The DNA-binding polycomb group protein pleiohomeotic mediates silencing of a Drosophila homeotic gene. (1/10081)

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins repress homeotic genes in cells where these genes must remain inactive during development. This repression requires cis-acting silencers, also called PcG response elements. Currently, these silencers are ill-defined sequences and it is not known how PcG proteins associate with DNA. Here, we show that the Drosophila PcG protein Pleiohomeotic binds to specific sites in a silencer of the homeotic gene Ultrabithorax. In an Ultrabithorax reporter gene, point mutations in these Pleiohomeotic binding sites abolish PcG repression in vivo. Hence, DNA-bound Pleiohomeotic protein may function in the recruitment of other non-DNA-binding PcG proteins to homeotic gene silencers.  (+info)

A conserved nuclear element with a role in mammalian gene regulation. (2/10081)

Mammalian genomes contain numerous fragments of DNA that are derived from inactivated transposable elements. The accumulation and persistence of these elements is generally attributed to transposase activity rather than through possession or acquisition of a function of value to the host genome. Here we describe such a repetitive element, named ALF (forannexin VILINE-2fragment), comprising 130 bp of DNA derived from a LINE-2 sequence, which functions as a potent T-cell-specific silencer. The expansion of the DNA database arising as a result of the human genome sequencing project enabled us to identify ALF in, or close to, several well characterized genes including those for annexin VI, interleukin-4 and protein kinase C-beta. A systematic analysis of the entire LINE-2 sequence revealed that ALF, and not other regions of the LINE-2 sequence, was especially highly represented in the human genome. Acquisition of a function by this repetitive element may explain its abundance. These data show that a conserved fragment of an interspersed nuclear element has the potential to modulate gene expression, a discovery that has broad implications for the way in which we view so-called 'junk' DNA and our understanding of eukaryotic gene regulation.  (+info)

Gene silencing: Maintaining methylation patterns. (3/10081)

Recent studies of an Arabidopsis gene family have shown that inverted repeats can be potent silencers of other identical sequences in the genome, causing them to become stably methylated at cytosine residues. From mutations affecting this process we are beginning to understand how methylation patterns are maintained.  (+info)

Gene silencing: RNA makes RNA makes no protein. (4/10081)

A mutation that disrupts post-transcriptional gene silencing in Neurospora crassa has been found to affect the homologue of a plant-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. This enzyme may produce a specificity determinant of gene silencing and mediate an epigenetic conversion at the RNA level.  (+info)

The 5'-untranslated region of GM-CSF mRNA suppresses translational repression mediated by the 3' adenosine-uridine-rich element and the poly(A) tail. (5/10081)

Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mRNA levels are controlled post-transcriptionally by the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) adenosine-uridine-rich element (ARE). In untransformed, resting cells, the ARE targets GM-CSF mRNA for rapid degradation, thereby significantly suppressing protein expression. We used a rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) cell-free system to examine translational regulation of GM-CSF expression. We uncoupled decay rates from rates of translation by programming the RRL with an excess of mRNAs. Capped, full-length, polyadenyl-ated human GM-CSF mRNA (full-length 5'-UTR AUUUA+A90) and an ARE-modified version (full-length 5'-UTR AUGUA+A90) produced identical amounts of protein. When the 5'-UTR was replaced with an irrelevant synthetic leader sequence (syn 5'-UTR), translation of syn 5'-UTR AUUUA+A90 mRNA was suppressed by >20-fold. Mutation of the ARE or removal of the poly(A) tail relieved this inhibition. Thus, in the absence of a native 5'-UTR, the ARE and poly(A) tail act in concert to block GM-CSF mRNA translation. Substitutions of different regions of the native 5'-UTR revealed that the entire sequence was essential in maintaining the highest rates of translation. However, shorter 10-12 nt contiguous 5'-UTR regions supported 50-60% of maximum translation. The 5'-UTR is highly conserved, suggesting similar regulation in multiple species and in these studies was the dominant element regulating GM-CSF mRNA translation, overriding the inhibitory effects of the ARE and the poly(A) tail.  (+info)

DOT4 links silencing and cell growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/10081)

Transcriptional silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae occurs at specific loci and is mediated by a multiprotein complex that includes Rap1p and the Sir proteins. We studied the function of a recently identified gene, DOT4, that disrupts silencing when overexpressed. DOT4 encodes an ubiquitin processing protease (hydrolase) that is primarily located in the nucleus. By two-hybrid analysis, the amino-terminal third of Dot4p interacts with the silencing protein Sir4p. Cells lacking DOT4 exhibited reduced silencing and a corresponding decrease in the level of Sir4p. Together, these findings suggest that Dot4p regulates silencing by acting on Sir4p. In strains with several auxotrophic markers, loss of DOT4 ubiquitin hydrolase activity also results in a slow-growth defect. The defect can be partially suppressed by mutations in a subunit of the 26S proteasome, suggesting that Dot4p has the ability to prevent ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Furthermore, wild-type SIR2, SIR3, and SIR4 are required for full manifestation of the growth defect in a dot4 strain, indicating that the growth defect is caused in part by a silencing-related mechanism. We propose that Dot4p helps to restrict the location of silencing proteins to a limited set of genomic loci.  (+info)

Protein kinase A regulates cholinergic gene expression in PC12 cells: REST4 silences the silencing activity of neuron-restrictive silencer factor/REST. (7/10081)

The role of protein kinase A in regulating transcription of the cholinergic gene locus, which contains both the vesicular acetylcholine transporter gene and the choline acetyltransferase gene, was investigated in PC12 cells and a protein kinase A-deficient PC12 mutant, A126.1B2, in which transcription of the gene is reduced. The site of action of protein kinase A was localized to a neuron-restrictive silencer element/repressor element 1 (NRSE/RE-1) sequence within the cholinergic gene. Neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF)/RE-1-silencing transcription factor (REST), the transcription factor which binds to NRSE/RE-1, was expressed at similar levels in both PC12 and A126.1B2 cells. Although nuclear extracts containing NRSF/REST from A126.1B2 exhibited binding to NRSE/RE-1, nuclear extracts from PC12 cells did not. The NRSF/REST isoform REST4 was expressed in PC12 cells but not in A126.1B2. REST4 inhibited binding of NRSF/REST to NRSE/RE-1 as determined by gel mobility shift assays. Coimmunoprecipitation was used to demonstrate interaction between NRSF/REST and REST4. Expression of recombinant REST4 in A126.1B2 was sufficient to transcriptionally activate the cholinergic gene locus. Thus, in PC12 cells, protein kinase A promotes the production of REST4, which inhibits repression of the cholinergic gene locus by NRSF/REST.  (+info)

Delayed translational silencing of ceruloplasmin transcript in gamma interferon-activated U937 monocytic cells: role of the 3' untranslated region. (8/10081)

Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is an acute-phase protein with ferroxidase, amine oxidase, and pro- and antioxidant activities. The primary site of Cp synthesis in human adults is the liver, but it is also synthesized by cells of monocytic origin. We have shown that gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) induces the synthesis of Cp mRNA and protein in monocytic cells. We now report that the induced synthesis of Cp is terminated by a mechanism involving transcript-specific translational repression. Cp protein synthesis in U937 cells ceased after 16 h even in the presence of abundant Cp mRNA. RNA isolated from cells treated with IFN-gamma for 24 h exhibited a high in vitro translation rate, suggesting that the transcript was not defective. Ribosomal association of Cp mRNA was examined by sucrose centrifugation. When Cp synthesis was high, i.e., after 8 h of IFN-gamma treatment, Cp mRNA was primarily associated with polyribosomes. However, after 24 h, when Cp synthesis was low, Cp mRNA was primarily in the nonpolyribosomal fraction. Cytosolic extracts from cells treated with IFN-gamma for 24 h, but not for 8 h, contained a factor which blocked in vitro Cp translation. Inhibitor expression was cell type specific and present in extracts of human cells of myeloid origin, but not in several nonmyeloid cells. The inhibitory factor bound to the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of Cp mRNA, as shown by restoration of in vitro translation by synthetic 3'-UTR added as a "decoy" and detection of a binding complex by RNA gel shift analysis. Deletion mapping of the Cp 3'-UTR indicated an internal 100-nucleotide region of the Cp 3'-UTR that was required for complex formation as well as for silencing of translation. Although transcript-specific translational control is common during development and differentiation and global translational control occurs during responses to cytokines and stress, to our knowledge, this is the first report of translational silencing of a specific transcript following cytokine activation.  (+info)

... is the regulation of gene expression in a cell to prevent the expression of a certain gene. Gene silencing can ... Gene silencing is considered a gene knockdown mechanism since the methods used to silence genes, such as RNAi, CRISPR, or siRNA ... Gene silencing is often considered the same as gene knockdown. When genes are silenced, their expression is reduced. In ... Researchers have been looking to gene silencing as a potential therapeutic for HD. Gene silencing can be used to treat HD by ...
... s are pesticides that use gene silencing, and RNA interference (RNAi) in particular to target ... Gene silencing pesticide description[dead link] Silencing the pests EOS magazine, June 2010 (All articles with dead external ... Equally surprising was that the genes were also silenced when the worms ingested the dsRNA. Steven Whyard, working for CSIRO ... Monsanto and Devgen developed a gene silencing pesticide against Diabrotica virgifera A team, led by Xiao-Ya Chen fed gossypol ...
"Entrez Gene: Piwi like RNA-mediated gene silencing 4". Retrieved 2017-02-11. Sugimoto K, Kage H, Aki N, Sano A, Kitagawa H, ... Piwi like RNA-mediated gene silencing 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PIWIL4 gene. PIWIL4 belongs to the ... Gu A, Ji G, Shi X, Long Y, Xia Y, Song L, Wang S, Wang X (2010). "Genetic variants in Piwi-interacting RNA pathway genes confer ... Gu A, Ji G, Shi X, Long Y, Xia Y, Song L, Wang S, Wang X (2010). "Genetic variants in Piwi-interacting RNA pathway genes confer ...
... or RNA interference refers to a family of gene silencing effects by which gene expression is negatively regulated ... upregulation of genes The same way that RNA silencing regulates downstream target mRNAs, RNA silencing itself is regulated. For ... RNA silencing may also be defined as sequence-specific regulation of gene expression triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). ... Induced RNA silencing can serve as a controlled method for suppressing gene expression. Since the machinery is conserved across ...
"Entrez Gene: REST RE1-silencing transcription factor". Schoenherr CJ, Anderson DJ (March 1995). "The neuron-restrictive ... Lietz M, Hohl M, Thiel G (January 2003). "RE-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) regulates human synaptophysin gene ... This gene encodes a transcriptional repressor which represses neuronal genes in non-neuronal tissues. It is a member of the ... where REST fulfils the functions of a master regulator of gene repression in hypoxia. RE1-silencing transcription factor has ...
... silencing the gene. These RISCs take the form of a RNA-induced transcriptional silencing complex (RITS). The best studied ... "The RNA-induced silencing complex: A versatile gene-silencing machine". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (27): 17897-17901 ... Major proteins of RISC, Ago2, SND1, and AEG-1, act as crucial contributors to the gene silencing function of the complex. RISC ... Hannon and his colleagues attempted to identify the RNAi mechanisms involved in gene silencing, by dsRNAs, in Drosophila cells ...
The role of RNAi in transcriptional gene silencing in plants has been characterized fairly well, and functions primarily ... Moazed, Danesh (2009-01-22). "Small RNAs in transcriptional gene silencing and genome defence". Nature. 457 (7228): 413-420. ... and is only one of the many different forms of gene silencing used throughout the genome, making it more difficult to study. ... RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) is a form of RNA interference by which short RNA molecules - such as small ...
... is a form of transcriptional gene silencing targeting transposons. Transcriptional gene silencing is a ... A second gene, Mu killer (MuK), is then needed to establish heritable silencing. P elements are a family of transposons that ... Gross, L (October 2006). "Transposon silencing keeps jumping genes in their place". PLOS Biol. 4 (10): e353. doi:10.1371/ ... Two such genome defense systems against transposons are the silencing of the MuDR transposon in maize and the silencing of P ...
... given the relative speed with which genes are silenced following a polyploid event. Faster still, redundant genes can be ... Reciprocal silencing refers to the specific pattern of silencing where equivalent loci in are both silenced and expressed in a ... Reciprocal silencing, a genetic phenomenon that primarily occurs in plants, refers to the pattern of redundant genes being ... As redundant genes are silenced in allopolyploids there is the potential for rapid genetic differences to accumulate through ...
"Gene technology: gene silencing. The inventors and patents". CSIRO. Nicholson, Brendan (7 January 2006). "Australia's Key Role ... 1995 - Gene silencing - A CSIRO team led by Dr Peter Waterhouse discovered that double-stranded RNA was the trigger for RNA ... "Gene Shears - Australian scientists are using Gene Shears to fight disease". Questacon National Science and Technology Centre, ... It reduces attacks of acute bronchitis by up to 90%. 1986 - Gene shears - The discovery of gene shears was made by CSIRO ...
Gene knockdown Gene silencing Oligonucleotide synthesis EsiRNA NatsiRNA Viroid VIRsiRNAdb CRISPR Dharmacon Persomics Laganà A, ... The siRNA-induced post transcriptional gene silencing is initiated by the assembly of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC ... In human cell, RNA-directed transcriptional gene silencing was observed a decade ago when exogenous siRNAs silenced a ... The complex silences certain gene expression by cleaving the mRNA molecules coding the target genes. To begin the process, one ...
FUS actually mediates gene silencing. It has also been clinically linked with ALS diagnosis cases. Finally, RBM4 helps to ... March 2018). "FUS Regulates Activity of MicroRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing". Molecular Cell. 69 (5): 787-801.e8. doi:10.1016/j. ... "AceView: Gene:KIAA2013, a comprehensive annotation of human, mouse and worm genes with mRNAs or ESTsAceView". www.ncbi.nlm.nih. ... "ortholog_gene_90231[group] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2021-12-18. Ho SY, Duchêne S (December 2014). " ...
MiRNA Gene silencing Nam, Seungyoon; Kim Bumjin; Shin Seokmin; Lee Sanghyuk (Jan 2008). "miRGator: an integrated system for ...
"Seeing the Shape of Gene Silencing". Howard Hughes Medical Institute - Research News. 14 September 2008. Retrieved 10 January ... Another related research interest for Luger's research group is the genetic cause of Rett syndrome, the gene MECP2. The gene ... Histones are important in the process of gene expression, and their positioning as determined by chaperone proteins is ... are important because of their role in activating and deactivating genes. In 2008, Luger published a study that showed that ...
... has been used to silence an organism's genes. By modifying an organism to express microRNA targeted to its endogenous genes, ... By removing the genes in the plasmid that caused the tumor and adding in novel genes researchers were able to infect plants ... Schwab, Rebecca; Ossowski, Stephan; Warthmann, Norman; Weigel, Detlef (2010-01-01). "Directed Gene Silencing with Artificial ... The ability to partially reduce gene function has allowed the study of genes that are lethal when completely knocked out. Other ...
This can result in gene silencing. This silencing of genes can be dangerous to cells, especially when the genes silenced are ... 2012). An overproduction of MiRNAs can cause the epigenetic silencing of many important genes such as MITF, FOXO3, TFAP2C, ... It is a gene that, when hypermethylated, loses function (Muthusamy et al., 2006). This gene is found in 30- 89% of melanoma ... TABLE 1. Various genes targeted by promoter hypermethylation in malignant melanoma Some of the genes affected by cytosine ...
"Human BAHD1 promotes heterochromatic gene silencing". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106 (33): 13826-31. Bibcode:2009PNAS.. ... v t e (CS1: long volume value, Genes on human chromosome 15, Human proteins, All stub articles, Human chromosome 15 gene stubs) ... acts as an inhibitor of BAHD1 and activates interferon-stimulated genes. The BAHD1 gene is downregulated in the colon tissue in ... "Entrez Gene: BAHD1". Retrieved 2016-10-22. Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Suyama M, Kikuno R, Hirosawa M, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Kotani H ...
... gene. Silencing the mutant gene using DDRNAI offers a potential therapeutic approach. Besides the ex vivo approach by the City ... that bring about the silencing of a target gene or genes once processed. Any RNA, including endogenous messenger RNA (mRNAs) or ... This mechanism has been demonstrated to work as a novel therapeutic technique to silence disease-causing genes across a range ... DNA detailed study DNA-directed RNA interference (DRNAI) is a gene-silencing technique that utilizes DNA constructs to activate ...
... gene silencing can be used. Previously, siRNAs have been commonly used to suppress gene expressions, but more recently, siRNA ... rather than solely focusing on one gene. It can provide insight into additional information such as gene-gene interactions, ... This system can recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and thus is a powerful system for gene silencing purposes. An ... Lambeth LS, Smith CA (2013). "Short hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing". SiRNA Design. Methods in Molecular Biology. Vol. 942 ...
Also in 2010, Reski and colleagues discovered a new mechanism of gene regulation; the epigenetic gene silencing by microRNAs. ... Also in 1998, Reski and coworkers generated a knockout moss by deleting an ftsZ gene and thus identified the first gene ... DM in a four-year cooperation project with Reski to identify new genes which may be able to make crop plants more resistant to ... Based on the results of further research on the ftsZ-gene family, Ralf Reski coined the term "plastoskeleton", analogous to the ...
Other functions of H2A have been seen in the histone variant H2A.Z. This variant is associated with gene activation, silencing ... H2A.Z gene is an essential gene in yeast and it is denoted as Htz1. Comparatively, vertebrates have two H2A.Z genes. These ... Variability in gene sequence was seen in bacterial, fungi, plant, and mammalian genes. One variant of H2A protein is H2ABbd ( ... this variant is important for gene silencing. Physically, there are small changes on the surface area of the nucleosome that ...
"Virus-induced gene silencing in Solanum species". The Plant Journal. 39 (2): 264-272. doi:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2004.02122.x. ... which was one of the first plant disease resistance genes cloned. She is also known for her research on R-genes and their role ... "EDS1 in tomato is required for resistance mediated by TIR-class R genes and the receptor-like R gene Ve". The Plant Journal. 42 ... Whitham, S.; McCormick, S.; Baker, B. (1996-08-06). "The N gene of tobacco confers resistance to tobacco mosaic virus in ...
Something about silencing protein 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the UTP3 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: SAS10 disrupter of silencing 10". Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA (2001). "DNA cloning using in vitro site- ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ... 2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ...
McManus, Michael T.; Petersen, Christian P.; Haines, Brian B.; Chen, Jianzhu; Sharp, Phillip A. (June 2002). "Gene silencing ... If the repressor is bound upstream of a gene, such as in an operator sequence, then it would be repressing the gene's ... One common cause of familial Alzheimer's is mutation in the PSEN1 gene. This gene encodes a protein that cleaves certain ... which derepresses enhancer activity on the maternal Igf2 gene. This abnormal derepression and increase in gene expression can ...
These compounds can actually help prevent cancer growth by inducing re-expression of previously silenced genes, arresting the ... Gene therapy is used to reinstate the function of a mutated or deleted gene type. When tumor suppressor genes are altered in a ... TSGs can be grouped into the following categories: caretaker genes, gatekeeper genes, and more recently landscaper genes. ... A tumor suppressor gene (TSG), or anti-oncogene, is a gene that regulates a cell during cell division and replication. If the ...
Karambelkar S, Swapna G, Nagaraja V (May 2012). "Silencing of toxic gene expression by Fis". Nucleic Acids Research. 40 (10): ... fis is an E. coli gene encoding the Fis (or FIS) protein. The regulation of this gene is more complex than most other genes in ... The fis gene is cotranscribed with the upstream dusB gene encoding a tRNA-modifying enzyme. DusB protein levels are very low ... it also ensures silencing of the advantageous but potentially lethal mom gene. Fis as a critical regulator of capsule ...
Rodríguez L, Villalobos X, Solé A, Lliberós C, Ciudad CJ, Noé V (March 2015). "Improved design of PPRHs for gene silencing". ... Aviñó A, Eritja R, Ciudad CJ, Noé V (June 2019). "Parallel Clamps and Polypurine Hairpins (PPRH) for Gene Silencing and Triplex ... July 2020). "Detection of a G-Quadruplex as a Regulatory Element in Thymidylate synthase for Gene Silencing Using Polypurine ... PPRHs could be used as gene silencing tools acting by different mechanisms than triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs), ...
Gene silencing at this location depends on components of the RNAi pathway. Double-stranded RNA is believed to result in ... Facultative heterochromatin is the result of genes that are silenced through a mechanism such as histone deacetylation or Piwi- ... Both RNAi and an exosome-dependent RNA degradation process contribute to heterochromatic gene silencing. These mechanisms of ... Fisher AG, Merkenschlager M (April 2002). "Gene silencing, cell fate and nuclear organisation". Current Opinion in Genetics & ...
Holliday, R; Ho, T (1998). "evidence for gene silencing by endogenous methylation". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 95 (15): 8727-32 ... but to which they are immune if they lack one of these genes. Thus, a cell lacking TK is resistant to bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) ... which means having functioning copies of the genes that encode them. The enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, which produces ...
Tamara Mathias (10 August 2018). "Alnylam's gene silencing drug wins FDA approval". Reuters. Retrieved 20 May 2022. Lynch, ... Greil, Anita (July 10, 2007). "Roche Bets on Gene Research". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 22, 2016. Hutton, ... Therapeutic gene modulation, Health care companies based in Massachusetts, Companies based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, ...
We then made a screen and serendipitously fished out a gene called FOXP2." At that time, he adds, basically nothing was known ... Currently described online in Cell Stem Cell, the new findings demonstrate that, when silenced, the FOXP2 transcription factor ... otherwise known as the speech gene, endows breast cancer cells with a number of malignant traits and properties that enable ...
In this work, gene therapy proposed at the pre-transcriptional level intends to silence mutation of the target gene, thereby ... PRE-TRANSCRIPTIONAL GENE SILENCING TECHNIQUE FOR CONTROLLING SKIN CANCER. Publication Type : Journal Article ... Keywords : computational modeling, Crocetin, Drug-likeness, Lutein, Pre-transcriptional gene silencing, simulation, Skin cancer ... "PRE-TRANSCRIPTIONAL GENE SILENCING TECHNIQUE FOR CONTROLLING SKIN CANCER", International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in posttranscriptional gene silencing by RNA pathways, according to their Panther/Gene ... Antibodies for proteins involved in posttranscriptional gene silencing by RNA pathways; according to their Panther/Gene ...
... plays vital roles in tumor metastasis suppression and is frequently silenced in metastatic colon cancers. NDRG1 is silenced in ... Transcriptional silencing of N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) in metastatic colon cancer cell line SW620 Clin Exp ... The objective of this study was to investigate the potential mechanisms involved in silencing of the NDRG1 gene. SW480 and ... N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) plays vital roles in tumor metastasis suppression and is frequently silenced in ...
Explore the role of E-selectin in EPC adhesion and the potential of gene silencing for EPC recruitment. ... Discover the power of siRNA in suppressing gene expression in mammalian cells. ... Gene silencing of E-selectin block recruitment of endothelial progenitor cell to vascular endothelium under flow () ... We demonstrated for the first time that gene silencing of endothelial E-selectin using siRNA transfection in human umbilical ...
The update on RNA-silencing focused on Argonaute2, which is a protein that can switch-off a gene by intercepting and slicing ... Scripps Research Institute Finds Protein that Can Silence Genes. May 11, 2012 ... RNA-silencing requires an Argonaute protein and guide RNA called microRNA. The guide RNA inserts into a space on Argonaute and ... Further studies of this new finding aims to use it to find "therapeutic weapons" against disease-causing genes or a cells ...
Epigenetic Silencing of OR and TAS2R Genes Expression inHuman Orbitofrontal Cortex At Early Stages of SporadicAlzheimers ... We explored the possible expression and regulation of selected OR and TASR genes in human orbitofrontal cortex of sporadic ... Findings suggest MeCP2 might be implicated in OR and TAS2R genes expression regulation through interaction with H3K9me3, and as ...
In combination with transgenic organisms, such enzyme-actuated antisense tools will enable gene silencing in specific cell ... "Nitroreductase-Activatable Morpholino Oligonucleotides for in Vivo Gene Silencing" vol. 9, no. 9, 2014. Export RIS Citation ... 2014). Nitroreductase-Activatable Morpholino Oligonucleotides for in Vivo Gene Silencing. 9(9). Yamazoe, Sayumi and McQuade, ... Title : Nitroreductase-Activatable Morpholino Oligonucleotides for in Vivo Gene Silencing Personal Author(s) : Yamazoe, Sayumi; ...
Sumbayev, Vadim V. and Gibbs, Bernhard F. (2014) Gene silencing approaches in mast cells and primary human basophils. In: Gibbs ... The ability to silence gene expression is an invaluable tool for elucidating the importance of intracellular signaling proteins ... Here, we describe a method using lipofection which has been successfully employed to silence gene expression using siRNA in ... pose a difficult challenge for gene silencing approaches given not only their state of maturation and difficulty to transfect, ...
siRNA / miRNA gene silencing Human - Capan-1 CDC7. Gene silencing through the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) has become a ... The length of siRNA should be 21-23nt long with G/C content 30-50%. If a validated siRNA sequence for your target gene is not ... There are several aspects for preparing and delivering effective siRNA to knockdown a target gene. ... available, use siRNA generated against the entire target gene ORF. Always work with two or three different siRNA constructs to ...
Gene Silencing with Small Interfering RNAs. The transfection of HEK293 cells with siRNA was performed using Lipofectamine 2000 ... Genes Dev. 2000, 14, 854-862. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]. *Jope, R.S.; Johnson, G.V.W. The glamour and gloom of ... NF-κB-dependent gene expression was quantified by measuring luciferase activity. Data are expressed as fold changes in ... NF-κB-dependent gene expression was quantified by measuring luciferase activity. Data are expressed as fold changes in ...
GENE. Santa Ana, CA. Native Southern Californian artist, creator, educator, and dreamer. GENE. ...
Mechanism for Gene Silencing in Skin Cancer Discovered. /* custom css theme panel */ #wp-admin-bar-hi { display: none; } li#wp- ... that is located convergent with the AR gene and is repressed in human prostate tumors and cell lines." ...
Application of gene-silencing nanodrugs to inhibit medulloblastoma growthPage Information ... to use state-of-the-art tiny nanomedicines designed to cross the BBB and selectively penetrate brain tumours and inhibit a gene ...
NIR-induced spatiotemporally controlled gene silencing by upconversion nanoparticle-based siRNA nanocarrier. J Control Release ... NIR-induced spatiotemporally controlled gene silencing by upconversion nanoparticle-based siRNA nanocarrier. ... based siRNA nanocarrier for NIR-controlled gene silencing. siRNA is complexed onto a NaYF4:Yb/Tm/Er UCNP through an azobenzene ...
Study finds way to reverse gene silencing in inner ear cells A deafened adult cannot recover the ability to hear, because the ... Rasip1 gene found to be intimately involved in the creation of blood cells Blood has long been a symbol of life and health, so ... Epigenetic formatting of satiety gene may increase risk of obesity in women What determines whether we become overweight? Aside ... complex is a chromatin-associated factor that has been shown to regulate the expression of thousands of genes in both fruit ...
... BARBAGALLO, MARIALUISA; ... A New Piece of the Shigella Pathogenicity Puzzle: Spermidine Accumulationby Silencing of the speG Gene / Barbagallo, Marialuisa ... A New Piece of the Shigella Pathogenicity Puzzle: Spermidine Accumulationby Silencing of the speG Gene / Barbagallo, Marialuisa ... we show that the speG gene has been silenced by convergent evolution and that its inactivation causes the marked increase of ...
A virus-induced gene silencing approach to understanding alkaloid metabolism in Catharanthus roseus. David K. Liscombe, Sarah E ... A virus-induced gene silencing approach to understanding alkaloid metabolism in Catharanthus roseus. Phytochemistry. 2011;72(16 ... A virus-induced gene silencing approach to understanding alkaloid metabolism in Catharanthus roseus. / Liscombe, David K.; ... The bipartite pTRV vector system is a Tobacco Rattle Virus-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) platform that has provided ...
A total of twenty genes functioning in different aspects of plant defense that were monitored over a time course during the ... There was greater accumulation of secondary metabolites and upregulation of secondary metabolite-related genes after BNS. ... Less ROS accumulation, upregulation of ROS signaling genes and higher antioxidant enzyme activities post BNS resulted in ... Apoptotic-like PCD inducing HRC gene when silenced enhances multiple disease resistance in plants *A. C. Kushalappa ...
Gene Silencing Technology Offers Fresh Hope For Alzheimers Patients. The genetic study showed promising results in "silencing ... Why Do Some People Never Get COVID Symptoms? Study Says Gene Mutation Makes Them Super Dodgers ... " the genes that translate into tau protein, the primary component behind dementia. ...
... Posted on August 11, 2019. by thetechnoant ... Homology-dependent gene silencing is definitely attained in by introduction of gene coding locations in to the somatic nucleus ... for dsRNA in triggering silencing. Constructs with and without promoters induce gene silencing. Nevertheless, transgenes which ... In order to determine the relationship that may exist between homology-dependent gene silencing in d4-2, derived from stock 51 ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial, Gene Silencing, Gene Transfer, Horizontal, Genome, Bacterial, Molecular Chaperones, ... Epistatic genes reach much higher expression levels than unilateral genes in the absence of the silencing system. Finally, ... A barrier for horizontal gene transfer is high gene expression, which is metabolically expensive. Silencing of horizontally- ... "epistatically controlled genes" is repressed by StpA, whereas that of "unilaterally controlled genes" is not. Epistatic genes ...
Gene silencing pathway RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Neurospora crassa: yeast expression and crystallization of ... Gene silencing pathway RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Neurospora crassa: yeast expression and crystallization of ...
Cholesterol jab: why gene silencing drugs may work better than current treatments. Aristides Tagalakis, Edge Hill University ... Gene silencing drugs target the underlying causes of a disease, rather than the symptoms it causes. ...
Silencing of the immune gene BmPGRP-L4 in the midgut affects the growth of silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae.. Liang, Yebin; Wang, ...
These changes include mutations, such as genetic drift in viruses; activation and silencing of genes; genetic recombinations, ... "New" pandemic strains most certainly emerged after reassortment of genes of viruses of avian and human origin in a permissive ...
... virus-induced gene silencing; nucleocytoplasmic transport and plant defense signaling). Acquisition of basic methods used in ... analysis of transient gene expression after gene transfer into protoplasts, localization of GFP-labeled proteins using ... quantification of pathogen-induced genes using Real-time RT PCR and Northern blot hybridization, analysis of protein-protein ...
FUS inhibits the activation of HIV transcription by AFF4 and ELL2, and silences overall HIV gene transcription. Concordantly, ... Finally, effects of FUS on HIV gene transcription are also exhibited genome wide, where FUS mainly occupies gene promoters at ... while its knockdown leads to an increase in AFF4 and Cdk9 occupancy on gene promoters of FUS affected genes. Towards ... As transcription silencing is key for establishing the HIV reservoir, significant efforts have been made to understand the ...
The other approach is that of gene silencing. Vupanorsen was an antisense oligonucleotide that targeted ANGPTL3. It was ... "deep and durable silencing of the ANGPTL3 gene, while avoiding off-target effects." ... designed to silence expression of the angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) gene. ... "This is why there are several strategies aimed at testing if the inhibition or silencing of ANGPTL3 will translate into ...
  • Gene silencing is considered a gene knockdown mechanism since the methods used to silence genes, such as RNAi, CRISPR, or siRNA, generally reduce the expression of a gene by at least 70% but do not eliminate it[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Short interfering RNA (siRNA) is a powerful technique that can suppress gene expression in a variety of cells including mammalian cells. (scirp.org)
  • We demonstrated for the first time that gene silencing of endothelial E-selectin using siRNA transfection in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) causes inhibition of EPC adhesion under flow conditions. (scirp.org)
  • Here, we describe a method using lipofection which has been successfully employed to silence gene expression using siRNA in human LAD2 mast cells as well as primary human basophils. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Gene silencing through the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) has become a primary tool for identifying disease-causing genes. (labettor.com)
  • There are several aspects for preparing and delivering effective siRNA to knockdown a target gene. (labettor.com)
  • If a validated siRNA sequence for your target gene is not available, use siRNA generated against the entire target gene ORF. (labettor.com)
  • NIR-induced spatiotemporally controlled gene silencing by upconversion nanoparticle-based siRNA nanocarrier. (wisc.edu)
  • Chen G, Ma B, Xie R, Wang Y, Dou K, Gong S . NIR-induced spatiotemporally controlled gene silencing by upconversion nanoparticle-based siRNA nanocarrier. (wisc.edu)
  • This paper reports a simple NIR-to-UV upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP)-based siRNA nanocarrier for NIR-controlled gene silencing. (wisc.edu)
  • The drug, ARO-ANG3 (Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals), is a hepatocyte-targeted small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) designed to silence expression of the angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) gene. (medscape.com)
  • The fragments integrate into a multi-subunit protein called the RNA-induced silencing complex, which contains Argonaute proteins that are essential components of the RNAi pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The update on RNA-silencing focused on Argonaute2, which is a protein that can switch-off a gene by intercepting and slicing the gene's RNA transcripts before they are translated as proteins. (isaaa.org)
  • The ability to silence gene expression is an invaluable tool for elucidating the importance of intracellular signaling proteins which contribute to the effector functions of mast cells and basophils. (kent.ac.uk)
  • PRKRA gene mutations result in production of abnormal PACT proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The term RASopathies includes disorders with mutations in the genes that code for the proteins of the RAS/MAPK pathway, such as neurofibromatosis type 1, Noonan syndrome, Legius syndrome, LEOPARD syndrome, Costello syndrome, and cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Genomic Imprinting Paramutation Transposon silencing (or Histone Modifications) Transgene silencing Position effect RNA-directed DNA methylation RNA interference RNA silencing Nonsense mediated decay Transvection Meiotic silencing of unpaired DNA Antisense oligonucleotides were discovered in 1978 by Paul Zamecnik and Mary Stephenson. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antisense oligonucleotides can affect gene expression in two ways: by using an RNase H-dependent mechanism or by using a steric blocking mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The guide or antisense strand of the fragment that remains bound to RISC directs the sequence-specific silencing of the target mRNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, transgenes which contain 3 non-coding locations usually do not induce gene silencing, despite antisense RNA creation. (thetechnoant.info)
  • Gene silencing is often considered the same as gene knockdown. (wikipedia.org)
  • The knockdown of SOX2 by gene silencing abrogated the fibrogenic and FSC-inducing effects of CNTs. (cdc.gov)
  • These molecules work by cleaving mRNA molecules, essentially silencing the genes that produced them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription from the targeted endogenous genes is normally normal, although mRNA levels dramatically decrease. (thetechnoant.info)
  • Aberrant RNAs, both longer and shorter than the full-length mRNA and very easily detectable by northern blot, are systematically present in silenced clones. (thetechnoant.info)
  • In presenting the data, Raal explained that ARO-ANG3, which is administered subcutaneously, inhibits and degrades ANGPTL3 mRNA, leading to "deep and durable silencing of the ANGPTL3 gene, while avoiding off-target effects. (medscape.com)
  • Homology-dependent gene silencing is definitely attained in by introduction of gene coding locations in to the somatic nucleus at high duplicate number, leading to reduced expression of most homologous genes. (thetechnoant.info)
  • In this study, we use transcriptome sequencing to show that there is a bi-layered gene silencing system - involving the homologous H-NS and StpA - operating on horizontally-acquired genes among others. (ccamp.res.in)
  • Further studies of this new finding aims to use it to find "therapeutic weapons" against disease-causing genes or a cell's overactive guide RNA. (isaaa.org)
  • In this work, gene therapy proposed at the pre-transcriptional level intends to silence mutation of the target gene, thereby inhibiting or silencing gene expression in the form of a defective protein. (amrita.edu)
  • In some cases, one mutation is inherited from an unaffected parent and the other is a new (de novo) mutation in the gene that occurs during the formation of reproductive cells (eggs or sperm) in the other parent or in early embryonic development. (medlineplus.gov)
  • At the time of diagnosis, the vast majority of these tumors will exhibit a mutation of the IDH1/2 gene and up to one half will exhibit gene mutation or deregulation of the expression of the TP53 gene. (medscape.com)
  • There is a rare hereditary form of beta-2-microglobulin amyloidosis due to a mutation to the relevant gene. (msdmanuals.com)
  • LEOPARD syndrome may be caused by heterozygous missense mutation of Tyr 279 Cys in the PTPN11 gene. (medscape.com)
  • [ 12 ] In one Bosnian family, five patients had the same recurrent mutation Y279C in the PTPN11 gene, but had different phenotypes and a variable expression of multiple lentigines. (medscape.com)
  • RNA-silencing requires an Argonaute protein and guide RNA called microRNA. (isaaa.org)
  • The acquisition, by lateral gene transfer, of a large plasmid carrying virulence determinants has been a crucial event in the evolution towards the pathogenic lifestyle and has been paralleled by the occurrence of mutations affecting genes, which negatively interfere with the expression of virulence factors. (uniroma1.it)
  • Through identification of diverse mutations, which prevent expression of a functional SpeG protein, we show that the speG gene has been silenced by convergent evolution and that its inactivation causes the marked increase of intracellular spermidine in all Shigella spp. (uniroma1.it)
  • Dystonia 16 is caused by mutations in the PRKRA gene, which provides instructions for making a protein called PACT. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is unclear why brain cells are particularly affected by PRKRA gene mutations. (medlineplus.gov)
  • which means both copies of the PRKRA gene in each cell have mutations. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Molecular data have indicated a direct progression from diffuse astrocytoma to anaplastic astrocytoma to glioblastoma in patients whose tumors bear mutations in the IDH1/2 genes and TP53 genes, a finding that marks the pathogenic pathway of 5% of all glioblastomas. (medscape.com)
  • in addition, they indicated recurrent mutations in the promoter region of telomerase (TERT) that reactivates the gene. (medscape.com)
  • LEOPARD syndrome, also known as Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines, is a rare autosomal dominant disorder most often caused by missense mutations in the PTPN11 gene, which encodes the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. (medscape.com)
  • [ 4 ] Molecular studies have proven that LEOPARD syndrome and Noonan syndrome are allelic disorders caused by different missense mutations in PTPN11, a gene encoding the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 located at band 12q24.1. (medscape.com)
  • In 2006, Tartaglia et al reported that germline mutations in the PTPN11 gene cause LEOPARD and Noonan syndromes, whereas somatic mutations in the same gene contribute to leukemogenesis. (medscape.com)
  • Gene silencing is the regulation of gene expression in a cell to prevent the expression of a certain gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • We explored the possible expression and regulation of selected OR and TASR genes in human orbitofrontal cortex of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) and found that these are expressed and markedly downregulated at early stages. (diagenode.com)
  • Findings suggest MeCP2 might be implicated in OR and TAS2R genes expression regulation through interaction with H3K9me3, and as an early event, it may uncover a novel etiopathogenetic mechanism of sporadic AD. (diagenode.com)
  • Such post-transcriptional MGCD0103 distributor gene silencing (PTGS) supplies the opportunity to obtain loss-of-function phenotypes, and for many organisms offers SLCO2A1 opened the door to practical analysis (7,8). (thetechnoant.info)
  • In the ciliate by microinjection at high duplicate amount (a threshold of 20C30 haploid equivalents for totally silenced phenotypes) of plasmids filled with just the coding series of the gene in to the somatic nucleus, that leads to a dramatic decrease in appearance of most endogenous homologs (39). (thetechnoant.info)
  • In this study, we identified a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), NXTAR (LOC105373241), that is located convergent with the AR gene and is repressed in human prostate tumors and cell lines. (genengnews.com)
  • Appearance of most endogenous genes writing homology using the international nucleic acidity is normally silenced or decreased, in what continues to be likened to a hereditary immune system. (thetechnoant.info)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is a natural process used by cells to regulate gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process to silence genes first begins with the entrance of a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecule into the cell, which triggers the RNAi pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic studies have revealed the same genes are necessary for different PTGS phenomena: co-suppression or PTGS in (9C12), quelling in (13C15) and RNAi in (16C18). (thetechnoant.info)
  • Title : Nitroreductase-Activatable Morpholino Oligonucleotides for in Vivo Gene Silencing Personal Author(s) : Yamazoe, Sayumi;McQuade, Lindsey E.;Chen, James K. (cdc.gov)
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the potential mechanisms involved in silencing of the NDRG1 gene. (nih.gov)
  • Gene silencing can occur during either transcription or translation and is often used in research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently described online in Cell Stem Cell , the new findings demonstrate that, when silenced, the FOXP2 transcription factor, otherwise known as the speech gene, endows breast cancer cells with a number of malignant traits and properties that enable them to survive - and thrive. (newswise.com)
  • The silencing of NDRG1 in SW620 was not due to promoter hyper-methylation as bisulfite sequencing of the NDRG1 promoter showed minimal DNA methylation in both cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • Ribozymes are catalytic RNA molecules used to inhibit gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, due to the leaf-specific localization of vindoline biosynthesis, and the lack of production of this precursor in cell suspension and hairy root cultures of C. roseus, further elucidation of this pathway demands the development of reverse genetics approaches to assay gene function in planta. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Genomic analysis reveals epistatic silencing of 'expensive' genes in Escherichia coli K-12. (ccamp.res.in)
  • Silencing of horizontally-acquired genes in the bacterium Escherichia coli is caused by the global transcriptional repressor H-NS. (ccamp.res.in)
  • In particular, methods used to silence genes are being increasingly used to produce therapeutics to combat cancer and other diseases, such as infectious diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, they provide a more complete view on the development of diseases since diseases are generally associated with genes that have a reduced expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, attempts are being made to use ribozymes to produce gene silencing therapeutics, which would silence genes that are responsible for causing diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • This new finding can be helpful in understanding a process called RNA-silencing and use it to treat diseases. (isaaa.org)
  • The genetic study showed promising results in "silencing" the genes that translate into tau protein, the primary component behind dementia. (medicaldaily.com)
  • This is why there are several strategies aimed at testing if the inhibition or silencing of ANGPTL3 will translate into clinical benefits. (medscape.com)
  • Gene silencing approaches in mast cells and primary human basophils. (kent.ac.uk)
  • However, primary mast cells and their terminally differentiated blood counterpart, namely basophils, pose a difficult challenge for gene silencing approaches given not only their state of maturation and difficulty to transfect, but also because their functions are readily altered by cell-handling conditions. (kent.ac.uk)
  • We have focused our attention on the speG gene, which encodes spermidine acetyltransferase, an enzyme catalysing the conversion of spermidine into the physiologically inert acetylspermidine, since recent evidence stresses the involvement of polyamines in microbial pathogenesis. (uniroma1.it)
  • Liscombe, DK & O'Connor, SE 2011, ' A virus-induced gene silencing approach to understanding alkaloid metabolism in Catharanthus roseus ', Phytochemistry , vol. 72, no. 16, pp. 1969-1977. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Silencing of the immune gene BmPGRP-L4 in the midgut affects the growth of silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae. (bvsalud.org)
  • INTRODUCTION In microorganisms which range from protozoa to vertebrates, launch of international DNA or RNA can promote unforeseen deregulation of regular gene appearance on the post-transcriptional level (for latest reviews find 1C6). (thetechnoant.info)
  • The remedial alternative to this is treatment at the genetic level which quite obviously points out to gene therapy. (amrita.edu)
  • Less ROS accumulation, upregulation of ROS signaling genes and higher antioxidant enzyme activities post BNS resulted in resistance. (nature.com)
  • The non-specific lethal (NSL) complex is a chromatin-associated factor that has been shown to regulate the expression of thousands of genes in both fruit flies and mammals. (news-medical.net)
  • Combining results from transcriptome assays and comparative genome analyses we show that in E. coli VirF, besides being able to up-regulate several chromosomal genes, which potentially influence bacterial fitness within the host, also activates genes which have been lost by Shigella. (uniroma1.it)
  • The low Pol II binding at the NDRG1 promoter in SW620 was associated with gene-wide decrease in histone H4 acetylation and increase in histone H3 serine 10 phosphorylation. (nih.gov)
  • A VIGS method was developed herein to investigate gene function in C. roseus plants using the pTRV vector system. (uea.ac.uk)
  • NDRG1 is silenced in a highly metastatic colon cancer cell line SW620. (nih.gov)
  • One important strategy for studying these dynamic but highly regulated host defenses is to observe gene expression patterns in the host 5 . (nature.com)
  • Therefore, both the DNA binding sites of H-NS as well as the function of StpA as a backup system might be selected for silencing highly transcribable genes. (ccamp.res.in)
  • Aside from lifestyle, predisposition plays a role, but genes cannot fully explain the inherited propensity to accumulate excess weight. (news-medical.net)
  • Such irregular RNAs will also be found in some instances of co-suppression in vegetation (40,41) and are postulated to play a role in initiating gene silencing. (thetechnoant.info)
  • The interconnections of H-NS with these regulators and their role in silencing gene expression in E. coli are not well understood on a genomic scale. (ccamp.res.in)
  • Methods using gene silencing are often considered better than gene knockouts[citation needed] since they allow researchers to study essential genes that are required for the animal models to survive and cannot be removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our experiments have shown the importance of E-selectin in EPC adhesion to HUVECs and the potential utility of gene silencing of E-selectin in EPC recruitment. (scirp.org)
  • On the other hand, chromatin immunoprecipitation showed a significantly higher level of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) association with the NDRG1 promoter in SW480 compared to SW620, in agreement with its gene expression level. (nih.gov)
  • Epistatic genes show a higher tendency to be non-essential and recently acquired, when compared to unilateral genes. (ccamp.res.in)
  • In most of these cases, both parents of an affected individual carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The bipartite pTRV vector system is a Tobacco Rattle Virus-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) platform that has provided efficient and effective means to assay gene function in diverse plant systems. (uea.ac.uk)
  • This works with mechanistic conservation among phyla, and shows that PTGS is a ancestral and general gene legislation system. (thetechnoant.info)
  • Epistatic genes reach much higher expression levels than unilateral genes in the absence of the silencing system. (ccamp.res.in)
  • Frequent silencing of the GPC3 gene in ovarian cancer cell lines. (bvsalud.org)
  • which means that one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. (medlineplus.gov)