Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Candidiasis: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Candida glabrata: A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI commonly found on the body surface. It causes opportunistic infections especially in immunocompromised patients.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Candidiasis, Oral: Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Candida tropicalis: A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI that is a major cause of SEPTICEMIA and disseminated CANDIDIASIS, especially in patients with LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is also found as part of the normal human mucocutaneous flora.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal: Infection of the VULVA and VAGINA with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Azoles: Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Histatins: A group of small, histidine-rich, cationic peptides in human SALIVA which are antibacterial and antifungal.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Fungemia: The presence of fungi circulating in the blood. Opportunistic fungal sepsis is seen most often in immunosuppressed patients with severe neutropenia or in postoperative patients with intravenous catheters and usually follows prolonged antibiotic therapy.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Candidiasis, Cutaneous: Candidiasis of the skin manifested as eczema-like lesions of the interdigital spaces, perleche, or chronic paronychia. (Dorland, 27th ed)Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Echinocandins: Cyclic hexapeptides of proline-ornithine-threonine-proline-threonine-serine. The cyclization with a single non-peptide bond can lead them to be incorrectly called DEPSIPEPTIDES, but the echinocandins lack ester links. Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Farnesol: A colorless liquid extracted from oils of plants such as citronella, neroli, cyclamen, and tuberose. It is an intermediate step in the biological synthesis of cholesterol from mevalonic acid in vertebrates. It has a delicate odor and is used in perfumery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Ergosterol: A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Candidemia: A form of invasive candidiasis where species of CANDIDA are present in the blood.Stomatitis, Denture: Inflammation of the mouth due to denture irritation.beta-Glucans: Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Flucytosine: A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Miconazole: An imidazole antifungal agent that is used topically and by intravenous infusion.Mouth Mucosa: Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Dentures: An appliance used as an artificial or prosthetic replacement for missing teeth and adjacent tissues. It does not include CROWNS; DENTAL ABUTMENTS; nor TOOTH, ARTIFICIAL.Ketoconazole: Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Sterol 14-Demethylase: An NADPH-dependent P450 enzyme that plays an essential role in the sterol biosynthetic pathway by catalyzing the demethylation of 14-methyl sterols such as lanosterol. The enzyme acts via the repeated hydroxylation of the 14-methyl group, resulting in its stepwise conversion into an alcohol, an aldehyde and then a carboxylate, which is removed as formic acid. Sterol 14-demethylase is an unusual cytochrome P450 enzyme in that it is found in a broad variety of organisms including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and protozoa.Lipopeptides: Compounds consisting of a short peptide chain conjugated with an acyl chain.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.TriazolesItraconazole: A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases: A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.MycosesPeptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Vitamin K 2: A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Eye Infections, Fungal: Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Clotrimazole: An imidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of antimycotic activity. It inhibits biosynthesis of the sterol ergostol, an important component of fungal CELL MEMBRANES. Its action leads to increased membrane permeability and apparent disruption of enzyme systems bound to the membrane.Chitin: A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Chitin Synthase: An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC 2.4.1.16.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Vaginitis: Inflammation of the vagina characterized by pain and a purulent discharge.Aspartic Acid Proteases: A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.Nystatin: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces noursei, S. aureus, and other Streptomyces species. The biologically active components of the complex are nystatin A1, A2, and A3.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Genes, Switch: Genes that cause the epigenotype (i.e., the interrelated developmental pathways through which the adult organism is realized) to switch to an alternate cell lineage-related pathway. Switch complexes control the expression of normal functional development as well as oncogenic transformation.Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Mice, Inbred BALB CDNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Cryptococcus: A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.Alphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Aspergillus fumigatus: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Candidiasis, Invasive: An important nosocomial fungal infection with species of the genus CANDIDA, most frequently CANDIDA ALBICANS. Invasive candidiasis occurs when candidiasis goes beyond a superficial infection and manifests as CANDIDEMIA, deep tissue infection, or disseminated disease with deep organ involvement.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Endocarditis: Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.Genes, Mating Type, Fungal: Fungal genes that mostly encode TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In some FUNGI they also encode PHEROMONES and PHEROMONE RECEPTORS. The transcription factors control expression of specific proteins that give a cell its mating identity. Opposite mating type identities are required for mating.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Glucan 1,3-beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for 1,3-beta-D-glucasidic linkages. It catalyzes hydrolysis of beta-D-glucose units from the non-reducing ends of 1,3-beta-D-glucans, releasing GLUCOSE.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Pharyngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PHARYNX.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Candidiasis, Chronic Mucocutaneous: A clinical syndrome characterized by development, usually in infancy or childhood, of a chronic, often widespread candidiasis of skin, nails, and mucous membranes. It may be secondary to one of the immunodeficiency syndromes, inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, or associated with defects in cell-mediated immunity, endocrine disorders, dental stomatitis, or malignancy.Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Mice, Inbred ICRBlotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Flavobacteriaceae: A family of bacteria in the order Sphingobacteriales, class Sphingobacteria. They are gram-negative rods, mostly saprophytic in terrestrial and aquatic habitats.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Spheroplasts: Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.Chromogenic Compounds: Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Bacillaceae: A family of bacteria which produce endospores. They are mostly saprophytes from soil, but a few are insect or animal parasites or pathogens.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Oropharynx: The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Diaminopimelic AcidAnaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Rhodobacteraceae: A family in the order Rhodobacterales, class ALPHAPROTEOBACTERIA.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Cheek: The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mannosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose from a nucleoside diphosphate mannose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. The group includes EC 2.4.1.32, EC 2.4.1.48, EC 2.4.1.54, and EC 2.4.1.57.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Hot Springs: Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Bibenzyls: Compounds with 1,2-diphenylethane. They are structurally like reduced STILBENES.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Glucan Endo-1,3-beta-D-Glucosidase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-glucans including laminarin, paramylon, and pachyman.Econazole: An imidazole derivative that is commonly used as a topical antifungal agent.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.PhenazinesTrichophyton: A mitosporic fungal genus and an anamorphic form of Arthroderma. Various species attack the skin, nails, and hair.Benomyl: A systemic agricultural fungicide used for control of certain fungal diseases of stone fruit.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Aspergillosis: Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Sorbose: A ketose sugar that is commonly used in the commercial synthesis of ASCORBIC ACID.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.DNA, Archaeal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Trichosporon: A mitosporic fungal genus causing opportunistic infections, endocarditis, fungemia, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (see TRICHOSPORONOSIS) and white PIEDRA.Cytophagaceae: A family of gram-negative, gliding bacteria in the order Cytophagales, class Cytophagia. They are found in SOIL and SEA WATER.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Tetrazolium Salts: Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Klig LS, Zobel PA, Devry CG, Losberger C (June 1994). "Comparison of INO1 gene sequences and products in Candida albicans and ... The regulation of the structural gene encoding 1L-myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase has also been analyzed at the ... Identification of the INO1 gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv reveals a novel class of inositol-1-phosphate synthase ... In Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast), the transcriptional regulation of the INO1 gene encoding inositol-3-phosphate ...
"Nucleotide sequence of the Candida albicans aspartyl proteinase gene". Nucleic Acids Res. 17: 1779-1779. doi:10.1093/nar/17.4. ... Candida albicans aspartic proteinase, Candida albicans carboxyl proteinase, Candida albicans secretory acid proteinase, Candida ... Activates trypsinogen, and degrades keratin This endopeptidase js present in yeast Candida albicans. Remold, H.; Fasold, H.; ... Rüchel, R. (1981). "Properties of a purified proteinase from the yeast Candida albicans". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 659: 99-113. ...
Since adding targeted gene deletion strains of Neurospora crassa, Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans to the ... His research using gene and genome sequence has led to new insights into mutation, and the nature of genome variability among ... In the 1980s and 1990s the FGSC added molecular materials including cloned genes, cloning vectors and gene libraries to the ... and Candida albicans. As a genetic repository, the FGSC has always endeavored to represent the diversity of genetic materials ...
It was adapted by integrating a HIS1 reporter gene preceded by five LexAOp sequences. In the C2H system the bait plasmid (pC2HB ... Candida Genome Database U.S. National Institutes of Health on the Candida albicans genome Mycobank data on Candida albicans ... Candida which can be used to identify different species of candida. Candida albicans can be seen as a tautology. Candida comes ... "How Candida albicans switches phenotype - and back again: the SIR2 silencing gene has a say in Candida's colony type". NCBI ...
Sequence analysis has revealed CCL28 to be most similar to another CC chemokine called CCL27. The gene C5orf34 is found ... such as Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria and the fungus Candida albicans. Human CCL28 is encoded by an RNA transcript ... The gene codes for a 127-amino acid CCL28 protein with a 22-amino acid N-terminal signal peptide. It shares 76% nucleic acid ... Rodriguez MW, Paquet AC, Yang YH, Erle DJ (July 2004). "Differential gene expression by integrin beta 7+ and beta 7- memory T ...
The technology had been used to functionally inactivate genes in human cell lines and cells, to study Candida albicans, to ... Unenriched sequencing libraries often have abundant undesired sequences. Cas9 can specifically deplete the undesired sequences ... Between 1,600 and 1,800 genes passed this test-of the 20,000 or so known human genes. Such genes are more strongly activated, ... the sequence of the CRISPR spacer must correspond perfectly to the sequence of the target phage gene. Phages can continue to ...
2001). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XX. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from ... 1997). "Identification of Glu-330 as the catalytic nucleophile of Candida albicans exo-beta-(1,3)-glucanase". J. Biol. Chem. ... Cell division cycle 2-like protein kinase 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDC2L5 gene. The protein encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: CDC2L5 cell division cycle 2-like 5 (cholinesterase-related cell division controller)". McRae, Jeremy F.; Clayton ...
"Nucleotide sequence analysis of the human salivary protein genes HIS1 and HIS2, and evolution of the STATH/HIS gene family". ... Isolation, characterization, primary structure, and fungistatic effects on Candida albicans". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (16): 7472-7. ... 1989). "Localization of the genes for histatins to human chromosome 4q13 and tissue distribution of the mRNAs". Am. J. Hum. ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
Candida albicans[edit]. C. albicans is a yeast with a particular feature: it translates the CUG codon into serine rather than ... This library can be selected against the desired target sequence, which is inserted in the promoter region of the reporter gene ... albicans genes. To provide a more native environment a C. albicans two-hybrid (C2H) system was developed. With this system ... Finally, the DNA sequences are determined through dideoxy sequencing.[2] Controlling sensitivity[edit]. The Escherichia coli- ...
2000). "The Candida albicans gene for mRNA 5-cap methyltransferase: identification of additional residues essential for ... 1998). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. VIII. 78 new cDNA clones from brain which code for ... Saha N, Schwer B, Shuman S (1999). "Characterization of human, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Candida albicans mRNA cap ... "Entrez Gene: RNMT RNA (guanine-7-) methyltransferase". Ensinger MJ, Martin SA, Paoletti E, Moss B (1975). "Modification of the ...
2001). "Mechanisms of fluconazole resistance in Candida albicans isolates from Japanese AIDS patients". J. Antimicrob. ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... CDR1 human gene location in the UCSC Genome Browser. CDR1 human gene details in the UCSC Genome Browser.. ... "Entrez Gene: CDR1 cerebellar degeneration-related protein 1, 34kDa". Sharabi A, Luger D, Ben-David H, et al. (2007). "The role ...
The pneumocandin biosynthetic gene cluster was previously elucidated by a whole genome sequencing approach. Knowledge of the ... like the Candida albicans membrane. This is a very important activity since there is an increase in the frequency of fungal ... Retrospective analysis of the GLOXY4 gene in a previously isolated pneumocandin B0-exclusive mutant (ATCC 74030) indicated that ... infections, accompanied by an increase in the variety of opportunistic and pathogenic fungi such as Candida. This compound is ...
"Nucleotide sequence analysis of the human salivary protein genes HIS1 and HIS2, and evolution of the STATH/HIS gene family". ... 2002). "Killing of Candida albicans by histatin 5: cellular uptake and energy requirement". Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 79 (3-4): ... Li XS, Reddy MS, Baev D, Edgerton M (2003). "Candida albicans Ssa1/2p is the cell envelope binding protein for human salivary ... 2002). "Human salivary histatin 5 causes disordered volume regulation and cell cycle arrest in Candida albicans". Infect. Immun ...
The reverse experiment, in which short sequences of plant genes were introduced into viruses, showed that the targeted gene was ... The presence of RNAi in other budding yeast species such as Saccharomyces castellii and Candida albicans, further demonstrates ... it was possible to target the silencing of specific sequences in a gene, rather than silencing the entire gene. Only a year ... RNA sequences (siRNA and miRNA) that are complementary to parts of a promoter can increase gene transcription, a phenomenon ...
... in which a mRNA or protein product of a gene stimulates transcription of the gene; e.g. Wor1 gene in Candida albicans ... the sequence of nucleotides)-in other words, epigenetically. The less precise term "epigenetic inheritance" may be used to ... Vastenhouw NL, Brunschwig K, Okihara KL, Müller F, Tijsterman M, Plasterk RH (August 2006). "Gene expression: long-term gene ... "Epigenetic properties of white-opaque switching in Candida albicans are based on a self-sustaining transcriptional feedback ...
"Quorum Sensing in the Dimorphic Fungus Candida albicans Is Mediated by Farnesol". asm.org. Retrieved 29 July 2015. Wynendaele, ... although functionally similar to the LuxI/LuxR genes, have a markedly divergent sequence. This family of quorum-sensing ... This result is in line with the observation that quorum sensing genes tend to control the expression of a wide array of genes ... Farnesol is used by the fungus Candida albicans as a quorum sensing molecule that inhibits filamentation. A database of quorum- ...
"The diploid genome sequence of Candida albicans". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... "Many of the genes required for mating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are also required for mating in Candida albicans". Molecular ... "The diploid genome sequence of Candida albicans". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 101 (19): 7329-7334. doi: ... "Assignment of cloned genes to the seven electrophoretically separated Candida albicans chromosomes". Molecular and Cellular ...
The purified DEFB106 showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. GRCh38 ... challenge the determination of individual defensin gene repertoires and the assembly of a contiguous human reference sequence ... 2006). "Cross-species analysis of the mammalian beta-defensin gene family: presence of syntenic gene clusters and preferential ... All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic chromosomal regions. Chromosome 8p23 contains at least ...
... the genes responsible for coding for the enzymes had to be isolated and sequenced, which was done using the bacteria E.coli, ... "Inhibitors of the glyoxylate cycle enzyme ICL1 in Candida albicans for potential use as antifungal agents". PLoS One. 9 (4): : ... It is believed by some that the genes to produce these enzymes, however, are pseudogenic in mammals, meaning that the gene is ... and the AceB gene, responsible for encoding for malate synthase were sequenced. Engineers have been able to successfully ...
For example, in the yeast Candida albicans, genes found in the nuclear genome likely originated from endosymbiosis and remain ... Because of their sequence similarity and operon structure, many two-component systems - particularly histidine kinases - are ... New two-component systems may arise by gene duplication or by lateral gene transfer, and the relative rates of each process ... In most cases, response regulator genes are located in the same operon as their cognate histidine kinase; lateral gene ...
... and Candida albicans. Drug-induced psoriasis may occur with beta blockers, lithium, antimalarial medications, non-steroidal ... Recently, the first gene directly linked to psoriasis has been identified. A rare mutation in the gene encoding for the CARD14 ... and an overabundance of skin cells result from the sequence of pathological events in psoriasis. Skin cells are replaced every ... These genes are on the pathway that upregulate tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor κB, two genes involved in ...
"The Candida albicans gene for mRNA 5'-cap methyltransferase: identification of additional residues essential for catalysis". ... A GU-rich sequence is also usually present further downstream on the pre-mRNA molecule. After the synthesis of the sequence ... coding or important sequences involved in translation), and introns (non-coding sequences). The pre-mRNA molecule undergoes ... This complex cleaves the RNA between the polyadenylation sequence and the GU-rich sequence at the cleavage site marked by the ( ...
The pH of the Host Niche Controls Gene Expression in and Virulence of Candida albicans. Infect. Immun. July 1998 vol. 66 no. 7 ... Genome sequencing reveals diversification of virulence factor content and possible host adaptation in distinct subpopulations ... An example of an opportunistic pathogen is Candida albicans. Candida albicans is a type of fungus/yeast found in the intestines ... Though the mechanisms Candida albicans uses to switch from being a commensal to a pathogen are largely unknown, the reasons for ...
Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and other fungi possess high affinity (Km ≈ ... Two gene products are required for high affinity Fe2+ transport, Fet3p which is the oxidase, and Ftr1p which is the permease ... An N-terminal region (residues 100-218) shows sequence similarity to the C-terminal cytochrome C6 domain of the diheme c-type ... permease high-affinity iron transport complex from Candida albicans".Molecular Microbiology 81 (2): 473-485. doi:10.1111/j.1365 ...
Investigation of gene expression during biofilm formation by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans revealed a co-regulated set ... In order to link sequence read abundance to expression of a particular gene, transcript sequences are aligned to a reference ... Gene expression is measured against defined standards both for the gene of interest and control genes. The measurement by qPCR ... "Candida albicans biofilms: a developmental state associated with specific and stable gene expression patterns". Eukaryotic Cell ...
The DNA sequence of a gene often varies from one individual to another. Those variations are called alleles. While some genes ... "Drug resistance is not directly affected by mating type locus zygosity in Candida albicans". Antimicrobial Agents and ... Some genes may have two alleles with equal distribution. For other genes, one allele may be common, and another allele may be ... Hemizygosity is also observed when one copy of a gene is deleted, or in the heterogametic sex when a gene is located on a sex ...
White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetic. In: ... Among 26 strains we identified 14 Candida albicans, six Candida duobushaemulonii, four Candida glabrata, and two Candida ... albicans species have been identified (Richter et al. 2005, Sobel 2007). Among C. non-albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida ... C. albicans (14), Candida duobushaemulonii (6), C. glabrata (4), and C. tropicalis (2) isolates were identified by phenotypic ...
Tsai SC, Tsai LD, Li YK (2005) An isolated Candida albicans TL3 capable of degrading phenol at large concentration. Biosci ... Reiser J, Glumoff V, Ochsner UO, Fiechter A (1994) Molecular analysis of the Trichosporoncutaneum DSM 70698 argA gene and its ... Sugita T, Nishikawa A, Shinoda T (1998) Identification of Trichosporon asahii by PCR based on sequences of the internal ... Sugita T, Nishikawa A, Ikeda R, Shinoda T (1999) Identification of medically relevant Trichosporon species based on sequences ...
Candida albicans (Staab et al., 1996) was used to clone the complete hyphal wall protein 1 gene (HWP1). Hyphal forms of C. ... Genetic organization and sequence analysis of the hypha-specific cell wall protein gene HWP1 of Candida albicans Yeast. 1998 ... Candida albicans (Staab et al., 1996) was used to clone the complete hyphal wall protein 1 gene (HWP1). Hyphal forms of C. ... albicans invade mucosal surfaces of immunocompromised patients such as those with AIDS. HWP1 consisted of an open reading frame ...
... family of Candida albicans includes eight genes that encode large cell-surface glycoproteins. The high degree of sequence ... relatedness between the ALS genes and the tremendous allelic variability often present in the same C. albicans strain ... Discovering the secrets of the Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence (ALS) gene family--a sticky pursuit Med Mycol. 2008 ... The agglutinin-like sequence (ALS) family of Candida albicans includes eight genes that encode large cell-surface glycoproteins ...
Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed that 86-34% identity exists with lipases from other Candida species. The lipase and ... A novel lipase gene lip5 from the yeast Candida albicans was cloned and sequenced. ... which show high sequence identities in gene sequences, have been found in yeast Candida albicans (C. albicans) [12], but the ... A novel lipase gene lip5 from the yeast Candida albicans was cloned and sequenced. Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed ...
Candida albicans ATCC ® 10231™ Designation: 3147 [CBS 6431, CCY 29-3-106, CIP 48.72, DSM 1386, IFO 1594, NCPF 3179, NCYC 1363, ... Comparison of INO1 gene sequences and products in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast 10: 789-800, 1994. ... Candida albicans alpha-tubulin (TUB1) gene, complete cds. Nucleotide (GenBank) : L22737 Candida albicans inositol-1-phosphate ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : D86430 Candida albicans gene for CaRho1, complete cds. Nucleotide (GenBank) : AX109674 Sequence 407 from ...
Candida albicans ATCC ® 90028™ Designation: NCCLS 11 Application: Produces collagenase Susceptibility disc testing ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : AX109678 Sequence 411 from Patent WO0123604. Nucleotide (GenBank) : AB006854 Candida albicans gene for ... Sequenced Data 18S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence; internal transcribed spacer 1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and internal ... Rapid detection of ERG11 gene mutations in clinical Candida albicans isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole by ...
Analysis of antifungal resistance genes in Candida albicans and Candida glabrata using next generation sequencing.. Spettel K1 ... The genes ERG11, ERG3, TAC1 and GSC1 (FKS1) in C. albicans, as well as ERG11, CgPDR1, FKS1 and FKS2 in C. glabrata were ... Forty clinical Candida isolates (16 C. albicans and 24 C. glabrata strains) with MICs for azoles and echinocandins above the ... albicans strains. Seven point mutations in ERG11 were determined in azole-resistant C. albicans whereas in azole-resistant C. ...
... even though the glycosylphosphotidylinositol-anchorage sequence remained intact. These data suggest a model of Als1p in which ... Functional analysis of the Candida albicans ALS1 gene product.. Loza L1, Fu Y, Ibrahim AS, Sheppard DC, Filler SG, Edwards JE ... ALS1 encodes a cell surface protein that mediates adherence of Candida albicans to endothelial cells. The predicted Als1p has ... which contains a glycosylphosphotidylinositol-anchorage sequence. We used site-directed mutagenesis to delineate the regions in ...
The solid and open boxes represent the gene and intergenic sequence polymorphisms. (B) Diagram of sites is presented for the α/ ... homozygosis in Candida albicans, mitotic recombination (A), gene conversion (B), and deletion of one homolog of chromosome 5 ... albicans sequencing project database (http://www-sequence.stanford.edu/group/candida/), the partial physical map posted by P. T ... Candida albicans, which is diploid, possesses a single mating-type (MTL) locus on chromosome 5, which is normally heterozygous ...
1989 Sequence of the Candida albicans gene encoding actin. Nucleic Acids Res. 17: 9488. ... 1996 The Candida albicans HYR1 gene, which is activated in response to hyphal development, belongs to a gene family encoding ... gene databases, or our own sequencing for the RBT and WAP1 genes. The identification of the RBT series of genes, which were ... 1998 Linkage of adhesion, filamentous growth, and virulence in Candida albicans to a single gene, INT1. Science 279: 1355-1358 ...
The gene for serine tRNA having anticodon sequence CAG in a pathogenic yeast, candida albicans. / Suzuki, Tsutomu; Ueda, Takuya ... The gene for serine tRNA having anticodon sequence CAG in a pathogenic yeast, candida albicans. :: Nucleic acids research. 1993 ... title = "The gene for serine tRNA having anticodon sequence CAG in a pathogenic yeast, candida albicans", ... T1 - The gene for serine tRNA having anticodon sequence CAG in a pathogenic yeast, candida albicans ...
1992 Cloningand sequence analysis of a rapamycin-binding protein-encoding gene (RBP1) from Candida albicans. Gene 113: 125-127 ... 1994 Sequence of a dihydrofolate reductase-encoding gene from Candida albicans. Gene 147: 115-118. ... 1992 Isolation, characterization, and sequencing of Candida albicans repetitive sequence element 2. Gene 116: 51-57. ... 1992 The carboxypeptidase Y-encoding gene from Candida albicans and its transcription during yeast-to-hyphae conversion. Gene ...
Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These ... Other Gene names: CAWG_01335 C4YFL7 - Candida albicans (strain WO-1) 2 ... and many other details related to sequence mismatches. Icons represent a number of different sequence modifications that can be ... represents expression tags that have been added to the sequence. The E icon E. represents an engineered mutation. However, ...
Candida albicans Response Regulator Gene SSK1 Regulates a Subset of Genes Whose Functions Are Associated with Cell Wall ... Candida albicans Response Regulator Gene SSK1 Regulates a Subset of Genes Whose Functions Are Associated with Cell Wall ... Candida albicans Response Regulator Gene SSK1 Regulates a Subset of Genes Whose Functions Are Associated with Cell Wall ... Candida albicans Response Regulator Gene SSK1 Regulates a Subset of Genes Whose Functions Are Associated with Cell Wall ...
Isolation of a Candida albicans DNA sequence conferring adhesion and aggregation on Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Bacteriol. 175 ... A Candida albicans dispersed, repeated gene family and its epidemiological application. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85 1988 1452 ... Cloning and Characterization ofCAD1/AAF1, a Gene from Candida albicans That Induces Adherence to Endothelial Cells after ... Cloning and Characterization ofCAD1/AAF1, a Gene from Candida albicans That Induces Adherence to Endothelial Cells after ...
Maps of four Candida optimized BiFC plasmids for tagging genes of interest N- or C-terminally with complementary yEmVenus parts ... A Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation Tool for Identification of Protein-Protein Interactions in Candida albicans. Ana ... Sequence of BiFC3 plasmid. (.txt). *File S4 - Sequence of BiFC3 plasmid. (.txt). ... G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics August 2017, g3.300149.2017; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1534/g3.117.300149 ...
... albicans gene deletion mutants were assessed for their sensitivity to zymolyase. (C) Growth curve analysis of C. albicans gene ... The Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence family of adhesins: functional insights gained from structural analysis. Future ... Disruption of each of the secreted aspartyl proteinase genes SAP1, SAP2, and SAP3 of Candida albicans attenuates virulence. ... Rapid hypothesis testing with Candida albicans through gene disruption with short homology regions. J Bacteriol 181:1868-1874. ...
Sequence and transcript analysis of the C. albicans URA3 gene encoding orotidine-5′-phosphate decarboxylase.Curr. Genet.161989 ... Phenotype in Candida albicans of a disruption of the BGL2 gene encoding a 1,3-β-glucosyltransferase.Microbiology1431997367376. ... A Candida albicans RAS-related gene (CaRSR1) is involved in budding, cell morphogenesis and hypha development.Microbiology143 ... Linkage of adhesion, filamentous growth and virulence in Candida albicans to a single gene, INT1.Science279199813551358. ...
... gene_detail+CA3435〉). The sequence analysis and primer design involved use of the DNASTAR software package. The sequence has 47 ... IDO affects Candida albicans morphology. Candida hyphae and yeasts were exposed at 37°C in 5% CO2 in RPMI 1640 to 10 μM 1-MT ... such as mice infected with Candida yeasts i.v. or Candida hyphae i.g. or reinfected with Candida hyphae. The increased ... The C. albicans highly virulent Vir−13 (hereafter referred to as Candida hyphae) and the low virulence Vir−3 (hereafter ...
The obtained sequences were compared to the sequence of the C. albicans genome (http://www-sequence.stanford.edu/group/candida ... EAP1, a Candida albicans Gene Involved in Binding Human Epithelial Cells. Fang Li, Sean P. Palecek ... EAP1, a Candida albicans Gene Involved in Binding Human Epithelial Cells Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Cloning and expression of a gene encoding an integrin-like protein in Candida albicans.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA93:357-361. ...
1998) The pH of the host niche controls gene expression in and virulence of Candida albicans. Infect. Immun. 66:3317-3325. ... Deletion of either gene results in a pH-conditional defect in cell morphology and virulence. Multiple sequence alignments ... 1996) Candida albicans homologue of GGP1/GAS1 gene is functional in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and contains the determinants for ... 1995) PHR1, a regulated gene of Candida albicans, is required for morphogenesis. Mol. Cell. Biol. 15:601-613. ...
Isolation and sequence analysis of the gene for translation elongation factor 3 from Candida albicans.Nucleic Acids Res.201992 ... Homologs of the yeast neck filament associated genes: isolation and sequence analysis of Candida albicans CDC3 and CDC10.Mol. ... Microsatellite polymorphism in the promoter sequence of the elongation factor 3 gene of Candida albicans as the basis for a ... Assignment of cloned genes to the seven electrophoretically separated Candida albicans chromosomes.Mol. Cell. Biol.819884721 ...
The gene (PRA11) encoding a secreted aspartate proteinase of Candida albicans has been cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide and ... A second gene for a secreted aspartate proteinase in Candida albicans.. R J Wright, A Carne, A D Hieber, I L Lamont, G W ... A second gene for a secreted aspartate proteinase in Candida albicans.. R J Wright, A Carne, A D Hieber, I L Lamont, G W ... A second gene for a secreted aspartate proteinase in Candida albicans.. R J Wright, A Carne, A D Hieber, I L Lamont, G W ...
... albicans PHR1and PHR2 sequences, we were able to amplify fragments with homologies to the PHR1 and PHR2 genes in the pathogenic ... albicans PHR1 gene or a 1.6-kb HindIII fragment of the C. albicans PHR2 gene as a probe under stringent conditions (8, 15). ... PHR2 of Candida albicans encodes a functional homolog of the pH-regulated gene PHR1 with an inverted pattern of pH-dependent ... A Candida albicans dispersed, repeated gene family and its epidemiological applications.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA8519881452 ...
  • Although adhesive function has been demonstrated for several Als proteins, the challenge of studying putative adhesins in a highly adhesive organism like C. albicans has led to varying ideas about how best to pursue such investigations, and results that are sometimes contradictory. (nih.gov)
  • Different patterns of expression were observed among these target genes, supporting the hypothesis that these three regulatory proteins engage in a network of individual connections to downstream genes and arguing against a model whereby the target genes are regulated through a central filamentous growth pathway. (genetics.org)
  • The results suggest the existence of several distinct types of filamentous forms of C. albicans , each dependent on a particular set of environmental conditions and each expressing a unique set of surface proteins. (genetics.org)
  • Sequence analysis of EAP1 shows that it contains a signal peptide, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor site, and possesses homology to many other yeast genes encoding cell wall proteins. (asm.org)
  • Multiple sequence alignments demonstrated a distant relationship between the Phr proteins and β-galactosidases. (asm.org)
  • The unique counterbalanced expression pattern of these genes and their in vivo significance have prompted functional studies of the encoded proteins, Phr1p and Phr2p. (asm.org)
  • The S. cerevisiae genome contains four additional GAS genes ( 36 ), and related proteins have been reported for Aspergillus fumigatus ( 26 ), Candida maltosa ( 29 ), and Schizosaccharomyces pombe ( 51 ). (asm.org)
  • Conclusions that are firmly supported by the literature are presented while highlighting areas that require additional investigation to reveal basic features of the Als proteins, their relatedness to each other, and their roles in C. albicans biology. (frontiersin.org)
  • The novelty of coding tandem repeats in ALS genes figured largely into initial conceptual thinking about organization of the genes and their encoded proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Additionally, Als3 binding to several host proteins proposed to act as ligands for Als3 during C. albicans infection was characterized. (illinois.edu)
  • The agglutinin-like sequence (ALS) gene family of C. albicans consists of eight genes, some of which encode proteins with adhesive functions. (illinois.edu)
  • This genetic anomaly becomes frustrating when using reporter systems or attempting heterologous expression of Candida proteins in other expression systems. (biochemist.org)
  • In the 1970s Mary-Claire King and Allan Wilson proposed that a process called gene regulation-which determines when, where and how genes are expressed as proteins-is responsible for this diversity. (elifesciences.org)
  • Although aneuploidy does not bring in new genetic sequences, it does make possible another kind of genetic diversity-in which the extra genes produce extra proteins, resulting in an organism that differs from its parents. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although the study doesn't point to immediate treatment possibilities, Heitman says that many researchers are studying the mechanisms that allow cells to tolerate the many extra proteins produced by the additional genes, which might reveal a weakness to target. (sciencemag.org)
  • SesB shares sequence similarity with animal and fungal putative proteins, with potential esterase/lipase/thioesterase activity, whereas SesA is similar to proteins of unknown function present only in the filamentous fungi Fusarium graminearum and Podospora anserina . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The agglutinin-like sequence (ALS) family of Candida albicans includes eight genes that encode large cell-surface glycoproteins. (nih.gov)
  • Anderson MZ, Baller JA, Dulmage K, Wigen L, Berman J (2012) The three clades of the telomere-associated TLO gene family of Candida albicans have different splicing, localization, and expression features. (springer.com)
  • We used DNA microarrays to identify genes whose regulation is affected by the ssk1 mutation. (asm.org)
  • The regulation of the structural gene encoding 1L-myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase has also been analyzed at the transcriptional level in the aquatic angiosperm, Spirodela polyrrhiza (Giant duckweed) and the halophyte, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (Common ice plant). (wikipedia.org)
  • Is the Subject Area "Gene regulation" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Function and Regulation of Cph2 in Candida albicans. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Divergence in gene regulation can play a major role in evolution. (elifesciences.org)
  • We found that modules have diverged proportionally to phylogenetic distance, with prominent changes in gene regulation accompanying changes in lifestyle and ploidy, especially in carbon metabolism. (elifesciences.org)
  • They found that modules have diverged proportionally to evolutionary time, with prominent changes in gene regulation being associated with changes in lifestyle (especially changes in carbon metabolism) and a whole genome duplication event. (elifesciences.org)
  • Gene duplication events result in gene paralogs-identical genes at different places in the genome-and these have made significant contributions to the evolution of different forms of gene regulation, especially just after the duplication event. (elifesciences.org)
  • miRNAs play a major role in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes, inhibiting their translation or degrading their mRNA. (jove.com)
  • Hotspots for genetic mutations are a new, and somewhat surprising, mechanism for disease-causing fungi to acquire trait diversity, but the mechanism is well-known among bacteria, Bennett said.This variety of traits helps Candida to adapt to different host environments. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, the comparison of nucleic acid sequence, as well as nonsexual phenotypic characters, have permitted the integration of asexual fungi into the Ascomycota (Taylor, 1995). (tolweb.org)
  • Even closely related fungi vary greatly in presence/absence of these genes. (apsnet.org)
  • In S . cerevisiae , STE12 is a transcriptional activator capable of inducing transcription of a number of different genes ( 7 )( 8 )( 9 )( 10 )( 11 ) and is well conserved among many fungi, including Aspergillus nidulans , Candida albicans , Kluyveromyces lactis , and S . cerevisiae (EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ accession nos. (rupress.org)
  • Aspergillus flavus , producer of aflatoxin, the fungal contaminant of nuts and stored grain that is both a toxin and the most potent known natural carcinogen, Candida albicans , cause of thrush, diaper rash and vaginitis, and Cryphonectria parasitica , responsible for the demise of 4 billion chestnut trees in the eastern USA (Alexopoulos et al. (tolweb.org)
  • Hyphal forms of C. albicans invade mucosal surfaces of immunocompromised patients such as those with AIDS. (nih.gov)
  • The virulence of Candida albicans appears to be multifactorial and includes the requirement for yeast-hyphal transition (morphogenesis), which is probably needed for invasion ( 9 , 32 ), although direct persorption of yeast cells by mucosal cells has also been observed to precede blood-borne invasion ( 17 ). (asm.org)
  • Corneal virulence was assessed ex vivo by inoculating C. albicans onto superficially scarified human corneas that were processed after 1 and 3 days to measure hyphal penetration. (molvis.org)
  • Central to C. albicans virulence is the ability of cells to switch morphologies between rounded (yeast) and filamentous (hyphal) forms. (asm.org)
  • C. albicans has the capacity to switch from a yeast morphology to a hyphal morphology, one of its major virulence determinants ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • In the development of hyphal germ tubes of Candida albicans , a band of septin forms at the base of the germ tube (basal septin band). (rupress.org)
  • Alterations within this pathway, such as disrupting URA3 , result in significant decreases in the in vivo growth rate and pathogenicity of C. albicans ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Research in the Fungal Biology and Pathogenicty Unit on the topic of genetic diversity and genome dynamics in C. albicans has been funded by Institut Pasteur and Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique. (springer.com)
  • The final result of the ura-blaster genetic disruption method is an intact copy of the C. albicans URA3 gene located within the ura-blaster cassette at the position in the genome corresponding to one allele of the target gene. (asm.org)
  • For this study, researchers analyzed 89 mucus samples from 28 cystic fibrosis patients, using both high-throughput genetic sequencing as well as culture-based analysis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The cassette model, which has been thoroughly verified by experimentation ( 4 , 5 ), states that a haploid cell can switch genotype at the MAT locus (from MAT a to MAT α or vice versa) by a gene-conversion process that involves replacing the genetic information at MAT with information copied from one of two silent cassette loci, HML α or HMR a. (pnas.org)
  • This study has enhanced understanding of how both common and rare variants around specific genes and genetic regions are involved in severe childhood obesity. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Rare genetic changes in one of the newly associated genes, LEPR, are known to cause a severe form of early onset obesity. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A new study from Brown University finds that samples of Candida albicans from patients frequently lack one copy of a vital master regulator in a genetic hotspot, which gives them. (eurekalert.org)
  • We found that some samples of Candida albicanscan switch phenotype because they're already carrying one inactivated copy of a gene in this genetic hotspot. (eurekalert.org)
  • We further explore the impact of genetic diversity and genome dynamics on C. albicans phenotypic diversity. (springer.com)
  • Anderson JB, Wickens C, Khan M, Cowen LE, Federspiel N, Jones T, Kohn LM (2001) Infrequent genetic exchange and recombination in the mitochondrial genome of Candida albicans . (springer.com)
  • The Montgomery Lab aims to uncover and define how a specific class of genetic variation, namely those variants which effect the expression of genes, first impact cellular state and behavior and then ultimately play a role in defining human traits and disease. (stanford.edu)
  • Finally, we sequenced hundreds of these adaptive clones, revealing new targets of adaptation and defining the genetic basis of the identified trade-offs. (stanford.edu)
  • But we can get a pretty good swathe of genetic sequence data from all the microbes. (quantifiedself.com)
  • Although, C . albicans shows a predominantly clonal population structure, we find evidence of gene flow between previously known and newly identified genetic clusters, supporting the occurrence of (para)sexuality in nature. (nature.com)
  • It can reveal allopatric differentiation, host adaptation or other types of local adaptation as consequences of reduction of gene flow promoting genetic drift and natural selection 1 . (nature.com)
  • The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of PRA11 are 77 and 73% identical, respectively, with the reported sequences of PRA10 also cloned from C. albicans. (asm.org)
  • 2003). Single-pass 5' sequencing from non-normalized cDNA libraries of mycelium and yeast cells generated a total of 19,718 high-quality ESTs. (funpecrp.com.br)
  • The changes in gene expression associated with the respiro-fermentative lifestyle may also have implications for our understanding of cancer: healthy cells rely on oxidative phosphorylation to produce energy whereas, similar to yeast cells, most cancerous cells rely on respiro-fermentation. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, only the class IV CHS genes chs7 and chs5 are crucial for shaping yeast cells and hyphae ex planta. (plantcell.org)
  • Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) shows a significant overlap in genes differentially regulated by Cph2 and hypoxia, and Cph2 is important for optimal expression of some hypoxia-responsive genes in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • On the other hand, in individuals with a compromised immune system -- such as those who have AIDS, are undergoing chemotherapy or are preparing for an organ transplant -- Candida can enter the bloodstream. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, it can cause a severe, life-threatening bloodstream infection that leads to colonization of Candida in internal organs (disseminated candidemia) which poses serious health problem in these individuals. (hindawi.com)
  • The expressions of virulence genes, except ALST3 on polystyrene, were upregulated compared with growth in the planktonic and on human urinary bladder epithelial cell line (TCC-SUP) surface. (frontiersin.org)
  • A refined assembly 20 with the eight assembled C. albicans chromosomes was released in the summer of 2006. (wikidoc.org)
  • Eight chromosomes (historically named 1-7 and R) constitute a haploid genome size of 14,851 kilobases (kb), containing 6,419 open reading frames (ORFs) longer than 100 codons, of which some 20% have no known counterpart in other available genome sequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With eight pairs of chromosomes, amounting to a haploid complement of 16 Mb DNA, the genome is highly plastic and fluid thanks to distinct repeated sequences at the DNA level [ribosomal DNA and major repeat sequences (MRS)] and high frequencies of regions of high heterozygosity. (biochemist.org)
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a technique that allows specific DNA sequences to be detected on metaphase or interphase chromosomes in cell nuclei 1 . (jove.com)
  • The technique uses DNA probes with unique sequences that hybridize to whole chromosomes or specific chromosomal regions, and serves as a powerful adjunct to classic cytogenetics. (jove.com)
  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) shows that Cph2 binds to the promoters of HMS1 and other components of the regulatory circuit for GI tract colonization. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In nature, the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of neither rats nor mice are colonized by C. albicans , and in order to establish colonization, some form of treatment such as the use of antibiotics is usually necessary. (asmscience.org)
  • Our collaborations with and Scott Filler at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center focused on microbiome signatures that are associated with C. albicans colonization during antibiotic exposure. (jcvi.org)
  • Our initial observations indicated that some antibiotics induced a persistently higher level of C. albicans colonization compared to others. (jcvi.org)
  • Hence, we employed a regression framework to explain the level of C. albicans colonization using microbiome variables (bacterial 16S and fungal ITS), immune factors and experimental conditions as covariables. (jcvi.org)
  • Using Bayesian modelling to investigate factors governing antibiotic-induced Candida albicans colonization of the GI tract. (jcvi.org)