This process requires vectors to deliver genes to the target cells ... The engineered oncolytic vaccinia virus is armed with the immunostimulatory cytokine GM-CSF and is designed to selectively ... The therapy is based on a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the MUC1 antigen and the human cytokine, interleukin-2 (IL2). ...
... s in this family are thought to have been acquired from host genes and from other viruses through horizontal gene ... Much of the early work on virokines involved vaccinia virus, which was discovered to secrete proteins that promote ... Kotwal, GJ; Moss, B (8 September 1988). "Vaccinia virus encodes a secretory polypeptide structurally related to complement ... followed by reports of the cowpox and vaccinia viruses directly interfering with key immune regulator IL1B. The first ...
... were inserted into the TK gene (encoding thymidine kinase or TK) in the J segment of the Wyeth strain vaccinia virus. ... Oncolytic viruses developed by Jennerex are based on the vaccinia virus. Pexa-Vec is an engineered oncolytic virus that ... "Intratumoral recombinant GM-CSF-encoding virus as gene therapy in patients with cutaneous melanoma". Cancer Gene Therapy. 6 (5 ... Because JX-594 is based on the Wyeth strain vaccinia virus that is commonly used for vaccination, it is well tolerated by rats ...
... gene of Vaccinia virus. Apart from the core morphogenetic triad of genes, the MCP, mCP, and ATPase, certain other ... Notable poxviruses include Variola virus, which causes smallpox, and Vaccinia virus, which is used as the vaccine against ... which are satellite viruses of giant viruses, transpovirons, which are linear plasmid-like DNA molecules found in giant viruses ... viruses in the realm are often called non-tailed or tailless dsDNA viruses to distinguish them from the tailed dsDNA viruses of ...
A vaccinia virus free reverse genetic system for Great Lakes VHSV (Genotype IVb) was developed by a research group from the USA ... Fish viperin gene was identified as an interferon-stimulated gene against VHSV. Whereas, viperin produces inhibitory ddhCTP (3ʹ ... In Europe, the gray heron has spread the virus, but it does so mechanically; the virus is apparently inactive in the digestive ... Virus Taxonomy Online: Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. 2000. Retrieved on 2007-07-12. ...
tr,Q1M1Q6,Q1M1Q6_9POXV EV myristylated soluble protein OS=Vaccinia virus OX=10245 GN=E7R PE=4 SV=1 ... p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source ... Four distinct tokens exist: Name, Synonyms, Ordered locus names and ORF names.,p>,a href=/help/gene_name target=_top ... of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) ...
sp,Q76RD1,LR_VACCA Protein L2 OS=Vaccinia virus (strain Ankara) OX=126794 GN=MVA081R PE=2 SV=1 ... help/virus_host target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Virus hosti. Homo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]. ... Vaccinia virus (strain Ankara) (VACV). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href=" ... Note: Localizes in cytoplasmic virus factories.By similarity. Topology. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical ...
Vaccinia virus gene D8 encodes a virion transmembrane protein. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Vaccinia virus gene D8 encodes a virion transmembrane protein.. E G Niles, J Seto ... Transcription mapping studies and DNA sequence analysis of the vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment predict that gene D8 encodes a ... Virus containing this mutation were isolated and shown to replicate in a single-step growth experiment with wild type virus ...
... help/gene_ontology target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>GO - Biological processi. *suppression by virus of host type I interferon- ... Vaccinia virus (strain Western Reserve) (VACV) (Vaccinia virus (strain WR)). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www. ... "Vaccinia virus encodes a soluble type I interferon receptor of novel structure and broad species specificity.". Symons J.A., ... "The vaccinia virus soluble alpha/beta interferon (IFN) receptor binds to the cell surface and protects cells from the antiviral ...
Vaccinia virus gene A36R encodes a M(r) 43-50 K protein on the surface of extracellular enveloped virus. Virology 204:376-390. ... Vaccinia Virus Inhibits NF-κB-Dependent Gene Expression Downstream of p65 Translocation. Rebecca P. Sumner, Carlos Maluquer de ... The vaccinia virus K1L gene product inhibits host NF-kappaB activation by preventing IkappaBalpha degradation. J. Virol. 78: ... Escherichia coli gpt gene provides dominant selection for vaccinia virus open reading frame expression vectors. J. Virol. 62: ...
... and expressed by recombinant vaccinia virus. The gB gene was found adjacent to the polymerase gene, as it is in the genome of ... A recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the MCMV gB gene has been constructed (Vac-gB). Antibodies raised against the Vac-gB ... Identification of the murine cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B gene and its expression by recombinant vaccinia virus. In: Journal ... The gene encoding glycoprotein B (gB) of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) strain Smith was identified, sequenced, ...
Regulated expression of foreign genes in vaccinia virus under the control of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase and the ... Alexander, W. A., Moss, B., & Fuerst, T. R. (1992). Regulated expression of foreign genes in vaccinia virus under the control ... TY - JOUR T1 - Regulated expression of foreign genes in vaccinia virus under the control of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase and ... Regulated expression of foreign genes in vaccinia virus under the control of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase and the ...
Palavras-chave: adjuvant genes, attenuating genes, baculovirus, chimeric, recombinant, vaccinia virus, vector ... choice of the strain of vaccinia virus (VACV) used as a vector, insertional inactivation of virulence and immunoregulatory ... IFN-γ co-expression and the inactivation of one or more VACV immune-modulating genes provide an optimized method for increasing ... We constructed rVACVs expressing interferon-gamma (IFN -γ) and lacking the immune-modulating genes B8R, B13R, and B22R. IFN-γ ...
... gene to the left end of the Hind III F fragment of the vaccinia virus genome. The entire open reading frame of the R2 gene and ... Vaccinia virus ribonucleotide reductase : gene sequencing, intracellular localization, and interaction with a DNA-binding ... Vaccinia virus infected monkey kidney cells had been previously shown to have an increased ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase ... DNA from mutant virus resistant to hydroxyurea were digested with restriction endonucleases and were shown to have ...
Identification of the gene, rpo30, encoding the vaccinia virus protein was achieved by using antibody to the purified viral RNA ... Broyles SS, Yuen L, Shuman S, Moss B. Purification of a factor required for transcription of vaccinia virus early genes. J Biol ... Wright CF, Moss B. Identification of factors specific for transcription of the late class of vaccinia virus genes. J Virol. ... Transcription and translation mapping of the 13 genes in the vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment. Virology. 1988 Mar;163(1):52-63 ...
Molecular-biological study of vaccinia virus genome. II. Localization and nucleotide sequence of vaccinia virus genes coding ... The molecular biological study of vaccinia virus genome ii. localization and nucleotide sequencing of the vaccinia virus genes ... Chimpanzee/human mAbs to vaccinia virus B5 protein neutralize vaccinia and smallpox viruses and protect mice against vaccinia ... Molecular-biological study of vaccinia virus genome. II. Localization and nucleotide sequence of vaccinia virus genes coding ...
To identify a diagnostic target for strain genotyping, the CaPV homologue of the Vaccinia virus E4L gene which encodes the 30 ... Use of the Capripoxvirus homologue of Vaccinia virus 30kDa RNA polymerase subunit (RPO30) gene as a novel diagnostic and ... Sheep poxvirus (SPPV), Goat poxvirus (GTPV) and Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) are Capripoxviruses (CaPVs) responsible for ... of CaPVs is not possible and strain identification has relied on the implicitly accepted hypothesis that the viruses show well ...
Vaccinia gene expression. Vaccinia gene expression was evaluated using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Briefly, BS-C-1 cells ... Identification, sequence, and expression of the gene encoding a Mr 35, 000 subunit of the vaccinia virus DNA-dependent RNA ... Dermal infection with vaccinia virus reveals roles for virus proteins not seen using other inoculation routes. J. Gen. Virol. ... PFU of vaccinia virus after incubation with antimicrobial and control peptides. The p values compare vaccinia alone with a ...
X-ray crystal structure and functional analysis of vaccinia virus K3L reveals molecular determinants for PKR subversion and ... Gene Product Annotation Gene Ontology Consortium Homepage. Chains. Polymer. Molecular Function. Biological Process. Cellular ... Vaccinia virus [TaxId: 10245] B. d1luzb_. All beta proteins OB-fold Nucleic acid-binding proteins Cold shock DNA-binding domain ... Suppression by Virus of Host Type I Interferon Mediated Signaling Pathway * Suppression by Virus of Host Innate Immune Response ...
Recombinant modified Vaccinia virus ankara expressing HIV-1 genes activates NK subset capable of controlling HIN infection in ... we describe responses of Natural Killer cells to recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara expressing HIV-1 genes (rMVA) ...
Although 10 years have passed since the genome of vaccinia virus was sequenced (3), the roles of about half of the genes remain ... Construction of an Array of Vaccinia Virus Proteins.. Our strategy was to test each pairwise combination of vaccinia virus ORFs ... Diploids containing an ORF from the vaccinia virus activation domain array (Leu+) and a test vaccinia ORF in the DNA-binding ... Genome-wide analysis of vaccinia virus protein-protein interactions. Stephen McCraith, Ted Holtzman, Bernard Moss, Stanley ...
Viruses › dsDNA viruses, no RNA stage › Poxviridae › Chordopoxvirinae › Orthopoxvirus. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http ... tr,Q49PN6,Q49PN6_9POXV IMV protein OS=Vaccinia virus OX=10245 GN=J5L PE=4 SV=1 ... p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source ... Integral component of the virus entry/fusion complexImported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ...
... gene therapy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. VV-IL12 is at the preclinical stage of ... MultiVir is developing vaccinia virus-interleukin 12 (VV-IL12) ... Vaccinia virus-interleukin 12 gene therapy - MultiVir Next ... Vaccinia virus-interleukin 12 gene therapy - MultiVir Alternative Names: VV-IL12 Latest Information Update: 09 Aug 2016 ... Mechanism of Action Gene transference * Orphan Drug Status Orphan designation is assigned by a regulatory body to encourage ...
Vaccinia virus (strain Copenhagen) (VACV). Rabbitpox virus. Vaccinia virus WAU86/88-1. Vaccinia virus GLV-1h68. Vaccinia virus ... Vaccinia virus (strain Copenhagen) (VACV). Rabbitpox virus. Vaccinia virus WAU86/88-1. Vaccinia virus GLV-1h68. 771. UniRef100_ ... Cowpox virus (CPV). Vaccinia virus (strain Ankara) (VACV). Vaccinia virus (strain Copenhagen) (VACV). Rabbitpox virus. Vaccinia ... Smallpox virus). Variola virus (isolate Human/Japan/Yamada MS-2(A)/1946) (VARV) (Smallpox virus). Vaccinia virus (strain Ankara ...
tr,Q49PR7,Q49PR7_9POXV 15 kDa core protein OS=Vaccinia virus OX=10245 GN=E11L PE=1 SV=1 ... p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of ... p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source ... Viruses › Varidnaviria › Bamfordvirae › Nucleocytoviricota › Pokkesviricetes › Chitovirales › Poxviridae › Chordopoxvirinae › ...
A live recombinant virus based on the licensed vaccinia strain Tien Tan, expressing under the 11K vaccinia promoter the maj … ... EBV-positive and vaccinia-virus-exposed adults; EBV-positive, non-vaccinia-virus-exposed juveniles; and EBV and vaccinia virus- ... A live recombinant virus based on the licensed vaccinia strain Tien Tan, expressing under the 11K vaccinia promoter the major ... First EBV vaccine trial in humans using recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the major membrane antigen Dev Biol Stand. 1995; ...
Human vaccinia immune globulin was used to screen the secreted proteins from cells infected with Dryvax or the candidate ... Vaccinia virus deleted in VCP, vVCPko, protected mice from a lethal intranasal challenge of vaccinia Western Reserve strain. ... Smallpox vaccines induce antibodies to the immunomodulatory, secreted vaccinia virus complement control protein J Gen Virol. ... This was identified as the vaccinia virus complement protein (VCP), which migrated more slowly in LC16m8-infected cells due to ...
Envelope protein part of the entry-fusion complex responsible for the virus membrane fusion with host cell membrane during ... virus entry. Also plays a role in cell-cell fusion (syncytium formation) (By similarity). ... Viruses › Poxviridae › Chordopoxvirinae › Orthopoxvirus › Vaccinia virus. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot ... Fusion of virus membrane with host cell membrane, Fusion of virus membrane with host membrane, Viral penetration into host ...
"Identification and analysis of three myristylated vaccinia virus late proteins.". Martin K.H., Grosenbach D.W., Franke C.A., ... "Identification and analysis of three myristylated vaccinia virus late proteins.". Martin K.H., Grosenbach D.W., Franke C.A., ... "Identification and analysis of three myristylated vaccinia virus late proteins.". Martin K.H., Grosenbach D.W., Franke C.A., ... "Identification and analysis of three myristylated vaccinia virus late proteins.". Martin K.H., Grosenbach D.W., Franke C.A., ...
Single gene sequences of Vaccinia viruses included in this study. Strain, isolate (abbreviation). Gene and GenBank accession no ... Trindade GS, da Fonseca FG, Marques JT, Diniz S, Leite JA, De Bodt S, Belo Horizonte virus: a vaccinia-like virus lacking the A ... Leite JA, Drumond BP, Trindade G, Lobato ZIP, da Fonseca FG, Santos JR, Passatempo virus, a vaccinia virus strain, Brazil.Emerg ... TK and IFN-alpha/betaR genes in the genome of the BeAn 58058 virus, a naturally attenuated wild orthopoxvirus.Virus Genes. 2001 ...
N1L gene encodes a protein of 14 kDa that was identified previously in the concentrated supernatant of virus-infected cells. ... The conservation of the N1L protein and the attenuated phenotype of the deletion mutant indicate an important role in the virus ... A deletion mutant lacking the N1L gene replicated normally in cell culture, but was attenuated in intranasal and intradermal ... in the culture supernatant was uncleaved at the N terminus and was released from cells more slowly than the VV A41L gene ...
... monkeypox and vaccinia virus, using whole-genome gene expression microarrays, and compared these to each other and to non- ... In this study, we analysed the specific modulation of the host cells gene expression profile by cowpox, monkeypox and vaccinia ... Most noticeable was an induction of genes involved in leukocyte migration and activation in cowpox and monkeypox virus-infected ... which was not observed following vaccinia virus infection. Despite their close genetic relationship, the expression profiles ...
Protection from rabies by a vaccinia virus recombinant containing the rabies virus glycoprotein gene. 1984.. T. J. Wiktor, R. I ... Protection from rabies by a vaccinia virus recombinant containing the rabies virus glycoprotein gene. 1984. / Wiktor, T. J.; ... Protection from rabies by a vaccinia virus recombinant containing the rabies virus glycoprotein gene. 1984. Biotechnology ( ... title = "Protection from rabies by a vaccinia virus recombinant containing the rabies virus glycoprotein gene. 1984.", ...
Plasmid-borne I7L is capable of rescuing the growth of this virus and rescue is optimal when the I7L gene is expressed using ... A conditional-lethal recombinant virus was constructed in which the expression of the vaccinia virus I7L gene is under the ... A conditional-lethal recombinant virus was constructed in which the expression of the vaccinia virus I7L gene is under the ... Byrd CM, Bolken TC, Hruby DE: The vaccinia virus I7L gene product is the core protein proteinase. J Virol 2002, 76: 8973-6. ...
  • The gB gene was found adjacent to the polymerase gene, as it is in the genome of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). (
  • An expression cassette containing a T7 promoter-controlled beta-galactosidase reporter gene was recombined into a different region of the viral genome containing T7gene1. (
  • Additional information from Southern blotting experiments localized the putative small subunit (R2) gene to the left end of the Hind III F fragment of the vaccinia virus genome. (
  • Screening a lambda phale expression library of vaccinia with the anti-idiotypic antibody localized the binding site to the carboxy terminal 81 amino acids in open reading frame 1-3 of the vaccinia genome. (
  • Identification of the gene, rpo30, encoding the vaccinia virus protein was achieved by using antibody to the purified viral RNA polymerase for immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products of in vivo-synthesized early mRNA selected by hybridization to cloned DNA fragments of the viral genome. (
  • Isle HB, Venkatesan S, Moss B. Cell-free translation of early and late mRNAs selected by hybridization to cloned DNA fragments derived from the left 14 million to 72 million daltons of the vaccinia virus genome. (
  • Jones EV, Puckett C, Moss B. DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunits encoded within the vaccinia virus genome. (
  • Molecular-biological study of vaccinia virus genome. (
  • Vaccinia virus has a genome of approximately 190 kbp and can potentially express more than 200 proteins, allowing an exceptional degree of independence from the host ( 3 ). (
  • Although 10 years have passed since the genome of vaccinia virus was sequenced ( 3 ), the roles of about half of the genes remain entirely unknown. (
  • To increase our understanding of the poxvirus life cycle and to evaluate an approach that would be generally applicable to other large viruses, we initiated a genome-wide yeast two-hybrid analysis to identify vaccinia virus protein-protein interactions. (
  • To this end, we analysed changes in host cell gene expression of HeLa cells in response to infection with cowpox, monkeypox and vaccinia virus, using whole-genome gene expression microarrays, and compared these to each other and to non-infected cells. (
  • Viruses of the family Poxviridae are characterized by their large and complex virions, a double-stranded DNA genome of 130-375 kbp and the cytosol as the place of replication [ 1 ]. (
  • Marques JT , Trindade GS , da Fonseca FG , dos Santos JR , Bonjardim CA , Ferreira PCP , Characterization of ATI, TK and IFN-alpha/betaR genes in the genome of the BeAn 58058 virus, a naturally attenuated wild orthopoxvirus. (
  • Johnson GP , Goebel SJ , Paoletti E . An update on the vaccinia virus genome. (
  • We gence of VACV in Brazil highlight the need for continued compared molecular sequence data from 3 genes and a research into the ecology, epidemiology, origin, and evolu- variable region of the poxvirus genome (Table 1) among tion of these viruses ( 1 ). (
  • It also has a large genome which can accept heterologous genes. (
  • These viruses contain approximately 200 genes in their genome. (
  • We analyzed the 186,102 base pairs (bp) that constitute the entire DNA genome of a highly virulent variola virus isolated from Bangladesh in 1975. (
  • Orthopoxviruses, which include variola, monkeypox and vaccinia, have a double stranded genome of about 200 kb and are predicted to encode for approximately 200 functional open reading frames making them some the most complex animal viruses known. (
  • The vaccinia virus genome is 97 percent genetically identical to the smallpox genome, making it an ideal model virus to use in the laboratory to understand how smallpox and other dangerous poxviruses function, Shisler said. (
  • Evidence for segment-nonspecific packaging of the influenza a virus genome. (
  • Determination of influenza virus proteins required for genome replication. (
  • The gene encoding glycoprotein B (gB) of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) strain Smith was identified, sequenced, and expressed by recombinant vaccinia virus. (
  • We have taken a number of approaches to improve the safety and efficacy of recombinant vaccines for use in humans and animals, including: choice of the strain of vaccinia virus (VACV) used as a vector, insertional inactivation of virulence and immunoregulatory genes of VACV, and expression of cytokine genes that attenuate the vector by more than a million-fold without reduction in immunogenicity. (
  • Genes encoding virus-specific late proteins with molecular mass 36 kDa and 12 kDa were mapped in HindIII-P DNA fragment of vaccinia virus strain L-IVP by hybrid selection of RNA to cloned DNA fragments followed by in vitro translation. (
  • Serological differentiation of CaPVs is not possible and strain identification has relied on the implicitly accepted hypothesis that the viruses show well defined host specificity. (
  • To identify a diagnostic target for strain genotyping, the CaPV homologue of the Vaccinia virus E4L gene which encodes the 30 kDa DNA-dependant RNA polymerase subunit, RPO30 was analyzed. (
  • The Wyeth vaccine strain of vaccinia virus was incubated with varying concentrations of human (LL-37) and murine (CRAMP) cathelicidins, human α-defensin (HBD-1, HBD-2), and a control peptide. (
  • Vaccinia virus deleted in VCP, vVCPko, protected mice from a lethal intranasal challenge of vaccinia Western Reserve strain. (
  • The complete genomic sequence of the modified vaccinia Ankara strain: comparison with other orthopoxviruses. (
  • Leite JA , Drumond BP , Trindade G , Lobato ZIP , da Fonseca FG , Santos JR , Passatempo virus, a vaccinia virus strain, Brazil. (
  • This program used live vaccinia vi- determine whether BRZ-VACV represents an escaped vac- rus (VACV), a virus from the same genus, Orthopoxvirus , cine strain, an autochthonous orthopoxvirus, or both. (
  • CDC and partners performed laboratory confirmation, contacted the study sponsor to identify the VACV strain, and provided oversight for the first case of laboratory-acquired VACV treated with tecovirimat plus intravenous vaccinia immunoglobulin (VIGIV). (
  • Our laboratory has explored the application of tumor-selective replicating vaccinia virus (WR strain) for cancer therapy ( 4 , 9 ). (
  • The modified vaccinia virus Ankara ( MVA ) strain is a highly attenuated strain of vaccinia virus that has been demonstrated to be safe for humans. (
  • MVA is widely considered as the vaccinia virus strain of choice for clinical investigation because of its high safety profile. (
  • Over the past two centuries, this vaccination procedure has been repeated worldwide, using a vaccine strain of poxvirus known as the vaccinia virus. (
  • A chimeric gene of HIV-1 multi-epitope genes containing CpG ODN and cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) was inserted into Chinese vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain (VTT) mutant strain . (
  • The Copenhagen strain of vaccinia virus only has a truncated version of this protein. (
  • In this study, we describe responses of Natural Killer cells to recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara expressing HIV-1 genes (rMVA) compared to wild type MVA (MVAwt). (
  • Phase 1 safety and immunogenicity testing of DNA and recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara vaccines expressing HIV-1 virus-like particles. (
  • Recombinant DNA and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA) vaccines represent a promising approach to an HIV/AIDS vaccine. (
  • We used polychromatic flow cytometry to characterize the functional and phenotypic profile of CD8 + T cells induced by vaccinia virus immunization in a comparative vaccine trial of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) versus Dryvax immunization in which protection was assessed against subsequent Dryvax challenge. (
  • In this context, we studied vaccinia virus-specific T cell immune responses in a randomized, placebo-controlled study of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) versus Dryvax vaccination ( 15 ). (
  • Effect of Modified Vaccinia Ankara-5T4 and Low-Dose Cyclophosphamide on Antitumor Immunity in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A Randomized Clinical Trial. (
  • Biosafety aspects of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based vectors used for gene therapy or vaccination. (
  • Our current research uses an improved Modified Vaccinia Ankara poxvirus that we developed to express mesothelin to the murine immune system to treat pancreatic tumors and create an anti-cancer vaccine. (
  • Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a safe, attenuated orthopoxvirus that is being developed as a vaccine vector but has demonstrated limited immunogenicity in several early-phase clinical trials. (
  • The present invention provides an attenuated virus, which is derived from Modified Vaccinia Ankara virus and characterized by the loss of its capability to reproductively replicate in human cell lines. (
  • Host reaction was comparable to that on MVA virus (modified virus Ankara) which serves as a smallpox vaccine nowadays. (
  • Since recent data suggest that nanoparticles and modified vaccinia ankara (MVA) vectors could play a pivotal role in HIV-1 therapeutics and vaccine design, in an ex vivo model of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs), we compared two different loading strategies with HIV-1 vaccine vehicles, either viral or synthetic derived. (
  • Here, we report the construction and preclinical efficacy testing of a novel recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-based vaccine expressing the EBOV-Makona glycoprotein GP and matrix protein VP40 (MVA-EBOV). (
  • GeoVax' novel development platform builds on the proven clinical and commercial success of the Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vector technology, with improvements to antigen design and manufacturing capabilities. (
  • abstract = "The vaccinia virus Hindlll D fragment is 160,060 by in length and encodes 13 complete open reading frames [Niles et al. (
  • abstract = "Vaccinia virus has evolved multiple mechanisms to counteract the interferon-induced antiviral host cell response. (
  • Transcription mapping studies and DNA sequence analysis of the vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment predict that gene D8 encodes a protein 304 amino acids in length, with a molecular mass of 35,426 daltons, that is expressed at late times in infection. (
  • Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of the time course of D8 protein synthesis in cells infected with either wild-type or mutant virus demonstrated that D8 protein was synthesized late in infection in each case and accumulated throughout the experiment. (
  • 3 This finding may contribute to infection with bacteria and selected viruses, including herpesviridae (HSV, varicella-zoster virus) and vaccinia virus. (
  • Resolution of infection and protection against reinfection with viruses depend on cooperation between innate and adaptive immune processes. (
  • It has been shown for the first time that protection against and/or delay of EBV infection by the natural route is possible in humans and that live vaccinia vectors can be used and are efficacious. (
  • A soluble receptor for interleukin-1 beta encoded by vaccinia virus: a novel mechanism of virus modulation of the host response to infection. (
  • In this study, we analysed the specific modulation of the host cell's gene expression profile by cowpox, monkeypox and vaccinia virus infection. (
  • We aimed to identify mechanisms that are either common to orthopoxvirus infection or specific to certain orthopoxvirus species, allowing a more detailed description of differences in virus-host cell interactions between individual orthopoxviruses. (
  • Despite a dominating non-responsiveness of cellular transcription towards orthopoxvirus infection, we could identify several clusters of infection-modulated genes. (
  • These clusters are either commonly regulated by orthopoxvirus infection or are uniquely regulated by infection with a specific orthopoxvirus, with major differences being observed in immune response genes. (
  • Most noticeable was an induction of genes involved in leukocyte migration and activation in cowpox and monkeypox virus-infected cells, which was not observed following vaccinia virus infection. (
  • To confirm that expression of the I7L gene was essential for viral replication, TREx-293 cells were infected with vtetOI7L at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.1, 0.5, 5, or 10 in the presence or absence of TET, harvested 24 h later, and the titer of the virus infected cell lysates determined on BSC 40 cells. (
  • de Souza Trindade G , da Fonseca FG , Marques JT , Nogueira ML , Mendes LC , Borges AS , Araçatuba virus: a vaccinialike virus associated with infection in humans and cattle. (
  • Although virus-specific CD8 + T cells are often measured by a limited number of parameters, such as IFN-γ and/or IL-2 secretion, the functional profile of T cells is certainly more diverse, and the combination of functions that confer protection from infection are uncertain. (
  • Infection of RK-I3 cells with the mutant recombinant vaccinia virus resulted in total shutdown of both cellular and viral protein synthesis early in infection, indicating that the host restriction mediated by the ankyrin repeat is due to a translational block. (
  • The VGF gene encodes the vaccinia growth factor, a secreted protein produced early in viral infection that acts as a mitogen to prime surrounding cells for subsequent viral infection. (
  • one gene is expressed at both early and late times after virus infection. (
  • These infectious agents are generally handled in infection-controlled rooms, and adverse events have been reported in patients when the viruses are administered at high doses or if the patients are immune-compromised. (
  • Deletion of SPI-2 leads to virus attenuation in vivo (observed in mice model after intranasal infection) but without any remarkable influence on the host immune response. (
  • Infection of murine carcinoma cells with low multiplicity of infection of wild-type vaccinia virus leads to the death of the host following tumor transplantation. (
  • Receptor chimeras containing the first and second extracellular loops of CXCR4 supported fusion by T tropic and dual-tropic HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains and binding of a monoclonal antibody to CXCR4, 12G5, that blocks CXCR4-dependent infection by some virus strains. (
  • The discovery of fusin coupled with the finding that the chemokines RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), MIP-1α, and MIP-1β (where MIP is macrophage inflammatory protein) could block infection by M tropic virus strains ( 13 ) rapidly led to the discovery that CCR5 was the fusion coreceptor for these strains ( 14 - 18 ). (
  • The importance of chemokine receptors for virus infection in vivo was shown by the discovery of a CCR5 polymorphism for which approximately 1% of the Caucasian population is homozygous ( 19 , 20 ). (
  • Cells from these individuals are highly resistant to infection by M tropic CCR5-restricted viruses both in vitro and in vivo ( 19 - 22 ). (
  • A connection between cancer regression and viruses has long been theorised, and case reports of regression noted in cervical cancer, Burkitt lymphoma, and Hodgkin lymphoma, after immunisation or infection with an unrelated virus appeared at the beginning of the 20th century. (
  • Efforts to treat cancer through immunisation or virotherapy (deliberate infection with a virus), began in the mid-20th century. (
  • Inoculation with vaccina virus produces a localized skin infection. (
  • Infection with vaccinia virus (a poxvirus) quickly and efficiently shuts off host protein synthesis in the presence of actinomycin D (refs 3--5) or cycloheximide. (
  • To further investigate Toll-like receptor signaling in vaccinia infection, we first focused on TRIF, the only known adapter protein for TLR3. (
  • Unexpectedly, bioluminescence imaging showed that mice lacking TRIF are more susceptible to vaccinia infection than wild-type mice. (
  • Following respiratory infection with vaccinia, mice lacking TLR4 signaling had greater viral replication, hypothermia, and mortality than control animals. (
  • We recently reported that Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), which recognizes double-stranded RNA, acts in vaccinia infection in a way that is detrimental to the host. (
  • In this paper, we report that mice lacking TRIF are more susceptible to vaccinia infection than wild-type controls. (
  • We report our findings that TLR4 has a protective effect in vaccinia infection. (
  • Mice with a nonfunctional mutant version of TLR4 are more susceptible to vaccinia infection than wild-type controls. (
  • Rather, TLR4 recognizes a molecule in or on vaccinia virus to bring about a protective response that may be due to an ability to diminish the degree of inflammation caused by vaccinia infection. (
  • Nevertheless, potential bioterrorist release of Variola major , the causative agent for smallpox, and human infection with monkeypox or other zoonotic orthopoxviruses has heightened interest in this family of viruses [2] . (
  • Furthermore, G1 itself is cleaved during vaccinia virus infection. (
  • VRK2 deficiency inhibited the induction of antiviral genes and caused earlier and higher mortality in mice after viral infection. (
  • To prepare for efficacy trials, PAVE investigators as well as domestic contractors are collecting baseline data on virus strains being transmitted, rates of new infections and the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and other potential co-factors of HIV transmission from various populations at high risk for HIV infection who live in the United States and abroad. (
  • A technique combining in situ tetramer staining and in situ hybridization (ISTH) enables visualization, mapping and analysis of the spatial proximity of virus-specific CD8+ T cells to their virus-infected targets, and determination of the quantitative relationships between these immune effectors and targets to infection outcomes. (
  • Vaccinia virus in recent years, its wide host range and high expression efficiency characteristics, the foreign gene has been introduced as an expression vector for infection (HIV and SARS) have also been used as a multivalent vaccine. (
  • Zika Virus Zika virus infection has been linked to an increase in microcephaly in infants and Guillain-Barre syndrome (a neurodegenerative disease) in adults. (
  • Decreased virulence of recombinant vaccinia virus expression vectors is associated with a thymidine kinase-negative phenotype. (
  • Tumor-directed gene therapy has been limited by low transduction efficiency and relatively low levels of gene expression from current gene transfer vectors. (
  • With replicating viral vectors, levels of gene expression are higher and transduction efficiency is improved due to viral replication and subsequent spread to surrounding cells. (
  • So far, simian virus 40, bovine papillomavirus, adenovirus and members of the retrovirus family have been used the most extensively as expression vectors. (
  • In addition, virus vectors usually have a limited host range and are defective, requiring either a helper virus or special cell lines for replication. (
  • The advancement in vector technologies (viral vectors and non-viral vectors) allows researchers to introduce the new technology for the transfer of gene into the body. (
  • The ability to insert specific gene sequences into cloning vectors and their subse- quent expansion is the cornerstone of modem molecular biology. (
  • Recombinant vaccinia viruses have become important in recent years, both as protein expression vectors, and-in the age of bioterrorism-as powerful tools for developing new smallpox vaccines, diagnostics, and understanding of poxvirus pathogenesis. (
  • Gene delivery by viral vectors in primary cultures of lacrimal gland tissue. (
  • To test the feasibility of gene transfer into lacrimal gland tissue in primary culture, using different viral vectors. (
  • At 3 days, beta-gal expression was observed in 33% of tissue fragments exposed to the vaccinia vector and in 18% and 14% of fragments exposed to the adenoviral and herpes vectors, respectively. (
  • Vaccinia and adenovirus are efficient vectors for gene transfer into lacrimal gland tissue in primary culture. (
  • Adenoviral vectors Double-stranded DNA viruses, usually cause benign respiratory disease serotypes 2 and 5 are used as vectors. (
  • Replication-deficie nt adenovirus vectors can be generated by replacing the E1 or E3 gene, which is essential for replication. (
  • The recombinant vectors are then replicated in cells that express the products of the E1 or E3 gene and can be generated in very high concentrations. (
  • Adeno-associated viral vectors AAV is a simple, non-pathogenic, single stranded DNA virus dependent on the helper virus (usually adenovirus) to replicate. (
  • Gene transfer may be completed with viral or non-viral vectors. (
  • The poxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes numerous inhibitors of NF-κB activation that target multiple points in the signaling pathway. (
  • Vaccinia virus (VACV), a member of the poxvirus family of large DNA viruses and the vaccine used to eradicate smallpox ( 3 ), expresses many proteins that inhibit the activation of the innate immune response and devotes many proteins to the dampening of NF-κB activation ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • These strategies are illustrated by providing examples of recombinant VACV (rVACV) vaccines we have developed for rinderpest, vesicular stomatitis, simian immunodeficiency virus, and smallpox. (
  • IFN-γ co-expression and the inactivation of one or more VACV immune-modulating genes provide an optimized method for increasing the safety while maintaining the efficacy of rVACV vaccines for use in humans and animals. (
  • In recent decades, imported in fl asks to the vaccine institute in Rio de Janeiro several strains of the orthopoxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) have been isolated throughout Brazil, including genetically (now Oswaldo Cruz Institute) from the Chambon Institute distinct isolates within the same outbreak. (
  • Double slashes VACV, MPXV, VARV, and camelpox virus (CMLV) assem- indicate a gap in the timeline. (
  • Vaccinia virus (VACV) is an orthopoxvirus used in smallpox vaccines, as a vector for novel cancer treatments, and for experimental vaccine research ( 1 ). (
  • Vaccinia virus, the best-characterized member of this large family, was extensively used as the smallpox vaccine, has gained popularity as a mammalian expression vector, and is being tested as a recombinant vaccine against cancer and infectious diseases ( 2 ). (
  • Human vaccinia immune globulin was used to screen the secreted proteins from cells infected with Dryvax or the candidate smallpox vaccine LC16m8 to determine whether the protective humoral response included antibodies against secreted viral proteins. (
  • Damaso CR , Esposito JJ , Condit RC , Moussatche N . An emergent poxvirus from humans and cattle in Rio de Janeiro State: Cantagalo virus may derive from Brazilian smallpox vaccine. (
  • Vaccinia virus is the species now characterized as the constituent of smallpox vaccine. (
  • 90% identity to major gene products encoded by vaccinia virus, the smallpox vaccine. (
  • First, Girard gave it genetically engineered vaccinia virus - the basis of traditional smallpox vaccine - with an inserted gene from HIV. (
  • Since the first edition of Vaccinia Virus and Poxvirology: Methods and Protocols was published, a number of important events related to poxvirology have occurred, such as FDA approval of a culture-based live smallpox vaccine and the vaccination of large numbers of U.S. military and relatively large numbers of U.S. civilians. (
  • GeoVax pGA2/JS7 DNA (D) and MVA/HIV62 (M) vaccines encode noninfectious virus-like particles. (
  • We recommend use of 10 8 pfu doses for subsequent trials of recombinant vaccinia virus vaccines based upon the favorable toxicity profile and more consistent local pustule formation indicative of an adequate inoculation of live virus. (
  • A remarkable new generation of vaccines was developed recently, including subunit, synthetic peptide and virus vector vaccines. (
  • As compared to whole virus vaccines, there are a number of advantages to infectious vaccinia virus recombinant vaccines. (
  • Polypeptides, nucleotides, and compositions useful for preparing diagnostic reagents for and vaccines against human Respiratory Syncytial Virus are disclosed. (
  • Our objective was to rationally improve the immunogenicity of MVA-based HIV/AIDS vaccines via the targeted deletion of specific poxvirus immune-modulatory genes. (
  • These data establish that TLR4 mediates a protective innate immune response against vaccinia virus, which informs development of new vaccines and therapeutic agents targeted against poxviruses. (
  • Understanding the molecular machinery involved may make it possible to eventually manufacture safer vaccines for smallpox and vaccinia-based vaccines for HIV by specifically manipulating genes, Shisler said. (
  • Inadvertent exposure to the virus Vaccinia , an orthopoxvirus used in biomedical research, can cause considerable injury and time lost from work. (
  • The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. (
  • Vaccinia virus is member of Orthopoxvirus family. (
  • However, despite this translocation, vv811ΔA49 still inhibited TNF-α- and IL-1β-induced NF-κB-dependent reporter gene expression and the transcription and production of cytokines induced by these agonists. (
  • This inhibition did not require late viral gene expression. (
  • The gene encoding bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (T7gene1) was placed under the control of regulatory elements from the Escherichia coli lac operon to construct an inducible vaccinia virus expression system consisting entirely of prokaryotic transcriptional machinery. (
  • otherwise, uncontrolled expression led to interference with endogenous virus replication. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Regulated expression of foreign genes in vaccinia virus under the control of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase and the Escherichia coli lac repressor. (
  • The open reading frame was cloned into a pET11c expression vector and the partially purified recombinant protein was shown to have specificity for single-stranded DNA as well as stimulate vaccinia RR activity. (
  • Outcomes included quantification of viral PFU, vaccinia viral gene expression by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and changes in virion structure by transmission electron microscopy. (
  • A conditional-lethal recombinant virus was constructed in which the expression of the vaccinia virus I7L gene is under the control of the tetracycline operator/repressor system. (
  • To determine the role that the I7L proteinase plays in the VV replication cycle, we report here the construction and in vivo analysis of a VV mutant in which the expression of the I7L gene can be conditionally regulated. (
  • We also demonstrate that expression of the I7L gene from its native promoter appears to be important for optimal viral assembly and replication. (
  • To investigate the role of the I7L proteinase in the viral life cycle, an inducible mutant virus was constructed in which the expression of the I7L gene could be regulated by the presence or absence of TET using the components of the bacterial tetracycline operon [ 6 , 7 ]. (
  • A commercially available cell line, T-Rex-293 (Invitrogen), expressing the TetR was used to regulate the expression of the I7L gene from the infecting recombinant virus. (
  • The recombinant virus (rV-CEA) is replication competent and directs cell surface expression of CEA. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Viral gene expression" applicable to this article? (
  • This reduces its therapeutic potential despite modifications that allow tumor targeting and tumor-specific gene expression. (
  • A method of inducing expression of immune active cytokines in tumors in situ is provided wherein a vaccinia virus vector capable of inducing expression of a selected cytokine is generated and injected into a tumor so that cells of the tumor express the selected cytokine. (
  • Since this system permits the expression of single gene coding for immunogenic proteins, it allows the development of serological tests to differentiate vaccinates from animals infected naturally. (
  • With the completion of the physical map it is apparent that the early and late genes in the Hindlll D fragment are arranged in order to minimize potential interference caused by the expression of closely packed viral genes. (
  • Construction and evaluation of a new triple-gene expression cassette vaccinia virus shuttle vector. (
  • A vaccinia virus shuttle vector pSTKE with a triple- gene expression cassette was designed, and the derived recombinant virus could express at least three different target genes . (
  • A vaccinia virus and its mutant as the original viruses and EGFP as the reporter gene were used to verify the three expression cassettes. (
  • The expression and genetic stability of the recombinant virus and foreign genes were analyzed using PCR, real-time PCR , and Western blot . (
  • The results showed that EGFP, RFP and BFP were highly expressed in vaccinia virus , and no interaction between the three expression cassettes was observed. (
  • The shuttle vector pSTKE can be used for efficient and stable gene expression to address problems in recombinant vaccinia viruses , such as low expression efficiency , limited number of inserted genes . (
  • Vaccinia virus thus represents an alternative vector for B7 gene expression in tumor cells. (
  • Evidence for this comes from observations that expression of CD4 does not render most nonhuman cells susceptible to env-mediated membrane fusion and virus entry ( 5 - 8 ). (
  • Vaccinia virus E3 suppresses expression of diverse cytokines through inhibition of the PKR, NF-kappaB, and IRF3 pathways. (
  • The vaccinia virus double-stranded RNA binding protein E3 has been demonstrated to inhibit the expression of cytokines, including beta interferon (IFN-beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). (
  • We now report that the formation of the 40S--Met-tRNAfMet initiation complex is inhibited in cytoplasmic extracts derived from vaccinia virus-infected cells exposed to cordycepin to block viral gene expression. (
  • The specific expression pattern obtained by the vaccinia vector probably reflects its characteristic tissue tropism to lacrimal duct cells. (
  • This gene is widely expressed in human tissues and has increased expression in actively dividing cells, such as those in testis, thymus, fetal liver, and carcinomas. (
  • Apoptosis induction was also abrogated by disruption of the hilA gene (encoding a regulator of SPI-1 genes) and by the expression of a constitutively active PhoPQ. (
  • Interestingly, however, hilA was found to be required only for the expression of the prgH gene, while sipB , invA , and invF were expressed in a hilA -independent manner. (
  • The expression of SPI-1 genes and the secretion of invasion-associated proteins correlated temporally with the induction of apoptosis and are likely to represent its molecular basis. (
  • and a vaccinia virus introduced in a manner enabling UCA1 gene expression. (
  • Synthesis of biologically active influenza virus core proteins using a vaccinia virus-T7 RNA polymerase expression system. (
  • An in vivo system in which expression of a synthetic influenza virus-like chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) RNA is driven by influenza virus proteins synthesized from cloned cDNAs has been developed. (
  • Our goal was to variola virus (VARV). (
  • For bioterrorism preparedness, the U.S. government stockpiles tecovirimat, the first Food and Drug Administration-approved antiviral for treatment of smallpox (caused by variola virus and globally eradicated in 1980* ,† ) ( 2 ). (
  • Vaccinia virus immunization provides protection against variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, and stands as the classic example of a successful vaccine. (
  • It does not exist in nature and is distinct from cowpox virus and the variola virus of smallpox. (
  • The variola virus causes smallpox and may have begun infecting humans approximately 10,000 years ago. (
  • This effort was successful for several reasons, including the lack of any natural reservoir for variola virus and the ease of identifying infected individuals. (
  • Variola virus has a group of proteins that are truncated compared with vaccinia virus counterparts and a smaller group of proteins that are elongated. (
  • The terminal regions encode several novel proteins and variants of other poxvirus proteins that potentially augment variola virus transmissibility and virulence for its only natural host, humans. (
  • The trial was stopped prematurely due to identification of bovine viral diarrhea virus contamination within the rV-CEA vaccine. (
  • The purpose of this study is to follow responses to treatment with vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) for safety and clinical benefit [during HIV vaccine research]. (
  • It also represents an excellent candidate for use as vector system in recombinant vaccine development for gene delivery or vaccination against infectious diseases or tumours, even in immunocompromised individuals. (
  • The candidate (prototype/vaccinia vector rinderpest vaccine, HA and F genes) was developed by Prof. Yilma. (
  • One of the most promising new vaccine developments uses infectious vaccinia virus as a vector and produces recombinants through the insertion of genes as protective antigens of disease agents into the vaccinia virus DNA. (
  • With the infectious vaccinia virus recombinant system, it is possible to make a polyvalent vaccine which expresses several genes representing various serotypes of the same agent or a number of unrelated agents (see Fig. 2). (
  • Assays to determine immune response against mesothelin suggested that mice vaccinated with the mesothelin-expressing vaccine virus did not generate a strong immune response to mesothelin as expected, however the mice had robust immunity to the poxvirus. (
  • A method is provided for inducing an immune response in individuals who may be immune-compromised, receiving antiviral therapy, or have a pre-existing immunity to the vaccine virus. (
  • 5. A vaccine comprising the vaccinia virus of claim 1 . (
  • 27. A method of affecting a specific immune response in a living animal body, comprising administering an amount of a vaccine preparation which includes an effective amount of a vaccinia virus of claim 1 . (
  • Other methods cover poxvirus bioinformatics, aspects of viral pathogenesis at both a protein and an animal model level, and the study of immune responses to poxvirus-the latter critical to the important role of vaccinia virus in smallpox vaccination and its potential role as a vaccine vector directed against infectious agents and cancer. (
  • That was one of the reasons this gene was targeted during search for more safe and efficient vaccine against smallpox. (
  • Certain military recruits continue to receive vaccinia vaccine owing to the concern for bioterrorism. (
  • In the United States, Dryvax became the first approved vaccinia virus vaccine in 1931. (
  • The effectiveness of vaccinia virus as a vaccine paramount was in this effort. (
  • Vaccinia virus is the prototypic poxvirus, and it is used as both a model and a vaccine for the virus that causes smallpox. (
  • The decision to use MVA as an EBOV vaccine platform was, in part, based on its parent, vaccinia virus, which has been successfully used in ring vaccinations to contain local outbreaks during the eradication of smallpox 13 . (
  • The search for a vaccine against HIV has so far eluded scientists, partly because the virus mutates rapidly and - unlike other human viruses - comes in many different forms that make the body produce many different types of antibodies. (
  • First, it had a classical 'vaccine' of inactivated virus, which produced only very few neutralising antibodies. (
  • In order to investigate the synthesis of the wild-type and the mutant D8 proteins in virus-infected cells, we raised polyclonal antisera to a fusion protein consisting of a portion of the D8 coding sequence linked to the Escherichia coli trpE gene. (
  • To detect interactions between proteins of vaccinia virus, we carried out a comprehensive two-hybrid analysis to assay every pairwise combination. (
  • Virus-encoded proteins involved in transcription include a multicomponent DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, an assortment of transcription factors, and enzymes that cap, methylate, and polyadenylylate mRNA ( 4 ). (
  • Of the eight virus-encoded proteins that have been implicated in DNA replication, four are directly involved in DNA polymerization, and others (such as a type I DNA topoisomerase, a single-stranded DNA-binding protein, a DNA ligase, and a DNA-RNA helicase) have other roles ( 5 ). (
  • At least 30 proteins form the core and membrane components of virus particles ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • Other viral proteins interact with host components to facilitate virus dissemination, prevent apoptosis, and attenuate immune responses ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • Proteolytic cleavage of precursor proteins is an essential process in the life cycle of many viruses, including vaccinia virus (VV). (
  • KIL function can be complemented in RK-13 cells by the cowpox host range gene product CP77 despite a lack of homology between the two proteins except for ankyrin repeats. (
  • We also investigated the interaction of the vaccinia virus K1L protein with cellular proteins in RK-13 cells and co-immunoprecipitated a 90 kDa protein identified as the rabbit homologue of human ACAP2, a GTPase-activating protein with ankyrin repeats. (
  • Viruses have evolved a number of mechanisms, encoding a large number of specific proteins, designed to interfere with host antiviral defense to maximize viral replication ( 11 , 12 ). (
  • This protein regulates several transcription factors, which are proteins that control the activity of genes by attaching (binding) to specific regions of DNA. (
  • Proteins associated with the late endosome (LE) appear to play a central role in the envelopment of a number of taxonomically diverse viruses. (
  • These results suggest that p37 localizes to the LE and interacts with proteins associated with LE-derived transport vesicle biogenesis to facilitate assembly of extracellular forms of virus. (
  • Skern, T. 2017-05-18 00:00:00 Vaccinia virus relies on a series of proteolytic cleavage events involving two viral proteins, I7 and G1, to complete its life cycle. (
  • The cap gene encodes viral capsid proteins and the rep gene product is involved in viral replication and integration. (
  • Presently only seven viral proteins have been found to be specific to the enveloped form, and of these seven only six have been shown to be required for efficient envelope virus production. (
  • To study the role(s) of VMAT proteins in neuronal and behavioral function, we have been using an experimental system amenable to gene knock-out and transgenic technology in which specific biogenic amines are used by identified cells involved in particular behaviors. (
  • In vitro reconstitution of active influenza virus ribonucleoprotein complexes using viral proteins purified from infected cells. (
  • A combination of in situ and in vitro experiments addressed the question of macromolecular interactions involving vaccinia ribonucleotide reductase (FIR). (
  • Cooper JA, Moss B. In vitro translation of immediate early, early, and late classes of RNA from vaccinia virus-infected cells. (
  • These data support a role for cathelicidins in the inhibition of orthopox virus (vaccinia) replication both in vitro and in vivo. (
  • We have explored the deletion of two vaccinia virus host range/antiapoptosis genes, SPI-1 and SPI-2 , for their effects on the viral replication and their ability to induce cell death in infected normal and transformed cells in vitro . (
  • Compared with the wild-type virus, the dual-deletion mutant displayed reduced viral recovery from resting NIH3T3 cells but equivalent viral recovery from dividing NIH3T3 cells in vitro . (
  • Although encouraging results have been demonstrated in vitro and in animal models, most oncolytic viruses have failed to impress in the clinical setting. (
  • In this study, we assessed the ability of a highly tumor-selective oncolytic vaccinia virus armed with a yeast cytosine deaminase gene to infect and lyse human and murine ovarian tumors both in vitro and in vivo. (
  • The virus vvDD-CD could infect, replicate in and effectively lyse both human and mouse ovarian cancer cells in vitro. (
  • Analysis in vitro demonstrated that the E3L gene product inhibited PKR approximately 50- to 100-fold more efficiently than the K3L gene product. (
  • A resulting trend in vector development for cancer therapy has been to explore replicating oncolytic viruses, such as adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, and vaccinia virus ( 1 - 5 ). (
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used adenovirus-mediated gene transfer (1x10(9) pfu/ml) of 35K and compared its effects on reducing stenosis in a rabbit jugular vein graft model with tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and LacZ control gene. (
  • A number of viruses including adenovirus, reovirus, measles, herpes simplex, Newcastle disease virus, and vaccinia have been clinically tested as oncolytic agents. (
  • The first oncolytic virus to be approved by a regulatory agency was a genetically modified adenovirus named H101 by Shanghai Sunway Biotech. (
  • After 7 days in culture, successful gene delivery occurred in 77% of vaccinia , 41% of adenovirus, and only 13% of herpesvirus applications. (
  • Cells infected with recombinant adenovirus can express the therapeutic gene, but because essential genes for replication are deleted, the vector cant replicate. (
  • Such as used in the treatment of virus, adenovirus, retrovirus other, is vaccinia virus. (
  • Although clinical trials of several naturally-occurring oncolytic viruses were started back in the 1950s, it was only in 1991 that a herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) with deletion of its thymidine kinase UL23 gene became the first genetically-engineered, replication-selective oncolytic virus to be tested in the laboratory [ 2 ]. (
  • In the experiments, researchers used genetically engineered viruses to slip good copies of the gene into cells taken from the respiratory tract and the pancreas of cystic fibrosis patients. (
  • One group used as its shuttle a genetically engineered vaccinia virus, a relative of the smallpox virus. (
  • Some U.S. medical workers and military personnel have received vaccinations made of the live vaccinia virus, but while this tamer relative of smallpox normally doesn t cause disease, complications, including death, are possible especially among immune-compromised individuals. (
  • Current oncolytic viruses including talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC), an engineered herpes simplex virus that has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced melanoma, are replication competent, said Deng. (
  • In 2015, talimogene laherparepvec (OncoVex, T-VEC), an oncolytic herpes virus which is a modified herpes simplex virus, became the first oncolytic virus to be approved for use in the U.S. and European Union, for the treatment of advanced inoperable melanoma. (
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was one of the first viruses to be adapted to attack cancer cells selectively, because it was well understood, easy to manipulate and relatively harmless in its natural state (merely causing cold sores) so likely to pose fewer risks. (
  • The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) mutant 1716 lacks both copies of the ICP34.5 gene, and as a result is no longer able to replicate in terminally differentiated and non-dividing cells but will infect and cause lysis very efficiently in cancer cells, and this has proved to be an effective tumour-targeting strategy. (
  • Broyles SS, Moss B. Homology between RNA polymerases of poxviruses, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes: nucleotide sequence and transcriptional analysis of vaccinia virus genes encoding 147-kDa and 22-kDa subunits. (
  • To determine whether the D8 protein was incorporated into the mutant or wild-type virus, purified virions were fractionated into Nonidet P-40-soluble, deoxycholate-soluble, and detergent-insoluble fractions. (
  • Baroudy BM, Moss B. Purification and characterization of a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from vaccinia virions. (
  • Viral infections occur after entrance of virions into host cells by a variety of mechanisms, including endocytosis of nonenveloped viruses and fusion with the cell membrane by enveloped viruses ( 1 ). (
  • As the infected cancer cells are destroyed by oncolysis, they release new infectious virus particles or virions to help destroy the remaining tumour. (
  • Therefore the shutoff of host protein synthesis is probably mediated by a factor associated with vaccinia virions. (
  • Many enveloped virions remain attached to the plasma membrane and are termed cell-associated-virus (CEV). (
  • Vaccinia virus, a member of the poxvirus family, is a large, double-stranded DNA virus that incorporates a complete transcription system and replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells (Moss, 1974). (
  • Mammalian PKR is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase that is transcriptionally induced by interferon and becomes activated in virus-infected cells by dsRNAs produced during the virus life cycle. (
  • The importance of dsRNA binding for kinase activation in vivo is also shown by the fact that viruses encode negative regulators of PKR that interfere with the binding of dsRNA activators to the enzyme. (
  • We have previously shown that a double deletion of the thymidine kinase ( TK ) and vaccinia growth factor ( VGF ) genes significantly decreases pathogenicity and increases tumor selectivity. (
  • Recently, two vaccinia virus gene products were shown to interfere with the activity of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR): the E3L gene product and the E3L gene product. (
  • Kaufman, Randal J. / The E3L and K3L vaccinia virus gene products stimulate translation through inhibition of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase by different mechanisms . (
  • The VRK1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called VRK serine/threonine kinase 1. (
  • VRK serine/threonine kinase 1 has a particularly important role in regulating a transcription factor called p53 (which is produced from the TP53 gene). (
  • The VRK1 gene mutations that cause PCH1A significantly reduce the amount of VRK serine/threonine kinase 1 produced in cells. (
  • The VRK1 gene mutations associated with this disorder change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in VRK serine/threonine kinase 1. (
  • This gene encodes a member of the vaccinia-related kinase (VRK) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. (
  • Here, we identified mitochondria-associated vaccinia virus-related kinase 2 (VRK2) as a key regulator of this process. (
  • The study of vaccinia virus thus provides important information that will help us to understand the nature of more pathogenic members of the family, such as the agents of smallpox, monkeypox, and molluscum contagiosum ( 10 ), as well as insights into many areas of molecular and cellular biology and immunology. (
  • In both the wild-type and the mutant viruses, the D8 protein was an integral viral protein. (
  • The mutant protein fractionated into the detergent-insoluble component, demonstrating that although the altered protein was incorporated into the virus, it was found in a abnormal location. (
  • In order to determine whether the D8 protein was present on the virion surface, the susceptibility of the D8 protein to proteolysis was tested by analyzing the products of incubation of the wild-type and mutant viruses with either chymotrypsin or trypsin. (
  • The mutant D8 protein was relatively refractory to proteolysis, confirming the hypothesis that although it is associated with the virus, it is in a conformation different from that of the wild-type protein. (
  • DNA from mutant virus resistant to hydroxyurea were digested with restriction endonucleases and were shown to have substoichiometric amounts of the Hind III F fragment. (
  • A deletion mutant lacking the N1L gene replicated normally in cell culture, but was attenuated in intranasal and intradermal murine models compared to wild-type and revertant controls. (
  • The conservation of the N1L protein and the attenuated phenotype of the deletion mutant indicate an important role in the virus life-cycle. (
  • Attenuated deletion mutant of vaccinia virus IHD-W recovered virulence by reinsertion of a terminal restriction fragment. (
  • While this work was in progress, Ansarah-Sobrinho and Moss [ 5 ] published a report demonstrating that the I7L proteinase, in an inducible mutant virus regulated by the lac operator and driven off of the T7 promoter, was responsible for cleaving the A17L membrane protein as well as the L4R core protein precursor. (
  • In this work, we show that I7L proteinase, in a different inducible mutant virus, this one regulated by the tetracycline (TET) operator/repressor system and driven off of the I7L native promoter, is responsible for cleaving the other core protein precursors (p4a and p4b). (
  • To carry out the study, they introduced individual genes from the 5.2kb segment into a mutant poxvirus vector that activates NF-kB. (
  • Given its enhanced tumor selectivity, improved safety profile, and substantial oncolytic effects following systemic delivery in murine models, it should also serve as a useful vector for tumor-directed gene therapy. (
  • Virus-associated toxicity is a concern and various modifications have been explored in an effort to improve both tumor specificity and safety profiles ( 1 ). (
  • The explanation is multifactorial, determined by the complex interactions between the tumor and its microenvironment, the virus, and the host immune response. (
  • Promising laboratory results have not been translated to improved clinical outcomes, and this appears to be determined by the complex interactions between the tumor and its microenvironment, the virus, and the host immunity. (
  • GL-ONC1, an oncolytic vaccinia virus, has shown the ability to preferentially locate, colonize and destroy tumor cells in more than 40 different human tumors. (
  • These findings demonstrate that a tumor-selective oncolytic vaccinia combined with gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy is a highly effective strategy for treating advanced ovarian cancers in both syngeneic mouse and human xenograft models. (
  • Given the biological safety, tumor selectivity and oncolytic potency of this armed oncolytic virus, this dual therapy merits further investigation as a promising new treatment for metastatic ovarian cancer. (
  • These studies demonstrate the utility of recombinant vaccinia viruses to deliver B7 molecules to tumor cells for potential gene therapy and recombinant approaches to cancer immunotherapy. (
  • Cancer treatment with gene transfer involves the introduction of genes to cancer cells to either slow tumor growth or kill the cancer. (
  • These viral or bacterial genes have the ability to convert a non-toxic drug into a cancer-killing drug once inside the tumor. (
  • In embryo development and tumor formation as the genes responsible for the UCA1 have been reported (non-patent document 1 - see non-patent document 4). (
  • Earl PL, Jones EV, Moss B. Homology between DNA polymerases of poxviruses, herpesviruses, and adenoviruses: nucleotide sequence of the vaccinia virus DNA polymerase gene. (
  • Poxviruses are large, complex, double-stranded DNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells ( 1 ). (
  • In Vaccinia Virus and Poxvirology: Methods and Protocols, internationally recognized experts and leaders in poxvirology describe in step-by-step detail the successful techniques they have perfected to study and work with vaccinia virus and other poxviruses. (
  • Comprehensive and timely, Vaccinia Virus and Poxvirology: Methods and Protocols offers virologists and vaccinologists an unequaled source of proven techniques for understanding poxviruses and developing defenses against their use as bioterrorist agents. (
  • The threat of a bioterrorist attack using Variola major , the smallpox virus, or zoonotic transmission of other poxviruses has renewed interest in understanding interactions between these viruses and their hosts. (
  • We recently determined that TLR3 regulates a detrimental innate immune response that enhances replication, morbidity, and mortality in mice in response to vaccinia virus, a model pathogen for studies of poxviruses. (
  • Authoritative and practical, Vaccinia Virus and Poxvirology: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition seeks to aid scientists in continuing to study poxviruses using new tools and approaches. (
  • We have employed a two-step Northern hybridization protocol using single-stranded DNA probes from M13 recombinants in order to identify the mRNA products from the 13 genes. (
  • In addition, a method is provided for the administration of a therapeutically effective amount of the virus, or its recombinants, in a vaccinia virus prime/vaccinia virus boost innoculation regimen. (
  • Lee-Chen, GJ & Niles, EG 1988, ' Transcription and translation mapping of the 13 genes in the vaccinia virus Hindlll D fragment ', Virology , vol. 163, no. 1, pp. 52-63. (
  • In resting cells, IκBα is found in complex with NF-κB transcription factor subunits p65 and p50, preventing their nuclear translocation and activation of NF-κB-dependent gene transcription. (
  • Identification of rpo30, a vaccinia virus RNA polymerase gene with structural similarity to a eucaryotic transcription elongation factor. (
  • Thus, the vaccinia virus protein, unlike its eucaryotic homolog, is an integral RNA polymerase subunit rather than a readily separable transcription factor. (
  • Broyles SS, Yuen L, Shuman S, Moss B. Purification of a factor required for transcription of vaccinia virus early genes. (
  • The cellular messenger RNA apparently remains stable in the infected cells exposed to inhibitors of viral gene transcription. (
  • However, in the presence of cordycepin (3-deoxyadenosine) which blocks viral gene transcription and cytoplasmic poly(A) synthesis, cellular protein synthesis is still efficiently inhibited in vaccinia virus-infected cells. (
  • A similar inhibition is found in reticulocyte lysates incubated with purified vaccinia cores, confirming the hypothesis that the factor associated with the viral cores is responsible for the inhibition observed in vaccinia virus-infected cells exposed to inhibitors of transcription. (
  • The adaptor protein MITA links virus-sensing receptors to IRF3 transcription factor activation. (
  • In their research, Shisler and Xiao-Lu Jin, a research specialist in microbiology, found that a 5.2 kb segment of vaccinia virus DNA containing six genes was responsible for inhibiting a key cellular transcription factor called NF kappa B (NF-kB). (
  • A single immunization elicited potent humoral, T-helper, and cytotoxic T-cell immune responses in mice despite the absence of any detectable virus replication in vivo. (
  • CRAMP knockout mice and control animals were inoculated by skin pricks with 2 × 10 5 PFU of vaccinia and examined daily for pox development. (
  • Mice vaccinated with purified VCP demonstrated a strong humoral response, but were not protected against a moderate lethal challenge of vaccinia virus, suggesting that the humoral response against VCP is not critical for protection. (
  • Trindade GS , da Fonseca FG , Marques JT , Diniz S , Leite JA , De Bodt S , Belo Horizonte virus: a vaccinia-like virus lacking the A-type inclusion body gene isolated from infected mice. (
  • WHO smallpox eradication vaccination campaigns and that isolated from sentinel mice and recent outbreaks on dairy these viruses continue to circulate. (
  • However, it is important to emphasize that human CEA is a foreign gene in both mice and nonhuman primates, whereas humans appear to be immunologically tolerant to CEA: it is expressed in fetal and normal adult human tissues. (
  • In a model of viral pathogenesis, mice treated with vSP survived substantially longer when compared with mice treated with the wild-type virus. (
  • To test this, the researchers compared the antitumor efficacy of live oncolytic vaccinia virus (which can replicate) with its heat-inactivated counterpart (which cannot replicate) in mice. (
  • Immunogenicity and virulence of attenuated vaccinia virus Tian Tan encoding HIV-1 muti-epitope genes, p24 and cholera toxin B subunit in mice. (
  • The recombinant virus rddVTT(-CCMp24) was assessed for immunogenicity and safety in mice . (
  • Additionally, the virulence of the recombinant virus was been attenuated in vivo of mice compared with wild type VTT (wtVTT), and the introduction of CTB and HIV Mp24 did not alter the infectivity and virulence of defective vaccinia virus . (
  • Weismann CM, Ferreira J, Keeler AM, Su Q, Qui L, Shaffer SA, Xu Z, Gao G, Sena-Esteves M . Systemic AAV9 gene transfer in adult GM1 gangliosidosis mice reduces lysosomal storage in CNS and extends lifespan. (
  • Virus containing this mutation were isolated and shown to replicate in a single-step growth experiment with wild type virus growth kinetics, demonstrating that the normal-length D8 protein is not essential for virus propagation in tissue culture. (
  • It has been known for many years that viruses have the ability to replicate in and lyse cancer cells. (
  • 1985). When these recombinant viruses are injected into an animal they replicate in the host cells, expressing both vaccinia virus and foreign genes. (
  • MVA was found to both kill and replicate in Panc02 cells, showing it is an oncolytic virus. (
  • The vaccinia virus (VV) N1L gene encodes a protein of 14 kDa that was identified previously in the concentrated supernatant of virus-infected cells. (
  • UCA1(Urothelial cancer associated 1) gene, encodes a protein that is not a long-chain noncoding RNA(long-non coding RNA: lncRNA) and, used as a marker of bladder cancer and the like have been reported. (
  • Ahn BY, Jones EV, Moss B. Identification of the vaccinia virus gene encoding an 18-kilodalton subunit of RNA polymerase and demonstration of a 5' poly(A) leader on its early transcript. (
  • PKR interferes with virus propagation by phosphorylating the α subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), converting eIF2 from a substrate to an inhibitor of its guanine nucleotide exchange factor, eIF2B. (
  • Western immunoblot analysis using antiserum made to the vaccinia rpo30 protein expressed in bacteria indicated that the 30-kDa protein remains associated with highly purified viral RNA polymerase. (
  • Six months later, the researchers have been unable to find any trace of the virus, either in their lymph nodes or by amplifying the DNA from their cells using the polymerase chain reaction technique. (
  • Structural and functional characterization of an influenza virus RNA polymerase-genomic RNA complex. (
  • Influenza virus naked RNA can be expressed upon transfection into cells co-expressing the three subunits of the polymerase and the nucleoprotein from simian virus 40 recombinant viruses. (
  • Vaccinia virus infected monkey kidney cells had been previously shown to have an increased ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase (RR) activity. (
  • This was identified as the vaccinia virus complement protein (VCP), which migrated more slowly in LC16m8-infected cells due to post-translational glycosylation. (
  • The N1L protein present in the culture supernatant was uncleaved at the N terminus and was released from cells more slowly than the VV A41L gene product, a secreted glycoprotein that has a conventional signal peptide. (
  • It is known that CD8 + T cells play an important role in immunity to multiple viruses. (
  • Virus-specific CD8 + T cells contribute to viral control by directly killing virus-infected cells, secreting antiviral factors, and secreting factors that recruit other cells of the immune system ( 12 ). (
  • To settle this question, we analysed the O-linked glycans of gp 120 by chemical methods using purified HIV-1 gp 120 from cells infected with recombinant vaccinia virus solely expressing gp 160 or gp 120. (
  • The functional activity as neutralisation epitopes of the O-linked oligosaccharides expressed on recombinant gp 120 was preserved, since fusion between uninfected CD4+ cells and cells infected with recombinant vaccinia was blocked by monoclonal antibodies to the O-linked oligosaccharides of gp 120. (
  • We investigated the role of ankyrin repeats ofthe K1L gene in the host-range restriction of growth in RK-13 cells. (
  • Vaccinia virus E3L encodes a dsRNA binding protein that inhibits PKR in virus-infected cells, presumably by sequestering dsRNA activators. (
  • The ability of cancer cells to evade apoptosis may permit survival of a recombinant vaccinia lacking antiapoptotic genes in cancer cells compared with normal cells. (
  • Indeed, in three paired normal and transformed cell types, the SPI-1 and SPI-2 gene-deleted virus (vSP) preferentially replicates in transformed cells or p53-null cells when compared with their normal counterparts. (
  • A TK-virus requires TTP for DNA synthesis from the nucleotide pool present in dividing cells. (
  • Deletion of this gene causes decreased viral replication in resting cells. (
  • The ability of viruses to kill cancer cells has been recognized for more than a century [ 1 ]. (
  • They found that the heat-inactivated oncolytic vaccinia virus induced higher numbers of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells than the live virus. (
  • To investigate the efficiency of encapsidation of plasmid by papillomavirus virus-like particles (PV VLPs), and the infectivity of the resultant PV pseudovirions, Cos-1 cells were transfected with an 8-kb plasmid incorporating a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene (pGSV), and infected with bovine PV (BPV-1) L1/L2 recombinant vaccinia virus to produce BPV1 pseudovirions. (
  • An oncolytic virus is a virus that preferentially infects and kills cancer cells. (
  • Oncolytic viruses are thought not only to cause direct destruction of the tumour cells, but also to stimulate host anti-tumour immune system responses. (
  • Vaccinia virus (VV) is the prototypical member of Orthopoxviridae , which replicates within the cytoplasm of permissive cells. (
  • Loading dendritic cells with PLA-p24 nanoparticles or MVA expressing HIV genes induces HIV-1-specific T cell responses. (
  • We conclude that both HIV antigens loading strategies (PLA-p24 nanoparticles or MVA expressing HIV genes) induce HIV-1-specific T-cell responses, which are able to kill autologous gag-expressing cells. (
  • Scientists have cured cystic fibrosis cells in the laboratory by inserting a healthy version of the gene that causes the disease, an unexpectedly swift advance that left researchers almost giddy with delight. (
  • With the addition of the healthy gene, the sickly cells became robust, displaying such key hallmarks of biochemical normality as being able to deftly absorb and secrete chloride molecules. (
  • To get the good gene into cystic fibrosis cells, the research teams used slightly different strategies. (
  • Gene Therapy The introduction of nucleic acids into cells for the purpose of altering the course of medical condition or disease. (
  • The numbers and locations of virus-specific CD8+ T cells relative to the numbers and locations of their infected cell targets is thought to be critical in determining outcomes that range from clearance to chronic persistent infections. (
  • Mesothelioma gene therapy treats the cancer by introducing genetic material from healthy cells into the body. (
  • The new genes can be activated to help kill the mesothelioma cancer cells. (
  • Mesothelioma gene therapy uses genes from healthy cells to help kill cancerous genes within mesothelioma cancer cells by "turning on" the newly introduced genetic materials. (
  • When introduced to the body, the genes cause the mesothelioma cells to produce a protein that prohibits the cancerous cells from replicating. (
  • Oncolytic virotherapy uses viruses to attack cancer cells. (
  • These viruses either target and kill cancer cells or activate the immune system's own cancer-killing antibodies, known as T-cells. (
  • In addition, the solubility of vaccinia virus using cancer cells, the technique used for the treatment of cancer have been reported (see patent document 1 and patent document 2). (
  • Scientists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign studying vaccinia virus, a close relative of smallpox, have determined that a gene necessary for virus replication also has a key role in turning off inflammation, a crucial anti-viral immune response of host cells. (
  • Vaccinia, cowpox, and camelpox viruses encode soluble gamma interferon receptors with novel broad species specificity. (
  • For instance, although vaccinia virus-induced antibody responses have been shown to be necessary and sufficient for protection against monkeypox virus ( 1 ), virus-specific T cell responses generated at the time of vaccination may still contribute to effective protection. (
  • Both techniques induced vaccinia-specific lymphoproliferation, interleukin 2 release, and antibody responses of comparable magnitude and frequency as well as protected 80% of patients against pustule formation following vaccinia scarification. (
  • The antibody response of pigs to glycoprotein I (gI) of pseudorabies virus was used to distinguish between infected and vaccinated pigs. (
  • Animal-borne orthopoxviruses, like monkeypox, vaccinia and the closely related cowpox virus, are all capable of causing zoonotic infections in humans, representing a potential threat to human health. (
  • It may be speculated that these differences at the cellular level contribute to the individual characteristics of cowpox, monkeypox and vaccinia virus infections in certain host species. (
  • Monkeypox virus ) should be revaccinated every 3 years. (
  • While variola (the causative agent of smallpox) remains the most deadly member of the family, several other members, including monkeypox, tanapox, cowpox, vaccinia, Yaba-like disease virus and molluscum contagiosum, are capable of causing disease in humans. (
  • Deletion of the K1L Gene Results in a Vaccinia Virus That Is Less Pathogenic Due to Muted Innate Immune Responses, yet Still Elicits Protective Immunity. (
  • SPI-2 shares 92% of its amino acid sequence with the cowpox virus modifier of the cytokine response - known as crmA. (
  • Nucleotide sequences of these genes were determined. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Oncolytic viruses" applicable to this article? (
  • Targeted therapy of cancer using oncolytic viruses has generated much interest over the past few years in the light of the limited efficacy and side effects of standard cancer therapeutics for advanced disease. (
  • Most current oncolytic viruses are engineered for tumour selectivity, although there are naturally occurring examples such as reovirus and the senecavirus, resulting in clinical trials. (
  • As the technology to create a custom virus did not exist, all early efforts focused on finding natural oncolytic viruses. (
  • Other oncolytic viruses based on HSV have also been developed and are in clinical trials. (
  • In this report we describe the construction and characterization of recombinant vaccinia viruses containing the murine B7-1 and B7-2 genes (designated rV-B7-1 and rV-B7-2). (
  • We have previously shown through trans processing assays that the I7L gene product is capable of cleaving the core protein precursors p4a, p4b, and p25K at conserved AG/X sites and have used reverse genetics to identify active site residues [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • Moreover, increasing awareness regarding gene therapy and growing number of chronic and genetics diseases are propelling the growth of the market. (
  • To this end, the gene encoding the repressor protein of the lac operon was fused to a viral early/late promoter so that it was expressed constitutively, and the lac operator was interposed between a viral major late promoter and T7gene1. (
  • Plasmid-borne I7L is capable of rescuing the growth of this virus and rescue is optimal when the I7L gene is expressed using the authentic I7L promoter. (
  • Envelope protein part of the entry-fusion complex responsible for the virus membrane fusion with host cell membrane during virus entry. (
  • The role of these virus-host interactions in the formation of the virus membrane is an area currently under investigation. (
  • We used polylactic acid (PLA) colloidal biodegradable particles, coated with HIV Gag antigens (p24), and MVA expressing Gag (rMVA-gag and rMVA-gag/trans membrane) or Tat, Nef and Rev genes (rMVA tat+rev and rMVA nef). (
  • CEV released from the plasma membrane are termed extracellular enveloped virus (EEV). (
  • Possible bioterrorism with smallpox has led to the resumption of smallpox (vaccinia virus) immunization. (
  • Vaccinia virus immunization provides lifelong protection against smallpox, but the mechanisms of this exquisite protection are unknown. (
  • It was shown that immunization with vaccinia virus with deleted SPI-2 and 1 and coexpressing IFNγ leads to strong attenuation but without decreasing host immune response. (
  • The array was individually mated to transformants containing each ORF as a Gal4-DNA-binding domain hybrid, and diploids expressing the two-hybrid reporter gene were identified. (
  • The effects of the two vaccinia virus gene products were compared in an in vivo system in which translation of a reporter gene (dihydrofolate reductase or eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α [eIF-2α]) was inhibited because of the localized activation of PKR. (
  • In this system, the E3L gene product, and to a lesser extent the K3L gene product, potentiated translation of the reporter gene and inhibited eIF-2α phosphorylation. (
  • Laboratory personnel working with replication-competent vaccinia viruses and recombinant viruses developed from replication-competent vaccinia viruses should be revaccinated at least every 10 years. (
  • a ) to examine the safety and relative efficacy of intradermal needle injection versus s.c. jet administration of a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-encoding recombinant vaccinia virus (rV-CEA) over a limited dose range and ( b ) to evaluate CEA-specific immune responses or antitumor effects induced by rV-CEA vaccination. (
  • 3. The vaccinia virus of claim 2 , wherein the heterologous nucleic acid sequence codes for at least one antigen, antigenic epitope, or a therapeutic compound. (
  • The D11 gene is transcribed into two late mRNA species, one full-length and the other derived from the 3′ one-third of the coding sequence. (
  • In order to determine whether the native D8 protein is required for virus propagation, we constructed a frameshift mutation in the D8 coding sequence. (