DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.DNA Polymerase I: A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in prokaryotes and may be present in higher organisms. It has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activity, but cannot use native double-stranded DNA as template-primer. It is not inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and is active in both DNA synthesis and repair. EC 2.7.7.7.DNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms. It may be present in higher organisms and has an intrinsic molecular activity only 5% of that of DNA Polymerase I. This polymerase has 3'-5' exonuclease activity, is effective only on duplex DNA with gaps or single-strand ends of less than 100 nucleotides as template, and is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents. EC 2.7.7.7.DNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms but may be present in higher organisms. Use also for a more complex form of DNA polymerase III designated as DNA polymerase III* or pol III* which is 15 times more active biologically than DNA polymerase I in the synthesis of DNA. This polymerase has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activities, is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents, and has the same template-primer dependence as pol II. EC 2.7.7.7.Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.DNA Polymerase beta: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.Melanotrophs: Neuroendocrine cells in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY. They produce MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONES and other peptides from the post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Kv Channel-Interacting Proteins: A family of neuronal calcium-sensor proteins that interact with and regulate potassium channels, type A.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Shal Potassium Channels: A shaker subfamily of potassium channels that participate in transient outward potassium currents by activating at subthreshold MEMBRANE POTENTIALS, inactivating rapidly, and recovering from inactivation quickly.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated: Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.Accessory Nerve: The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).DNA Primase: A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Exonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.Thymine Nucleotides: Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).DNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.RNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.Exodeoxyribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Aphidicolin: An antiviral antibiotic produced by Cephalosporium aphidicola and other fungi. It inhibits the growth of eukaryotic cells and certain animal viruses by selectively inhibiting the cellular replication of DNA polymerase II or the viral-induced DNA polymerases. The drug may be useful for controlling excessive cell proliferation in patients with cancer, psoriasis or other dermatitis with little or no adverse effect upon non-multiplying cells.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Exodeoxyribonuclease V: An ATP-dependent exodeoxyribonuclease that cleaves in either the 5'- to 3'- or the 3'- to 5'-direction to yield 5'-phosphooligonucleotides. It is primarily found in BACTERIA.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Deoxycytosine Nucleotides: Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Deoxyguanine Nucleotides: Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Taq Polymerase: A heat stable DNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE from the bacteria Thermus aquaticus. It is widely used for the amplification of genes through the process of POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION. EC 2.7.7.-.T-Phages: A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Deoxyadenine Nucleotides: Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.PolynucleotidesBacteriophage T7: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.RNA Polymerase I: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.Phosphonoacetic Acid: A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Poly T: A group of thymine nucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each thymine nucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome: A form of ventricular pre-excitation characterized by a short PR interval and a long QRS interval with a delta wave. In this syndrome, atrial impulses are abnormally conducted to the HEART VENTRICLES via an ACCESSORY CONDUCTING PATHWAY that is located between the wall of the right or left atria and the ventricles, also known as a BUNDLE OF KENT. The inherited form can be caused by mutation of PRKAG2 gene encoding a gamma-2 regulatory subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase.Avian myeloblastosis virus: A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Base Pair Mismatch: The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).Accessory Atrioventricular Bundle: Extra impulse-conducting tissue in the heart that creates abnormal impulse-conducting connections between HEART ATRIA and HEART VENTRICLES.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Replication Protein C: A DNA-binding protein that consists of 5 polypeptides and plays an essential role in DNA REPLICATION in eukaryotes. It binds DNA PRIMER-template junctions and recruits PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and DNA POLYMERASES to the site of DNA synthesis.Bacteriophage T4: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.Diterpenes: Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Interleukin-1 Receptor Accessory Protein: A protein that takes part in the formation of active interleukin-1 receptor complex. It binds specifically to INTERLEUKIN-1 and the INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR TYPE I at the cell surface to form a heterotrimeric complex that brings its cytoplasmic domain into contact with the cytoplasm domain of the TYPE-I INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR. Activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways from the receptor is believed to be driven by this form of cytoplasmic interaction.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Bacillus Phages: Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)GuanineManganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Thermus: Gram-negative aerobic rods found in warm water (40-79 degrees C) such as hot springs, hot water tanks, and thermally polluted rivers.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Sulfolobus solfataricus: A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Accessory Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the ACCESSORY NERVE. Damage to the nerve may produce weakness in head rotation and shoulder elevation.Bacteriophage phi X 174: The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.Dideoxynucleotides: The phosphate esters of DIDEOXYNUCLEOSIDES.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Poly dA-dT: Polydeoxyribonucleotides made up of deoxyadenine nucleotides and thymine nucleotides. Present in DNA preparations isolated from crab species. Synthetic preparations have been used extensively in the study of DNA.Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Arabinonucleotides: Nucleotides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.SOS Response (Genetics): An error-prone mechanism or set of functions for repairing damaged microbial DNA. SOS functions (a concept reputedly derived from the SOS of the international distress signal) are involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis, in cell division inhibition, in recovery of normal physiological conditions after DNA repair, and possibly in cell death when DNA damage is extensive.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Holoenzymes: Catalytically active enzymes that are formed by the combination of an apoenzyme (APOENZYMES) and its appropriate cofactors and prosthetic groups.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Frameshift Mutation: A type of mutation in which a number of NUCLEOTIDES deleted from or inserted into a protein coding sequence is not divisible by three, thereby causing an alteration in the READING FRAMES of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. These mutations may be induced by certain types of MUTAGENS or may occur spontaneously.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Genitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.Bacteriophage M13: Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins: A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Ribonucleotides: Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Foscarnet: An antiviral agent used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Foscarnet also shows activity against human herpesviruses and HIV.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Pyrimidine Dimers: Dimers found in DNA chains damaged by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They consist of two adjacent PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES, usually THYMINE nucleotides, in which the pyrimidine residues are covalently joined by a cyclobutane ring. These dimers block DNA REPLICATION.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.TritiumSequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Deoxycytidine Monophosphate: Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.Cytosine NucleotidesGenes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA Ligases: Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.UracilRauscher Virus: A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase: A non-template-directed DNA polymerase normally found in vertebrate thymus and bone marrow. It catalyzes the elongation of oligo- or polydeoxynucleotide chains and is widely used as a tool in the differential diagnosis of acute leukemias in man. EC 2.7.7.31.Deoxyuracil Nucleotides: Uracil nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.ThymineRibonuclease H: A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Pyrococcus: A genus of strictly anaerobic ultrathermophilic archaea, in the family THERMOCOCCACEAE, occurring in heated seawaters. They exhibit heterotrophic growth at an optimum temperature of 100 degrees C.Polydeoxyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Replication Protein A: A single-stranded DNA-binding protein that is found in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. It is required for DNA REPLICATION; DNA REPAIR; and GENETIC RECOMBINATION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Methyl Methanesulfonate: An alkylating agent in cancer therapy that may also act as a mutagen by interfering with and causing damage to DNA.Pre-Excitation Syndromes: A group of conditions in which HEART VENTRICLE activation by the atrial impulse is faster than the normal impulse conduction from the SINOATRIAL NODE. In these pre-excitation syndromes, atrial impulses often bypass the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE delay and travel via ACCESSORY CONDUCTING PATHWAYS connecting the atrium directly to the BUNDLE OF HIS.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
  • Cramer also presented a genomic analysis of how Nrd1/Nab3 non-coding RNA binding was likely embedded in sequence throughout the genome to terminate antisense transcription entering coding and non-coding regions, as well as divergent transcription from gene promoters. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A comparative genomic analysis of 13 widely distributed SXT/R391 ICEs indicated that all of these ICEs consist of the same syntenous and nearly identical 52 core genes, whereas other families of closely related mobile elements, such as lambdoid and T4-like phages, exhibit greater diversity [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genomic islands of the pKLC102/PAGI-2 family that integrate into tRNA Lys or tRNA Gly genes represent hotspots of inter- and intraclonal genomic diversity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Protection of the integrity of genomic DNA is vital to the survival of all organisms. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The genomic diversity of the bacteriophages appears to be immense and has been proposed to represent the largest source of gene diversity in the natural world, a feature emphasised by the large number of novel genes of unknown function revealed by genome sequencing and meta-genomic studies [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Five different genomic DNA (Lanes 1-5), total nucleic acid (Lanes 6-10), and total cellular RNA (Lanes 11-15) samples were isolated from frozen bovine liver with the MasterPure™ Complete DNA and RNA Purification Kit. (cambio.co.uk)
  • This question can be answered using various tools, but one of the long-lasting gold standards is to sequence 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicons generated by domain-level PCR reactions amplifying from genomic DNA. (jove.com)
  • these findings establish critical and essential roles for SKAR in the regulation of mRNA translation of IFN-sensitive genes and induction of IFN-alpha biological responses. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The POLD1 gene promoter is regulated via the cell cycle machinery and mRNA expression of POLD1 reaches a peak in late G1/S phase during DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) of ~22 nucleotides targeting HIV-1 structural and accessory genes induce rapid degradation of mRNA containing complementary sequence, and suppress the production of new virus in vitro. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The specificity and efficiency of this process are determined by the binding of two core multi-protein complexes (CPSF and CSTF, for "cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor" and "cleavage stimulation factor") to sequences surrounding the poly(A) site as soon as the nascent pre-mRNA transcript emerges from the elongating RNA polymerase II (POL2). (springer.com)
  • or maybe secondary structure in mRNA is important for certain translocon -targeted genes. (blogspot.ca)
  • To assess whether brain gene expression differed between narcoleptic and heterozygous dogs, we compared the relative mRNA levels in pools of narcoleptic and heterozygous siblings in three regions of the brain, using eight cDNA microarrays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MSH2 is a homolog of the bacterial DNA mismatch protein MutS. (sdbonline.org)
  • Alexander Brink first applied the term paramutation to describe directed, yet reversible, changes in maize ( Zea mays ) kernel pigment patterns resulting from trans-homolog interactions ( THI ) of certain red1 ( r1 ) alleles ( Brink, 1958 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Plasmid copies of gmaS and the gmaS homolog METDI4690, which encodes a protein 39% identical to GMA synthetase, fully restored the ability of mutants DM4 gmaS and DM4 gmaS Δmetdi4690 to use MMA as a carbon and nitrogen source. (asm.org)
  • Sequencing of complete genomes or blocks of the accessory genome has revealed that the genome encodes a large repertoire of transporters, transcriptional regulators, and two-component regulatory systems which reflects its metabolic diversity to utilize a broad range of nutrients. (frontiersin.org)
  • The p70/p80 autoantigen is a nuclear complex consisting of two subunits with molecular masses of approximately 70 and 80 kDa. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The modification is dependent on DNA and is involved in the regulation of various important cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, and tumor transformation and also in the regulation of the molecular events involved in the recovery. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • However, investigation of the molecular determinants of MV replication has been difficult, and the functions of a number of genes and control regions remain unknown. (asm.org)
  • Smyk, Szuminska, Uniewicz, Graves, Kozlowski: Human enhancer of rudimentary is a molecular partner of PDIP46/SKAR, a protein interacting with DNA polymerase delta and S6K1 and regulating cell growth. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The four subunits are: (POLD1/ p125), ( POLD3 / p66), ( POLD2 / p50) and ( POLD4 / p12), with the alternative names reflecting the molecular weights expressed in kilodaltons (kDa). (wikipedia.org)
  • To clarify the molecular basis of FEN-1 specificity and PCNA activation, structures of FEN-1:DNA and PCNA:FEN-1-peptide complexes, along with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and mutational results are reported. (sdbonline.org)
  • Alternative splicing can vastly diversify the function of single genes, potentially tailoring molecular phenotype to local environment ( Modrek and Lee, 2002 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Design Molecular analysis of βMHC and mtDNA gene defects in patients with HCM. (bmj.com)
  • Intervention Molecular analysis of DNA from myocardial and skeletal muscle tissue and from peripheral blood specimens. (bmj.com)
  • Molecular mechanisms of mammalian DNA repair and the DNA damage checkpoints. (studylibtr.com)
  • In this review the molecular mechanisms of DNA repair and the DNA damage checkpoints in mammalian cells are analyzed. (studylibtr.com)
  • Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) are self-transmissible mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that play a major role in gene flow in bacterial populations [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • FEN-1 mutations altering PCNA binding should reduce activity during replication, likely causing DNA repeat expansions as seen in some cancers and genetic diseases (Hosfield, 1998). (sdbonline.org)
  • Genetic analyses indicate roles for plant-specific DNA-dependent RNA polymerases that generate small RNAs, and current working models hypothesize that these small RNAs direct heritable changes at sequences often acting as transcriptional enhancers. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Paramutation has a genetic definition intended for invariable occurrences of heritable, although potentially reversible, changes of an allele when heterozygous with another specific allele of the same gene ( Brink, 1958 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • How are genetic conditions and genes named? (nih.gov)
  • When mutated or deregulated, DNA polymerase lambda can also be a source of genetic instability. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • These elements orchestrate the gene expression process by regulating the different steps involved in the flow of genetic information. (intechopen.com)
  • A number of cellular epigenetic mechanisms have shown to be determining factors for phenotypic variations-such as covalent histone modifications, DNA methylation, and genetic alteration by non-coding RNAs. (mdpi.com)
  • Harboring mobile genetic elements generally creates a cost to the host, associated with the replication and maintenance of the genetic element and with the expression of its genes. (prolekare.cz)
  • Information stored within CRISPR arrays is used to direct the sequence-specific destruction of invading genetic elements, including viruses and plasmids. (sciencemag.org)
  • Posttranslational modification of histone molecules within chromatin contributes epigenetic information to the underlying DNA-based genetic code ( 17 ). (asm.org)
  • Based on genetic evidence, DNA polymerase RI possesses the greatest ability to induce various types of mutations among all so far characterized members of the Y-superfamily. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes , but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in regulating the use of this genetic information. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Through understanding the alleles that one is carrying for particular genes, one can gain an understanding of the probability that one's offspring may inherent certain genetic disorders, or one's own predisposition for a particular disease . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The presence of DNA also reflects on the unity of life, since organisms share nucleic acids as genetic blueprints and share a nearly universal genetic code. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • This system provided the first clear suggestion that DNA carried genetic information, when Oswald Theodore Avery, along with coworkers Colin MacLeod and Maclyn McCarty, identified DNA as the transforming principle in 1943. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • DNA's role in heredity was confirmed in 1953, when Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase, in the Hershey-Chase experiment, showed that DNA is the genetic material of the T2 phage. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • For genotyping, CRISPR sequences combined with virulence genes can be used as genetic markers to differentiate trh + V. parahaemolyticus strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CRISPR is a segment of prokaryotic DNA containing direct repeats (DRs), typically 24-47 bp nucleotides in length, and spacer (non-repetitive sequences obtained from foreign genetic elements). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We describe two new type VI secretion system-delivered toxins of the Rhs class, demonstrate that this class can play a primary role in competition between closely related bacteria, and identify a new accessory factor needed for their delivery. (asm.org)
  • SUMMARY The regulatory logic of siderophore biosynthetic genes in bacteria involves the universal repressor Fur, which acts together with iron as a negative regulator. (asm.org)
  • However in other bacteria, in addition to the Fur-mediated mechanism of regulation, there is a concurrent positive regulation of iron transport and siderophore biosynthetic genes that occurs under conditions of iron deprivation. (asm.org)
  • Antimicrobial-resistant infections could occur directly from actively inavading or opportunistic pathogens or indirectly from the transfer of resistance genes to other bacteria. (saladgaffe.ml)
  • MMA utilization by Gram-negative bacteria occurs either by oxidation of MMA into formaldehyde by MMA dehydrogenase (MADH) encoded by mau genes ( 4 ) found only in methylotrophic bacteria so far ( 5 ) or by the N -methylglutamate (NMG) pathway, the genes for which were first identified in the betaproteobacterium Methyloversatilis universalis FAM5 ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • In contrast to higher life forms, bacteria usually have compact genomes, with few duplicate genes and very little non-coding DNA. (blogspot.ca)
  • Total nucleic acid (TNA), DNA, or RNA can be purified from bacteria, tissue culture cells, frozen or fresh mammalian tissue, paraffin-embedded tissue sections, mouse tail snips, and other biological materials. (cambio.co.uk)
  • Bacteria harboring antibiotic resistance genes are found around the globe, and some bacteria are resistant to all currently prescribed antibiotics (Boucher et al. (springer.com)
  • After reading this review, the reader should have an understanding for the mode of action of the different antibiotic classes, how bacteria resist antibiotics, how bacterial ecology allows for the acquisition of resistance genes, how metagenomics can guide antibiotic drug development and help us understand antibiotic resistance mechanisms, and what considerations are needed to develop new antibiotics and preserve current antibiotic efficacy. (springer.com)
  • In bacteria, four types of PHA synthases have been distinguished according to their primary structures, substrate specificities, and subunit compositions ( 35 ). (asm.org)
  • A two-step intense mechanical homogenization step (using bead-beating specifically formulated for environmental samples) was added to the beginning of the "gold standard" enzymatic DNA extraction method for fecal samples to enhance the removal of bacteria and DNA from the sample matrix and improve the recovery of Gram-positive bacterial community members. (jove.com)
  • The metabolic versatility is provided by genes encoding not only the enzymes participating in metabolic pathways, but also by a very high number of transcriptional regulators and two-component regulatory systems. (frontiersin.org)
  • Evolution of DNA polymerases, the key enzymes of DNA replication and repair, is central to any reconstruction of the history of cellular life. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Plasmid-encoded resistance is generally the result of the activity of efflux pumps, agent-modifying enzymes , or protection of the antibiotic target . (prolekare.cz)
  • complex of PLCG1 being is characterised Actively in the terminal of ERBB2: % enzymes, with non-canonical subunit to conventional formation Y992 and Y1173 in the region of EGFR( Chattopadhyay et al. (erik-mill.de)
  • A promising approach to neurotherapeutics involves activating the nuclear-factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element signaling, which regulates expression of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective genes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Eklund 17B encodes 28 OmpR family RRs, of which seven are annotated as regulating phosphatase expression, and 11 are annotated as being VanR, which regulates vancamycin resistance [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For one thing, we need a better understanding of how an organism with 10,400 protein genes regulates and coordinates gene expression. (blogspot.ca)
  • Two mutants, M644F and M644G, exhibited an increased mutation rate and close to normal polymerase activity. (diva-portal.org)
  • In addition, an increase of mitotic mutation rates was observed in the rhp41 mutant, which was dependent on active translesion polymerase Z. UV sensitivity and mutation rates were not different between rhp42 and wild type, but compared to rhp41 were further increased in rhp41 rhp42 cells. (genetics.org)
  • Structural distortions induced by mutations in gene V protein decrease rapidly, but not isotropically, with distance from the site of mutation. (unt.edu)
  • [email protected] Key Words damage recognition, excision repair, PIKK family, Rad17-RFC/9-11 complex, signal transduction f Abstract DNA damage is a relatively common event in the life of a cell and may lead to mutation, cancer, and cellular or organismic death. (studylibtr.com)
  • By using microarray technology we have screened the expression of 29760 genes in the brains of Doberman dogs with a heritable form of narcolepsy (homozygous for the canarc-1 [ HCRTR-2-2 ] mutation), and their unaffected heterozygous siblings. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Homozygous W748S mutation in the POLG1 gene in patients with juvenile-onset Alpers syndrome and status epilepticus. (springer.com)
  • Bowers J, Sokolsky T, Quach T, Alani E. A mutation in the MSH6 subunit of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSH2-MSH6 complex disrupts mismatch recognition. (labome.org)
  • Building on previous work, Qiang Zhou (UC Berkeley, USA) found that AFF1, a central scaffolding protein for the super elongation complex (SEC), promotes HIV transcriptional elongation, at least in part, by enhancing P-TEFb extraction from the 7SK snRNP by the viral encoded Tat protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Non-synonymous SNPs were mainly found in an integrated Pf1-like phage and in genes involved in transcriptional regulation, membrane and extracellular constituents, transport, and secretion. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although Fur is required for transcriptional activation of some genes, this effect may be indirect ( 12 , 90 , 117 , 131 ). (asm.org)
  • Recently, the RNA-induced initiation of transcriptional gene silencing (RITS) complex has been implicated in the formation of heterochromatin. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Chromatin organization is crucial for genome replication, transcriptional silencing, and DNA repair and recombination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Histone methylation is an important posttranslational modification that contributes to chromatin-based processes including transcriptional regulation, DNA repair, and epigenetic inheritance. (asm.org)
  • Recently, the histone lysine (K) methylation system has attracted a significant amount of interest due to its widespread roles in transcriptional regulation, DNA repair, and epigenetic inheritance ( 24 ). (asm.org)
  • In particular, H3K36 methylation is tightly coupled to the process of active transcriptional elongation and forms an increasing concentration gradient from the 5′ to the 3′ end of the gene. (asm.org)
  • The four types of pathways elicited by DNA damage known, or presumed, to ameliorate harmful damage effects are DNA repair, DNA damage checkpoints, transcriptional response, and apoptosis (1) (Figure 1). (studylibtr.com)
  • DNA sequences inserted into hotspot and variable regions of the ICEs are of various sizes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several studies have defined specific sequences that mediate paramutation behaviors, and recent results identify a diversity of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase complexes operating in maize. (plantphysiol.org)
  • We found that hTERT consists of two physically separable functional domains, a polymerase domain containing RNA interaction domain 2 (RID2), reverse transcriptase (RT), and C-terminal sequences, and a major accessory domain, RNA interaction domain 1 (RID1). (asm.org)
  • Genome, the blue print of life, is essentially comprised of coding (genes) and noncoding (regulatory regions and other repetitive sequences) DNA. (intechopen.com)
  • Next, I went a step further and checked each gene for internal complementing sequences of length 14. (blogspot.ca)
  • Dr. Ioannis Ragoussis's presentation focused on novel genotyping technologies for the identification of disease-associated changes in DNA sequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a DNA polymerase accessory factor that is required for DNA replication during S phase of the cell cycle and for resynthesis during nucleotide excision repair of damaged DNA. (sdbonline.org)
  • NUCLEOTIDE excision repair (NER) is directed to a wide variety of DNA damages, including photoproducts induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation ( P etit and S ancar 1999 ). (genetics.org)
  • Moreover, DNA polymerases ζ and κ, but not ι, protect XPV cells against UV cytotoxicity, independently of nucleotide excision repair. (pnas.org)
  • DNA repair mechanisms include direct repair, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, double-strand break repair, and cross-link repair. (studylibtr.com)
  • Together HKs and their partner RRs (including non-DNA-binding RRs), form two-component systems (TCSs), which are the dominant phosphorylation-dependent signal transduction pathways of prokaryotes [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These missing pathways include the benzylsuccinate synthase ( bss ABC) genes (responsible for fumarate addition to toluene) and the central benzoyl-CoA pathway for monoaromatics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aside from annotating innate immunity interactions and pathways, the InnateDB curation team has also established a project to annotate genes that have a role in the innate immune response. (sahmri.com)
  • DNA damages can perturb the cellular steady-state quasi-equilibrium and activate or amplify certain biochemical pathways that regulate cell growth and division and pathways that help to coordinate DNA replication with damage removal. (studylibtr.com)
  • Dna2 is a DNA helicase-endonuclease mediating DSB resection and Okazaki fragment processing. (nature.com)
  • Dna2 ablation is lethal and rescued by inactivation of Pif1, a helicase assisting Okazaki fragment maturation, Pol32, a DNA polymerase δ subunit, and Rad9, a DNA damage response (DDR) factor. (nature.com)