Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Moving and Lifting Patients: Moving or repositioning patients within their beds, from bed to bed, bed to chair, or otherwise from one posture or surface to another.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer Techniques: Techniques for determining the proximity of molecules based on ENERGY TRANSFER between bioluminescent chromophores and acceptor fluorophores that have overlapping emission and absorption spectra.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Nuclear Transfer Techniques: Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Transfer (Psychology): Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).Electroporation: A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

CAR-dependent and CAR-independent pathways of adenovirus vector-mediated gene transfer and expression in human fibroblasts. (1/7311)

Primary fibroblasts are not efficiently transduced by subgroup C adenovirus (Ad) vectors because they express low levels of the high-affinity Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). In the present study, we have used primary human dermal fibroblasts as a model to explore strategies by which Ad vectors can be designed to enter cells deficient in CAR. Using an Ad vector expressing the human CAR cDNA (AdCAR) at high multiplicity of infection, primary fibroblasts were converted from being CAR deficient to CAR sufficient. Efficiency of subsequent gene transfer by standard Ad5-based vectors and Ad5-based vectors with alterations in penton and fiber was evaluated. Marked enhancement of binding and transgene expression by standard Ad5 vectors was achieved in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Expression by AdDeltaRGDbetagal, an Ad5-based vector lacking the arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) alphaV integrin recognition site from its penton base, was achieved in CAR-sufficient, but not CAR-deficient, cells. Fiber-altered Ad5-based vectors, including (a) AdF(pK7)betagal (bearing seven lysines on the end of fiber) (b) AdF(RGD)betagal (bearing a high-affinity RGD sequence on the end of fiber), and (c) AdF9sK betagal (bearing a short fiber and Ad9 knob), demonstrated enhanced gene transfer in CAR-deficient fibroblasts, with no further enhancement in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Together, these observations demonstrate that CAR deficiency on Ad targets can be circumvented either by supplying CAR or by modifying the Ad fiber to bind to other cell-surface receptors.  (+info)

Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis by gene delivery of soluble p75 tumour necrosis factor receptor. (2/7311)

Collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice can be passively transferred to SCID mice with spleen B- and T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we show that infection ex vivo of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a retroviral vector, containing cDNA for the soluble form of human p75 receptor of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-R) before transfer, prevents the development of arthritis, bone erosion and joint inflammation in the SCID recipients. Assessment of IgG subclass levels and studies of synovial histology suggest that down-regulating the effector functions of T helper-type 1 (Th1) cells may, at least in part, explain the inhibition of arthritis in the SCID recipients. In contrast, the transfer of splenocytes infected with mouse TNF-alpha gene construct resulted in exacerbated arthritis and enhancement of IgG2a antibody levels. Intriguingly, infection of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a construct for mouse IL-10 had no modulating effect on the transfer of arthritis. The data suggest that manipulation of the immune system with cytokines, or cytokine inhibitors using gene transfer protocols can be an effective approach to ameliorate arthritis.  (+info)

Deletion of multiple immediate-early genes from herpes simplex virus reduces cytotoxicity and permits long-term gene expression in neurons. (3/7311)

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has many attractive features that suggest its utility for gene transfer to neurons. However, viral cytotoxicity and transient transgene expression limit practical applications even in the absence of viral replication. Mutant viruses deleted for the immediate early (IE) gene, ICP4, an essential transcriptional transactivator, are toxic to many cell types in culture in which only the remaining IE genes are expressed. In order to test directly the toxicity of other IE gene products in neurons and develop a mutant background capable of longterm transgene expression, we generated mutants deleted for multiple IE genes in various combinations and tested their relative cytotoxicity in 9L rat gliosarcoma cells, Vero monkey kidney cells, and primary rat cortical and dorsal root neurons in culture. Viral mutants deleted simultaneously for the IE genes encoding ICP4, ICP22 and ICP27 showed substantially reduced cytotoxicity compared with viruses deleted for ICP4 alone or ICP4 in combination with either ICP22, ICP27 or ICP47. Infection of neurons in culture with these triple IE deletion mutants substantially enhanced cell survival and permitted transgene expression for over 21 days. Such mutants may prove useful for efficient gene transfer and extended transgene expression in neurons in vitro and in vivo.  (+info)

Treatment of lysosomal storage disease in MPS VII mice using a recombinant adeno-associated virus. (4/7311)

Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a genetic deficiency of beta-glucuronidase (GUS). We used a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector (AAV-GUS) to deliver GUS cDNA to MPS VII mice. The route of vector administration had a dramatic effect on the extent and distribution of GUS activity. Intramuscular injection of AAV-GUS resulted in high, localized production of GUS, while intravenous administration produced low GUS activity in several tissues. This latter treatment of MPS VII mice reduced glycosaminoglycan levels in the liver to normal and reduced storage granules dramatically. We show that a single administration of AAV-GUS can provide sustained expression of GUS in a variety of cell types and is sufficient to reverse the disease phenotype at least in the liver.  (+info)

Astrocyte-specific expression of tyrosine hydroxylase after intracerebral gene transfer induces behavioral recovery in experimental parkinsonism. (5/7311)

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the depletion of dopamine in the caudate putamen. Dopamine replacement with levodopa, a precursor of the neurotransmitter, is presently the most common treatment for this disease. However, in an effort to obtain better therapeutic results, tissue or cells that synthesize catecholamines have been grafted into experimental animals and human patients. In this paper, we present a novel technique to express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the host's own astrocytes. This procedure uses a transgene in which the expression of a TH cDNA is under the control of a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter, which confers astrocyte-specific expression and also increases its activity in response to brain injury. The method was tested in a rat model of Parkinson's disease produced by lesioning the striatum with 6-hydroxydopamine. Following microinjection of the transgene into the denervated striatum as a DNA-liposome complex, expression of the transgene was detected by RT-PCR and TH protein was observed specifically in astrocytes by using double-labeling immunofluorescence for GFAP and TH coupled with laser confocal microscopy. Efficacy was demonstrated by significant behavioral recovery, as assessed by a decrease in the pharmacologically induced turning behavior generated by the unilateral denervation of the rat striatum. These results suggest this is a valuable technique to express molecules of therapeutic interest in the brain.  (+info)

High level inhibition of HIV replication with combination RNA decoys expressed from an HIV-Tat inducible vector. (6/7311)

Intracellular immunization, an antiviral gene therapy approach based on the introduction of DNA into cells to stably express molecules for the inhibition of viral gene expression and replication, has been suggested for inhibition of HIV infection. Since the Tat and Rev proteins play a critical role in HIV regulation, RNA decoys and ribozymes of these sequences have potential as therapeutic molecular inhibitors. In the present study, we have generated several anti-HIV molecules; a tat-ribozyme, RRE, RWZ6 and TAR decoys and combinations of decoys, and tested them for inhibition of HIV-1 replication in vitro. We used T cell specific CD2 gene elements and regulatory the HIV inducible promoter to direct high level expression and a 3' UTR sequence for mRNA stabilization. We show that HIV replication was most strongly inhibited with the combination TAR + RRE decoy when compared with the single decoys or the tat-ribozyme. We also show that the Tat-inducible HIV promoter directs a higher level of steady-state transcription of decoys and inhibitors and that higher levels of expression directly relate to increased levels of inhibition of HIV infection. Furthermore, a stabilization of the 3' end of TAR + RRE inhibitor transcripts using a beta-globin 3' UTR sequence leads to an additional 15-fold increase in steady-state RNA levels. This cassette when used to express the best combination decoy inhibitor TAR + RRE, yields high level HIV inhibition for greater than 3 weeks. Taken together, both optimization for high level expression of molecular inhibitors and use of combinations of inhibitors suggest better therapeutic application in limiting the spread of HIV.  (+info)

Thyroid hormone effects on Krox-24 transcription in the post-natal mouse brain are developmentally regulated but are not correlated with mitosis. (7/7311)

Krox-24 (NGFI-A, Egr-1) is an immediate-early gene encoding a zinc finger transcription factor. As Krox-24 is expressed in brain areas showing post-natal neurogenesis during a thyroid hormone (T3)-sensitive period, we followed T3 effects on Krox-24 expression in newborn mice. We analysed whether regulation was associated with changes in mitotic activity in the subventricular zone and the cerebellum. In vivo T3-dependent Krox-24 transcription was studied by polyethylenimine-based gene transfer. T3 increased transcription from the Krox-24 promoter in both areas studied at post-natal day 2, but was without effect at day 6. An intact thyroid hormone response element (TRE) in the Krox-24 promoter was necessary for these inductions. These stage-dependent effects were also seen in endogenous Krox-24 mRNA levels: activation at day 2 and no effect at day 6. Moreover, similar results were obtained by examining beta-galactosidase expression in heterozygous mice in which one allele of the Krox-24 gene was disrupted with an inframe Lac-Z insertion. However, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation showed mitosis to continue through to day 6. We conclude first, that T3 activates Krox-24 transcription during early post-natal mitosis but that this effect is extinguished as development proceeds and second, loss of T3-dependent Krox-24 expression is not correlated with loss of mitotic activity.  (+info)

Reversal of hyperlipidaemia in apolipoprotein C1 transgenic mice by adenovirus-mediated gene delivery of the low-density-lipoprotein receptor, but not by the very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor. (8/7311)

We have shown previously that human apolipoprotein (apo)C1 transgenic mice exhibit hyperlipidaemia, due primarily to an impaired clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles from the circulation. In the absence of at least the low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), it was shown that APOC1 overexpression in transgenic mice inhibited the hepatic uptake of VLDL via the LDLR-related protein. In the present study, we have now examined the effect of apoC1 on the binding of lipoproteins to both the VLDL receptor (VLDLR) and the LDLR. The binding specificity of the VLDLR and LDLR for apoC1-enriched lipoprotein particles was examined in vivo through adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of the VLDLR and the LDLR [giving rise to adenovirus-containing (Ad)-VLDLR and Ad-LDLR respectively] in APOC1 transgenic mice, LDLR-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice and wild-type mice. Remarkably, Ad-VLDLR treatment did not reduce hyperlipidaemia in transgenic mice overexpressing human APOC1, irrespective of both the level of transgenic expression and the presence of the LDLR, whereas Ad-VLDLR treatment did reverse hyperlipidaemia in LDLR-/- and wild-type mice. On the other hand, Ad-LDLR treatment strongly decreased plasma lipid levels in these APOC1 transgenic mice. These results suggest that apoC1 inhibits the clearance of lipoprotein particles via the VLDLR, but not via the LDLR. This hypothesis is corroborated by in vitro binding studies. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the VLDLR (CHO-VLDLR) or LDLR (CHO-LDLR) bound less APOC1 transgenic VLDL than wild-type VLDL. Intriguingly, however, enrichment with apoE enhanced dose-dependently the binding of wild-type VLDL to CHO-VLDLR cells (up to 5-fold), whereas apoE did not enhance the binding of APOC1 transgenic VLDL to these cells. In contrast, for binding to CHO-LDLR cells, both wild-type and APOC1 transgenic VLDL were stimulated upon enrichment with apoE. From these studies, we conclude that apoC1 specifically inhibits the apoE-mediated binding of triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein particles to the VLDLR, whereas apoC1-enriched lipoproteins can still bind to the LDLR. The variability in specificity of these lipoprotein receptors for apoC1-containing lipoprotein particles provides further evidence for a regulatory role of apoC1 in the delivery of lipoprotein constituents to different tissues on which these receptors are located.  (+info)

  • Transgenic animal are animals that have had foreign genes from another animal introduced into their genome. (wikibooks.org)
  • With the newfound discovery of the DNA sequence of the human genome, scientists can now study the genes that are involved as drug targets, which can help provide them with the ability to mark the appropriate gene that can aid in providing the cure to any certain disease that they are studying. (wikibooks.org)
  • After fertilization of the egg, the DNA is shown to be successfully integrated into the genome of viable pig and mouse offspring with germ-line transfer to the F1 generation at a highly efficient rate: 37.5% of pigs and 33% of mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cells are then able to integrate with the transgene, and the foreign gene is expressed, upon which the developing embryo is surgically implanted in a surrogate mother. (wikibooks.org)
  • The current method of gene transfer, microinjection, which is widely used in transgenic mouse production, has only had limited success in producing transgenic animals of larger or higher species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The result of this process, if the embryo develops, is a transgenic animal housing a particular gene from another species. (wikibooks.org)
  • A foreign gene (such as a hormone or blood protein) is cloned and injected into the nuclei of another animal's in vitro fertilized egg. (wikibooks.org)
  • Microinjection is the preferred method for introduction of a foreign gene into the mouse, a reliable technique developed by Gordon and his colleagues in 1980 [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Animals that have their genes modified to show disease symptoms, may be studied and cure could possibly be contrived in the near future.At Harvard, scientists created a transgenic mouse also known as OncoMouse® or also known as the Harvard mouse which allows it to carry genes that can enhance the development of a variety of cancers that are found in humans. (wikibooks.org)
  • Due to worldwide shortages of organs, advances in gene manipulation of animals can alter their organs to become susceptible to humans. (wikibooks.org)
  • It has become an indispensable tool for gene cloning, the study of gene function and regulation and the production of small amounts of recombinant proteins for analysis and verification. (mybiosource.com)
  • Such animals are used to study gene function and expression, model human diseases, produce recombinant proteins in their milk and other fluids, and to improve the quality of livestock herds and other domestic species. (mybiosource.com)
  • Besides this, there controls a download Gene Delivery to that any surface for a coil, proteins state, broad, or additional Glycogen possibly starts as a recruit for distinct cGMP. (evakoch.com)
  • If they advocate Additionally regulated, a download Gene Delivery to Mammalian Cells: Volume 1: Nonviral Gene Transfer Techniques 2004 in which activated SI plays a competent vitamin, they are in the protein loop and remain reviewed by I proteins, involving to major and extracellular face( Naim et al. (evakoch.com)
  • It also examines the use of transgenic animals in the study of gene function and human diseases, the preparation of recombinant proteins and organs for pharmaceutical and medical use, and the improvement of genetic characteristics of farm animals. (routledge.com)
  • eNOS gene delivery resulted in suppression of oxidative stress induced by MI which led to decreases in TGF-beta1 and p27 expression , INK activation , and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB , proteins known to be induced by reactive oxygen species . (musc.edu)
  • Because amino acids of proteins that are functionally important are locally clustered in domains, mutations in multiple tumors that are functionally important to the development of cancer cluster in the linear sequence of relevant genes, allowing inference of relevance and function even in cases without three-dimensional protein structure. (yale.edu)
  • In 1987, Plant Genetic Systems ( Ghent , Belgium ), founded by Marc Van Montagu and Jeff Schell , was the first company to genetically engineer insect-resistant ( tobacco ) plants by incorporating genes that produced insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). (wikipedia.org)
  • This technique allows us to study the modification of chromatin histone proteins (acetylation/methylation) at different stages of viral gene expression. (upenn.edu)
  • If these undifferentiated callus cell-clumps are subsequently (i.e., within a year) transferred to growth medium favoring differentiation (medium lacking 2, 4-D hormone but containing growth hormones such as kinetin), plantlet will regenerate in case of many, but not all, species. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • Several natural mechanisms allow gene flow across species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple natural mechanisms allow gene flow from one species to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the method of introduction is a physical one, the biological barriers that restrict the application of other DNA transfer methods to a few plant species and a few cell types are not present. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This rooting suggests that the dsrAB genes in Archaeoglobus species also are the result of an ancient lateral transfer from a bacterial donor. (asm.org)
  • The current method of gene transfer, microinjection, which is widely used in transgenic mouse production, has only had limited success in producing transgenic animals of larger or higher species. (nih.gov)
  • We found that transferred genes are concentrated in only ~1% of the chromosomal regions (hotspots) in 80 bacterial species. (pasteur.fr)
  • While these techniques have quite significantly transformed the experimental approaches taken by biologists, the applications are more limited than expected and concerns have arisen regarding biosafety as well as physiological, social, and philosophical issues. (routledge.com)
  • The-state-of-art CRISPR/Cas9 is one of the most powerful among the approaches being developed to rescue fundamental causes of gene-based inheritable diseases. (bioportfolio.com)
  • First, we are applying maximum likelihood approaches that we have developed for model-averaged clustering in discrete linear sequences to somatic amino acid replacement mutations appearing within mutated genes. (yale.edu)
  • This position requires experience with murine or human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) biology in order to establish in vitro and in vivo models needed for the characterization of product candidates together with experience in evaluating diverse approaches for gene delivery into HSC to examine the regulation of hematopoiesis in transplant models. (virology.net)
  • After 30 years of focusing on optimizing successful gene delivery, it is very rewarding to finally see these approaches being tested for some of the unmet clinical needs caused by these terminal genetic disorders," Samulski said. (healthcanal.com)
  • Providing a broad coverage of the field, the authors cover fundamental and technical information on these techniques and approaches, as well as discussing their related problems. (wiley.com)
  • Techniques and problem-solving approaches will be the focus of multiple lectures and will be integrated into classroom discussions. (umn.edu)
  • Students will be exposed to a rapidly expanding body of knowledge, as well as an interdisciplinary approach to investigation that includes the integration of cutting-edge techniques and approaches from traditionally disparate fields. (umn.edu)
  • In this paper, we argue that lesbian couples who wish to have children who are genetically related to both of them should be allowed access to mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs). (bmj.com)
  • The latter techniques help women wishing to become mothers who carry mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) abnormalities in their eggs to have genetically related offspring free from mtDNA diseases. (bmj.com)
  • Genetically engineered "knock-out" pigs that lack the a1,3-galactosyltransferase gene (GalT-KO) and thus do not express the Gal oligosaccharide have been used to improve the hyperacute rejection (Hisashi et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The treatment approach developed at UNC uses a genetically modified virus called AAV to deliver a missing gene, the gigaxonin gene (scAAV9/JeT-GAN), into the cerebrospinal fluid of children with GAN. (healthcanal.com)
  • Due to her background and interests, Phoebe mostly writes for the Life Sciences side of News-Medical, focussing on Microbiology and related techniques and diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • In medicine, gene editing could potentially cure inherited diseases, such as some forms of heart disease and cancer and a rare disorder that causes vision loss. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • V gene analysis also revealed that the V3-7 or VH4-21 gene, which encodes nephritogenic anti-DNA Ab O-81 or NE-1, was preferentially used for IgG anti-DNA autoantibodies or IgG anti-acetylcholine receptor Abs associated with autoimmune diseases, but not for the Abs to exogenous Ags ( 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. (labome.org)
  • This is the first gene delivery approach directly into the spinal fluid in order to treat an inherited neurological disorder, and is expected to pave the way to developing treatments for many other related diseases. (healthcanal.com)
  • In agriculture, the technique can create plants that not only produce higher yields, like Lippman's tomatoes, but also ones that are more nutritious and more impervious to drought and pests, traits that may help crops endure more extreme weather patterns predicted in the coming years. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • For example, at the basic level, agronomists use sophisticated techniques to unravel the genetic makeup of major crops in order to change their adaptation, nutritive value, or to breed medicinal benefits into agronomic crops. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The success rate of infection and development of the nematode can give us clues for the function of a gene. (wur.nl)
  • In this way we are able to silence nematode genes that are putative parasitism related, and study their mode of action. (wur.nl)
  • Evidence for a dsrAB lateral gene transfer event also was found within the δ- Proteobacteria, affecting Desulfobacula toluolica . (asm.org)
  • The German outbreak strain is a new strain which has acquired specific gene sequences that have a role in pathogenicity, causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) . (biofortified.org)
  • Special promoters were inserted along with the gene so that the sugar is produced only when the rice plants need it. (latimes.com)
  • The human DNA segment in λhtX-l contains five or more presumptive tRNA genes and at least one Alu family member. (unt.edu)
  • The 19-kilobase human DNA insert in λhtX-2 contains two or more presumptive tRNA genes and at least three Alu family members. (unt.edu)
  • The 18.5-kilobase human DNA fragment in λhVKV7 contains a cluster of three tRNA genes and at least nine Alu family members. (unt.edu)
  • Scientists first identify a gene responsible for a trait. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Concentrating on a gene known as ALK the scientists used a small-mole. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Concentrating on a gene known as ALK, the scientists used a small-molecule inhibitor a technique common to many drugs to block abnormalities that apparently cause neuroblastomas. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Led by Dana-Farber Cancer Institute researchers Rani E. George, M.D., Ph.D., an assistant professor of pediatrics at Harvard Medical School, and A. Thomas Look, M.D., a professor of pediatrics at Harvard, the scientists analyzed the ALK gene in 94 tumors representative of general neuroblastomas and 30 neuroblastoma cell lines. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This paper describes techniques that can be used to discriminate in vivo between the ion transport phenotype of normal subjects and patients with cystic fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • Bioluminescence was measured using an In Vivo Imaging System (IVIS-50) at various time-points following transfer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results presented in this ex vivo system may be a first step toward expressing genes with products that could be continuously delivered to the eye through the tears. (curehunter.com)
  • We applied this marking technique to the study of lineage relationships in the developing vertebrate nervous system, both in vivo and in culture. (pnas.org)
  • The presence of dsrAB homologs in at least five highly divergent prokaryotic lineages and overall phylogenetic congruence of the dsrAB tree with the 16S rRNA gene tree suggested that the dissimilatory sulfite reductases of extant SRPs evolved vertically from common ancestral protogenotic genes ( 35 ). (asm.org)