Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Genes, Essential: Those genes found in an organism which are necessary for its viability and normal function.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Nobel PrizeAwards and PrizesHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Professional Misconduct: Violation of laws, regulations, or professional standards.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Organisms, Genetically Modified: Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.Wheat Germ Agglutinins: Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Reflex, Stretch: Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Vocal Cord Paralysis: Congenital or acquired paralysis of one or both VOCAL CORDS. This condition is caused by defects in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, the VAGUS NERVE and branches of LARYNGEAL NERVES. Common symptoms are VOICE DISORDERS including HOARSENESS or APHONIA.Respiratory Paralysis: Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Tachycardia, Sinus: Simple rapid heartbeats caused by rapid discharge of impulses from the SINOATRIAL NODE, usually between 100 and 180 beats/min in adults. It is characterized by a gradual onset and termination. Sinus tachycardia is common in infants, young children, and adults during strenuous physical activities.Ribonucleoproteins, Small Nucleolar: Nucleolar RNA-protein complexes that function in pre-ribosomal RNA processing.Polycomb Repressive Complex 2: A multisubunit polycomb protein complex that catalyzes the METHYLATION of chromosomal HISTONE H3. It works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 1 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.Technology, High-Cost: Advanced technology that is costly, requires highly skilled personnel, and is unique in its particular application. Includes innovative, specialized medical/surgical procedures as well as advanced diagnostic and therapeutic equipment.Polycomb-Group Proteins: A family of proteins that play a role in CHROMATIN REMODELING. They are best known for silencing HOX GENES and the regulation of EPIGENETIC PROCESSES.Polycomb Repressive Complex 1: A multisubunit polycomb protein complex with affinity for CHROMATIN that contains methylated HISTONE H3. It contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is specific for HISTONE H2A and works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Colorado

The DNA-binding polycomb group protein pleiohomeotic mediates silencing of a Drosophila homeotic gene. (1/10081)

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins repress homeotic genes in cells where these genes must remain inactive during development. This repression requires cis-acting silencers, also called PcG response elements. Currently, these silencers are ill-defined sequences and it is not known how PcG proteins associate with DNA. Here, we show that the Drosophila PcG protein Pleiohomeotic binds to specific sites in a silencer of the homeotic gene Ultrabithorax. In an Ultrabithorax reporter gene, point mutations in these Pleiohomeotic binding sites abolish PcG repression in vivo. Hence, DNA-bound Pleiohomeotic protein may function in the recruitment of other non-DNA-binding PcG proteins to homeotic gene silencers.  (+info)

A conserved nuclear element with a role in mammalian gene regulation. (2/10081)

Mammalian genomes contain numerous fragments of DNA that are derived from inactivated transposable elements. The accumulation and persistence of these elements is generally attributed to transposase activity rather than through possession or acquisition of a function of value to the host genome. Here we describe such a repetitive element, named ALF (forannexin VILINE-2fragment), comprising 130 bp of DNA derived from a LINE-2 sequence, which functions as a potent T-cell-specific silencer. The expansion of the DNA database arising as a result of the human genome sequencing project enabled us to identify ALF in, or close to, several well characterized genes including those for annexin VI, interleukin-4 and protein kinase C-beta. A systematic analysis of the entire LINE-2 sequence revealed that ALF, and not other regions of the LINE-2 sequence, was especially highly represented in the human genome. Acquisition of a function by this repetitive element may explain its abundance. These data show that a conserved fragment of an interspersed nuclear element has the potential to modulate gene expression, a discovery that has broad implications for the way in which we view so-called 'junk' DNA and our understanding of eukaryotic gene regulation.  (+info)

Gene silencing: Maintaining methylation patterns. (3/10081)

Recent studies of an Arabidopsis gene family have shown that inverted repeats can be potent silencers of other identical sequences in the genome, causing them to become stably methylated at cytosine residues. From mutations affecting this process we are beginning to understand how methylation patterns are maintained.  (+info)

Gene silencing: RNA makes RNA makes no protein. (4/10081)

A mutation that disrupts post-transcriptional gene silencing in Neurospora crassa has been found to affect the homologue of a plant-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. This enzyme may produce a specificity determinant of gene silencing and mediate an epigenetic conversion at the RNA level.  (+info)

The 5'-untranslated region of GM-CSF mRNA suppresses translational repression mediated by the 3' adenosine-uridine-rich element and the poly(A) tail. (5/10081)

Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mRNA levels are controlled post-transcriptionally by the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) adenosine-uridine-rich element (ARE). In untransformed, resting cells, the ARE targets GM-CSF mRNA for rapid degradation, thereby significantly suppressing protein expression. We used a rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) cell-free system to examine translational regulation of GM-CSF expression. We uncoupled decay rates from rates of translation by programming the RRL with an excess of mRNAs. Capped, full-length, polyadenyl-ated human GM-CSF mRNA (full-length 5'-UTR AUUUA+A90) and an ARE-modified version (full-length 5'-UTR AUGUA+A90) produced identical amounts of protein. When the 5'-UTR was replaced with an irrelevant synthetic leader sequence (syn 5'-UTR), translation of syn 5'-UTR AUUUA+A90 mRNA was suppressed by >20-fold. Mutation of the ARE or removal of the poly(A) tail relieved this inhibition. Thus, in the absence of a native 5'-UTR, the ARE and poly(A) tail act in concert to block GM-CSF mRNA translation. Substitutions of different regions of the native 5'-UTR revealed that the entire sequence was essential in maintaining the highest rates of translation. However, shorter 10-12 nt contiguous 5'-UTR regions supported 50-60% of maximum translation. The 5'-UTR is highly conserved, suggesting similar regulation in multiple species and in these studies was the dominant element regulating GM-CSF mRNA translation, overriding the inhibitory effects of the ARE and the poly(A) tail.  (+info)

DOT4 links silencing and cell growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/10081)

Transcriptional silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae occurs at specific loci and is mediated by a multiprotein complex that includes Rap1p and the Sir proteins. We studied the function of a recently identified gene, DOT4, that disrupts silencing when overexpressed. DOT4 encodes an ubiquitin processing protease (hydrolase) that is primarily located in the nucleus. By two-hybrid analysis, the amino-terminal third of Dot4p interacts with the silencing protein Sir4p. Cells lacking DOT4 exhibited reduced silencing and a corresponding decrease in the level of Sir4p. Together, these findings suggest that Dot4p regulates silencing by acting on Sir4p. In strains with several auxotrophic markers, loss of DOT4 ubiquitin hydrolase activity also results in a slow-growth defect. The defect can be partially suppressed by mutations in a subunit of the 26S proteasome, suggesting that Dot4p has the ability to prevent ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Furthermore, wild-type SIR2, SIR3, and SIR4 are required for full manifestation of the growth defect in a dot4 strain, indicating that the growth defect is caused in part by a silencing-related mechanism. We propose that Dot4p helps to restrict the location of silencing proteins to a limited set of genomic loci.  (+info)

Protein kinase A regulates cholinergic gene expression in PC12 cells: REST4 silences the silencing activity of neuron-restrictive silencer factor/REST. (7/10081)

The role of protein kinase A in regulating transcription of the cholinergic gene locus, which contains both the vesicular acetylcholine transporter gene and the choline acetyltransferase gene, was investigated in PC12 cells and a protein kinase A-deficient PC12 mutant, A126.1B2, in which transcription of the gene is reduced. The site of action of protein kinase A was localized to a neuron-restrictive silencer element/repressor element 1 (NRSE/RE-1) sequence within the cholinergic gene. Neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF)/RE-1-silencing transcription factor (REST), the transcription factor which binds to NRSE/RE-1, was expressed at similar levels in both PC12 and A126.1B2 cells. Although nuclear extracts containing NRSF/REST from A126.1B2 exhibited binding to NRSE/RE-1, nuclear extracts from PC12 cells did not. The NRSF/REST isoform REST4 was expressed in PC12 cells but not in A126.1B2. REST4 inhibited binding of NRSF/REST to NRSE/RE-1 as determined by gel mobility shift assays. Coimmunoprecipitation was used to demonstrate interaction between NRSF/REST and REST4. Expression of recombinant REST4 in A126.1B2 was sufficient to transcriptionally activate the cholinergic gene locus. Thus, in PC12 cells, protein kinase A promotes the production of REST4, which inhibits repression of the cholinergic gene locus by NRSF/REST.  (+info)

Delayed translational silencing of ceruloplasmin transcript in gamma interferon-activated U937 monocytic cells: role of the 3' untranslated region. (8/10081)

Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is an acute-phase protein with ferroxidase, amine oxidase, and pro- and antioxidant activities. The primary site of Cp synthesis in human adults is the liver, but it is also synthesized by cells of monocytic origin. We have shown that gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) induces the synthesis of Cp mRNA and protein in monocytic cells. We now report that the induced synthesis of Cp is terminated by a mechanism involving transcript-specific translational repression. Cp protein synthesis in U937 cells ceased after 16 h even in the presence of abundant Cp mRNA. RNA isolated from cells treated with IFN-gamma for 24 h exhibited a high in vitro translation rate, suggesting that the transcript was not defective. Ribosomal association of Cp mRNA was examined by sucrose centrifugation. When Cp synthesis was high, i.e., after 8 h of IFN-gamma treatment, Cp mRNA was primarily associated with polyribosomes. However, after 24 h, when Cp synthesis was low, Cp mRNA was primarily in the nonpolyribosomal fraction. Cytosolic extracts from cells treated with IFN-gamma for 24 h, but not for 8 h, contained a factor which blocked in vitro Cp translation. Inhibitor expression was cell type specific and present in extracts of human cells of myeloid origin, but not in several nonmyeloid cells. The inhibitory factor bound to the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of Cp mRNA, as shown by restoration of in vitro translation by synthetic 3'-UTR added as a "decoy" and detection of a binding complex by RNA gel shift analysis. Deletion mapping of the Cp 3'-UTR indicated an internal 100-nucleotide region of the Cp 3'-UTR that was required for complex formation as well as for silencing of translation. Although transcript-specific translational control is common during development and differentiation and global translational control occurs during responses to cytokines and stress, to our knowledge, this is the first report of translational silencing of a specific transcript following cytokine activation.  (+info)

  • Imprinted genes regulate fetal growth and development. (earth.com)
  • The genes are needed right at the beginning of embryonic development, but rather than deactivate them every time a cell divides, the job is done in one fell swoop, once the genes are no longer required," explains EPFL professor Didier Trono, who co-authored the article. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Scientists have now discovered a new way that cells manage to turn off imprinted genes - by chemically tagging histones, proteins that organize DNA into units called nucleosomes. (earth.com)
  • These genes are expressed by either the egg or the sperm, and the gene that is not expressed must be silenced by cells in the body in order to prevent complications such as developmental or neurological disorders. (earth.com)
  • Gene silencing controlled by marks in the chromatin occurs in both animals and plants. (eurekalert.org)
  • We have 2963 products for the study of the Gene Silencing By Rna Pathway that can be applied to Western Blot, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence, Flow Cytometry, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP), Immunohistochemistry from our catalog of antibodies and ELISA kits. (novusbio.com)
  • Gene Properties and Chromatin State Influence the Accumulation of Transposable Elements in Genes. (ebscohost.com)
  • Eos interacts directly with Foxp3 and induces chromatin modifications that result in gene silencing in T regs . (sciencemag.org)
  • Upon further examination, we observed that the primary transcripts containing the stem-loop structures of all 10 miRNAs were encoded within the promoter regions of their proximal known genes, suggesting that these miRNAs could potentially target their opposite strand sequences in cis with perfect complementarity. (pnas.org)
  • There is thus a clear need for somatic tissues to maintain their genetic integrity in the face of environmental challenges, and two types of interactions have been shown to play important roles in the conservation as well as flexibility of plant genomes: homologous recombination of repeated sequences and silencing of multiplied genes. (powells.com)
  • The opportunity of editing or deleting gene sequences drove the scientific community euphoric, with an enormous increase in the number of published studies using this type of techniques. (frontiersin.org)
  • By measuring the normalized coverage of TE sequences within genes, we identified sets of genes with conserved extremes of high/low TE density in the genomes of human, mouse and cow and denoted them. (ebscohost.com)
  • These should include scrambled siRNA sequences and transfection reagent alone for negative controls, and validated siRNA's against unrelated genes for positive controls. (amsbio.com)
  • Numerous siRNA sequences for a wide variety of genes from many species have been validated and published in the literature. (amsbio.com)
  • Efficient virus-induced gene silencing in Arabidopsis using a 'one-step' TYMV-derived vector," The Plant Journal , vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 678-690, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • B. Gould and E. M. Kramer, "Virus-induced gene silencing as a tool for functional analyses in the emerging model plant Aquilegia (columbine, Ranunculaceae)," The Plant Methods , vol. 3, no. 1, article 6, pp. 1-12, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • A method of high frequency virus-induced gene silencing in chili pepper ( Capsicum annuum L. cv. (hindawi.com)
  • S. R. Scofield, L. Huang, A. S. Brandt, and B. S. Gill, "Development of a virus-induced gene-silencing system for hexaploid wheat and its use in functional analysis of the Lr21 -mediated leaf rust resistance pathway," Plant Physiology , vol. 138, no. 4, pp. 2165-2173, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • We furthermore report the establishment of virus-induced gene silencing in N. tabacum for functional analysis of Ve1 signaling. (apsnet.org)
  • The gene is in an area of the genome that does not contain instructions for making proteins. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The central dogma of biology is that genes, made of DNA, are turned into chemical messengers called RNA that then are turned into proteins, the building blocks of living things. (forbes.com)
  • Which genes are expressed (i.e. govern the synthesis of new proteins) is controlled by the machinery that copies DNA to mRNA in a process called transcription. (scienceblog.com)
  • Forty years after researchers first discovered it in fruit flies, a once-obscure cluster of proteins called PRC2 has become a key target for new cancer-fighting drugs, due to its tendency-when mutated-to bind to and silence tumor suppressing genes. (cshlpress.com)
  • For the study, Cech and lead author Daniel Youmans, who is pursuing a PhD in biochemistry at CU Boulder and an MD at Anschutz Medical Center, used the gene-editing tool CRISPR to apply fluorescent tags to the individual proteins which make up PRC2, or Polycomb Repressive Complex 2. (cshlpress.com)
  • They also identified specific auxiliary proteins which PRC2 must click to in order to be recruited to its target genes. (cshlpress.com)
  • tRNA genes (tDNAs) are binding sites for transcription factors and architectural proteins and are thought to play an important role in the organization of the genome. (asm.org)
  • These genes do not contain information to make proteins , therefore they have long been regarded as 'junk' DNA. (bionews.org.uk)
  • The gene-silencer in question is Argonaute 2, a molecular machine in cells that can grab and destroy the RNA transcripts of specific genes, preventing them from being translated into proteins. (healthcanal.com)
  • Argonaute 2 and other Argonaute proteins regulate the influence of about a third of the genes found in humans and other mammals-and thus are among the most important modulators of our cells' day-to-day activities. (healthcanal.com)
  • Genes carry instructions for making proteins, which are then copied by special enzymes into many copies of messenger RNA. (scienceagogo.com)
  • Faulty or mutated genes lead to malfunctioning proteins that cause disease. (scienceagogo.com)
  • Epigenetic silencing of the family of secreted frizzled-related proteins (SFRPs), which act as Wnt antagonists, was recently reported in several solid tumors and in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In particular, methods used to silence genes are being increasingly used to produce therapeutics to combat cancer and diseases, such as infectious diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods using gene silencing are often considered better than gene knockouts since they allow researchers to study essential genes that are required for the animal models to survive and cannot be removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • H. Hou and W. Qiu, "A novel co-delivery system consisting of a Tomato bushy stunt virus and a defective interfering RNA for studying gene silencing," Journal of Virological Methods , vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 37-42, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • Methods of gene silencing also protect the organism's genome from transposons and viruses . (wikipedia.org)
  • The same is true for one of nature´s methods for transmitting information that activates or silences a gene: the "histone code. (innovations-report.com)
  • This review describes the features and recent advances on methods used in genomic engineering and silencing technologies that are advantageously used for bacterial cellular engineering. (mdpi.com)
  • Conventional methods are directed at individually changing each gene, its regulatory elements or its mRNA's translation rate. (diva-portal.org)
  • Current methods of turning genes on or off involve trying to block copies of the messenger RNA once it's already produced. (scienceagogo.com)
  • Gene silencing through the use of siRNA has become a primary tool for characterizing gene involvement in disease states and interactive pathways, there are several methods for preparing and delivering siRNA. (amsbio.com)
  • While current methods involve testing up to twenty hairpins to strongly suppress a given gene, the optimized reagents cut down the number to an average of four. (fiercepharma.com)
  • miRNA genes encode precursors with complex hairpin structures which are processed by endonucleolytic cleavage to form mature miRNAs. (uniprot.org)
  • In this study, the authors engineered the virus to express a small hairpin of RNA whose action is to silence the gene that express ER-alphas. (scienceblogs.com)
  • We compared the genetic requirements for MOP1, MOP2, and MOP3 for endogenous gene silencing by two hairpin transgenes with inverted repeats of the a1 ( anthocyaninless1 ) gene promoter (a1pIR) and the b1 gene enhancer (b1IR), respectively. (genetics.org)
  • One conserved miRNA, miR-320, is encoded within the promoter region of the cell cycle gene POLR3D in the antisense orientation. (pnas.org)
  • To assess whether endogenous miRNAs might direct TGS in mammals, we performed a bioinformatic search for potential miRNA target sites with perfect sequence complementarity in the promoter regions of well-annotated University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) known human genes ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Because the MTHFR gene product plays a role in the maintenance of the cell's pool of methionine, silencing of MTHFR is likely to contribute to global hypomethylation, a phenomenon almost universally observed in human cancer that has been overlooked in favor of gene promoter-associated hypermethylation," Herceg said. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Here we test this idea, and show that an expressed inverted repeat of a portion of the sex differentiation gene, transformer-2, (tra-2), driven by a GAL4-dependent promoter, does genetically repress the endogenous wild-type tra-2 function, producing a dominant loss-of-function mutant phenotype. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, timing and extent of silencing at both the initiation and relaxation stages are insensitive to changes in cell cycle activity, and intrinsic promoter strength also does not influence the extent of silencing by heterochromatin. (biologists.org)
  • Promoter hypermethylation was found for all four SFRP genes in HL60 and Raji cells and for SFRP-1, SFRP-2 and SFRP-5 in KG1a cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We conclude that promoter hypermethylation of the SFRP genes is a novel epigenetic event in AML that may contribute to aberrant activation of the Wnt pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Scientists combine CRISPR gene editing with single-cell sequencing for genotype-phenotype screens. (the-scientist.com)
  • Recently, a new hope in the gene therapy field emerged with the development of gene editing techniques like TALENs or CRISPR/Cas9 systems. (frontiersin.org)
  • We demonstrate that the CRISPR-associated DNA-binding Cascade complex can be used for efficient, long-lasting and programmable gene silencing. (diva-portal.org)
  • Furthermore, in each of these species, the mature miRNA sequence is located within −1 to −200 bp of the proximal known gene TSS, suggesting the functional importance of this conserved genomic context in the antisense orientation ( 14 ) ( Fig. 1 A ). miR-320 is encoded directly upstream of the cell cycle gene POLR3D, which is a conserved subunit specific to RNA polymerase III ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • The mouse is the most commonly used vertebrate model for the analysis of gene function because of the well-established genetic tools that are available for loss-of-function studies. (springer.com)
  • The 2006 Nobel Prize in Medicine went to Andrew Fire and Craig Mello for their discovery that short pieces of RNA, when introduced into cells, can silence a stretch of genetic code. (medindia.net)
  • In every experiment, injection of double-stranded RNA carrying a genetic code led to silencing of the gene containing that particular code. (scienceblog.com)
  • The Science study focus on one such gene, smedwi-2, and brings a new level of genetic detail to understanding planarian regeneration. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The genetic toolbox in Drosophila melanogaster offers a multitude of different effector constructs to silence neurons and neuron populations. (biologists.org)
  • Argonautes' gene-silencing functions also help cells cope with rogue genetic activity from invading viruses or cancer-promoting DNA mutations. (healthcanal.com)
  • Short pieces of RNA (so-called "hairpins") interfere with transcribed genetic information to silence genes. (fiercepharma.com)
  • Kun Yan Zhu, professor of entomology, and teammates Xin Zhang, graduate student in entomology from China, and Jianzhen Zhang, a visiting scientist from Shanxi University, China, investigated using nanoparticles to deliver double-stranded ribonucleic acid, dsRNA -- a molecule capable of specifically triggering gene silencing -- into mosquito larvae through their food. (innovations-report.com)
  • They could represent the most primitive small RNA pathways from which the well-known canonical RNA silencing pathways reported in higher eukaryotes evolved. (mdpi.com)
  • Laverne is a handy bioinformatics tool to help facilitate scientific exploration of related genes, diseases and pathways based on co-citations. (novusbio.com)
  • They also offer hope that similar approaches might work for a number of brain diseases caused by the deleterious action of specific disease genes. (news-medical.net)
  • Drosophila longevity is not affected by heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing. (nih.gov)
  • Heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing was then modulated without directly influencing HP1 as well as the deacetylases, again yielding no effect on lifespan. (nih.gov)
  • Heterochromatic silencing is initiated at the onset of gastrulation, approximately 1 hour after heterochromatin is first visible cytologically. (biologists.org)
  • These data suggest that the silencing activity of heterochromatin is developmentally programmed. (biologists.org)
  • 1997 ) Association of transcriptionally silent genes with Ikaros complexes at centromeric heterochromatin. (biologists.org)
  • With the popularity of siRNA-mediated gene silencing techniques, a wide variety of siRNA kits and reagents have become available. (amsbio.com)
  • An ARS researcher will use the technique known as gene silencing to identify genes that enable plants to naturally resist the fungus that causes soybean rust, the foliar disease shown here that diminishes yields. (usda.gov)
  • In Pedley's studies, the gene-silenced plants will be inoculated with spores of P. pachyrhizi , and monitored for a breakdown in resistance. (usda.gov)
  • cotton plants that silence a gene that allows cotton bollworms to process the toxin gossypol, which occurs naturally in cotton. (mercola.com)
  • This book summarizes current knowledge and working hypotheses about the frequencies and mechanisms of mitochondrial, plastid, nuclear and viral recombination and the inactivation of repeated genes in plants. (powells.com)
  • Peter Waterhouse and Ming-Bo Wang also received the 2007 Prime Minister's Prize for Science for their discovery of how to silence genes in plants. (www.csiro.au)
  • The answer could have far-reaching implications, because genes similar to smedwi-2 are found in plants, animals and human beings. (rxpgnews.com)
  • PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Gene silencing in plants. (slideserve.com)
  • Soon thereafter, biotech and pharmaceutical companies turned their attention to siRNAs-short pieces of RNA, DNA's cousin, that can prevent the activity of the specific gene they complement-as a potential therapeutic tool , but so far no one has successfully commercialized the technology. (technologyreview.com)
  • The advent of advanced gene therapy techniques such as gene silencing and gene editing opened a new avenue for the development of therapeutic strategies for NDs. (frontiersin.org)
  • For NDs, gene-editing technology also represents an important therapeutic option, and the first preclinical studies are now being published, showing the potential accomplishment for this technology. (frontiersin.org)
  • Dr Chinnaiyan suggested that THOR could be a good drug target - in the future, a therapeutic compound could be developed to 'knock-out' the gene, rendering it silent. (bionews.org.uk)
  • After investigating unexplored regions of the human genome, researchers have discovered a new non-coding gene that appears to play an important role in cancer development. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In addition, the genes they studied included a cluster of genes that strongly correlated with TGF-beta pathway activity in specimens from older women, which suggested that age-related epigenetic changes can accumulate and may contribute to cancer. (redorbit.com)
  • Gene therapy is now a potential tool to handle stubborn diseases such as cancer and heredopathia to which ordinary treatments are noneffective. (hindawi.com)
  • In the January 1, 2009, issue of Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, they also report finding a strong link between modification of the key gene, MTHFR, and tobacco use by lung cancer patients - even if the patient had smoked for a short period of time. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The findings reinforce tobacco's link to lung cancer development, but show that deactivating one specific gene through a process known as hypermethylation causes systemic dysfunction, or hypomethylation, in many genes, said the study's senior investigator, Zdenko Herceg, Ph.D., head of the Epigenetics Group at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (emaxhealth.com)
  • We found that tobacco-mediated hypermethylation of MTHFR, and consequent partial or complete silencing of the gene, may trigger global hypomethylation and deregulation of DNA synthesis, both of which may contribute to cancer development," he said. (emaxhealth.com)
  • While there is evidence that the mutations induced by these tobacco carcinogens do play an important role in cancer development, our study reveals the novel - and surprising - role that silencing of normal genes plays in development of lung cancer. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration has approved a test which can detect cancer-causing mutations in 324 genes. (bionews.org.uk)
  • Researchers have introduced new criteria to screen for BRCA gene mutations that could prevent more than 10,000 cases of cancer and save more than 2000 lives in the next decade. (bionews.org.uk)
  • BRCA1 " indicates the NCBI gene symbol, in this example, the breast cancer associated 1 gene. (idtdna.com)
  • Chronic inflammation and the chemical silencing of tumor-suppressing genes have long been known to influence development and progression of colorectal cancer. (mdanderson.org)
  • In the Duke study, RARbeta2 was silenced in 69 percent of women with early-stage breast cancer and 50 percent of women at high risk for the disease. (emaxhealth.com)
  • In addition to RARbeta2, Seewaldt's team is investigating other methylated genes to determine the extent of their role in the development of breast cancer. (emaxhealth.com)
  • An epigenetic change, a form of DNA control, that deactivates some genes linked to cancer late in human development has been conserved for more than 400 million years, new research led by the Garvan Institute of Medical Research suggests. (labmanager.com)
  • What was interesting is that most of these genes belong to a group called cancer testis antigens," says Dr. Ksenia Skvortsova, co-first author of the study. (labmanager.com)
  • The genes that code for cancer testis antigens, or CTAs for short, are only active in the male testis, but are turned off in all other tissues, in humans. (labmanager.com)
  • This process apparently turns off a single gene in a cancer cell responsible for the continued development and spread of the cancer. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Dr Ian Frazer, whose team developed the cervical cancer vaccine hailed the achievement of Dr McMillan's team as 'a significant step towards developing gene therapy for cervical cancer. (bio-medicine.org)
  • As of now, his team has turned off the cancer genes in a test tube and in a laboratory mouse. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Thus, the CIAPIN1 gene is assumed to be a potential target in treating breast cancer MDR ( 13 , 14 ). (scielo.br)
  • Now a Northwestern University research team is the first to demonstrate delivery of a drug that turns off a critical gene in this complex cancer, increasing survival rates significantly in animals with the deadly disease. (northwestern.edu)
  • Gene silencing can occur during either transcription or translation and is often used in research. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new picture of CSA mode of action is emerging in which the immunosuppressor prevents the transcription of a group of genes, concomitantly inducing the transcription of another set. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Overall, it has been shown that a rationally designed DNA nanodevice can be used to achieve rapid, simple, and cost-effective real-time determination of transcription factor binding activity and downstream gene silencing. (rsc.org)
  • We identified Eos, a zinc-finger transcription factor of the Ikaros family, as a critical mediator of Foxp3-dependent gene silencing in T regs . (sciencemag.org)
  • DNA Transcription: Where do genes begin and end? (physicsforums.com)
  • The Gene Silencing By Rna Pathway complements our catalog of research reagents including antibodies and ELISA kits against MAPK1, CDKN1A, DICER1, EIF2C2, AKT1. (novusbio.com)
  • That is why it is a good idea to use a system such as the Dicer siRNA Generation Kit , to produce a heterogeneous population of siRNAs against your entire target gene ORF (or a large portion thereof). (amsbio.com)
  • Since siRNAs are exquisitely sensitive, only a single bp mismatch with the target sequence could significantly reduce, if not eliminate, target gene suppression and produce non-specific gene silencing. (amsbio.com)
  • Dendrimers have attracted intense interest since their emanating research in the 1980s and are extensively studied as efficient DNA delivery vectors in gene transfer applications, due to their unique features based on the well-defined and multivalent structures. (hindawi.com)
  • Heinemann reported that his research revealed over 770 pages of potential matches between two GM genes in the wheat and the human genome. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Our genome consists of approximately 30,000 genes. (scienceblog.com)
  • Genome editing is an important technology for bacterial cellular engineering, which is commonly conducted by homologous recombination-based procedures, including gene knockout (disruption), knock-in (insertion), and allelic exchange. (mdpi.com)
  • One could even speculate that humans owe their existence to imprinting, although it involves only around 1% of the total genome-so far, about 80 imprinted genes have been identified in humans and the mouse. (embopress.org)
  • When a seed is created, a great number of its genes are silenced until the plant is adult and needs their activity", explains Dr Calonje. (eurekalert.org)
  • Molecular biologist Kerry Pedley , at the ARS Foreign Disease-Weed Science Research Unit at Fort Detrick, Md., will use gene silencing to discover plant genes that play a role in orchestrating defense responses to P. pachyrhizi in resistant soybeans. (usda.gov)
  • The most striking effects were observed by plant biologists who were trying to increase the colour intensity of the petals in petunias by introducing a gene inducing the formation of red pigment in the flowers. (scienceblog.com)
  • Potato virus X-induced gene silencing in leaves and tubers of potato," Plant Physiology , vol. 134, no. 4, pp. 1308-1316, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • The reviews have been written by distinguished authors who have made significant contributions to plant gene silencing research. (gate2biotech.com)
  • This volume supersedes other books on gene silencing by focussing on plant systems, where many pioneering experiments have been performed, and by including the latest developments from top laboratories. (gate2biotech.com)
  • Plant silenced for the Magnesium chelatase gene. (slideserve.com)
  • How to insert genes in a plant? (physicsforums.com)
  • In this Application Note we describe the evaluation of a method using fluorescent labels to determine transfection efficiency and the gene silencing effect. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Even in the absence of an observable effect of silencing a specific OSN population under control of the promotor of the odor-binding OR, efficiency of silencing can be controlled by targeting the silencing effector gene to the whole OR-expressing OSN population under control of the Orco promotor. (biologists.org)
  • For this preclinical study published in the Annals of Neurology , University of Michigan researchers employed nucleotide-based gene silencing to target the SCA3 disease gene, ATXN3. (news-medical.net)
  • This procedure is also known as gene silencing that is highly effective and specific, because one nucleotide mismatch between the target mRNA and the siRNA can prevent the recognition and thus the silencing process. (hindawi.com)
Scientists discover how to silence genes, could prevent disorders • Earth.com
Scientists discover how to silence genes, could prevent disorders • Earth.com (earth.com)
Macrophages promote a profibrotic phenotype in orbital fibroblasts through increased hyaluronic acid production and cell...
Macrophages promote a profibrotic phenotype in orbital fibroblasts through increased hyaluronic acid production and cell... (nature.com)
An effector protein of the wheat stripe rust fungus targets chloroplasts and suppresses chloroplast function | Nature...
An effector protein of the wheat stripe rust fungus targets chloroplasts and suppresses chloroplast function | Nature... (nature.com)
Wolbachia induces reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent activation of the Toll pathway to control dengue virus in the...
Wolbachia induces reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent activation of the Toll pathway to control dengue virus in the... (pnas.org)
Organelle-nucleus cross-talk regulates plant intercellular communication via plasmodesmata | PNAS
Organelle-nucleus cross-talk regulates plant intercellular communication via plasmodesmata | PNAS (pnas.org)
Gene-Silencing Technique Targets Scarring - MIT Technology Review
Gene-Silencing Technique Targets Scarring - MIT Technology Review (technologyreview.com)
Short Sharp Science: Today on New Scientist: 27 April 2010
Short Sharp Science: Today on New Scientist: 27 April 2010 (newscientist.com)
Enhancing tumor cell response to chemotherapy through nanoparticle-mediated codelivery of siRNA and cisplatin prodrug | PNAS
Enhancing tumor cell response to chemotherapy through nanoparticle-mediated codelivery of siRNA and cisplatin prodrug | PNAS (pnas.org)
How gene silencing works in plants | EurekAlert! Science News
How gene silencing works in plants | EurekAlert! Science News (eurekalert.org)
How Gene Silencing May Provide Cures - MIT Technology Review
How Gene Silencing May Provide Cures - MIT Technology Review (technologyreview.com)
Career Profiles | Page 22 | Science | AAAS
Career Profiles | Page 22 | Science | AAAS (sciencemag.org)
Gene-Silencing Drugs Finally Show Promise | MIT Technology Review
Gene-Silencing Drugs Finally Show Promise | MIT Technology Review (technologyreview.com)
Wound Healing Improvement with PHD-2 Silenced Fibroblasts in Diabetic Mice
Wound Healing Improvement with PHD-2 Silenced Fibroblasts in Diabetic Mice (journals.plos.org)
Uses of Short Hairpin RNA (shRNA) Interference
Uses of Short Hairpin RNA (shRNA) Interference (news-medical.net)
Regulation of Toll-like receptor signaling by NDP52-mediated selective autophagy is normally inactivated by A20 | SpringerLink
Regulation of Toll-like receptor signaling by NDP52-mediated selective autophagy is normally inactivated by A20 | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Capturing intercellular sugar-mediated ligand-receptor recognitions via a simple yet highly biospecific interfacial system |...
Capturing intercellular sugar-mediated ligand-receptor recognitions via a simple yet highly biospecific interfacial system |... (nature.com)
Frontiers | At the Intersection of Biomaterials and Gene Therapy: Progress in Non-viral Delivery of Nucleic Acids |...
Frontiers | At the Intersection of Biomaterials and Gene Therapy: Progress in Non-viral Delivery of Nucleic Acids |... (frontiersin.org)
Frontiers | Curcumin Inhibits Growth of Human NCI-H292 Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells by Increasing FOXA2 Expression |...
Frontiers | Curcumin Inhibits Growth of Human NCI-H292 Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells by Increasing FOXA2 Expression |... (frontiersin.org)
Frontiers | Fitter Mitochondria Are Associated With Radioresistance in Human Head and Neck SQD9 Cancer Cells | Pharmacology
Frontiers | Fitter Mitochondria Are Associated With Radioresistance in Human Head and Neck SQD9 Cancer Cells | Pharmacology (frontiersin.org)
Silencing 'junk' gene could halt tumor growth
Silencing 'junk' gene could halt tumor growth (medicalnewstoday.com)
Silencing 'junk' gene could halt tumor growth
Silencing 'junk' gene could halt tumor growth (medicalnewstoday.com)
Gene Silencing Makes Female Mice Less Horny - Retrospectacle: A Neuroscience Blog
Gene Silencing Makes Female Mice Less Horny - Retrospectacle: A Neuroscience Blog (scienceblogs.com)
Mutant KRAS is a druggable target for pancreatic cancer | PNAS
Mutant KRAS is a druggable target for pancreatic cancer | PNAS (pnas.org)
R-Loops Break Walls Of Gene Silencing
R-Loops Break Walls Of Gene Silencing (medicalnewstoday.com)
Oncogenesis News, Research - Page 5
Oncogenesis News, Research - Page 5 (news-medical.net)
MPI of Biochemistry | Max Planck Society
MPI of Biochemistry | Max Planck Society (mpg.de)
Abrams Lab: Probing Genes and Networks that Specify Cell Death - UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas
Abrams Lab: Probing Genes and Networks that Specify Cell Death - UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (utsouthwestern.edu)
Paramecium swimming and ciliary beating patterns: a study on four RNA interference mutations   - Integrative Biology (RSC...
Paramecium swimming and ciliary beating patterns: a study on four RNA interference mutations - Integrative Biology (RSC... (pubs.rsc.org)
SMC1B is present in mammalian somatic cells and interacts with mitotic cohesin proteins | Scientific Reports
SMC1B is present in mammalian somatic cells and interacts with mitotic cohesin proteins | Scientific Reports (nature.com)
Search Content | Science News
Search Content | Science News (sciencenews.org)
Laurel Hamers, Author at Science News
Laurel Hamers, Author at Science News (sciencenews.org)