A ubiquitously expressed telomere-binding protein that is present at TELOMERES throughout the CELL CYCLE. It is a suppressor of telomere elongation and may be involved in stabilization of telomere length. It is structurally different from TELOMERIC REPEAT BINDING PROTEIN 2 in that it contains acidic N-terminal amino acid residues.
A ubiquitously expressed telomere-binding protein that is present at TELOMERES throughout the cell cycle. It is a suppressor of telomere elongation and may be involved in stabilization of telomere length. It is structurally different from TELOMERIC REPEAT BINDING PROTEIN 1 in that it contains basic N-terminal amino acid residues.
A group of telomere associated proteins that interact with TRF1 PROTEIN, contain ANKYRIN REPEATS and have poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
Proteins that specifically bind to TELOMERES. Proteins in this class include those that perform functions such as telomere capping, telomere maintenance and telomere stabilization.
An essential ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that adds telomeric DNA to the ends of eukaryotic CHROMOSOMES.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Repair of DNA DAMAGE by exchange of DNA between matching sequences, usually between the allelic DNA (ALLELES) of sister chromatids.
Maintenance of TELOMERE length. During DNA REPLICATION, chromosome ends loose some of their telomere sequence (TELOMERE SHORTENING.) Various cellular mechanism are involved in repairing, extending, and recapping the telomere ends.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Animals that have no spinal column.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A genus of ciliate protozoa having a unique cursorial type of locomotion.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.4.
A phylum of primitive invertebrate animals that exemplify a simple body organization. Trichoplax adhaerens is considered a key species for early metazoan evolution.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
A methyl-directed mismatch DNA REPAIR protein that has weak ATPASE activity. MutS was originally described in ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
A heat stable DNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE from the bacteria Thermus aquaticus. It is widely used for the amplification of genes through the process of POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION. EC 2.7.7.-.
The loss of some TELOMERE sequence during DNA REPLICATION of the first several base pairs of a linear DNA molecule; or from DNA DAMAGE. Cells have various mechanisms to restore length (TELOMERE HOMEOSTASIS.) Telomere shortening is involved in the progression of CELL AGING.
The sensory interpretation of the dimensions of objects.
The physical measurements of a body.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A genetically related subfamily of RAP GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that share homology with RAS PROTEINS. They bind to Ras effectors but do not activate them, therefore they may antagonize the effects of RAS PROTEINS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are related to RAS PROTEINS.This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
... the protein has a molecular function of binding telomeric DNA and the double-stranded telomeric DNA. The telomeric repeat- ... "Entrez Gene: TERF1 telomeric repeat binding factor (NIMA-interacting) 1". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Garton M, ... These functions include the binding of the protein, facilitation in the activity of protein homodimerization, the binding of ... contains multiple binding sites for telomeric repeat binding factor 1 (TRF1) and a novel acceptor, 182-kDa tankyrase-binding ...
"Entrez Gene: TERF2IP telomeric repeat binding factor 2, interacting protein". O'Connor MS, Safari A, Liu D, Qin J, Songyang Z ( ... Telomeric repeat-binding factor 2-interacting protein 1 also known as repressor activator protein 1 (Rap1) is a protein that in ... "Zinc finger protein overexpressed in colon carcinoma interacts with the telomeric protein hRap1". Journal of Cellular ... Cai Y, Kandula V, Kosuru R, Ye X, Irwin MG, Xia Z (Oct 2017). "Decoding telomere protein Rap1: its telomeric and nontelomeric ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HMBOX1 gene. HMBOX1 directly binds to the double-stranded repeat sequence of ... binding to telomeric DNA was demonstrated through a co-crystal structure of the DNA-binding domain of HMBOX1 with telomeric DNA ... "HOT1 is a mammalian direct telomere repeat-binding protein contributing to telomerase recruitment". The EMBO Journal. 32 (12): ... "ZBTB48 is both a vertebrate telomere-binding protein and a transcriptional activator". EMBO Reports. 18 (6): 929-946. doi: ...
... either through direct interaction with telomeric DNA or by the binding of associated telomeric proteins. Data has shown that ... Genome- wide function of THO/TREX in active genes pre- vents R-loop-dependent replication obstacles. EMBO J 2011; 30:3106-19; ... Furthermore, proteins that preferentially bind the UUAGGG repeats within TERRA molecules, such as the heterogeneous nuclear ... TERRA transcripts are bound by a complex array of RNA- binding proteins. Nat Commun 2010, 1:33. Artandi SE, DePinho RA. ...
... also known as telomeric zinc-finger associated protein (TZAP), is a protein that directly binds to the double-stranded repeat ... Beyond its telomeric function, ZBTB48 acts as a transcriptional activator on a small set of target genes, including ... complex gene DPA is a member of a subfamily of zinc finger proteins that includes a Drosophila developmental control protein". ... "ZBTB48 is both a vertebrate telomere-binding protein and a transcriptional activator". EMBO Reports. 18 (6): 929-946. doi: ...
... contains multiple binding sites for telomeric repeat binding factor 1 (TRF1) and a novel acceptor, 182-kDa tankyrase-binding ... protein (TAB182)". J Biol Chem. 277 (16): 14116-26. doi:10.1074/jbc.M112266200. PMID 11854288. "Entrez Gene: TNKS1BP1 tankyrase ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 7 (6): 347-55. doi: ... Sbodio JI, Chi NW (2002). "Identification of a tankyrase-binding motif shared by IRAP, TAB182, and human TRF1 but not mouse ...
Binds RNA oligonucleotides with 5'-UUAGGG-3' repeats more tightly than the telomeric single-stranded DNA 5'-TTAGGG-3' repeats. ... Nucleolin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NCL gene. The human NCL gene is located on chromosome 2 and consists of ... Pasternack MS, Bleier KJ, McInerney TN (Aug 1991). "Granzyme A binding to target cell proteins. Granzyme A binds to and cleaves ... "Nuclear proteins that bind the pre-mRNA 3' splice site sequence r(UUAG/G) and the human telomeric DNA sequence d(TTAGGG)n". ...
The two homeodomains allow DUX4 protein to bind to DNA. The C-terminal domain is involved in target gene activation. DUX is ... Only one copy of exon 3 is present, telomeric to the D4Z4 repeat array. The open reading frame (ORF) is entirely contained ... The D4Z4 repeat array contains 11-150 D4Z4 repeats in the general population; a highly homologous D4Z4 repeat array has been ... The repeat-array and ORF are conserved in other mammals. DUX4 protein is 424 amino acids long. Two homeodomains are situated at ...
Červenák F, Juríková K, Nosek J, Tomáška L (2017). "Double-stranded telomeric DNA binding proteins: Diversity matters". Cell ... TRF2 (Telomere Repeat binding Factor 2) TRF2 is structurally related to TRF1, and helps to form T-loops. TRF2 is a homodimeric ... TPP1 (ACD (gene)): TPP1 is a protein associated with POT1. The loss of TPP1 leads to impaired POT1 function. When telomeres are ... and TRF2-Interacting Nuclear Protein 2) TIN2 is a stabilizing protein that binds to the TRF1, TRF2, and the TPP1-POT1 complex. ...
"FUS - RNA-binding protein FUS - Homo sapiens (Human) - FUS gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2019-03-13. Kino Y, ... FUS/TLS has also been proposed to bind human telomeric RNA (UUAGGG)4 and single-stranded human telomeric DNA in vitro. Beyond ... multiple RGG repeats, which are extensively dimethylated at arginine residues and a C-terminal zinc finger motif. The N- ... FUS/TLS is a member of the FET family of proteins that also includes the EWS protein, the TATA-binding protein (TBP)-associated ...
Telomeric repeat-binding factor 2 is a protein that is present at telomeres throughout the cell cycle. It is also known as ... "Entrez Gene: TERF2 telomeric repeat binding factor 2". Wu P, van Overbeek M, Rooney S, de Lange T (August 2010). "Apollo ... There are 4 domain categories on the TERF2 protein that allow it to bind to both other proteins in the shelterin protein ... which is the binding site of TERF2 where it recruits client proteins. These client proteins also contain a TRFH binding motif, ...
"Entrez Gene: RAC3 ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac3)". Courjal F, Chuchana ... "The small GTPase RAC3 gene is located within chromosome band 17q25.3 outside and telomeric of a region commonly deleted in ... August 2004). "Identification of a novel family of ankyrin repeats containing cofactors for p160 nuclear receptor coactivators ... There's many tumor suppressor genes that are located around the RAC3 gene. Since the RAC3 gene is over-expressed in carcinoma ...
... gene silencing proteins). Many piRNAs are derived from transposons and other repeated elements, and therefore lack specific ... piRNAs bound to PIWI proteins seem to use post-transcriptional transcript destruction to silence transposons (4). Transposon ... This is referred to as the telomeric-silencing effect (TSE) (2). Just two P elements in the telomere are enough to suppress ... Woodhouse, MR; Pedersen, B; Freeling, M (2010). "Transposed genes in Arabidopsis are often associated with flanking repeats". ...
Zinc finger Two beta strands with an alpha helix end folded over to bind a zinc ion. Important in DNA binding proteins. Helix- ... Sequence motif Short linear motif Protein tandem repeats Johansson, M.U. (23 July 2012). "Defining and searching for structural ... turn-helix Two α helices joined by a short strand of amino acids and found in many proteins that regulate gene expression. Nest ... "Telomeric DNA dimerizes by formation of guanine tetrads between hairpin loops". Nature. 342 (6251): 825-9. Bibcode:1989Natur. ...
... function to bind telomeric DNA in various species. In particular, telomere-binding protein refers to TTAGGG repeat binding ... Database, GeneCards Human Gene. "TERF2 Gene - GeneCards , TERF2 Protein , TERF2 Antibody". www.genecards.org. Retrieved 2017-11 ... Both TERF1 and TERF2 bind the telomeric repeat sequences in the duplex region of the genome in vivo. The DNA-binding proteins ... Telomere-binding proteins function to generate a T-loop, which is a specialized loop structure to cap the telomeric ends. ...
In 1995, she identified and purified the Telomeric-repeat binding factor protein 1 (TRF1). With the assistance of Bas van ... T. de Lange (2005) Shelterin: the protein complex that shapes and safeguards human telomeres. Genes and Development 19: 2100- ... In 2005, de Lange came to the crucial realization that six telomeric proteins form a dynamic protein complex, that she named ... Shelterin subunits are not the only proteins that associate with telomeres but they differ from other proteins by meeting the ...
DUX4 protein is a transcription factor that regulates many other genes. Some of these genes are involved in apoptosis, such as ... Exon 3 is in the pLAM region telomeric to the last partial repeat. Multiple RNA transcripts are produced from the D4Z4 repeat ... Sometimes D4Z4 repeat array deletions can include the p13E-11 binding site, warranting use of alternate probes. Considering ... Expression of DUX4 gene produces DUX4 protein, whose function is to modulate hundreds of other genes, many of which are ...
Telomere length regulation protein TEL2 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TELO2 gene. In 2007, researchers ... Tel2 binds to part of the HEAT repeat segments of ATM and mTOR, and is a highly conserved regulator of PIKK stability. GRCh38: ... they found no obvious telomeric function for mammalian Tel2. Tel2 deletion also curbed mTOR signaling, indicating that Tel2 ... "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs". Genome ...
This gene is part of a region that is repeated three times on chromosome X, once in intron 22 of the F8 gene and twice closer ... H2A histone family, member B3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the H2AFB3 gene. Histones are basic nuclear proteins ... This record represents the most telomeric copy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000277745 - ... "Entrez Gene: H2A histone family, member B3". Retrieved 2012-03-12. Deng L, de la Fuente C, Fu P, Wang L, Donnelly R, Wade JD, ...
... of protein coding genes and influence their expression in various ways. For example, a riboswitch can directly bind a small ... Telomerase is an RNP enzyme that adds specific DNA sequence repeats ("TTAGGG" in vertebrates) to telomeric regions, which are ... The miRNAs are involved in the large scale regulation of many protein coding genes, the Y RNAs are important for the initiation ... SNORD116 has potential target sites within a number of protein-coding genes, and could have a role in regulating alternative ...
... the U94 protein is believed to repress genes that are involved in cellular lysis (apoptosis) and also may aid in telomeric ... This phenomenon is possible as a result of the telomeric repeats found within the direct repeat termini of HHV-6's genome. The ... As has been demonstrated for CD46 with other ligands, the CD46 protein structure linearizes upon binding HHV-6. While their ... possess a repeated TTAGGG sequence, identical to that of human telomeres. Variability in the number of telomeric repeats is ...
14 genes containing a TERC binding motif are directly transcriptionally regulated by TERC through RNA-DNA triplex formation- ... The core domain of TERC contains the RNA template from which TERT synthesizes TTAGGG telomeric repeats. Unlike in other RNPs, ... Yang Y, Chen Y, Zhang C, Huang H, Weissman SM (July 2002). "Nucleolar localization of hTERT protein is associated with ... February 2020). "Telomere-associated genes and telomeric lncRNAs are biomarker candidates in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC ...
Repeat-Binding Factor 2 Binds Extensively to Extra-Telomeric G-quadruplexes and Regulates the Epigenetic Status of Several Gene ... Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is a widely expressed protein coded by the FMR1 gene that binds to G-quadruplex ... n repeat of the C9orf72 gene and blocks interactions of RNA-binding proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 289. 4653-4659. Vilar R (2018). " ... These RNA transcripts containing G4C2 repeats were shown to bind and separate a wide variety of proteins, including nucleolin. ...
Ouellette M, Hettema E, Wust D, Fase-Fowler F, Borst P. Direct and inverted DNA repeats associated with P-glycoprotein gene ... The protein that binds to DNA base J in trypanosomatids has features of a thymidine hydroxylase. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35: ... Crozatier M, Van der Ploeg LH, Johnson PJ, Gommers-Ampt J, Borst P. Structure of a telomeric expression site for variant ... transporter gene is associated with arsenite resistance and is surrounded by direct and inverted DNA repeats facilitating gene ...
... binds and inhibits the CREB binding protein and p300 histone acetyltransferease activities on a repressed gene target, cyclin ... inert DNA-protein complexes until it was recently shown that telomeric repeats may be transcribed as telomeric RNAs (TelRNAs) ... For example, the majority of protein-coding genes have antisense partners, including many tumour suppressor genes that are ... associated protein-coding genes may contribute to disease if misexpression of a long ncRNA deregulates a protein coding gene ...
Mega-telomeric DNA also binds to various proteins to form complex structures on the ends of chromosomes. Telomeres are ... It was thought that these telomeric sequences might protect genes on these tiny chromosomes from erosion during cell division. ... More specifically, telomere-peptide nucleic acid fluorescein probes are frequently used to identify telomeric sequence repeats ... Telomeric regions of DNA were first identified in the late 1970s (See: Discovery of Telomeric DNA). However, extremely long ...
... encoding protein Ankyrin repeat domain 31 APBB3: encoding protein Amyloid beta A4 precursor protein-binding family B member 3 ... So CCDS's gene number prediction represents a lower bound on the total number of human protein-coding genes. The following is a ... telomeric SMN2: survival motor neuron 2, centromeric SNCAIP: synuclein, alpha interacting protein (synphilin) SPEF2: Sperm ... Purine-rich element-binding protein A PWWP2A: encoding protein PWWP domain containing 2A RANBP3L: encoding protein RAN binding ...
... contains multiple binding sites for telomeric repeat binding factor 1 (TRF1) and a novel acceptor, 182-kDa tankyrase-binding ... TNKS gene & protein". Voges D, Zwickl P, Baumeister W (1999). "The 26S proteasome: a molecular machine designed for controlled ... "The formin-binding protein 17, FBP17, binds via a TNKS binding motif to tankyrase, a protein involved in telomere maintenance ... "The formin-binding protein 17, FBP17, binds via a TNKS binding motif to tankyrase, a protein involved in telomere maintenance ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "LOC377711 HEAT repeat-containing protein 7A-like [Homo sapiens (human)]". NCBI Gene. ... The FAM203B protein is also predicted to locate to the cytoplasm. There are many possible transcription factor binding sites in ... FAM203A and FAM203B are located in the telomeric region of chromosome 8, an area of chromosomes that frequently experiences ... BRP16 (brain protein 16) is an alias of FAM203A, and BRP16L (brain protein 16-like) is an alias of FAM203B. A gene named BRP16L ...
The VSG proteins in T. equiperdum are also phosphorylated. A VSG gene from Trypanosoma evansi, a parasite that causes a form of ... The genome contains many copies of VSG genes, both on minichromosomes and in repeated sections in the interior of the ... Importantly, VSGs recognized and bound by antibodies are selectively pushed toward the flagellar pocket at a quicker rate than ... The bloodstream expression site (BES), or telomeric expression site, is used for exchanging variant surface glycoproteins when ...
chromatin binding. • DNA polymerase binding. • protein C-terminus binding. • protein binding. • four-way junction DNA binding. ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • nucleotide binding. • DNA binding. • DNA-dependent ATPase activity. • recombinase activity ... "The BRC repeats in BRCA2 are critical for RAD51 binding and resistance to methyl methanesulfonate treatment". Proceedings of ... nuclear chromosome, telomeric region. • nucleus. • nuclear chromatin. • lateral element. • cytosol. • condensed nuclear ...
... gene transcription is controlled by multiple gene regulatory proteins such as transcription factors which bind to ... methyltransferase required for telomeric silencing of gene expression". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (13): 10753-5 ... complex to double stranded RNAs produced from centromeric repeats.[74] RITS recruits the Clr4 histone methyltransferase which ... This affects their function of gene regulation. In general, genes that are active have less bound histone, while inactive genes ...
A gene called c9orf72 was found to have a hexanucleotide repeat in the non-coding region of the gene in association with ALS ... Rouaux C, Loeffler JP, Boutillier AL (September 2004). "Targeting CREB-binding protein (CBP) loss of function as a therapeutic ... SMN1 is located in a telomeric region of human chromosome 5 and also contains SMN2 in a centromeric region. SMN1 and SMN2 are ... To date, multiple genes and proteins have been implicated in ALS. One of the common themes between many of these genes and ...
... the circular mtDNA chromosome contains 13 genes that encode proteins that are part of the electron transport chain and 24 genes ... plasmids of prokarykotes are found either containing a hairpin loop or a covalently bonded protein attached to the telomeric ... In plants, eccDNA contains repeated sequences similar to those that are found in the centromeric regions of the chromosomes and ... Although prokaryotic organisms do not possess a membrane bound nucleus like the eukaryotes, they do contain a nucleoid region ...
These include a double stranded DNA genome, a linear chromosome with short telomeric repeats, a complex membrane bound capsid, ... The genes coding for immune system proteins evolve considerably faster.[20][21] ... even though it is a form of horizontal gene transfer. However, it does support the "selfish gene" part theory, since the gene ... the rate of molecular evolution of genes for kinases and immunoglobulins in the immune system with genes coding other proteins ...
"Z-DNA-binding proteins can act as potent effectors of gene expression in vivo". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... "Normal human chromosomes have long G-rich telomeric overhangs at one end". Genes & Development. 11 (21): 2801-09. doi:10.1101/ ... DNA is a long polymer made from repeating units called nucleotides, each of which is usually symbolized by a single letter: ... A distinct group of DNA-binding proteins is the DNA-binding proteins that specifically bind single-stranded DNA. In humans, ...
These VSG genes become activated by gene conversion in a hierarchical order: telomeric VSGs are activated first, followed by ... E-protein) on its surface which serves as the target for virus neutralizing antibodies. E protein plays a role in binding to ... "Trypanosoma brucei BRCA2 acts in antigenic variation and has undergone a recent expansion in BRC repeat number that is ... PfEMP1 is encoded by the diverse family of genes known as the var family of genes (approximately 60 genes in all). The ...
Gene ontology. Molecular function. • DNA binding. • nucleotide binding. • chromo shadow domain binding. • helicase activity. • ... protein localization to chromosome, telomeric region. • cellular response to DNA damage stimulus. • positive regulation of ... ATRX is required for deposition of the histone variant H3.3 at telomeres and other genomic repeats.[8] These interactions are ... metal ion binding. • DNA translocase activity. • methylated histone binding. • DNA helicase activity. • protein binding. • ...
Gene ontology. Molecular function. • GO:0001106 transcription corepressor activity. • protein domain specific binding. • core ... The silencing activity of Sir2 is most prominent at telomeric sequences, the hidden MAT loci (HM loci), and the ribosomal DNA ( ... Chromatin silencing, as a result of Sir2 activity, reduces homologous recombination between rDNA repeats, which is the process ... HLH domain binding. • enzyme binding. • protein deacetylase activity. • histone binding. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • NAD- ...
CREB binding protein interacts with nucleoporin-specific FG repeats that activate transcription and mediate NUP98-HOXA9 ... Core binding factor genes and human leukemia. „Haematologica". 87 (12), s. 1307-23, Dec 2002. PMID: 12495904. ... Evidence for a mitotic clock in human hematopoietic stem cells: loss of telomeric DNA with age. „Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A". 91 ... Oxidative damage to methyl-CpG sequences inhibits the binding of the methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) of methyl-CpG binding ...
iron-sulfur cluster binding. • chromatin binding. • metal ion binding. • damaged DNA binding. • protein binding. • 3'-5' ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • transferase activity. • nucleotide binding. • DNA binding. • 4 iron, 4 sulfur cluster ... with their binding mediated via 11-bp repeat binding sequences.[29][30] The POLD1 promoter contains an E2F-like sequence ... nuclear chromosome, telomeric region. • delta DNA polymerase complex. • cytosol. Biological process. • nucleotide-excision ...
These TTAGGG repeats (with their various protein binding partners) are called telomeres. The template region of TERC is 3'- ... The human TERT gene (hTERT) is translated into a protein of 1132 amino acids. TERT polypeptide folds with (and carries) TERC, a ... Structural basis for telomerase catalytic subunit TERT binding to RNA template and telomeric DNA. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010 Apr ... TERT proteins from many eukaryotes have been sequenced. By using TERC, TERT can add a six-nucleotide repeating sequence, 5'- ...
"Isolation and characterization of cortactin isoforms and a novel cortactin-binding protein, CBP90". Genes Cells. 3 (9): 603-12 ... Once activated in this way, it can bind to filamentous actin (F-actin) with the fourth of its cortactin repeats. As the ... "Amplified region of chromosome band 11q13 in breast and squamous cell carcinomas encompasses three CpG islands telomeric of ... Cortactin (from "cortical actin binding protein") is a monomeric protein located in the cytoplasm of cells that can be ...
Disrupting these proteins causes telomeric shortening, which can be observed by measuring telomere length with FISH. For ... Due to the fact that PNA backbones contain no charged phosphate groups, binding between PNA and DNA is stronger than that of ... experiments may be used to normalize the fluorescence intensity while plasmids with a known number of telomeric repeats can be ... example, in mice lacking the Ku 80 gene, the telomere lengths are measured by qFISH and are observed to be significantly ...
Every process which binds or reads DNA is able to use or modify the mechanical properties of DNA for purposes of recognition, ... doi:10.1093/protein/1.4.295. ISSN 0269-2139. PMID 3508280. Link Rothemund, Paul W. K.; Ekani-Nkodo, Axel; Papadakis, Nick; ... ISBN 0-521-48391-3. Watson, James D. Molecular Biology of the Gene. New York and Amsterdam: W.A. Benjamin, Inc. 1965., 494 ... 3D Molecular Structure of the intramolecular human telomeric G-quadruplex in potassium solution. DNA spacefilling molecular ...
... contains multiple binding sites for telomeric repeat binding factor 1 (TRF1) and a novel acceptor, 182-kDa tankyrase-binding ... 2001). "Cloning and characterization of TNKL, a member of tankyrase gene family". Genes Immun. 2 (1): 52-5. doi:10.1038/sj.gene ... Chi, N W; Lodish H F (Dec 2000). "Tankyrase is a golgi-associated mitogen-activated protein kinase substrate that interacts ... telomere-repeat-binding factor 1) and IRAP (insulin-responsive aminopeptidase)". Biochem. J. England. 361 (Pt 3): 451-9. doi: ...
The enzyme consists of a protein component with reverse transcriptase activity, encoded by this gene, and an RNA component that ... The enzyme complex acts through the addition of telomeric repeats to the ends of chromosomal DNA. This generates immortal ... which are complementary sequences that bind to the mRNA preventing processing of the gene post transcription. This method does ... The hTERT gene has become a main focus for gene therapy involving cancer due to its expression in tumor cells but not somatic ...
... whose gene in addition to the Scc1 orthologue present three additional paralogous genes. In plants, holocentric chromosomes ... Newly formed telomere repeats were cytologically detectable 21 days after irradiation in about 50% of cases with a complete ... Among these, highly studied proteins include homologues of CENP-C and CENP-A, which are highly conserved structural component ... Vanzela AL, Cuadrado A, Guerra M (2003). "Localization of 45S rDNA and telomeric sites on holocentric chromosomes of ...
CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα) induces transdifferentiation of B cells into macrophages at high efficiencies and ... an embryonic transcriptional repressor of pluripotency genes that regulates gene expression in adult fibroblasts following ... Repeated recloning of viable mice through a SCNT method that includes a histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin, added to ... "Reprogramming of telomeric regions during the generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells and subsequent differentiation ...
Shelterin associates with arrays of double-stranded 5-TTAGGG-3 repeats added by telomerase and protects chromosome ends; ... repeat and negatively regulates telomere length. Involved in the regulation of the mitotic spindle. Component of the shelterin ... Telomeric repeat-binding factor 1Add BLAST. 420. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... binding domain present within the protein.,p>,a href=/help/dna_bind target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>DNA bindingi. 390 - 415. H-T ...
Does not bind DNA directly: recruited to telomeric double-stranded 5-TTAGGG-3 repeats via its interaction with TERF2. ... and regulates gene expression. When cytoplasmic, associates with the I-kappa-B-kinase (IKK) complex and acts as a regulator of ... leading to activate expression of NF-kappa-B target genes. ... Protein. Telomeric repeat-binding factor 2-interacting protein ... Telomeric repeat-binding factor 2-interacting protein 1Add BLAST. 392. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ...
Protein Coding), TERF2 Interacting Protein, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Protein Symbol:. Q9NYB0-TE2IP_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Telomeric repeat-binding factor 2-interacting protein 1 Protein ... Unigene Clusters for TERF2IP Gene. Telomeric repeat binding factor 2, interacting protein:. *Hs.301419 ... Summaries for TERF2IP Gene Entrez Gene Summary for TERF2IP Gene. * The gene encodes a protein that is part of a complex ...
... the protein has a molecular function of binding telomeric DNA and the double-stranded telomeric DNA. The telomeric repeat- ... "Entrez Gene: TERF1 telomeric repeat binding factor (NIMA-interacting) 1". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Garton M, ... These functions include the binding of the protein, facilitation in the activity of protein homodimerization, the binding of ... contains multiple binding sites for telomeric repeat binding factor 1 (TRF1) and a novel acceptor, 182-kDa tankyrase-binding ...
CGGBP1 (CGG triplet repeat-binding protein 1) regulates cell proliferation, stress response,cytokinesis, telomeric integrity ... Inflammatory cytokines were also differently expressed at the gene and protein levels in the two experimental groups, resulting ... belongs to the G-protein super-family and possesses all structural motifs characterizing proteins in this family. eEF2 binds to ... belongs to the G-protein super-family and possesses all structural motifs characterizing proteins in this family. eEF2 binds to ...
CGGBP1 (CGG triplet repeat-binding protein 1) regulates cell proliferation, stress response,cytokinesis, telomeric integrity ... Gene expression analysis identified several other genes regulated by Ctr9, which may explain the Ctr9 mutant phenotypes. In ... The otr region is known to be heterochromatic and bound by the Swi6 protein whereas the central core region contains an unusual ... Antibodies Biotinylated Using a Synthetic Z-domain from Protein A Provide Stringent In Situ Protein Detection2013Inngår i: ...
Gene information. HGNC symbol. TERF1. Common name. telomeric repeat binding factor (NIMA-interacting) 1. ... Gene Expression Projects focused on gene expression profiling of ageing and of dietary manipulations of ageing, such as caloric ... A curated database of candidate human ageing-related genes and genes associated with longevity and/or ageing in model organisms ... A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments ...
... either through direct interaction with telomeric DNA or by the binding of associated telomeric proteins. Data has shown that ... Genome- wide function of THO/TREX in active genes pre- vents R-loop-dependent replication obstacles. EMBO J 2011; 30:3106-19; ... Furthermore, proteins that preferentially bind the UUAGGG repeats within TERRA molecules, such as the heterogeneous nuclear ... TERRA transcripts are bound by a complex array of RNA- binding proteins. Nat Commun 2010, 1:33. Artandi SE, DePinho RA. ...
... telomeric repeat binding factor 2), Authors: Molly L Bristol, Claire P Bailey, Lynne W Elmore. Published in: Atlas Genet ... This gene has a pseudogene, TERF2IPP1, telomeric repeat binding factor 2 interacting protein pseudogene 1, located on ... DNA binding double-stranded telomeric DNA binding double-stranded telomeric DNA binding telomerase activity protein binding ... DNA binding double-stranded telomeric DNA binding double-stranded telomeric DNA binding telomerase activity protein binding ...
Footprinting experiments show that the protein interacts with a 5-8 bp target sequence in each 10 bp repeat and suggest that it ... We have examined the binding of the Prod protein to DNA in vitro. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that Prod is a ... DNA-binding protein that specifically recognizes the 10 bp AGAATAACAT satellite repeat of D.melanogaster. ... Gel retardation experiments indicate that Prod does not have a well defined DNA-binding domain and it binds the satellite in a ...
In addition, it binds to the promoter sequences (dark blue) of specific target genes including mitochondrial fission process 1 ... as well as subtelomeric variant repeats (TTGGG/TCAGGG, grey), which represent the protective caps at the end of chromosomes. ... In the absence of ZBTB48 (right panel) telomeres become longer whereas the expression of ZBTB48 target genes is strongly ... ZBTB48 binds through the last of its 11 zinc fingers directly to telomeric DNA (TTAGGG, in red) ...
... gene is a single stranded telomere binding proteins with a critical role in ensuring chromosome stability. There have been ... 2011). These proteins each bind the G-rich strand of their own telomeric repeat sequence, consistent with a direct role in ... gene is a single stranded telomere binding proteins with a critical role in ensuring chromosome stability. There have been ... Telomere-related genes play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the telomeric structure that protects chromosome ...
The distance between the start of the TTAGGG telomeric repeats and the end of the nearest predicted gene model varies from 1.5 ... including binding sites for proteins that locate the telomeres within the nucleus or orchestrate the bouquet formation during ... The TTAGGG telomeric repeats appear not to be very long, because fosmid mate pairs of reads with TTAGGG repeats are generally ... The first two TTAGGG repeats are shown at the right end for alignment. The scaffold_15_Cont796 telomeric repeats were added ...
Quantification of telomerase activity using telomeric repeat amplification protocol-- pt. 3. Gene discovery-- Ch. 18. ... 7. The use of immobilized mismatch binding protein for the optimization of PCR fidelity. Ch. 8. A new generation of PCR ... Cloning mammalian homologs of drosophila genes-- Ch. 26. Cloning human homologs of yeast genes-- pt. 4. Genomics and expression ... Polymerase chain reaction. ; Gene amplification. ; Polymerase chain reaction--Laboratory manuals. ; Gene amplification-- ...
Mutation of the telomerase RNA gene in ter1-16T generates telomeric repeats with a base change that alters the binding site for ... We propose that poor occupancy of Rap1 protein at the mutant telomeric repeats present in ter1-16T cells leads to an altered ... a mutant that develops abnormally elongated telomeres as a result of a defect in the Rap1 binding site within telomeric repeats ... This mutation confers telomerase-mediated addition of mutant telomeric repeats that are poorly bound by Rap1 onto the ...
Telomeric repeat binding factor 2, interacting protein. NM_020584. Gene Info. Tet1. Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 1. NM_ ... Telomeric repeat binding factor 2. NM_009353. NM_001083118. Gene Info. Terf2ip. ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4. NM_009157. Gene Info. Mapk15. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 15. NM_177922. Gene ... RIKEN cDNA 1190002H23 gene. NM_025427. Gene Info. 1500010J02Rik. RIKEN cDNA 1500010J02 gene. NM_001013256. NM_001143790. Gene ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q91VL8 - Mus musculus 0 * D3YWE8 - Mus musculus no matching PDB entries ... Does not bind DNA directly: recruited to telomeric double-stranded 5-TTAGGG-3 repeats via its interaction with TERF2. ... Binds to TERF2 (but not TERF1) with its C-terminus. Interacts with SLX4/BTBD12 (By similarity). Interacts with TERF2; the ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): P54274 - Homo sapiens 10 * Q8NHT6 - Homo sapiens no matching PDB entries ... Binds the telomeric double-stranded 5-TTAGGG-3 repeat and negatively regulates telomere length. Involved in the regulation of ... The HTH domain is an independent structural unit and mediates binding to telomeric DNA. UniProt ...
Mammalian telomeres are bound by a ribonucleoprotein cap consisting of the protein complex shelterin, and the telomere repeat ... However, each time a cell replicates and divides a small stretch of telomeric DNA is lost. Telomeres that become critically ... In cancer cells, the genes governing checkpoint activation are often and as a result, critically short telomeres fail to induce ... TERRA is known to associate with telomeres and with a number of telomere-binding proteins. In addition, TERRA knockdown induces ...
... gene inserted near telomeric repeats, and the noncoding transcripts from telomeric regions accumulate in sde2Δ cells. The loss ... telomere-binding proteins, heterochromatin proteins, and telomerase. Here, we report Sde2, a novel nuclear protein essential ... Sde2: a novel nuclear protein essential for telomeric silencing and genomic stability in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.. Sugioka- ... The formation and maintenance of telomeres are governed by numerous factors such as telomeric repeats, ...
... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Protein Coding), TERF1 Interacting Nuclear Factor 2, including: function, ... Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include telomeric DNA binding. ... Shelterin associates with arrays of double-stranded TTAGGG repeats added by telomerase and protects chromosome ends; without ...
Their research also focuses on the telomeric DNA-protein complexes that cap the ends of human chromosomes and help regulate ... Tom Cech and his research group are studying the structure and mechanism of long noncoding RNAs and RNA-protein complexes, ... Our lab cloned and sequenced the genes for two Oxytricha nova telomere end-binding proteins (TEBPs) in 1990 and 1991, but for a ... The DNA repeats recruit proteins that cap off the chromosome ends, preventing the DNA-damage response, and these proteins also ...
... isoxanthopteridine into the human telomeric repeat DNA as a probe for UP1 binding and destabilization of G-tetrad structures ... Classification: DNA BINDING PROTEIN / DNA * Deposited: 2003-05-28 Released: 2003-11-11 ... Crystal Structure of UP1 Complexed With d(TTAGGGTTAG(6-MI)G); A Human Telomeric Repeat Containing 6-methyl-8-(2-deoxy-beta- ... Protein Feature View. *Human Gene View. *Pathway View. * Analyze *Sequence & Structure Alignment ...
By placing a gene directly downstream of telomeric repeats, it was shown in this model organism that, gene expression could be ... De Silanes, I.L.; dAlcontres, M.S.; Blasco, M.A. TERRA transcripts are bound by a complex array of RNA-binding proteins. Nat. ... Zhong, Z.; Shiue, L.; Kaplan, S.; de Lange, T. A mammalian factor that binds telomeric TTAGGG repeats in vitro. Mol. Cell. Biol ... Spreading can be blocked by insulator elements bound by CTCF protecting the gene from heterochromatin. (b) Subtelomeric genes ...
Protein (His tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Jetzt Produkt ABIN3092945 bestellen. ... AU-Rich Element RNA Binding Protein 1, 37kDa) (HNRNPD) ... telomeric DNA repeat. Binds RNA oligonucleotides with 5-UUAGGG ... State-of-the-art algorithm used for plasmid design (Gene synthesis).. This protein is a made to order protein and will be made ... repeats more tightly than the telomeric single-stranded DNA 5-TTAGGG-3 repeats. Binding of RRM1 to DNA inhibits the formation ...
Biological sciences Carrier proteins Research Cell adhesion Transport proteins ... Plectin and IFAP-300K are homologous proteins binding to microtubule-associated proteins 1 and 2 and to the 240-kilodalton ... Analysis of the human gene locus revealed a complex organization of 32 exons spanning 31 kb of DNA located in the telomeric ... The structure of the carboxy-terminal domain is dominated by six highly homologous repeats that also occur in lesser number in ...
Rap1 binding localized to 294 loci (representing 5.4% of all yeast genes). Half of the Rap1-binding sites mapped to telomeric ... Nature Genetic Ribosomal Protein Gene Intergenic Sequence Repress Gene Expression Silence Protein ... n repeats, acts as a transcriptional activator, and represses gene expression at telomeres by binding to the accessory ... Evidence that a complex of SIR proteins interacts with the silencer and telomere-binding protein RAP1.Google Scholar ...
Down-regulation of human telomeric protein TRF1 gene expression during myeloid differentiation in human hematopoietic cells. ... Telomeric repeat binding factor 1 (TRF1) was immunostained in specimens from CRs and a BR. ... Immunohistochemical telomeric-repeat binding factor-1 expression in gastrointestinal tumors. Oncol. Rep., 7: 987-990, 2000. ... telomeric repeat binding factor 1; NCL, corresponding noncancerous liver; CR, complete responder; BR, biochemical responder; NR ...
Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 2. A ubiquitously expressed telomere-binding protein that is present at TELOMERES throughout ... Expansion of the GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat in the first intron of the C9orf72 gene is associated with FRONTOTEMPORAL ... Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 1. A ubiquitously expressed telomere-binding protein that is present at TELOMERES throughout ... It is structurally different from TELOMERIC REPEAT BINDING PROTEIN 1 in that it contains basic N-terminal amino acid residues. ...
The double-stranded telomeric DNA-binding proteins TRF1 and TRF2 have been implicated as negative regulators of telomere length ... 1989 A telomeric sequence in the RNA of Tetrahymena telomerase required for telomere repeat synthesis. Nature 337: 331-337. ... bridge the interaction between these double-stranded telomere-binding proteins and the single-stranded telomere-binding protein ... composed of six mammalian telomere-binding proteins TRF1, TRF2, TIN2, POT1, RAP1, and TPP1, and its associated proteins protect ...
  • Binds the telomeric double-stranded 5'-TTAGGG-3' repeat and negatively regulates telomere length. (uniprot.org)
  • Does not bind DNA directly: recruited to telomeric double-stranded 5'-TTAGGG-3' repeats via its interaction with TERF2. (uniprot.org)
  • Independently of its function in telomeres, also acts as a transcription regulator: recruited to extratelomeric 5'-TTAGGG-3' sites via its association with TERF2 or other factors, and regulates gene expression. (uniprot.org)
  • The protein has the ultimate use of functioning as an inhibitor of telomerase, a protein enzyme that assists in the elongation of chromosomes by the addition of sequences of TTAGGG to the end of the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein acts as cis-regulatory elements in the process of limiting the ends of individual chromosomes from elongating as facilitated by telomerase and the TTAGGG sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2009). TERF2 is a homodimer, which binds to the double-stranded 5'-TTAGGG-3' repeat in telomeres (van Steensel et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 2004). TERF2 causes the 3' single-stranded overhang to tuck under the double stranded TTAGGG repeat, thus shielding chromosomes from incorrect processing. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • ZBTB48 binds through the last of its 11 zinc fingers directly to telomeric DNA (TTAGGG, in red) as well as subtelomeric variant repeats (TTGGG/TCAGGG, grey), which represent the protective caps at the end of chromosomes. (eurekalert.org)
  • They have 1-2 kb of TTAGGG telomeric repeats, which are preceded by a subtelomeric region of 1.5-13 kb. (genetics.org)
  • Searches of the T. adhaerens assembly v1.0 with a 1000-base TTAGGG repeat query using the BLASTN algorithm with all filters turned off at the JGI web page identified 16 scaffolds/contigs with significant matches. (genetics.org)
  • Ten of these matches are at the ends of contigs at the ends of long scaffolds with the TTAGGG repeats oriented outward, and are assumed to be telomeres. (genetics.org)
  • Six of the poorer matches are to short stretches of TTAGGG repeats buried deeply within scaffolds, and are assumed not to be telomeres. (genetics.org)
  • I searched the reads generated for the placozoan genome sequence at the Trace Archive at the National Center for Biotechnology Information using a 1000-bp TTAGGG repeat query and no filters. (genetics.org)
  • The first 200 matches in this search were all fosmid reads, because for unclear reasons these have better quality and longer stretches of TTAGGG repeats than most of the plasmid reads. (genetics.org)
  • Telomeric DNA typically consists of multiple repeats of a short sequence, such as TTAGGG in mammals. (hhmi.org)
  • Vertebrate telomeres usually consist of hexameric TTAGGG repeats, however, in cells that use the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism, variant repeat sequences are interspersed throughout telomeres. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Telomeres are composed of simple TTAGGG repeats in vertebrates and related sequences in other organisms, such as TTAGGC repeats in Caenorhabditis elegans . (g3journal.org)
  • In mammalian cells, telomere DNA sequences consist of hundreds of tandem copies of the hexanucleotide repeat (TTAGGG) n . (pnas.org)
  • Telomeres, the distal ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes, are composed of hexanucleotide repeats (TTAGGG) n . (biomedcentral.com)
  • In mammals, telomeres consist of repetitive DNA sequence (TTAGGG) and associated proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In mammals, telomeres consist of several kilobases of the repetitive DNA sequence TTAGGG that end in a short (50-500 nt) single-stranded overhang, which has the ability to invade the double-stranded telomere sequence to form a lasso-like structure [1] . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Binds RNA oligonucleotides with 5'-UUAGGG-3' repeats more tightly than the telomeric single-stranded DNA 5'-TTAGGG-3' repeats. (abcam.com)
  • Telomeres are made up of special chromosomal end sequences of the six-base DNA sequence TTAGGG that are repeated over and over again in perfect tandem. (icr.org)
  • Telomeres are repeat sequences of DNA, TTAGGG and their associated proteins, which are known as the shelterin complex [ 5 , 6 ] and protect the DNA ends from being perceived by the cell as a DNA double strand break (DSB). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The telomeric repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) specifically recognizes TTAGGG tandem repeats at chromosomal ends. (biologists.com)
  • Replicative senescence of human cells occurs as a consequence of the progressive shortening of the TTAGGG repeat tracts at chromosome ends ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • TRF2 is a sequence-specific DNA binding protein that binds to the duplex array of TTAGGG repeats at human telomeres and protects chromosome ends from end-to-end fusion ( 14-17 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Telomeres in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been proposed to assume a fold-back structure mediated by protein-protein interactions, although the variable telomeric-repeat sequence may or may not allow strand invasion of the 3′ overhang to generate a t-loop ( 10 , 11 ). (asm.org)
  • By ChEC experiments and indirect end-labeling, we characterized nucleosome positioning as well as specialized protein-DNA associations on most subtelomere-telomere junctions present in budding yeast. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This protein is present at telomeres throughout the cell cycle and functions as an inhibitor of telomerase, acting in cis to limit the elongation of individual chromosome ends. (wikipedia.org)
  • TERF2 colocalizes with telomeric DNA in the nucleus of cells at interphase, and is located at telomeres on chromosome ends during metaphase (Ye et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Telomere-related genes play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the telomeric structure that protects chromosome ends (Nan et al. (springer.com)
  • The DNA repeats recruit proteins that cap off the chromosome ends, preventing the DNA-damage response, and these proteins also regulate telomerase action. (hhmi.org)
  • To combat telomere erosion, cells can express the enzyme telomerase, which adds de novo telomere repeats to chromosome ends via reverse transcription from an RNA template ( Greider and Blackburn 1989 ). (g3journal.org)
  • We have developed a genetic, quantitative assay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to measure whether various telomeric components protect chromosome ends from homologous recombination. (genetics.org)
  • From these breakage-fusion-bridge experiments, she found that broken chromosome ends are unstable and must be repaired, either by a fusion with another chromosome end or by a healing event that creates a stable chromosome end (by the addition of telomeric sequence repeats, as was later revealed). (genetics.org)
  • Telomerase is an RNA-containing reverse transcriptase that copies new telomeric repeats onto chromosome ends and functions to maintain cell division 1 . (nature.com)
  • Excessive telomere shortening or de-protection of telomeres through the loss of shelterin subunits allows the detection of telomeres as DNA damage, which can be visualized as DNA damage protein foci at chromosome ends called TIF (Telomere Dysfunction-Induced Foci). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Chromosome ends are protected from erosion and chromosomal fusions through telomeric repeats and the telomere-binding protein complex shelterin. (nih.gov)
  • These genes products protect chromosome ends from deterioration and therefore significantly contribute to turtle longevity. (peerj.com)
  • Protection of telomeres 1(POT1)is a conserved protein that binds the G-rich stand of its own telomeric repeat sequence, with a role in protecting chromosome ends. (abbexa.com)
  • It's housekeeping gene that is required to ensure the integrity of chromosome ends in all cells. (abbexa.com)
  • Thus, we propose that G-quadruplex stabilization at telomeric G-overhang inactivates POT1 telomeric function, generating a telomere dysfunction in which chromosome ends are no longer properly protected. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Colocalizes with telomeric DNA in interphase and metaphase cells and is located at chromosome ends during metaphase. (genetex.com)
  • One possibility is that senescence occurs when one or more chromosome ends have lost all telomeric DNA. (sciencemag.org)
  • We discovered that in the nucleus, ADAR1p110 oversees a similar mechanism to ADAR1p150, the better-known cytoplasmic variant, but the editing process in this case targets particular nucleic acid structures called R-loops when formed at the chromosome ends," said Kazuko Nishikura, PhD, professor in the Gene Expression & Regulation Program of the Wistar Institute Cancer Center, in a statement. (scienceboard.net)
  • Conserved domains in protein sequences include: the Telomeric Repeat binding Factor domain, the RAP1 binding motif of telomere repeat binding factor, and the 'SWI3, ADA2, N-CoR and TFIIIB' DNA-binding domains, which consist of repeats containing the G/C rich motif (Geer et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Telomeric repeat-binding factor 2-interacting protein 1 also known as repressor activator protein 1 (Rap1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TERF2IP gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Kluyveromyces lactis ter1-16T strain contains mutant telomeres that are poorly bound by Rap1, resulting in a telomere-uncapping phenotype and significant elongation of the telomeric DNA. (asm.org)
  • When the ter1-16T uncapping phenotype was repressed by overexpression of RAP1 or recombination was inhibited by deletion of rad52 , the isolated telomeric DNA contained significantly fewer t-loops and t-circles. (asm.org)
  • The repressor-activator protein 1 (Rap1) binds to [C(1-3)A]n repeats, acts as a transcriptional activator, and represses gene expression at telomeres by binding to the accessory silencing proteins Sir2, Sir3 and Sir4. (springer.com)
  • In the Advance Online Publication of Nature Genetics , Lieb and colleagues, at Stanford University , describe a study to investigate the genome-wide DNA-binding specificity of Rap1 and Sir proteins in vivo ( Nature Genetics 2001 DOI:10.1038/ng569). (springer.com)
  • They performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (IP) experiments, followed by whole genome microarray analysis to map protein-DNA interactions (for Rap1, Sir2, Sir3 and Sir4) at a resolution of 2 kb. (springer.com)
  • Rap1 binding localized to 294 loci (representing 5.4% of all yeast genes). (springer.com)
  • Half of the Rap1-binding sites mapped to telomeric regions. (springer.com)
  • identified 362 ORFs that are adjacent to intergenic Rap1-binding loci. (springer.com)
  • These included known Rap1 targets such as ribosomal protein genes and genes encoding glycolysis enzymes. (springer.com)
  • They identified 185 ORFs next to new Rap1-binding sites. (springer.com)
  • Rap1 targets are amongst the most heavily transcribed genes, representing 37% of mRNA transcripts in growing cells. (springer.com)
  • Rap1 binding showed a preference for intergenic sequences and a strong bias for promoter regions. (springer.com)
  • The authors suggest that a molecular mechanism exists that distinguishes between intergenic or coding sequence Rap1-binding sites. (springer.com)
  • Evidence that a complex of SIR proteins interacts with the silencer and telomere-binding protein RAP1. (springer.com)
  • The shelterin complex, composed of six mammalian telomere-binding proteins TRF1, TRF2, TIN2, POT1, RAP1, and TPP1, and its associated proteins protect telomeres from nucleases and DNA damage repair mechanisms that can lead to exacerbated telomere shortening or cellular senescence ( Diotti and Loayza 2011 ). (g3journal.org)
  • De innehåller dock en sekvens som liknar den till vilken RAP1 proteinet i bakjäst (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) binder. (lu.se)
  • Vi har funnit att detta protein binder till telomera DNA-sekvenser från flera olika jästarter, vilket tyder på att dessa arter också har RAP1 proteiner bundna till sina telomerer. (lu.se)
  • Sammantaget har våra resultat ökat kunskapen om RAP1-proteinet som har stor betydelse för en rad olika funktioner i jäst. (lu.se)
  • It is shown here that the telomeric repeat units of several budding yeasts are indeed bound by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAP1 protein(scerRap1p) in vitro. (lu.se)
  • Chromatin/DNA binding proteins and their effects on chromatin structure and/or gene expression -Polycomb proteins -Rap1 (telomere silencing) -alpha2-MCM1 (repression of MAT locus) -CENP A/B/C (centromere structure/function) -XCAP-C/E, SMC1/2 (chromatin Condensation) -remodeling of chromatin by SWI/SNF proteins 10. (bio.net)
  • The telomeric core complex is called shelterin and is comprised of the proteins TRF1, TRF2, POT1, TIN2, TPP1 and RAP1. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The main complex of these associated proteins is the shelterin complex, which consists of 6 proteins called TRF1, TRF2, RAP1, TPP1, TIN2, and POT1 [2] . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mammalian RAP1 (ortholog of the yeast Repressor/Activator Protein 1) binds to TRF2 [3] and whereas the yeast ortholog is one of the major proteins involved in telomere dynamics, deletion of RAP1 in the mammalian system shows only a weak telomeric phenotype 4 , 5 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, RAP1 has been reported to have additional, non-telomeric functions in the regulation of transcription and NFkB-signaling [4] , [6] . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Shelterin complex: protection of telomerase1 (POT1), telomeric repeat-binding factor1 (TRF1), telomeric repeat-binding factor2 (TRF2), TRF1-interacting nuclear factor2 (Tin2), TRF2-interacting telomeric protein (Rap1), and POT1 and Tin2- organizing protein (TPP1) play an important role in maintaining telomere length and integrity and any alteration in telomeres activate DNA damage machinery resulting in telomere attrition. (cdc.gov)
  • A set of telomere-related genes were found in the transcriptome, including tert , tep1 , and six shelterin complex proteins coding genes ( trf1 , trf2 , tpp1, pot1, tin2 and rap1 ). (peerj.com)
  • Y'-telomeres and X-telomeres), all analyzed subtelomere-telomere junctions show a terminal nucleosome-free region just distally from the known Rap1-covered telomeric repeats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • S. Kabir, A. Sfeir, and T. de Lange (2010) Taking apart Rap1: an adaptor protein with telomeric and non-telomeric functions . (rockefeller.edu)
  • Here I will go over some fascinating new discoveries about telomeres, such as the Shelterin protein Rap1, more about the telomeric long non-coding RNA called TERRA, how telomeric DNA is silenced without DNA methylation, and how sub-telomeric DNA silencing occurs with telomere shortening (aka the Telomere Position Effect, TPE). (anti-agingfirewalls.com)
  • In addition, it binds to the promoter sequences (dark blue) of specific target genes including mitochondrial fission process 1, MTFP1. (eurekalert.org)
  • 1996). Secondary structure predictions based on the deduced amino acid sequences of cDNAs and genomic clones, as well as on electron microscopy of the protein (Foisner and Wiche, 1987), revealed a multi-domain structure composed of a central [approximately]200 nm long, [Alpha]-helical coiled-coil structure flanked by large globular domains. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The telomeric DNA sequences are synthesized by telomerase ( G reider and B lackburn 1987 ), a protein-RNA complex, and the DNA repeats are bound by telomere-specific binding proteins that, with other proteins, form a telomeric complex (reviewed in B lackburn and G reider 1995 ). (genetics.org)
  • They protect the encoding DNA sequences from damage and destabilization by binding various proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, the protein can bind to some of those sequences with spatial flexibility. (lu.se)
  • In type I survivors, the subtelomeric repeat sequences (STRs) have been rearranged and amplified ( 35 ), while in type II survivors, very long terminal repeat sequences (C 1-3 A) are generated ( 50 ). (asm.org)
  • 摘要 Telomeres are protective structures present at the ends of linear chromosomes and consist of simple repeating-DNA sequences and specialized proteins [1, 2]. (edu.hk)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) involves short double-stranded RNA (21-23 nucleoticles long), termed short interference RNA (siRNA), resulting in the downregulation of genes with cognate sequences [7-9]. (edu.hk)
  • In addition, the concentration of a group of heterogeneous high-molecular-weight RNA containing telomeric repeat sequences was increased, and this RNA formed a small number of transient, discrete nuclear foci. (edu.hk)
  • Generally composed of short, tandem repeats of DNA sequences that end in a single-strand extension of the 3′-end, telomeres and associated proteins ensure protection of natural DNA ends and avoid them being recognized as sites of damage [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Replicative senescence is preceded by loss of repeat sequences of DNA from the telomeres that eventually leads to telomere dysfunction, the accumulation of irreparable DNA double strand breaks and a DNA damage response (DDR). (biomedcentral.com)
  • like rRNA, tRNA and histones genes these are considered both gene sequences and repetitive sequences. (brainscape.com)
  • Our results indicate that G-quadruplex stabilization impairs POT1 binding to telomere sequences and provokes the rapid delocalization of GFP-POT1 from telomeres in human cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tools that compare evolutionarily conserved sequences and predict how changes in protein coding sequences affect folding or function are used to predict pathogenicity. (jci.org)
  • Computer analysis revealed that the amino acid sequences of the hisG and hisE gene products were similar to those of other bacteria. (labome.org)
  • However, he said, TDP-43 may not necessarily modify all the sequences it is able to bind. (alzforum.org)
  • Among the differentially binding transcripts were 59 of the most common sequences in the 10,000+ transcripts detected. (alzforum.org)
  • But now many of the DNA sequences formerly relegated to the junk pile have begun to obtain new respect for their role in genome structure and function, gene regulation and rapid speciation. (creation.com)
  • Much of this variation is due to non-coding (i.e. not producing an RNA or protein product), often very simple, repeated sequences. (creation.com)
  • Comparison of the G1 genomic region with previously described cDNA and genomic sequences, together with the results of reverse transcriptase-PCR, indicates that three alternative transcripts, G1, allograft inflammatory factor 1, and IFN-γ-responsive transcript, are all derived from this gene. (jimmunol.org)
  • DNA transposons are a subgroup of repeat sequences that need to be silenced in order to prevent them from jumping into important regulatory regions. (fmi.ch)
  • In this mechanism, sequences are duplicated from donor gene copies [a chromosomal segment containing donor genes (orange, purple and green boxes) is shown in (a)] into an actively transcribed variant erythrocyte surface antigen (ves) 1a gene (ves1a site of transcription, yellow box) in (b). (fichier-pdf.fr)
  • The cellular distribution of this DNA binding protein features the nucleoplasm, chromosomes, a telomeric region, a nuclear telomere cap complex, the cytoplasm, the spindle, the nucleus and a nucleolus and a nuclear chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The progressive loss of the telomeric ends of chromosomes is an important mechanism in the timing of human cellular aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other than functioning as an inhibitor of the enzyme telomerase in the process of elongation of the ends of chromosomes, the protein has other functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their research also focuses on the telomeric DNA-protein complexes that cap the ends of human chromosomes and help regulate telomerase. (hhmi.org)
  • Telomeres are composed of simple tandem DNA repeats that protect the ends of linear chromosomes from replicative erosion or inappropriate DNA damage response mechanisms. (g3journal.org)
  • The ends of most eukaryotic linear chromosomes terminate in telomeric DNA, repeats of 5-25 bp that vary in sequence among species and end in a 3′ single-stranded overhang ( W ellinger and S en 1997 ). (genetics.org)
  • Telomere clustering is expected to be functionally important, as the precise subnuclear organization of chromosomes impacts upon essential aspects of gene regulation and genome stability. (biologists.org)
  • Telomeres are DNA-protein complexes at the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes that play a critical role in maintaining chromosome stability. (pnas.org)
  • Telomerase polymerizes the addition of simple DNA repeats onto the ends of chromosomes. (pnas.org)
  • Telomeres are dynamic DNA-protein complexes that protect the ends of linear chromosomes, prevent detrimental chromosome rearrangements, and defend against genomic instability and the associated risk of cancer ( 26 , 35 , 49 ). (asm.org)
  • Telomeres are specialized complexes of DNA and proteins that cap and confer stability to the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. (lu.se)
  • A chromosome binding sequence within the N terminus of LANA was shown to interact with histones H2A/H2B and several chromatin-associated proteins (MeCP2 and Brd4), thereby tethering viral episomes to mitotic chromosomes ( 4 , 20 , 54 ). (asm.org)
  • This story proposes that in a common ancestor shared by humans and chimps, two small chromosomes somehow fused end to end to produce human chromosome 2 (Figure 1). (icr.org)
  • 1 This supposedly explains the difference in chromosome numbers between humans and great apes-humans have 46 chromosomes, while great apes such as chimps, gorillas, and orangutans have 48. (icr.org)
  • In proliferating cells, heterochromatin domains of different chromosomes are attached to the nuclear lamina-the complex protein scaffold that lies under the inner nuclear membrane [ 13 ]. (springer.com)
  • these are stretches of dinucleotide, trinucleotide or tetranucleotide repeats that occur sporadically along the length of all chromosomes. (brainscape.com)
  • Telomeres are DNA-protein structures that are localized at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. (msu.ru)
  • The telomere is a special DNA-protein complex at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes that caps the ends of chromosomes to stop them being recognised by DNA repair and checkpoint complexes. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Although microscopy techniques and ChIP are still widely used, the newly developed technique of 3C (chromosome conformation capture) has dramatically increased the observational resolution with respect to genome properties and the nuclear organization of chromosomes [ 1 ]. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • For example, the draft genome sequence of the honeybee Apis mellifera provided a first view of an insect with simple TTAGG telomeric repeats and revealed a simple ∼3.5-kb subtelomeric repeat region with ∼70% DNA identity between all 17 telomeres on the long euchromatic arms ( R obertson and G ordon 2006 ). (genetics.org)
  • The genome encodes a TERT, although a gene model is not present in the "official" gene catalog, perhaps because its reverse transcriptase domain caused it to be filtered out due to resemblance to a retrotransposon. (genetics.org)
  • The gene model at the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) of the Department of Energy web site ( http://genome.jgi-psf.org/Triad1/Triad1.home.html ) is fgeneshTA2_pg.C_scaffold_12000048 [Triad1:59697]. (genetics.org)
  • The study of the telomeric complex in oogenesis and early development is important for understanding the mechanisms which maintain genome integrity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains ≈30 copies of the LTR-retrotransposon Ty1, most of which are competent for transposition ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Many of these regulators are previously characterized proteins with conserved roles in genome maintenance, including telomerase ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Particularly in plants and mammals, retrotransposons have accumulated to constitute a large fraction of the genome and have shaped both genes and the entire genome. (sciencemag.org)
  • Now mobile elements are becoming useful tools for learning more about genome evolution and gene function. (sciencemag.org)
  • Indeed, in mammals they and their recognizable remnants account for nearly half of the genome ( 1 , 2 ), and in some plants they constitute up to 90% of the genome ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • But how have genes benefited from the genome shaping of mobile elements? (sciencemag.org)
  • AtTBP1 is present as a single-copy gene in Arabidopsis genome and is expressed ubiquitously in various organs. (elsevier.com)
  • 1. Genome/chromatin accessibility and recombination -recombination hotspots (mieotic and mitotic) -fragile sites -imprinting and recombination rates -ectopic gene targeting and chromatin structure 3. (bio.net)
  • Evolution of the Genome -isochores and base-content (GC vs. AT) -formation of gene clusters and syntenic mapping -repetitive elements (satellites, telomeric and centromeric (alpha) repeats, lines and sines) 7. (bio.net)
  • Second, telomere dysfunction gives rise to genome instability, through the elevation of recombination rates, genome ploidy, and the frequency of gene mutations. (frontiersin.org)
  • During latent infection, two viral elements are required: latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), which functions as an origin binding protein, and the latent origin, which resides within the terminal repeats (TRs) of the viral genome. (asm.org)
  • Integrity of the telomeres is important in maintaining genome stability (1-6]. (edu.hk)
  • A fourth major problem for the alleged fusion signature on chromosome 2 is that it occurs in a region of the genome that is full of genes. (icr.org)
  • The gene neighborhood surrounding the alleged fusion lacks overall synteny (similar gene order) to the chimp genome and does not support a fusion scenario in any way. (icr.org)
  • The three-dimensional nuclear organization of the chromatin is fundamental for epigenetic control of gene expression and genome stability [ 12 ]. (springer.com)
  • With the sequence of the Plasmodium falciparum genome and several global mRNA and protein life cycle expression profiling projects now completed, elucidating the underlying networks of transcriptional control important for the progression of the parasite life cycle is highly pertinent to the development of new anti-malarials. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To date, relatively little is known regarding the specific mechanisms the parasite employs to regulate gene expression at the mRNA level, with studies of the P. falciparum genome sequence having revealed few cis -regulatory elements and associated transcription factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have developed an algorithm called Gene Enrichment Motif Searching (GEMS) that uses a hypergeometric-based scoring function and a position-weight matrix optimization routine to identify with high-confidence regulatory elements in the nucleotide-biased and repeat sequence-rich P. falciparum genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They found some 130,000 sites where TDP-43 could target-not surprising, Ule said, given that TDP-43 binds to UG repeats, the most common small repeat sequence in the human genome. (alzforum.org)
  • Our genome-wide analysis identifies genes that affect entry into and/or exit from telomere-initiated senescence and will be of interest to those studying telomere biology, replicative senescence, cancer, and ageing. (g3journal.org)
  • Two high-throughput (HT) experimental technologies, gene expression microarrays and Chromatin Immuno-Precipitation on Chip (ChIP-chip), are capable of producing data informative about expression regulatory mechanism on a genome scale. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chromatin signatures map co-regulated regions in the genome and can be integrated with evolutionary conservation, evidence from human mutation or, or in vivo data from reporter genes and gene expression patterns. (communitycinema.org)
  • March 12, 2021 -- Researchers have discovered that an isoform of the RNA editing enzyme adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) is responsible for regulating genome stability of telomeres at chromosomal ends. (scienceboard.net)
  • There is an extraordinary degree of variation in genome size between different eukaryotes, which does not correlate with organismal complexity or the numbers of genes that code for proteins. (creation.com)
  • A whole genome RNAi synthetic lethality screen comparing a set-25 met-2 mutant with wild-type worms identified many genes whose down-regulation is specifically and reproducibly lethal in the set-25 met-2 mutant, but not in N2 worms. (fmi.ch)
  • The telomeric repeat-binding factor 1 protein is also used in the binding of chromatin and the whole activity of bending of the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proliferation disrupter (prod) gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a novel protein associated with centromeric chromosomal regions that is required for chromatin condensation and cell viability. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Despite these initial characterizations relatively little is known about how TERRA functions either on, or independent of, telomeric chromatin. (bu.edu)
  • The telomeric TG 1-3 /C 1-3 A DNA forms a complex nonnucleosomal chromatin structure. (asm.org)
  • Chromatin context can affects the expression and replication timing of a gene domain. (bio.net)
  • Such interelationship between gene function and changes in chromatin structure have been demonstrated through an evolution of techniques from Dnase I sensitivity mapping to fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH. (bio.net)
  • Chromatin structure and DNA replication -ORC1 protein of yeast 15. (bio.net)
  • It induces chromatin decondensation by binding to histone H1. (abcam.com)
  • Moreover, previous evidence suggested a telomeric chromatin fold-back structure onto subtelomeric areas that supposedly was implicated in chromosome end protection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The in vivo ChEC method used herein in conjunction with several proteins in a natural context revealed no evidence for such structures in bulk chromatin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This protein acts as part of a multisubunit complex which includes histone deacetylases to modify chromatin structure that prevents basal transcriptional activity of target genes. (nih.gov)
  • Once assembled at a location CENP-A chromatin and the kinetochore is maintained at that location though a positive feedback loop where kinetochore proteins recruited by CENP-A promote deposition of new CENP-A following replication. (omicsdi.org)
  • Structural insights into histone lysine demethylation, Identification of a novel post‐translational modification in, Differential sub‐nuclear localisation of repressive and activating histone methyl modifications in, Comparative genomics of transcription factors and chromatin proteins in parasitic protists and other eukaryotes, Epigenetic control of the variable expression of a, Nucleosome stability mediated by histone variants H3. (communitycinema.org)
  • Chromatin organization affects gene expression and contributes to the development of cancer. (communitycinema.org)
  • In the interphase of the cell cycle, chromatin is arranged in a hierarchical structure within the nucleus 1,2, which has an important role in regulating gene expression 3-6.However, the dynamics of 3D chromatin structure during human embryogenesis remains unknown. (communitycinema.org)
  • The var exon 1 LNC‐RNAs associate with chromatin and have a nuclear localization that is suggestive of their retention in cis (Epp et al. (communitycinema.org)
  • 2011). However, mutations in SIN1 decrease expression of some genes, suggesting a more complex structural role for this protein in chromatin. (communitycinema.org)
  • Molecular biology methods such as ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) are the main approach of studying the interaction between proteins and specific genomic sites. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • For live-cell imaging purposes, generating a fusion between the protein of interest and a fluorescent tag is an important approach to study chromatin organization. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • An archaeal Sir2 homolog interacts specifically with the major archaeal chromatin protein, Alba. (sdbonline.org)
  • These data provide a paradigm for how Sir2 family proteins influence transcription and suggest that modulation of chromatin structure by acetylation arose before the divergence of the archaeal and eukaryotic lineages (Bell, 2002). (sdbonline.org)
  • The identified genes include general chromatin components such as histones, general and specific transcription factors, as well as chromatin remodelers. (fmi.ch)
  • T-loop formation in vitro is facilitated by human TRF2 protein ( 1 , 14 , 29 ), and inhibition of TRF2 in vivo results in telomere dysfunction and chromosome fusions ( 3 , 35 ), suggesting that the ability to stabilize t-loops may be an important part of telomeric capping. (asm.org)
  • The Taz1 protein, from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe , is an ortholog TRF2, and in vitro studies have shown that, like TRF2, it has the ability to arrange model telomere substrates into looped structures ( 32 ). (asm.org)
  • ZBTB10 binds the telomeric variant repeat TTGGGG and interacts with TRF2. (bioportfolio.com)
  • visualized t-loops using stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) imaging and employed this technique to confirm the presence of t-loops in murine cells and demonstrate their dependence on functional TRF2 protein. (frontiersin.org)
  • Expression of hTR and telomeric-associated proteins TEP1, TRF1, TRF2, tankyrase and PinX1 was high in the majority of CP and AP patients. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Only one of the candidate genes showed a unique TIF phenotype comparable to the suppression of the main shelterin components TRF2 or TRF1 and that gene was identified as a TRF1-like pseudogene. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • TRF1 (Telomeric Repeat Binding Factor 1) and TRF2 (Telomeric Repeat Binding Factor 2) directly bind to the double-stranded repeat region, whereas POT1 (Protection of Telomeres 1) can bind to the single-stranded overhang of the telomeric repeat. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • TIN2 (TRF1-interacting Nuclear Factor 2) can be seen as a scaffolding unit, as it can bind both TRF1 and TRF2, and also bridges these double-strand binding factors to POT1 via an interaction with TPP1 [2] . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Among these proteins, structure-specific recognition protein 1 (SSRP1), a subunit of the FACT complex, and telomeric repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) formed complexes with LANA at the MR region. (asm.org)
  • The treatment of human EcR293 cells by telomestatin induces a dramatic and rapid delocalization of POT1 from its normal telomere sites but does not affect the telomere localization of the double-stranded telomere-binding protein TRF2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Telomeres may be structurally organized in different conformations together with several telomere-associated proteins, such as TRF1, TRF2, and POT1 ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • POT1 has been found associated with the double-stranded telomeric DNA proteins TRF1 and TRF2 through the bridging proteins PTOP/TINT1/PIP1 and TIN2 ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The TRF2 dots did not overlap with dots stemming from the upstream binding factor (UBF) or the B23 protein. (biologists.com)
  • TRF2 was present in DNase-insensitive complexes of nucleolar extracts, whereas DNA degradation disrupted the protein-DNA complexes consisting of Ku antigen and B23. (biologists.com)
  • These results support the view that the nucleolus may sequester TRF2 and thereby influences its telomeric functions. (biologists.com)
  • Here, we report that overexpression of TRF2, a telomeric DNA binding protein, increased the rate of telomere shortening in primary cells without accelerating senescence. (sciencemag.org)
  • Retroviral-mediated overexpression of TRF2 in primary human IMR90 fibroblasts ( 19 ) resulted in accelerated telomere shortening ( Fig. 1 , A and B). Although IMR90 cells normally lose telomeric DNA at a rate of 99 to 112 bp per end per PD, TRF2 accelerated telomere attrition by 50 to 80%, from 165 to 181 bp per end per PD ( Fig. 1 B) ( Table 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In contrast to the results of overexpression of TRF2, overexpression of several forms of TRF1, a related telomeric DNA binding protein, did not affect telomere shortening, even though each of these proteins was expressed at high levels and showed the expected subnuclear localization ( Fig. 1 , A and B) ( 19 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • A ) Genomic blotting analysis of telomeric restriction fragments in IMR90 cells expressing TRF1, TRF2, or no exogenous protein. (sciencemag.org)
  • IMR90 cells were infected at PD20 with retroviruses expressing TRF1, TRF2, or no protein (vector) ( 19 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • To measure the concentrations of TRF1 and the relationships among telomere length, telomerase activity, and TRF1 levels in tumor and normal colorectal mucosa, from normal and tumoral samples of patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer we analyzed TRF1 protein concentration, and telomerase activity were analysed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantification of telomerase activity using telomeric repeat amplification protocol-- pt. (epa.gov)
  • Here we investigate the correlation of telomerase activity and hTERT gene expression and the differentiation status of primary testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study evaluates the suitability of telomerase activity and the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of telomerase (human telomerase reverse transcriptase, hTERT) as a potential diagnostic marker for evaluating the differentiation status of testicular germ cell tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In S. cerevisiae , the majority of cells that survive in the absence of telomerase activity have multiple tandem copies of the subtelomeric Y′ element and very short terminal tracts of TG 1-3 /C 1-3 A DNA ( 22 , 42 ) (type I survivors). (asm.org)
  • it interacts with the three DNA-binding proteins of the shelterin complex, and it is important for assembly of the complex. (genecards.org)
  • The mammalian Protection Of Telomeres (POT1) protein interacts with single-stranded telomeric DNA and can exert positive and negative effects on telomere length. (g3journal.org)
  • Co-purification studies show that UQCC2 interacts with UQCC1, the predicted ortholog of the Cbp6p binding partner, Cbp3p. (prolekare.cz)
  • Our results suggest that CRIS interacts during spermiogenesis with Ca 2+ -regulated proteins that-in mature sperm-are involved in flagellar bending. (prolekare.cz)
  • Telomestatin is a potent G-quadruplex ligand that specifically interacts with the 3′ telomeric overhang, leading to its degradation and that induces a delayed senescence and apoptosis of cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For example, tankyrase interacts with and PARsylates telomeric repeat-binding protein 1 (TRF1), a negative regulator of telomerase-mediated telomere elongation. (oncotarget.com)
  • Because abnormal sphingolipid metabolism causes downregulation of expression levels of genes involved in telomere organization, sphingolipids appear to control telomere clustering at the transcriptional level. (biologists.org)
  • The p53 protein proceeds in activating transcriptional targets, such as p21, which finally induce cell cycle arrest [ 9 ]. (springer.com)
  • In its activated form Rb binds to the E2F protein family members to inhibit their transcriptional targets [ 10 ]. (springer.com)
  • This gene encodes a nuclear receptor co-repressor that mediates transcriptional silencing of certain target genes. (nih.gov)
  • The fact that regulatory elements were predicted from a diverse range of functional gene clusters supports the hypothesis that cis -regulatory elements play a role in the transcriptional control of many P. falciparum biological processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The putative regulatory elements described represent promising candidates for future biological investigation into the underlying transcriptional control mechanisms of gene regulation in malaria parasites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While intense research efforts have focused on understanding how gene expression is regulated in model organisms, there are thousands of species important to human health, the environment, and global economies whose transcriptional control mechanisms are not well represented by current biological models. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transcriptional modules (TM) consist of groups of co-regulated genes and transcription factors (TF) regulating their expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While not all modes of expression regulatory controls are known, it has been shown that in many important biological processes the initiation of transcription requires binding of one or more transcriptional factors to their cognate regulatory motifs within regulatory DNA regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2009). Throughout the IDC H2A.Z and the euchromatic histone modifications H3K4me3 and H3K9ac are enriched together in the 5′UTRs of euchromatic genes, independent of transcriptional status (Bartfai et al. (communitycinema.org)
  • SIR2, SIR3, SIR4, NAT1, ARD1, and HHF2 (histone H4) were identified as modifiers of the position effect at telomeres, since transcriptional repression near telomeres is no longer observed when any of the modifier genes are mutated. (sdbonline.org)
  • However, there were differences between transcriptional silencing at telomeres and the HM loci, as demonstrated by suppressor analysis and the lack of involvement of SIR1 in telomeric silencing. (sdbonline.org)
  • Although HDACs are transcriptional repressors, deletion of RPD3 down-regulates certain genes. (sdbonline.org)
  • To discover the small molecule inhibitors of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, we conducted high-throughput screening in APC-mutant colon cancer DLD-1 cells using a transcriptional reporter assay, which identified a selective Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor, K-756. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The structure of a conserved telomeric region associated with variant antigen loci in the blood parasite Trypanosoma congolense. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These elements have terminal LTRs and slightly overlapping ORFs for their group-specific antigen ( gag ), protease ( prt ), polymerase ( pol ), and envelope ( env ) genes. (sciencemag.org)
  • TNKS inhibits Epstein-Barr virus OriP function by binding and modifying Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) (Deng et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The conserved FEN-1 C terminus binds proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and positions FEN-1 to act primarily as an exonuclease in DNA replication, in contrast to its endonuclease activity in DNA repair. (sdbonline.org)
  • Flap EndoNuclease-1 (FEN-1) and the processivity factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) are central to DNA replication and repair. (sdbonline.org)
  • The var multigene family encodes the immunodominant, variant antigen P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). (communitycinema.org)
  • This "chromosomal cap" assay has revealed that the telomeric end-binding proteins, Cdc13p and Ku, both protect the chromosome end from homologous recombination, as does the ATM-related kinase, Tel1p. (genetics.org)
  • Furthermore, we found that neither telomere repeat length nor telomeric silencing correlated with chromosomal capping efficiency. (genetics.org)
  • Y' elements exist in two forms (Y' long and Y' short) and are found in 1 to 4 copies at approximately half of chromosomal ends [ 9 , 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On chromosomal ends with both the X and Y' elements, the X element is found on the centromeric side of the Y' element and in certain instances, there are several telomeric repeats at the X-Y' junction [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 12 It is not a fossil remnant of a chromosomal accident at all but an important DNA regulatory feature called a promoter (genetic switch) inside a highly expressed gene. (icr.org)
  • Suppression of POT1 function by RNA interference in human cells leads to the loss of the telomeric single-stranded overhang, induced apoptosis, senescence, and chromosomal instability in human cells ( 7 , 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results imply that telomeres can use looped-out telomeric rings to promote telomere-telomere recombination in telomerase-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (asm.org)
  • Telomeric DNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae consists of ∼350 ± 75 bp of TG 1-3 /C 1-3 A DNA repeats. (asm.org)
  • Deletion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes HDF1 and HDF2--encoding yKu70p and yKu80p, respectively--enhances radiation sensitivity in a rad52 background [3,4]. (nih.gov)
  • In telomerase-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking components of the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway (Upf1,Upf2, or Upf3 proteins), senescence is delayed, with crisis occurring ∼10 to 25 population doublings later than in Upf + cells. (asm.org)
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomeres comprise of 300 ± 75 bp of heterogenous telomeric repeats (abbreviated (TG 2-3 (TG) 1-6 )n, hereafter also referred to as TG-repeats) and recruit numerous proteins [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By coexpressing two RNA subunits that differ in the telomeric repeat sequence specified and examining the telomere extensions after one cell cycle, we determined that Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomerase can dissociate and reassociate from a given telomere during one cell cycle. (rug.nl)
  • The catalytic protein subunit, however, remained elusive. (hhmi.org)
  • Complex III deficiency is a debilitating and often fatal disorder that can arise from mutations in complex III subunit genes or one of three known complex III assembly factors. (prolekare.cz)
  • We show that UQCC1 binds the newly synthesized mtDNA-encoded cytochrome b subunit of complex III and that UQCC2 patient fibroblasts have specific defects in the synthesis or stability of cytochrome b . (prolekare.cz)
  • Critical nucleosome levels are maintained through two heterochromatin complexes recruited by the shelterin subunit Ccq1, which together control gene repression and nucleosome stability. (nih.gov)
  • Then, exploiting the replication protein A 32 kDa subunit (RPA32) as a marker for R-loops, the researchers showed that ADAR1 depletion resulted in significantly increased formation of the RNA-DNA hybrids, specifically in telomeric repeat regions. (scienceboard.net)
  • The core enzyme consists of a reverse transcriptase protein subunit and an RNA subunit. (rug.nl)
  • The RNA subunit contains a short region that is used as a template by the reverse transcriptase to add short, tandem, G-rich repeats to the 3' ends of telomeres. (rug.nl)
  • TERF2 is a component of the telomere-specific protein complex called shelterin or telosome, which coats mammalian telomeric DNA (Kim et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • In the telomeric DNA isolated from ter1-16T , looped molecules were observed with the physical characteristics of telomere loops (t-loops) previously described in mammalian and plant cells. (asm.org)
  • Cloning mammalian homologs of drosophila genes-- Ch. 26. (epa.gov)
  • Mammalian telomeres are bound by a ribonucleoprotein cap consisting of the protein complex shelterin, and the telomere repeat containing RNA, TERRA. (bu.edu)
  • Plectin, a cytoskeleton-associated protein of exceptionally large size, is abundantly expressed in a wide variety of mammalian tissues and cell types. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The mammalian Ku70 and Ku86 proteins form a heterodimer that binds to the ends of double-stranded DNA in vitro and is required for repair of radiation-induced strand breaks and V(D)J recombination [1,2]. (nih.gov)
  • For example, molecules contributing energy sensing pathways, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), are related to the process of senescence in ECs. (mdpi.com)
  • We are applying RNA interference (RNAi), namely down-regulation of gene expression by homologous double-stranded RNA, to identify genes essential for survival within the insect vector and mammalian host. (yale.edu)
  • Disruption of telomere capping can lead to one or more outcomes, including telomere fusions, increased telomeric recombination, and replicative senescence ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • Analysis with recombination mutants indicated that telomeric homologous recombination events proceeded by different mechanisms, depending on which capping component was compromised. (genetics.org)
  • the rates of interchromosomal recombination between telomeric repeats have not been analyzed directly. (genetics.org)
  • By using an in vivo inducible Cre- loxP system to generate and trace the fate of marked telomeric DNA-containing rings, the efficiency of telomere-telomere recombination can be determined quantitatively. (asm.org)
  • Marked telomeric DNAs can be transferred to telomeres and form tandem arrays through Rad52-, Rad50-, and polymerase δ-mediated recombination. (asm.org)
  • The rationale which drove the original proposal of t-loops was based on our knowledge of the mechanism of homologous recombination (HR) and the fact that a double-stranded (ds) DNA containing a long single-stranded (ss) overhang with a 3' terminus provides a highly efficient template for strand invasion of the ssDNA into a homologous dsDNA in reactions driven by proteins such as recA, uvsX, or Rad51. (frontiersin.org)
  • Critically short or unprotected telomeres are subject to increased levels of recombination, lead to altered gene expression patterns and silencing dysfunctions [1] , [7] . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins play essential roles in homologous recombination (HR)-mediated repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, around 200 gene deletions behaving similarly to a rad52Δ est1Δ archetype ( rad52Δ affects homologous recombination) accelerated entry into senescence, and such cells often could not recover growth. (g3journal.org)
  • Specifically, in wild-type SIR2 strains recombination between the tandemly repeated ribosomal RNA genes is depressed. (sdbonline.org)
  • In striking contrast to its effect on rDNA, the SIR2 gene does not affect intrachromosomal recombination between non-rDNA gene duplications. (sdbonline.org)
  • Furthermore, in the absence of the SIR2 gene product, rDNA acquires a partial dependency on recombination gene functions (RAD50 and RAD52) that are normally dispensable for exchange in the rDNA array. (sdbonline.org)
  • To explore the novel functions of tankyrase, we performed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and identified the BRE-BRCC36-MERIT40 complex, a regulator of homologous recombination, as tankyrase-binding proteins. (oncotarget.com)
  • This is because long telomere restriction fragments (TRFs), which can be separated from the short genomic restriction fragments by gel filtration chromatography, are a technical requirement for observation of native telomeric DNA by EM. (asm.org)
  • Sde2: a novel nuclear protein essential for telomeric silencing and genomic stability in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we report Sde2, a novel nuclear protein essential for telomeric silencing and genomic stability in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (nih.gov)
  • 2009). Expression of the Plasmodium berghei actin II gene is controlled by elements in a long genomic region. (communitycinema.org)
  • This is done by the integration of lacO repeats into a specific genomic locus together with the integration at another site with a LacR-GFP fusion protein that is able to bind to the lacO repeats, thereby creating a detectable GFP signal from the locus of interest [ 4 , 5 ]. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The formation and maintenance of telomeres are governed by numerous factors such as telomeric repeats, telomere-binding proteins, heterochromatin proteins, and telomerase. (nih.gov)
  • There were increased bindings of Argonaute-1 (AGO1), telomeric repeat-binding factor 1 (TERF1), and heterochromatin protein 1 beta (HP1 beta) on the telomeres. (edu.hk)
  • A gene (from a transcriptionally active region) is moved or inserted into a region of heterochromatin → silent the gene. (brainscape.com)
  • Concomitant with the decrease in H3-Lys9 methylation, telomeres in SUV39DN cells had reduced binding of the chromobox proteins Cbx1, Cbx3 and Cbx5, homologs of Drosophila melanogaster heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). (nature.com)
  • These findings indicate substantial changes in the state of telomeric heterochromatin in SUV39DN cells, which are associated with abnormal telomere elongation. (nature.com)
  • Deacetylated histones are tri‐methylated in lysine 9 (possibly by SET3, not shown), which is bound by the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). (communitycinema.org)
  • However the non‐coding, subtelomeric repeats are enriched in nucleosomes as compact, subtelomeric heterochromatin either throughout the IDC (Ponts et al. (communitycinema.org)
  • P. falciparum has two paralogues of the class III HDAC Sir2 which both maintain heterochromatin and mutually exclusive var gene expression by silencing different groups of var genes (Duraisingh et al. (communitycinema.org)
  • The heterochromatin marker H3K9me3 is enriched only at telomeric and subtelomeric regions and some central clusters comprising genes that show variegated expression and are largely involved in virulence mechanisms (Fig. 1. (communitycinema.org)
  • 1. Step-wise methylation of histone H3K9 is necessary to sequester heterochromatin at the nuclear periphery in C elegans embryos. (fmi.ch)
  • The nuclear envelope factors that bind transcriptionally repressed heterochromatin remain uncharacterized. (fmi.ch)
  • This co-localization suggests an autonomous, self-reinforcing mechanism for the establishment and propagation of repeat-rich heterochromatin. (fmi.ch)
  • Alterations in the expression of shelterin complex genes in crystalline silica exposed rat lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • The goal of this study was to assess the effect of crystalline silica exposure on the regulation of shelterin complex genes in an animal model. (cdc.gov)
  • After the final day of exposure the right lung was homogenized, total RNA was isolated and reverse transcribed to obtain cDNA, and expression of shelterin complex genes was assessed. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, the shelterin complex specifically recognizes and binds to telomeric DNA, preventing the chromosome end from being detected as a DNA double-strand break ( Palm & de Lange, 2008 ). (peerj.com)
  • 3. The worm telomeric Shelterin complex component POT-1 and the inner nuclear membrane SUN-1 protein anchor worm telomeres at the nuclear envelope in embryos. (fmi.ch)
  • Isoform 1 (1327 amino acids) contains region with homopolymeric runs of His, Pro, and Ser (HPS domain, aa 1-181), 15 ankyrin repeats (ANK 1 to 15, aa 215-934), multimerization domain homologous to the sterile alpha motif (SAM domain, aa 1030-1089) and PARP catalytic domain (aa 1112-1317). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Competition between homologous regions of Fen1 and p21Cip1 for binding to the same site on PCNA may provide a mechanism to co-ordinate the functions of PCNA in DNA replication and repair (Warbrick, 1997). (sdbonline.org)
  • There is a direct physical interaction of PCNA with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) G, a structure-specific repair endonuclease that is homologous to FEN-1. (sdbonline.org)
  • Sim3 is homologous to known histone binding proteins NASPHuman and N1/N2Xenopus and aligns with Hif1S.cerevisiae to define the SHNi-TPR family. (omicsdi.org)
  • Lastly, a previously unidentified gene, homologous to a number of V-ATPase G subunits, has been located 1 kb telomeric of IKBL. (jimmunol.org)
  • Database of human genes associated with cellular senescence. (senescence.info)
  • The increasing cell cycle delay that characterizes senescence prior to crisis involves a distinct set of checkpoint genes, including MEC1 and MEC3 ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • However, several epigenetic mechanisms have been identified to play a major role in regulation of senescence (Fig. 1 ). (springer.com)
  • As both S100A7 and S100A15 are secreted proteins, they may find utility in the early detection of human keratinocyte telomere dysfunction and senescence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To investigate the pathways that affect entry into and recovery from telomere-driven senescence, we combined a gene deletion disrupting telomerase ( est1Δ ) with the systematic yeast deletion collection and measured senescence characteristics in high-throughput assays. (g3journal.org)
  • As expected, the vast majority of gene deletions showed no strong effects on entry into/exit from senescence. (g3journal.org)
  • A smaller number of strains similar to a rif1Δ est1Δ archetype ( rif1Δ affects proteins that bind telomeres) accelerated entry into senescence but also accelerated recovery from senescence. (g3journal.org)
  • Thus, replicative senescence is induced by a change in the protected status of shortened telomeres rather than by a complete loss of telomeric DNA. (sciencemag.org)
  • Because there was no change in the growth rate or S-phase index ( Fig. 1 C), it is unlikely that the increased loss of telomeric DNA per PD was due to increased cell death or senescence. (sciencemag.org)
  • They consist of tandem G-rich repeats that terminate in a single-stranded 3′ overhang and proteins that interact with both the single-stranded and double-stranded regions of telomeric DNA. (asm.org)
  • In higher eukaryotes, telomeres are commonly arranged into a structure termed a telomere loop (t-loop) that involves strand invasion of the 3′ overhang into internal telomeric repeats of the same chromosome end ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • We showed here that a telomestatin treatment inhibits POT1 binding to the telomeric overhang in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Telomeric proteins stabilize the telomere by protecting the single-stranded G-overhang from degradation ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Protection of Telomere 1 (POT1) binds specifically to the single-stranded G-overhang ( 3 ) and has been described as a regulator of telomere length ( 4 , 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • It has been recently shown that telomestatin impairs the conformation and the length of the telomeric G-overhang, an effect that is thought to be more relevant than double-stranded telomere erosion as a marker for its cellular activity ( 11 , 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • TINF2 (TERF1 Interacting Nuclear Factor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Isoform 1 may have additional role in tethering telomeres to the nuclear matrix. (genecards.org)
  • PARsylation of NuMA (nuclear mitotic apparatus protein) by TNKS contributes to mitotic spindle pole assembly (Sbodio and Chi, 2002). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Data suggest that the nuclear receptor co-repressor 1/2 protein NCoR-1/NCoR-2 paralogs have been subject to a mix of shared and distinct selective pressures, resulting in the pattern of divergent and convergent alternative-splicing observed in extant species. (nih.gov)
  • They noticed that TDP-43 in FTLD samples was more likely to bind to small, noncoding RNAs, including small nucleolar (sno)RNAs, small nuclear (sn)RNAs, and ribosomal and telomeric RNAs. (alzforum.org)
  • In FTLD tissue, two noncoding RNAs-nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1) and metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1)-bound more TDP-43. (alzforum.org)
  • Another new technique, named DamID (DNA adenine methyltransferase identification), has strengthened the notion that transcriptionally repressed genes are often found in close association with the nuclear membrane, whereas transcriptionally active regions are found in the more central regions of the nucleus. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • However, in response to various stimuli, transcriptionally repressed regions are known to relocalize from the nuclear lamina to the interior of the nucleus, leading to a concomitant up-regulation of otherwise silenced genes. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Its tasks include initiation of gene expression by the modification of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and selective gating of specific proteins into the nuclear compartment. (edu.au)
  • APC deficiency leads to accumulation of nuclear β-catenin promoting the transcription of downstream target genes and leads to aberrant cell proliferation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 2. A heat-shock promoter, hsp-16.2, leads to gene association with nuclear pores, which is enhanced when the promoter is induced. (fmi.ch)
  • The gene encodes a protein that is part of a complex involved in telomere length regulation. (genecards.org)
  • TERF 1 gene encodes a telomere specific protein which is a component of the telomere's shelterin nucleoprotein complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes one of the proteins of the shelterin, or telosome, complex which protects telomeres by allowing the cell to distinguish between telomeres and regions of DNA damage. (genecards.org)
  • Tc-1/mariner, have inverted terminal inverted repeats (ITRs) and a single open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a transposase. (sciencemag.org)
  • The completion of the sequence of 1C7 (D6S2570) has revealed that this gene encodes a putative novel member of the Ig superfamily. (jimmunol.org)
  • Immediately proximal to the telomeric repeats in most studied eukaryotes is a subtelomeric or telomere-associated region that contains sequence shared by all or most telomeres, presumably by gene conversion. (genetics.org)
  • This sequence is often repeated within each subtelomeric region and sometimes multiple different subtelomeric repeats exist. (genetics.org)
  • In some species this subtelomeric repetitive nature extends to suites of genes with similar copies at each telomere. (genetics.org)
  • Although the majority of cells cease dividing after 50-100 generations, a fraction of cells escape arrest by forming alternative telomere structures containing either tandem arrays of the subtelomeric repeat, Y′ (type I survivors), or long and heterogeneous tracts of telomeric repeat DNA (type II survivors) ( 14 , 17 , 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • This organization of subtelomeric and telomeric areas however does not include a telomeric cis-loopback conformation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The telomere proximal area, also called subtelomeric area, usually is gene-poor and enriched in complex repeated elements of various structures [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Yeast subtelomeric repeat elements, i.e. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Histones silence telomeric and subtelomeric DNA by hypoacetylation and hypermethylation of H3 and H4 histone tails. (anti-agingfirewalls.com)
  • Using these novel reagents, the group showed that acetylation of histone proteins at specific positions was associated with changes in gene expression. (communitycinema.org)
  • Rpd3p appears to indirectly activate telomeric genes sensitive to histone depletion by repressing transcription of histone genes. (sdbonline.org)
  • Tom Cech and his research group are studying the structure and mechanism of long noncoding RNAs and RNA-protein complexes, including telomerase and complexes that regulate transcription. (hhmi.org)
  • We have now moved out of this RNA world to investigate other long noncoding RNAs, where catalysis is carried out by RNPs (RNA-protein complexes). (hhmi.org)
  • Several protein complexes have also been implicated in longevity. (peerj.com)
  • This definition, derived with direct in vivo approaches, includes a terminal area that is free of nucleosomes, certain positioned nucleosomes and conserved DNA-bound protein complexes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To clarify the molecular basis of FEN-1 specificity and PCNA activation, structures of FEN-1:DNA and PCNA:FEN-1-peptide complexes, along with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and mutational results are reported. (sdbonline.org)
  • H. Takai*, Y. Xiey*, T. de Lange** and N.P. Pavletich** (2010) Tel2 is a helical repeat protein that mediates Hsp90-dependent maturation of mTOR and ATR complexes . (rockefeller.edu)
  • Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of skin cancer - basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma - including information about specific gene mutations and related cancer syndromes. (oncolink.org)
  • Although most cells in S. cerevisiae ( 22 , 37 ), Kluyveromyces lactis ( 25 ), and Schizosaccharomyces pombe ( 27 ) that lack the gene for a telomerase component eventually enter cell cycle arrest, survivors arise relatively frequently. (asm.org)
  • Vi fann att scasRAP1-genen kan ersätta scerRAP1-genen i en S. cerevisiae-stam. (lu.se)
  • Vi satte in S. castellii telomera sekvenser i en S. cerevisiae-telomer och fann att denna förkortades med en sträcka som nästan motsvarade den som S. castellii-sekvensen utgjorde. (lu.se)
  • In S. cerevisiae , telomerase-deficient survivor cells have two types of altered telomeric DNA structure. (asm.org)
  • MLH1 (mutL homolog) is a protein with sequence similarity to DNA mismatch repair proteins of bacteria (MutL and HexB) and S. cerevisiae yeast (PMS1). (sdbonline.org)
  • Genes placed near telomeres in S. cerevisiae succumb to position-effect variegation. (sdbonline.org)
  • SALL1 (Sal-like1- Drosophila, a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prod is a novel DNA-binding protein that binds to the 1.686 g/cm(3) 10 bp satellite repeat of Drosophila melanogaster. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Subcellular localization and Egl-mediated transport of telomeric retrotransposon HeT-A ribonucleoprotein particles in the Drosophila germline and early embryogenesis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Dosage compensation mechanisms and X chromosome inactivation -MSL proteins of Drosophila -XIC (Xist RNA) in mammals -CpG methylation 14. (bio.net)
  • Human protection of telomeres 1 ( POT1 ) gene is a single stranded telomere binding proteins with a critical role in ensuring chromosome stability. (springer.com)
  • There have been variants of POT1 gene, and the polymorphisms of POT1 gene were associated with some diseases. (springer.com)
  • The enzyme for POT1 gene (rs10250202), Dpn I, is the case. (springer.com)
  • To find a lower cost PCR-RFLP method, a new Bcl I enzyme site was created to detect the POT1 gene polymorphism. (springer.com)
  • Of four distinct POT1 homologs in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans , deficiency for POT-1 or POT-2 resulted in progressive telomere elongation that occurred because both proteins negatively regulate telomerase. (g3journal.org)
  • Recombinant fusion protein of human POT1. (abbexa.com)
  • Protection of Telomere 1 (POT1) was recently identified as a specific single-stranded telomere-binding protein involved in telomere capping and T-loop maintenance. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because telomestatin causes cellular effects analogous to those due to dysfunctional telomeric proteins, and because POT1 regulates in vitro the G-quadruplex conformation at telomeres ( 13 ), we have investigated the effect of a telomestatin treatment on POT1 binding in vitro and in human cells using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • POT1 protein was prepared with the TNT Coupled Transcription/Translation system (Promega, Charbonnières, France) using the pET22bPOT1 vector. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Segregation analysis showed that a recessive gene on distal chromosome 2, unlinked to genes encoding known telomerase or telomere-associated components, plays a role in telomere elongation. (pnas.org)
  • Telomeric repeat-binding factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TERF1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TERF1 gene is also known as TRF, PIN2 (Proteinase Inhibitor 2), TRF1, t-TRF1 and h-TRF1-AS. (wikipedia.org)
  • TERF1 protein levels correlates with telomere length in colorectal cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binds to TERF2 (but not TERF1 ) with its C-terminus. (rcsb.org)
  • Recombinant funsion protein containing a sequence corresponding to amino acids 240-419 of human TERF1 (NP_003209.2). (genetex.com)
  • This GEMS analysis demonstrates that in silico regulatory element discovery can be successfully applied to challenging repeat-sequence-rich, base-biased genomes such as that of P. falciparum . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both telomeres and telomerase are important determinants of a mitotic clock that regulates the proliferative potential of cells ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • LANA regulates the transcription of several viral and cellular genes and is required for latent DNA replication and segregation during S phase and mitosis ( 1 , 2 , 17 , 27 ). (asm.org)
  • ADAR1p150 is mostly active in the cytoplasm where it regulates dsRNA-sensing mechanisms and editing the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) dsRNAs to suppress activation of melanoma-differentiation-associated protein 5, mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein, and interferon (MDA5-MAVS-IFN) signaling. (scienceboard.net)
  • Tankyrase, a member of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family, regulates various intracellular responses, such as telomere maintenance, Wnt/β-catenin signaling and cell cycle progression through its interactions with multiple target proteins. (oncotarget.com)
  • Tankyrase is a member of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family of proteins that regulates various intracellular processes by adding poly(ADP-ribose) chains, or poly(ADP-ribosyl)ating (PARsylating), to target proteins using NAD + as a substrate [ 1 , 2 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • Additionally, the protein has a molecular function of binding telomeric DNA and the double-stranded telomeric DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Longevity has always been a trait of great interest to researchers, and numerous studies have been performed on humans and model organisms to better understand its molecular mechanisms, such as the maintenance of telomeric structure. (peerj.com)
  • We now have a set of RNAs that we can be really confident are directly regulated by this protein in the brain," said Jernej Ule of the Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, U.K., senior author of one of the studies. (alzforum.org)
  • This Part 2 deals in finer detail with new discoveries related to the molecular biology of telomeres, Sections 1-9. (anti-agingfirewalls.com)
  • We report here that deletion of the genes encoding yKu70p or its partner yKu80p altered the positioning of telomeric DNA in the yeast nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • Deletion analysis suggests that p21Cip1 and Fen1 bind to the same region of PCNA. (sdbonline.org)
  • Deletion of RPD3 represses ('silences') reporter genes inserted near telomeres. (sdbonline.org)
  • The profiles demonstrate that 40% of endogenous genes located within 20 kb of telomeres are down-regulated by RPD3 deletion. (sdbonline.org)
  • We sought to exploit the TIF phenotype as marker for telomere dysfunction to identify novel genes involved in telomere protection by siRNA-mediated knock-down of a set of 386 candidates. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mutations in this gene cause dyskeratosis congenita (DKC), an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome. (genecards.org)
  • Yet TERT seemed like an unusual oncogene, as gene rearrangements or activating mutations in the protein-coding sequence were uncommon in cancer. (hhmi.org)
  • A number of premature ageing diseases, including the bone marrow failure syndromes, dyskeratosis congenita and aplastic anaemia, are caused by genetic mutations in genes encoding factors involved in telomerase biogenesis and activity 5 . (nature.com)
  • Patients harboring germline breast cancer susceptibility genes 1 and 2 (BRCA1/2) mutations are predisposed to developing breast, pancreatic, and ovarian cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Multiple resistance mechanisms have been described, including reversion mutations that restore the reading frame of the BRCA2 gene. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Germline mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes significantly increase an individual's lifetime risk of developing breast, prostate, and ovarian cancer (reviewed in ref. 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cancers with mutations that disrupt BRCA1/2 protein activity are highly sensitive to treatment with inhibitors of PARP. (aacrjournals.org)
  • FEN-1 mutations altering PCNA binding should reduce activity during replication, likely causing DNA repeat expansions as seen in some cancers and genetic diseases (Hosfield, 1998). (sdbonline.org)
  • In cancer, more than half of all human tumours contain mutations in the p53 checkpoint protein. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Specifically, some recessive mutations in different genes fail to complement. (sdbonline.org)
  • In most organisms the main mechanism of telomere length maintenance is completion of DNA telomere repeats by telomerase [ 1 ]. (msu.ru)
  • The researchers found that ADAR1 depletion resulted in the accumulation of RNA and DNA strands of RNA-DNA hybrids of canonical and variant telomere repeats associated with those that are found in cancer cells. (scienceboard.net)
  • Guanine quadruplexes can form in both DNA and RNA and influence many biological processes through various protein interactions. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In the absence of gene-environmental studies (such as family-based monozygotic and dizygotic twin studies), estimates of genetic and environmental contributions to disease phenotypes and the interactions between the two are difficult to partition and quantify. (jci.org)
  • The crystal structure of Pyrococcus furiosus FEN-1, active-site metal ions, and mutational information indicate interactions for the single- and double-stranded portions of the flap DNA substrate and identify an unusual DNA-binding motif. (sdbonline.org)
  • Ahn H, Kim S, Lee B. Solution structure and p43 binding of the p38 leucine zipper motif: coiled-coil interactions mediate the association between p38 and p43. (labome.org)
  • Each ARC works as an independent ligand-binding unit, which implicates tankyrase as a platform for multiple protein-protein interactions. (oncotarget.com)
  • Two transcripts of this gene are alternatively spliced products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human TERF2 is alternatively spliced, resulting in 8 protein encoding transcripts. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Of the 12 TERF2 transcripts, 8 encode for proteins, and 2 of these are subject to nonsense-mediated decay. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • A deficiency in sde2 results in the derepression of the ura4(+) gene inserted near telomeric repeats, and the noncoding transcripts from telomeric regions accumulate in sde2Δ cells. (nih.gov)
  • Telomeric transcripts are the key components of the. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The researchers found more than 10,000 transcripts that bound TDP-43. (alzforum.org)
  • When they examined their data quantitatively, the MRC scientists found that TDP binding to many transcripts was up- or downregulated in the FTLD samples relative to control tissue. (alzforum.org)
  • Transcripts represented included that for neurexin 3, a protein involved in synaptic plasticity that comes in many splice forms. (alzforum.org)
  • Telomerase is a unique RNA-dependent DNA polymerase that synthesizes telomeric sequence repeats ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to compare gene expression in the CD34+/leukaemic blast cells of 22 CML patient samples to the CD34+ cell population of healthy individuals. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Specifically, the fusion site sequence binds to at least 11 different transcription factors, including RNA polymerase II, the key enzyme that transcribes genes. (icr.org)
  • As mentioned above, RNA polymerase II also binds to the fusion sequence. (icr.org)
  • Along with the binding of RNA polymerase is the fact that transcription has also been shown to start inside the fusion-like sequence, further validating it as a functional genetic element inside an important gene, not some random accident of fusion. (icr.org)
  • Independently regulated neocentromere activity of two classes of tandem repeat arrays. (semanticscholar.org)
  • When cytoplasmic, associates with the I-kappa-B-kinase (IKK) complex and acts as a regulator of the NF-kappa-B signaling by promoting IKK-mediated phosphorylation of RELA/p65, leading to activate expression of NF-kappa-B target genes. (uniprot.org)
  • Although the binding of ligand is conveyed to different effector domains like a catalytic kinase domain or a channel gate [9] , the CNBD is highly conserved in all those proteins. (prolekare.cz)
  • The p16 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor represses the phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb), thereby generating its active, hypophosphorylated form. (springer.com)
  • PARsylation activity of TNKS increases after phosphorilation by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) upon insulin stimulation (Chi and Lodish, 2000). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • In the Wnt signaling pathway, Axin forms the destruction complex with APC, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) and casein kinase to phosphorylate and degrade β-catenin, causing reduction of β-catenin-dependent gene expression [ 3 - 5 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • In contrast, when the Wnt ligand-mediated signaling is absent, β-catenin is degraded by a destruction complex, which is formed by adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), casein kinase (CK) 1α, and Axin ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling. (senescence.info)
  • Projects focused on gene expression profiling of ageing and of dietary manipulations of ageing, such as caloric restriction. (senescence.info)
  • In the absence of ZBTB48 (right panel) telomeres become longer whereas the expression of ZBTB48 target genes is strongly reduced. (eurekalert.org)
  • 1993). The expression of mutant forms of plectin in cell lines transiently transfected with cDNA constructs led to the conclusion that the C-terminal globular domain of plectin is involved in the binding to IFs (Foisner et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • To investigate the biology and regulation of telomerase in CML, we evaluated expression of the telomerase components, its regulators and several telomeric-associated proteins. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The disruption of LANA enhances KSHV lytic gene expression and infectious virion production ( 22a ). (asm.org)
  • During RNAi, expression of a trans-gene inserted adjacent to the telomere was downregulated. (edu.hk)
  • Subsequently, the Elk-1 protein bound to two conserved sites, CTTCCTACA (located at -229/-221) and CTTCCTCTC (located at -190/-182), in the mouse Sirpα promoter and promoted Sirpα expression in TAMs. (bvsalud.org)
  • Functionally, the macrophage-specific knockout of Ap-2α notably promoted the phagocytic activity of TAMs and suppressed CRC progression, whereas these effects were prevented by the transgenic macrophage-specific expression of Elk-1, which regulated TAM phagocytosis and CRC development in a Sirpα-dependent manner. (bvsalud.org)
  • Furthermore, we showed that Elk-1 expression was positively correlated with Sirpα expression in TAMs and was associated with poor survival in CRC patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • Several of the resistant clones had gene duplication and amplification of the mutant BRCA2 allele, with a corresponding increase in expression of a truncated BRCA2 protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Aberrant expression of this gene is associated with certain cancers. (nih.gov)
  • Herein, we discuss genetic variants subdivided into those that shorten telomeres, activate the DNA damage response, change resident protein expression or function, or affect organelle activity. (jci.org)
  • A two-hybrid system was used to screen yeast and human expression libraries for proteins that interact with mismatch repair proteins. (sdbonline.org)
  • These results suggest that EDCs modulate the expression of R-ras genes and thus affect subsequent signal transduction and tumor development. (labome.org)
  • In addition, high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies (RNA-Seq) are used to analyze gene expression patterns (the transcriptome) during the developmental cycle. (yale.edu)
  • Such information is central to the identification of functional elements, to determine the timing and regulation of gene expression in different developmental stages and to identify novel drug targets. (yale.edu)
  • When applied to promoter regions of genes contained within 21 co-expression gene clusters generated from P. falciparum life cycle microarray data using the semi-supervised clustering algorithm Ontology-based Pattern Identification, GEMS identified 34 putative cis -regulatory elements associated with a variety of parasite processes including sexual development, cell invasion, antigenic variation and protein biosynthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The p57 gene has been found to be imprinted with preferential expression of the maternal allele (9) , suggesting that loss of the maternal allele by itself may severely reduce p57 expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 7. The method of claim 1, wherein said response is modulation of expression of a cell surface protein. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • We developed and validated a novel probabilistic model and related computational procedure for identifying TMs by jointly modeling gene expression and ChIP-chip binding data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results indicate that, whenever available, ChIP-chip and expression data should be analyzed within the unified probabilistic modeling framework, which will likely result in improved clusters of co-regulated genes and improved ability to detect meaningful regulatory relationships. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Groups of co-expressed genes were first identified by clustering gene expression profiles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, due to the noise in microarray data, the correlation between expression levels of two co-regulated genes could be too weak to be detected by clustering expression data alone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Parental diet or other environmental conditions may also affect the methylation patterns of genes, which in turn modifies gene expression. (communitycinema.org)
  • Researchers found that RNA editing events can have large downstream effects that influence gene expression and subsequent phenotypic manifestations of. (scienceboard.net)
  • The lack of expression of the a and alpha genes at the silent loci results from repression by trans-acting regulators encoded by SIR (Silent Information Regulator) genes. (sdbonline.org)
  • Inactivation of any of these genes leads to expression of cassettes at both HML and HMR. (sdbonline.org)
  • hTERT silencing by shRNA induced the expression of BZLF1, EA-D, and gp350 EBV lytic proteins and triggered a complete lytic cycle. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These epigenetic regulator elements can affect gene expression in new ways that were previously unknown. (anti-agingfirewalls.com)
  • The telomeric repeat binding factor 1 protein is present at telomeres, where the cells aging aspect is monitored, throughout the typical cell cycle process. (wikipedia.org)
  • ter1-16T cells were also found to contain free circular telomeric DNA molecules (t-circles) ranging up to the size of an entire telomere. (asm.org)
  • In cancer cells, the genes governing checkpoint activation are often and as a result, critically short telomeres fail to induce cell cycle arrest. (bu.edu)
  • Previously, it was shown that NR2C/F transcription factors bind to TCAGGG variant repeats and contribute to telomere maintenance in ALT cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Plectin is characterized by versatile binding activities, prominence at distinct strategically important locations within the cytoarchitecture (such as cytoskeleton anchorage junctions), complex exon-intron organization, and differential staining of tissues and cells as revealed by a battery of monoclonal antibodies raised to the protein. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Inactivation of telomerase in yeast results in progressive shortening of telomeric DNA, eventually triggering a DNA-damage checkpoint that arrests cells in G 2 /M. A fraction of cells, termed survivors, recover from arrest by forming alternative telomere structures. (pnas.org)
  • We show that the telomeric loci are the primary sites at which a marked telomeric ring-containing DNA is observed among wild-type and surviving cells lacking telomerase. (asm.org)
  • Moreover, increases of extrachromosomal telomeric and Y′ rings were observed in telomerase-deficient cells. (asm.org)
  • Through elegant studies in fungal cells and complex organisms, we propose a unifying paradigm for the rapid evolution of telomere binding proteins (TBPs) that associate with either (or both) telomeric DNA and telomeric proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nucleolin is the major nucleolar protein of growing eukaryotic cells. (abcam.com)
  • 12 So not only is the gene highly active throughout the human body, it is tightly networked with many other genes, including those that are involved in the development of blood cells. (icr.org)
  • The inhibitory receptor signal regulatory protein-α (Sirpα) is a myeloid-specific immune checkpoint that engages the "don't eat me" signal CD47, which is expressed on tumor and normal tissue cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Figure 1: Telomere length determination in SUV39DN MEF and ES cells. (nature.com)
  • METHODS: Blood group A-binding B cells were analyzed in peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood samples from 43 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and 18 healthy volunteers with blood group B or O. The correlation between each blood group A-specific B cell subset and anti-A antibody titer was then analyzed using Pearson's correlation analysis. (bvsalud.org)
  • RESULTS: Blood group A-binding B cells were enriched in CD27⁺CD43⁺CD1c− B1, CD5⁺ B1, CD11b⁺ B1, and CD27⁺CD43⁺CD1c+ marginal zone-B1 cells in peripheral blood. (bvsalud.org)
  • A method for identifying one or more genes involved in a phenotype of cells, tissues or organisms, comprising the steps of contacting cells, tissues or organisms which exhibit the phenotype with a library of antisense oligonucleotides and performing a primary phenotypic assay to determine which antisense oligonucleotides in the library attenuate the phenotype. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 2. The method of claim 1, wherein said cells are divided into one or more substantially identical subpopulations prior to contacting with said library of oligonucleotides, wherein each subpopulation is contacted with one member of said library of antisense oligonucleotides. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Thus, tankyrase functions as a positive regulator of telomere length in telomerase-positive human cells [ 1 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • In particular, hTERT inhibition induced an accumulation of cells in the S-phase, an effect likely due to the dephosphorylation of 4E-BP1, an AKT1-dependent substrate, which results in a decreased availability of proteins needed for cell-cycle progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The protein is also actively involved in biological processes such as the response to drug and the negative regulation of the maintenance of telomere through the process of semi-conservative replication, similar to that of cis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, according to Kaplan and Christopher, the protein is also involved in the biological processes of positive regulation of the polymerization of the microtubule and negative control of the process of DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of telomerase, telomeric DNA is slowly lost with each round of DNA replication, which leads to a senescent phenotype that typically ends in cell death ( L undblad and S zostak 1989 ). (genetics.org)
  • In the absence of compensatory mechanisms, telomeres shorten with each cell division because of incomplete replication of lagging strand DNA ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Epigenetic effects on gene function -imprinting -methylation -maintenance of early/late replication 13. (bio.net)
  • Previously, we identified two cis -elements within the TRs which are required for latent DNA replication: two LANA binding sites (LBS1 and LBS2 [LBS1/2]) and a GC-rich replication element (RE) upstream of LBS1/2. (asm.org)
  • Moreover, both the position and the distance between the RE and LBS1/2 can affect origin replication activity, suggesting that the RE may function as a loading pad for cellular proteins involved in replication. (asm.org)
  • These results indicate that SSRP1 is a novel cellular protein involved in LANA-dependent DNA replication. (asm.org)
  • LANA also functions as an origin binding protein for KSHV latent DNA replication ( 17 , 27 ). (asm.org)
  • The C-terminal DNA binding domain of LANA binds to two sites within TRs which leads to the recruitment of host cell origin recognition complex (ORC) and minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins and, subsequently, to DNA replication ( 15 , 27 , 46 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • While the C terminus alone is sufficient for the replication of TR-containing plasmids, the N-terminal chromosome binding sequence of LANA enhances the replication activity of the LANA C terminus, suggesting that both replication and maintenance are interrelated ( 3 , 17 ). (asm.org)
  • In addition, both proteins prevent excessive MRE11-mediated degradation of DNA replication forks ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • One such protein is p21Cip1, which inhibits DNA replication through its interaction with PCNA, while allowing repair to continue. (sdbonline.org)
  • PCNA binds to flap endonuclease 1 (FEN-1), a structure-specific endonuclease involved in DNA replication. (sdbonline.org)
  • The ability of PCNA to bind to MLH1 and MSH2 may reflect linkage between mismatch repair and replication and may be relevant to the roles of mismatch repair proteins in other DNA transactions (Umar, 1996). (sdbonline.org)
  • This mystery was cracked in 2013, when two groups found a point mutation in the promoter for the TERT gene. (hhmi.org)
  • The fact that these proteins specifically bind to the alleged fusion site sequence indicates that it is a promoter located inside the gene (Figure 2). (icr.org)
  • It is common for human genes to have these promoter regions located both in front of the main body of the gene and inside them. (icr.org)
  • In the case of the fusion-like sequence, its designed function is as a second promoter inside the DDX11L2 gene. (icr.org)
  • Ap-2α functioned as a transcription factor for Elk-1 by binding to the conserved element GCCTGC located at -1396/-1391 in the mouse Elk-1 promoter. (bvsalud.org)
  • Anchoring is dependent on RNA pol II and promoter-bound factors, HSF-1 and SAGA. (fmi.ch)
  • Most eukaryotes have simple short telomeric repeats that are added by a specialized reverse transcriptase known as telomerase or telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), which has an RNA template for the added telomeric repeats. (genetics.org)
  • The telomeric DNA of most eukaryotes is composed of tandemly arranged short repeats. (lu.se)
  • These findings provide insights into telomeric structure and function that are likely to apply to many eukaryotes. (sdbonline.org)
  • In yeast, telomeres consist of ≈300 bp of TG 1-3 /C 1-3 A repeats bound by telomere-specific binding proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Telomerase is a fascinating biochemical system because a large DNA-protein complex (the chromosome end) must interact productively with an RNA-protein complex (telomerase). (hhmi.org)
  • 1996). Analysis of the human gene locus revealed a complex organization of 32 exons spanning 31 kb of DNA located in the telomeric region (q24) of chromosome 8 (Liu et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The major component in this complex is a double-stranded, sequence-specific DNA-binding protein-Rap1p complex which includes Rif1p and Rif2p. (asm.org)
  • Here, we used Massively Parallel Sequencing to identify a homozygous splicing mutation in the gene encoding Ubiquinol-Cytochrome c Reductase Complex Assembly Factor 2 (UQCC2) in a consanguineous Lebanese patient displaying complex III deficiency, severe intrauterine growth retardation, neonatal lactic acidosis and renal tubular dysfunction. (prolekare.cz)
  • Mitochondrial disorders of ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase (complex III, MIM 124000) represent a significant proportion of patients with OXPHOS dysfunction [1] , [2] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Their identification is challenging due to (a) the sheer number of candidate genes, (b) their complicated interplay and (c) an incomplete understanding of complex III assembly. (prolekare.cz)
  • hTERC then binds to chaperone TCAB1, which assists its trafficking to the Cajal bodies where the functional telomerase complex localises 13 . (nature.com)
  • Part of the Set3C complex, which is required to repress early/middle sporulation genes during meiosis. (string-db.org)
  • A PCNA binding peptide from p21Cip1 competes with Fen1 peptides for binding to PCNA, disrupts the Fen1-PCNA complex in replicating cell extracts, and concomitantly inhibits DNA synthesis. (sdbonline.org)
  • The enzyme's active-site structure suggests that DNA binding induces FEN-1 to clamp onto the cleavage junction to form the productive complex. (sdbonline.org)
  • These proteins, Net1, Cdc14 and Sir2 together form a nucleolar complex termed RENT (regulator of nucleolar silencing and telophase). (biologists.com)
  • Indeed, this work has dramatically expanded the repertoire of known genes to include over 1,000 novel genes with many displaying features suggesting that they are secreted or modulate the characteristics of membranes and thus play a role in the response of T. brucei to the changing environment during its complex life cycle. (yale.edu)
  • Some proteins are necessary for maturation of the telomerase complex and degradation of its components [ 5 ]. (msu.ru)
  • Rodrigues J, Lydall D. Paf1 and Ctr9, core components of the PAF1 complex, maintain low levels of telomeric repeat containing RNA . (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Among the complex components, MERIT40 was directly associated with tankyrase via a tankyrase-binding consensus motif, as previously reported. (oncotarget.com)
  • Z. Horejsi, H. Takai, S. Collins, H. Flynn, S. Maslen, J.M. Skehel, T. de Lange, and S. Boulton (2010) CK2 phospho-dependent binding of R2TP complex to Tel2 is essential for mTOR and SMG1 stability . (rockefeller.edu)
  • Although histones are one likely target for the enzymatic activity of eukaryotic Sir2 proteins, little is known about the substrates and roles of prokaryotic Sir2 homologs. (sdbonline.org)
  • The elongated telomeres of ter1-16T allowed the isolation and examination of native yeast telomeric DNA by electron microscopy. (asm.org)
  • This protein is also useful in the biological process of mitosis and the positive regulation of mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by the TERF 1 gene is also involved in the biological process of cell division and the negative regulation of the maintenance of telomere facilitated by the enzyme telomerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation of this set point involves a number of different genes ( 5 - 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • The ApiAP2 family of DNA‐binding proteins includes two members implicated in epigenetic regulation of var genes. (communitycinema.org)
  • Strains deficient for either yKu70p or yKu80p lost telomeric silencing, although they maintained repression at the silent mating-type loci. (nih.gov)
  • These genes, in addition to SIR1, repress transcription at the silent mating loci, HML and HMR. (sdbonline.org)
  • A curated database of candidate human ageing-related genes and genes associated with longevity and/or ageing in model organisms. (senescence.info)
  • The human TERF2 gene spans a length of 53011 bp. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • According to the January 2013, NCBI dbSNP database, there are 488 known SNPs in the human TERF2 gene. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Cloning human homologs of yeast genes-- pt. (epa.gov)
  • Holliday Junctions Formed from Human Telomeric DNA. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Human HNRNPD Protein (raised in E. Coli) purified by multi-step, protein-specific process to ensure crystallization grade. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Continuous telomere shortening in human fibroblasts leads to chromosome fusions, crisis, and apoptosis ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Here we have identified fission yeast Lar7 as a member of the conserved LARP7 family, which includes the Tetrahymena telomerase-binding protein p65 and human LARP7. (nature.com)
  • A 28-amino acid region of human FEN-1 (residues 328-355) and a 29-amino acid region of human XPG (residues 981-1009) contain the PCNA binding activities. (sdbonline.org)
  • For example, Werner's syndrome, a disease associated with premature human ageing, is associated with a mutation in a gene encoding a DNA repair protein. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • It is becoming increasingly apparent that many of the genes in the class III region of the human MHC encode proteins involved in the immune and inflammatory responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • Transcription factors are specialized proteins that turn genes off and on. (icr.org)
  • We have examined the binding of the Prod protein to DNA in vitro. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Recent in vitro studies demonstrated that transcription of telomeric DNA leads to highly efficient t-loop formation. (frontiersin.org)
  • From Table 1 we can see that compared to using Dpn I enzyme, $70 would be saved when 1000 U enzyme was used to detect 200 samples. (springer.com)
  • Telomeric DNA is synthesized by the enzyme telomerase ( 30 , 36 , 46 ). (asm.org)
  • K-756 binds to the induced pocket of TNKS and inhibits its enzyme activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • pot-1 triple mutants, some of which survived robustly in the absence of telomerase. (g3journal.org)