A family of snakes comprising the boas, anacondas, and pythons. They occupy a variety of habitats through the tropics and subtropics and are arboreal, aquatic or fossorial (burrowing). Some are oviparous, others ovoviviparous. Contrary to popular opinion, they do not crush the bones of their victims: their coils exert enough pressure to stop a prey's breathing, thus suffocating it. There are five subfamilies: Boinae, Bolyerinae, Erycinae, Pythoninae, and Tropidophiinae. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p315-320)
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Receptors, Dopamine D4
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
rhoB GTP-Binding Protein
Insulin, Regular, Pork
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by renal electrolyte transport dysfunctions. Congenital forms are rare autosomal disorders characterized by neonatal hypertension, HYPERKALEMIA, increased RENIN activity and ALDOSTERONE concentration. The Type I features HYPERKALEMIA with sodium wasting; Type II, HYPERKALEMIA without sodium wasting. Pseudohypoaldosteronism can be the result of a defective renal electrolyte transport protein or acquired after KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 126.96.36.199.
Small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify NUCLEIC ACIDS and contain an abnormal isoform of a cellular protein which is a major and necessary component. The abnormal (scrapie) isoform is PrPSc (PRPSC PROTEINS) and the cellular isoform PrPC (PRPC PROTEINS). The primary amino acid sequence of the two isoforms is identical. Human diseases caused by prions include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER SYNDROME; and INSOMNIA, FATAL FAMILIAL.
A group of genetic, infectious, or sporadic degenerative human and animal nervous system disorders associated with abnormal PRIONS. These diseases are characterized by conversion of the normal prion protein to an abnormal configuration via a post-translational process. In humans, these conditions generally feature DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; and a fatal outcome. Pathologic features include a spongiform encephalopathy without evidence of inflammation. The older literature occasionally refers to these as unconventional SLOW VIRUS DISEASES. (From Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13363-83)
Timeline of human evolution
"Identification of reptilian genes encoding hair keratin-like proteins suggests a new scenario for the evolutionary origin of ... Rincon, Paul (2010-05-06). "Neanderthal genes 'survive in us'". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 2010-05-07. Sankararaman, Sriram; ...
Glutamate-rich protein 4
"ERICH4 glutamate rich 4 [Homo sapiens (human)]". NCBI - Gene. "ERICH4 Orthologs". NCBI - BLAST. "ERICH4 Gene (Protein Coding ... No significant similarities were found in the vertebrates Aves, Reptilia, Amphibia, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes or Agnatha. ... As suggested by the protein's name, glutamate-rich protein 4, the protein is most highly composed of glutamic acid amino acids ... Glutamate-rich protein 4 is encoded by the gene ERICH4 and can be otherwise known as chromosome 19 open reading frame 69 ( ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMEM267 gene. It is a possible oncogene which encodes a transmembrane ... TMEM267 was predicted to interact with the proteins in the table below. TMEM267 has orthologs in Mammalia, Reptilia, Amphibia, ... Role of Mammalian Vacuolar Protein-sorting Proteins in Endocytic Trafficking of a Non-ubiquitinated G Protein-coupled Receptor ... TMEM267 was shown to be one of 26 over-expressed genes on chromosome 5p, meaning it belongs to a group of genes which likely ...
"FAM214B Gene - GeneCards , F214B Protein , F214B Antibody". www.genecards.org. Retrieved 2020-10-26. "FAM214A Gene - GeneCards ... A list of proteins that interact with FAM214B in IntAct and UniProt database. FAM214B has orthologs in Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia ... The protein has 538 amino acids. The gene contain 9 exon. There has been studies that there are low expression of this gene in ... The RNA-Seq data from NCBI gene and The Human Atlas Protein shows that the FAM214B is highly expressed in the bone marrow, ...
"UPF0488 protein C8orf33 [Homo sapiens]". Entrez Protein. "C8orf33". Gene Cards. "Gene: C8orf33 ENSG00000182307". Ensembl. ... reptilia, aves and invertebrates such as insecta. The protein sequences for UPf0488 are very highly conserved amongst close ... Chromosome 8 open reading frame 33 (C8orf33) is a human protein-coding gene of currently unknown function. The UPF0488 protein ... This gene has 5 transcripts (splice variants), 62 orthologues and is a member of 1 Ensembl protein family. This gene is a ...
... those involved in reptilian venom production. This appears to be an example of convergent evolution of venom genes from ... The crural gland produces a venom secretion containing at least nineteen peptides, in addition to non-protein components. Those ... Gerritsen, Vivienne Baillie (December 2002). "Platypus poison". Protein Spotlight (29). Retrieved 13 December 2006. "The venom ... "Defensins and the convergent evolution of platypus and reptile venom genes". Genome Research. 18 (6): 986-94. doi:10.1101/gr. ...
... "corneous beta-proteins" or "keratin-associated beta-proteins." β-keratins add much more rigidity to reptilian skin than alpha- ... "Beta-keratins of differentiating epidermis of snake comprise glycine-proline-serine-rich proteins with an avian-like gene ... Alibardi L (Feb 2013). "Cornification in reptilian epidermis occurs through the deposition of keratin-associated beta-proteins ... The hydrogen on the amide of one protein chain is hydrogen bonded to the amide oxygen of the neighboring protein chain. The ...
Protein sequences of the gene's mammalian orthologs were analyzed to reveal similar results, while distant reptilian and avian ... Uncharacterized protein Chromosome 16 Open Reading Frame 71 is a protein in humans, encoded by the C16orf71 gene. The gene is ... One non-protein coding transcript variant was identified for the gene. The primary encoded protein consists of 520 amino acid ... Database, GeneCards Human Gene. "ZNF500 Gene - GeneCards , ZN500 Protein , ZN500 Antibody". www.genecards.org. Retrieved 2017- ...
"FAM43A motif search for nuclear protein". ELM. Retrieved 22 April 2018. "SRPK2 Gene". Gene Cards. Retrieved 1 May 2018. " ... Reptilia, Hemichordata, Cephalochardata, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Nematoda, and Arthropoda. No orthologs were identified beyond ... "FAM43A gene". NCBI AceView. Retrieved February 4, 2018. "FAM43A". SAPS. Retrieved 8 April 2018. "NCBI Protein". NCBI. U.S. ... The FAM43A gene has been identified in cDNA screening as a possible cancer development and progression candidate gene. ...
CXorf59 is a protein coding gene that is confirmed to be expressed in 27 different tissues. The liver, testis, thyroid, brain, ... reptilia, amphibia, osteichthyes; sarcopterygii and actinopterygii, ascidiacea, gastropoda, cephalopoda, insecta, and ... CFAP47, or cilia and flagella associated protein 47, is a human gene encoded on the X chromosome. in humans. CXorf59 is located ... "CFAP47 Gene". genecards.org/. Korenbaum, E.; Rivero, F. (2002). "Calponin homology domains at a glance". Journal of Cell ...
The phylogeny of squamate reptiles (lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians) inferred from nine nuclear protein-coding genes. C.R. ... Conrad, J. L. (2008). "Phylogeny and Systematics of Squamata (Reptilia) Based on Morphology" (PDF). Bulletin of the American ...
... is a protein coding gene that in humans encodes for the C11orf49 protein. It is heavily expressed in brain tissue and ... C11orf49 can be found among a wide variety of taxonomic groups, including but not limited to Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia, Amphibia ... "C11orf49 Gene - GeneCards , CK049 Protein , CK049 Antibody". www.genecards.org. Retrieved 2020-12-17. "Phyre 2 Results for ... The C11orf49 protein has a molecular weight of 38.1 kD, and an isoelectric point of about pH = 5. Protein composition falls ...
Studies using molecular phylogenetics, which examine the genes and proteins of living organisms, suggest that testudines ( ... In this sense, Reptilia was a node-based taxon because the first reptilian common ancestor would have been a "node" on the ... which would be crown-group Reptilia) must also contain mesosaurs. Since Reptilia was named earlier than Sauropsida, it is used ... which meant that Sauropsida was a stem-based taxon encompassing the entire reptilian lineage or reptilian "stem" of Amniota ( ...
"Novel Protein Genes in Animal mtDNA: A New Sex Determination System in Freshwater Mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida)?" Molecular ... Evidence of Hatchling and Nestling-Size Hadrosaurs (Reptilia:Ornithischia) from Dinosaur Provincial Park (Dinosaur Park ...
The TMEM247 gene codes for a single protein, transmembrane protein 247 (also referred to as TMEM247). TMEM247 has two ... Classes represented in the orthologs include mammalia, aves, and reptilia. Most orthologs within mammalia are strongly ... Protein kinases may modify transmembrane protein 247, and a variety of sites along the translated protein have been predicted ... Transmembrane protein 247 has been found to be expressed almost entirely in the testes. The TMEM247 gene is located on ...
... (overexpressed in colon carcinoma-1) is a protein, which in humans is encoded by the gene C12orf75. The gene is ... Orthologs: OCC-1 has been found in mammalia, reptilia, amphibian, aves, and actinopterygii. The gene is not found in plants, ... in addition to encoding a novel smaller protein (51 amino acids), OCC-1 gene produces a non-protein coding RNA splice variant ... "C12orf75 Gene (Protein Coding) : Chromosome 12 Open Reading Frame 75". Genecards.org. Retrieved 2016-05-05. "KCCAT198 renal ...
Currently, the avian-reptilian enzyme encoded by HNMT-like gene is labeled as carnosine N-methyltransferase 2 in public ... Drozak J, Piecuch M, Poleszak O, Kozlowski P, Chrobok L, Baelde HJ, de Heer E (July 2015). "UPF0586 Protein C9orf41 Homolog Is ... The genes encoding carnosine N-methyltransferase activity have been identified by Jakub Drozak and coworkers in 2013 and 2015. ... is catalyzed by methyltransferase that is unrelated to the reptilian and avian enzyme and encoded by C9orf41/UPF0586 gene. ...
Lamin A and C are the most common A-type lamins and are splice variants of the LMNA gene found at 1q21. These proteins localize ... horns and reptilian scales. Regardless of the group, keratins are either acidic or basic. Acidic and basic keratins bind each ... There are four proteins classed as type III IF proteins, which may form homo- or heteropolymeric proteins. Desmin IFs are ... There are about 70 different human genes coding for various intermediate filament proteins. However, different kinds of IFs ...
Animal tooth development
The SHH gene gives instructions to produce a protein known as the Sonic Hedgehog protein, and this protein's function is to aid ... Genetics In reptilian tooth development, some scientist have chosen to determine the location and function of the SHH gene as ... The SHH gene and proteins play major roles in not only the tooth development of organisms, but they also help in cell growth, ... "SHH gene: MedlinePlus Genetics". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2021-04-06. Fraser GJ, Hulsey CD, Bloomquist RF, Uyesugi K, Manley ...
The gene has 30 isoforms based on NCBI gene data. The FHAD 1 protein is 1412 aa long, weighs 16.2 kDa and has an isoelectric ... It has orthologs in the organisms in the following classes: Mammalia, Reptilia, Aves, Sarcopterygii, Actinopterygii, Gastropoda ... Forkhead-associated domain containing protein 1 (FHAD1) is a protein encoded by the FHAD1 gene. As the name suggests, it has a ... There are 3 main genes around FHAD1, out of which 2 encode proteins with known functions. Two genes, EFHD2 and Chymotrypsin-C ( ...
Further studies on gene prediction and annotation of the Indian cobra genome identified 139 toxin genes from 33 protein ... On the other hand, by performing whole-genome synteny comparison between the Indian cobra and other reptilian and avian genomes ... Using protein homology information and expression data from different tissues of the cobra, 23,248 protein-coding genes, 31,447 ... Out of these genes, 12,346 belonged to the venom gland transcriptome, which included 139 genes from 33 toxin gene families. ...
"C1orf141 Gene (Protein Coding)". www.genecards.org. Retrieved 2019-05-03. "SAPS < Sequence Statistics < EMBL-EBI". www.ebi.ac. ... The most distant ortholog identified through a NCBI BLAST search is a Reptilian species, but that is the only non-mammalian ... Chromosome 1 open reading frame 141, or C1orf141 is a protein which, in humans, is encoded by gene C1orf141. It is a precursor ... Yao, Fang; Zhang, Chi; Du, Wei; Liu, Chao; Xu, Ying (2015-09-16). "Identification of Gene-Expression Signatures and Protein ...
Primary sequence The gene encodes a protein also called WWC2 which is 1,192 amino acids long. The molecular weight of the ... Orthologs WWC2 is highly conserved in Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia, and Amphibia, as well as the rare coelacanth, which is more ... The gene contains 23 exons. The WWC2 locus is quite complex and appears to produce several proteins with no sequence overlap ... activator protein 2) Proteins Potential interacting proteins include: YWHAZ, YWHAQ, RUVBL1, and REPS1. While the exact function ...
Gene. 366 (2): 228-237. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2005.07.034. PMID 16307849. Holman, J. A. (2004). Fossil Frogs and Toads of North ... The foam is made from proteins and lectins, and seems to have antimicrobial properties. Several pairs of frogs may form a ... Sabater-Pi, J. (1985). "Contribution to the biology of the Giant Frog (Conraua goliath, Boulenger)". Amphibia-Reptilia. 6 (1): ... "Proteins of frog foam nests". University of Glasgow. Retrieved 2012-08-24. Dalgetty, Laura; Kennedy, Malcolm W. (2010). " ...
Gabooni aafrikarästik - Vikipeedia
... and proteins, PMC Jul 21, 2010., Gene. Aug 4, 2004; 337: 55-69., doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2004.03.024, Veebiversioon (vaadatud 19.04 ... Peter Lenk, Hans-Werner Herrmann, Ulrich Joger, Michael Wink, Phylogeny and Taxonomic Subdivisionof Bitis (Reptilia: Viperidae ...
Avian immune system
However, clusters of pseudogenes upstream of the heavy and light gene Ig loci take part in somatic gene conversion - a process ... The missing protein poses a very different immune response regulation in birds as opposed to mammals, reptiles and amphibians. ... The avian immune system resembles that of mammals since both evolved from a common reptilian ancestor and have inherited many ... However, birds have only a single functional copy of the VL and JL genes for the Ig light chain and a single functional copy of ...
Evolution of reptiles
Guillette, Y.; Braun, E. L.; Guillette, L. J. Jr; Iguchi, T. (2010-03-17). "From reptilian phylogenomics to reptilian genomes: ... Gene. 388 (1-2): 19-26. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2006.09.026. PMID 17118581. "Lizards & Snakes Alive!". American Museum of Natural ... "Sister group relationship of turtles to the bird-crocodilian clade revealed by nuclear DNA-coded proteins". Molecular Biology ... So defined, Reptilia is identical to Sauropsida. Though few reptiles today are apex predators, many examples of apex reptiles ...
The protein is localized to the nucleus and can be exported to the cytoplasm. The gene is located on the minus strand at ... primarily in placental mammals in the Boreoeutheria group and occasionally in a few reptilian species. Reptiles and marsupials ... "SPIB Gene". www.genecards.org. Retrieved 2018-05-06. "MYBPC2 Gene". www.genecards.org. Retrieved 2018-05-06. "EMC10 Gene". www. ... FAM71E1, also known as Family With Sequence Similarity 71 Member E1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FAM71E1 gene ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by ZCCHC18 gene. It is also known as Smad-interacting zinc finger protein 2 (SIZN2), ... Reptilian, Osteichthyes, but not in Arthropod, Aves, Chondrichthyes), Echinoderm, and Cnidarian but not in Fungus, Plant, ... ZCCHC18 gene locates at the long arm of X chromosome, loci position Xq22.2. This gene contains 3 exons and 2 distinct gt-ag ... This report was based on the two protein-protein interaction (PPI) approaches, the membrane yeast two-hybrid (MYTH) and the ...
... is a protein that in Homo sapiens is encoded by the FAM76A gene. Notable structural characteristics of FAM76A include an ... FAM76A appears to have higher expression within the cerebral cortex and lower expression in parts of the reptilian brain such ... Genes that flank FAM76A on the telomeric side include IFI6, CHMP1AP1, and RPEP3, while genes that flank FAM76A on the ... ". "NCBI FAM76A Gene Entry". "protein FAM76A isoform 1 [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016- ...
... and can be labelled with fluorescent proteins such as green fluorescent protein or the rhodamine dye tetramethylrhodamine ... Séan T. & Eugene G. - Dec 1999. "LD50 (Archived)". Archived from the original on 2012-02-01.. ... Slowinski, JB; Knight, A; Rooney, AP (December 1997). "Inferring species trees from gene trees: A phylogenetic analysis of the ... Reptilia Order: Squamata Suborder: Serpentes Family: Elapidae Genus: Bungarus. Daudin, 1803 ...
... revealing both reptilian and mammalian elements, as well as two genes found previously only in birds, amphibians, and fish. ... "Protein Spotlight (29). Retrieved 14 September 2006.. *^ Weimann, Anya (4 July 2007) Evolution of platypus venom revealed. ... The platypus genome also has both reptilian and mammalian genes associated with egg fertilisation. Though the platypus ... The female platypus has a pair of ovaries, but only the left one is functional. The platypus's genes are a possible ...
Some migratory birds have adapted to use protein from many parts of their bodies, including protein from the intestines, as ... For females, possible benefits of extra-pair copulation include getting better genes for her offspring and insuring against the ... Archaeopteryx was the first fossil to display both clearly traditional reptilian characteristics: teeth, clawed fingers, and a ... Domesticated birds raised for meat and eggs, called poultry, are the largest source of animal protein eaten by humans; in 2003 ...
Evolution of mammals
Molecular phylogenetics uses features of organisms' genes to work out family trees in much the same way as paleontologists do ... "Assessing the Cretaceous superordinal divergence times within birds and placental mammals by using whole mitochondrial protein ... "reptilian". ... The Msx2 gene associated with hair follicle maintenance is also ... Springer, M.S.; Hollar, L.J.; Burk, A. (1995). "Compensatory substitutions and the evolution of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene ...
Reptilia and Batrachia. London: Taylor and Francis. p. 3.. *^ a b Brazaitis, P. (1973). "Family Gavialidae Gavialis gangeticus ... Densmore III, L. D. & Dessauer, H. C. (1984). "Low levels of protein divergence detected between Gavialis and Tomistoma: ... Inferences from nuclear gene sequences". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 43 (3): 787-794. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.02. ... Reptilia and Amphibia. Volume I.-Loricata, Testudines. London: Secretary of State for India in Council. pp. 37-40.. ...
However, gene analysis suggests that A. c. laticinctus represents its own distinct species, while mokasen and phaeogaster are ... The venom of the southern copperhead has been found to hold a protein called "contortrostatin" that halts the growth of cancer ... Considering gene flow when using coalescent methods to delimit lineages of North American pitvipers of the genus Agkistrodon. ... "Snake Venom Protein Paralyzes Cancer Cells". Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 93 (4): 261-262. doi:10.1093/jnci/93.4. ...
In Siamese cats with certain genotypes of the albino gene, the wiring is disrupted, with more of the nerve-crossing than normal ... reptilians such as chameleons, the two optic nerves merge in the optic chiasm. In such a merged optic chiasm, part of the nerve ... glia and acts as a repulsive signal to axons originating from the ventrotemporal retina expressing EphB1 receptor protein, ...
... generated from somatic recombination of leucine-rich repeat gene segments in a recombination activating gene-independent manner ... Their teeth consist of a meshwork of keratin filaments and other proteins. ... Reptilia, Aves, and Mammalia. ... How the genes destined for deletion are targeted is not yet ... Another trait is the ability to delete several genes from their somatic cell lineages, about 20% of their DNA, which are vital ...
R., Anderson, Ted (2006-01-01). Biology of the Ubiquitous House Sparrow : From Genes to Populations. Oxford University Press, ... Reptilian nephrons are more abundant but lack the distinctive loops of Henle seen in mammals. The urine collected by the kidney ... which are amino acid chains that are shorter than the original dietary protein. The gastric juices (hydrochloric acid ... Anderson, Ted (2006). Biology of the Ubiquitous House Sparrow: From Genes to Populations. New York: Oxford University Press. p ...
2A Amphibia and Reptilia. Australian Biological Resources Studies, Canberra. *^ Arnold, E.N. (1984). "Evolutionary aspects of ... Flynn, Eugene (April 23, 2002). "Flynn Of The Orient Meets The Cobra". Fabulous Travel. Archived from the original on November ... Snake venoms are complex mixtures of proteins, and are stored in venom glands at the back of the head. In all venomous ... This is caused by the evolution of their Hox genes, controlling limb morphogenesis. The axial skeleton of the snakes' common ...
The recent development of techniques for expressing foreign genes in Oikopleura dioica has led to the advancement of this ... of protein and cellulose that, in most cases, surrounds the animal like a bubble, and which contains a complicated arrangement ... Gene, 396 (1): 159-169, doi:10.1016/j.gene.2007.03.006, PMID 17449201. . ... species as a model organism for the study of gene regulation, chordate evolution, and development. ...
Bour, R. (1980). "Essai sur la taxinomie des Testudinidae actuels (Reptilia, Chelonii)". Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire ... It then steps back to eat the bird, presumably to supplement its diet with protein. ... Restricted gene flow between isolated islands then resulted in the independent evolution of the populations into the divergent ... "A molecular phylogeny of tortoises (Testudines:Testudinidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes" (PDF). Molecular ...
Tüümus - Vikipeedia
PROBOOST Thymic Protein A on toode, mis sisaldab vasika tüümuse rakukultuuridest eraldatud thymic Protein A-d. Toodet ... Sheila Chari ja Susan Winandy, Ikaros Regulates Notch Target Gene Expression in Developing Thymocytes, J Immunol 2008; 181:6265 ... "Reptilian Endocrinology", lk 144, 2008, (vaadatud 23.01.2015) *↑ Julius M. Cruse, MD, PhD, Robert E. Lewis, "Atlas of ... www.naturedoc.com/products/thymic-protein.html"PROBOOST(TM) THYMIC PROTEIN A"]. Vaadatud 28.12.2014. Inglise. ...
... with the same protein responsible for depositing calcium carbonate, or protoporphyrins when there is a lack of that mineral. ... suggesting that the gene responsible for pigmentation is on the sex determining W chromosome (female birds are WZ, males ZZ). ...
Permian-Triassic extinction event
In marine organisms, relatively modest but sustained increases in CO2 concentrations hamper the synthesis of proteins, reduce ... Three lines of evidence suggest that these microbes acquired a new metabolic pathway via gene transfer at about that time, ... while losing part of the differential color-sensitive retinal receptors reptilians and birds preserved. ...
... because each protein is typically created by a specific gene. The absence of previous finds may be the result of people ... reptilian metabolism. The idea of dinosaur ectothermy was challenged by scientists like Robert T. Bakker and John Ostrom in the ... The discovery of proteins from a creature tens of millions of years old, along with similar traces the team found in a mastodon ... "Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival". PLoS ONE. 6 (6): e20381. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...620381S. doi:10.1371/ ...
Hewan bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
"The Trox-2 Hox/ParaHox gene of Trichoplax (Placozoa) marks an epithelial boundary". Development Genes and Evolution. 214 (4): ... Sebagian besar sel tersusun dari air dan komponen kimia utama, seperti protein, karbohidrat, lemak, dan asam nukleat. Sel ... Amfibia • Burung • Ikan • Avertebrata • Mamalia • Reptilia. Topik lain. Penangkaran hewan • Pelatihan binatang • Pengayaan ... Helfman, Gene S. (2007). Fish Conservation: A Guide to Understanding and Restoring Global Aquatic Biodiversity and Fishery ...
The genes in question may thus be evolutionary precursors of venom genes. ... The range of actions provides the potential for new medicinal drugs based on lizard venom proteins. ... Hissing, a typical reptilian sound, is mostly produced by larger species as part of a threat display, accompanying gaping jaws ... doi:10.1016/j.gene.2006.09.026. PMID 17118581.. *^ Dash, Sean (2008). Prehistoric Monsters Revealed. United States: Workaholic ...
The genes in question may thus be evolutionary precursors of venom genes. ... The range of actions provides the potential for new medicinal drugs based on lizard venom proteins. ... Hissing, a typical reptilian sound, is mostly produced by larger species as part of a threat display, accompanying gaping jaws ... doi:10.1016/j.gene.2006.09.026. PMID 17118581.. *^ Schoch, Rainer R.; Sues, Hans-Dieter (24 June 2015). "A Middle Triassic stem ...
Bellairs A, Bryant S (1985). "Autonomy and Regeneration in Reptiles". In Gans C, Billet F. Biology of the Reptilia. 15. New ... Cells in the primordia of zebrafish fins, for example, express four genes from the homeobox msx family during development and ... Neural cells, for example, express growth-associated proteins, such as GAP-43, tubulin, actin, an array of novel neuropeptides ... Work comparing the differential gene expression of scarless healing MRL mice and a poorly-healing C57BL/6 mouse strain, ...
Origin of birds
Newman SA, Mezentseva NV, Badyaev AV (2013). "Gene loss, thermogenesis, and the origin of birds". Annals of the New York ... Several proteins have putatively been detected in dinosaur fossils, including hemoglobin. ... complete with a set of reptilian teeth, provided further evidence. Like Cope, Huxley proposed an evolutionary relationship ... Current thought is that feathers did not evolve from scales, as feathers are made of different proteins. More seriously, ...
Great American Interchange
Reptilia, Scincidae) crossed the Atlantic twice". Systematics and Biodiversity. 1 (2): 275-282. doi:10.1017/S1477200003001099. ... "Ancient proteins resolve the evolutionary history of Darwin's South American ungulates". Nature. 522 (7554): 81-84. Bibcode ... "A molecular phylogeny of tortoises (Testudines: Testudinidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes" (PDF). Molecular ...
Gene and protein expression. About 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells and almost 75% of these genes are ... Reptilian lungs typically receive air via expansion and contraction of the ribs driven by axial muscles and buccal pumping. ... Other proteins with elevated expression in the lung are the dynein protein DNAH5 in ciliated cells, and the secreted SCGB1A1 ... Gene and protein expression. Further information: Bioinformatics § ...
Hewan bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
"The Trox-2 Hox/ParaHox gene of Trichoplax (Placozoa) marks an epithelial boundary". Development Genes and Evolution. 214 (4): ... Karbohidrat, lipid, protein, dan biomolekul lainnya dipecah untuk memungkinkan hewan tumbuh dan mempertahankan proses biologis ... Amfibia • Burung • Ikan • Avertebrata • Mamalia • Reptilia. Topik lain. Penangkaran hewan • Pelatihan binatang • Pengayaan ... Helfman, Gene S. (2007). Fish Conservation: A Guide to Understanding and Restoring Global Aquatic Biodiversity and Fishery ...
The apple snail was released in Southeast Asia with the intent that it be used as a protein source, and subsequently to places ... Famous examples include the introduction of starlings to North America by Englishman Eugene Schieffelin, a lover of the works ... Deichsel, G. & Gist, D. H. On the Origin of the Common Wall Lizards Podarcis muralis (Reptilia: Lacertidae) in Cincinnati, Ohio ... "Gene flow from an adaptively divergent source causes rescue through genetic and demographic factors in two wild populations of ...
Seth, Anil; Eugene Izhikevich; George Reeke; Gerald Edelman (2006). "Theories and measures of consciousness: An extended ... The assumption of an avian consciousness also brings the reptilian brain into focus. The reason is the structural continuity ... which rely on quantum entanglement in protein. At the present time many scientists and philosophers consider the arguments for ... between avian and reptilian brains, meaning that the phylogenetic origin of consciousness may be earlier than suggested by many ...
Wiersch SC, Maier WA, Kampen H (May 2005). "Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) cathemerium gene sequences for phylogenetic analysis of ... Another commonly used marker for evolutionary studies has been the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) which is present in all ... "A contribution to the systematics of the reptilian malaria parasites, family Plasmodiidae (Apicomplexa: Haemosporina)". ... test of monophyly by phylogenetic analysis of two mitochondrial genes". Parasitology. 134 (Pt 4): 483-90. doi:10.1017/ ...
List of organisms by chromosome count
Yoshido A, Yasukochi Y, Sahara K (2011). "Samia cynthia versus Bombyx mori: comparative gene mapping between a species with a ... 2]: "Chromosomes of Elaphe subocularis (Reptilia: Serpentes), with the description of an in vivo technique for preparation of ... "Gene. 574 (2): 273-86. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2015.08.022. PMID 26275937.. ... "Molecular phylogeny of silk-producing insects based on 16S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I genes". J Genet. 85 ( ...
OPUS at UTS: Novel reptilian uncoupling proteins: Molecular evolution and gene expression during cold acclimation - Open...
Uncoupling Protein 1. en_US. dc.title. Novel reptilian uncoupling proteins: Molecular evolution and gene expression during cold ... Novel reptilian uncoupling proteins: Molecular evolution and gene expression during cold acclimation. Schwartz, TS Murray, S ... If so, we aimed to place reptilian UCP genes within a phylogenetic context and to determine whether the expression of UCP genes ... If so, we aimed to place reptilian UCP genes within a phylogenetic context and to determine whether the expression of UCP genes ...
Timeline of human evolution - Wikipedia
CUL5 Gene - GeneCards | CUL5 Protein | CUL5 Antibody
... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Complete information for CUL5 gene (Protein Coding), Cullin 5, including: function, ... Protein details for CUL5 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. Q93034-CUL5_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Cullin-5. Protein ... Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein heterodimerization activity and ubiquitin protein ligase ...
PVALB Gene - GeneCards | PRVA Protein | PRVA Antibody
... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Complete information for PVALB gene (Protein Coding), Parvalbumin, including: function, ... Localization for PVALB Gene Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton ... Summaries for PVALB Gene Entrez Gene Summary for PVALB Gene. * The protein encoded by this gene is a high affinity calcium ion- ...
LDLR Gene - GeneCards | LDLR Protein | LDLR Antibody
... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Protein Coding), Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor, including: function, ... Entrez Gene Summary for LDLR Gene. * The low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene family consists of cell surface proteins ... Protein details for LDLR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. P01130-LDLR_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Low-density ...
IL17RD Gene - GeneCards | I17RD Protein | I17RD Antibody
... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Complete information for IL17RD gene (Protein Coding), Interleukin 17 Receptor D, including: function, ... Summaries for IL17RD Gene Entrez Gene Summary for IL17RD Gene. * This gene encodes a membrane protein belonging to the ... No data available for DME Specific Peptides for IL17RD Gene Domains & Families for IL17RD Gene Gene Families for IL17RD Gene. ...
PARVA Gene - GeneCards | PARVA Protein | PARVA Antibody
... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Complete information for PARVA gene (Protein Coding), Parvin Alpha, including: function, ... Entrez Gene Summary for PARVA Gene. * This gene encodes a member of the parvin family of actin-binding proteins. Parvins are ... Protein details for PARVA Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. Q9NVD7-PARVA_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Alpha-parvin. ...
GSC Gene - GeneCards | GSC Protein | GSC Antibody
... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Complete information for GSC gene (Protein Coding), Goosecoid Homeobox, including: function, ... No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GSC Gene Domains & Families for GSC Gene Gene Families for GSC Gene. HGNC:. * ... Protein details for GSC Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. P56915-GSC_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Homeobox protein ...
RHO Gene - GeneCards | OPSD Protein | OPSD Antibody
... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Complete information for RHO gene (Protein Coding), Rhodopsin, including: function, ... Summaries for RHO Gene Entrez Gene Summary for RHO Gene. * The protein encoded by this gene is found in rod cells in the back ... Protein details for RHO Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. P08100-OPSD_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Rhodopsin Protein ...
GDF6 Gene - GeneCards | GDF6 Protein | GDF6 Antibody
... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Complete information for GDF6 gene (Protein Coding), Growth Differentiation Factor 6, including: function, ... Gene Families for GDF6 Gene. HGNC:. *Transforming growth factor beta superfamily. Human Protein Atlas (HPA):. *Disease related ... Protein details for GDF6 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. Q6KF10-GDF6_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Growth/ ...
MUC6 Gene - GeneCards | MUC6 Protein | MUC6 Antibody
... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Protein Coding), Mucin 6, Oligomeric Mucus/Gel-Forming, including: function, ... Protein details for MUC6 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. Q6W4X9-MUC6_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Mucin-6. Protein ... Entrez Gene Summary for MUC6 Gene. * This gene encodes a member of the mucin protein family. Mucins are high molecular weight ...
TBC1D28 Gene - GeneCards | TBC28 Protein | TBC28 Antibody
... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Protein Coding), TBC1 Domain Family Member 28, including: function, ... Localization for TBC1D28 Gene Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton ... Domains & Families for TBC1D28 Gene Gene Families for TBC1D28 Gene. Human Protein Atlas (HPA):. *Predicted intracellular ...
MTF2 Gene - GeneCards | MTF2 Protein | MTF2 Antibody
... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Protein Coding), Metal Response Element Binding Transcription Factor 2, including: function, ... Protein details for MTF2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. Q9Y483-MTF2_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Metal-response ... Evolution for MTF2 Gene ENSEMBL:. Gene Tree for MTF2 (if available). TreeFam:. Gene Tree for MTF2 (if available). Aminode:. ...
ROR1 Gene - GeneCards | ROR1 Protein | ROR1 Antibody
... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Protein Coding), Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 1, including: function, ... Protein details for ROR1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. Q01973-ROR1_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Inactive tyrosine- ... Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ROR1 Gene This gene is overexpressed in Serum (34.5) and ...
CALML3 Gene - GeneCards | CALL3 Protein | CALL3 Antibody
... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Complete information for CALML3 gene (Protein Coding), Calmodulin Like 3, including: function, ... Protein details for CALML3 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. P27482-CALL3_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Calmodulin-like ... Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for CALML3 Gene This gene is overexpressed in Hair follicle (25.6 ...
PLBD2 Gene - GeneCards | PLBL2 Protein | PLBL2 Antibody
... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Protein Coding), Phospholipase B Domain Containing 2, including: function, ... Gene Families for PLBD2 Gene. Human Protein Atlas (HPA):. *Predicted intracellular proteins ... Protein details for PLBD2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. Q8NHP8-PLBL2_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Putative ...
KLHL1 Gene - GeneCards | KLHL1 Protein | KLHL1 Antibody
... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Protein Coding), Kelch Like Family Member 1, including: function, ... Summaries for KLHL1 Gene Entrez Gene Summary for KLHL1 Gene. * The KLHL1 protein belongs to a family of actin-organizing ... No data available for DME Specific Peptides for KLHL1 Gene Domains & Families for KLHL1 Gene Gene Families for KLHL1 Gene. HGNC ...
CELSR3 Gene - GeneCards | CELR3 Protein | CELR3 Antibody
... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Protein Coding), Cadherin EGF LAG Seven-Pass G-Type Receptor 3, including: function, ... No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CELSR3 Gene Domains & Families for CELSR3 Gene Gene Families for CELSR3 Gene. ... Summaries for CELSR3 Gene Entrez Gene Summary for CELSR3 Gene. * This gene belongs to the flamingo subfamily, which is included ...
CACFD1 Gene - GeneCards | FLOWR Protein | FLOWR Antibody
... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Protein Coding), Calcium Channel Flower Domain Containing 1, including: function, ... Domains & Families for CACFD1 Gene Gene Families for CACFD1 Gene. Human Protein Atlas (HPA):. *Predicted membrane proteins ... Protein details for CACFD1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. Q9UGQ2-FLOWR_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Calcium channel ...
CYSLTR2 Gene - GeneCards | CLTR2 Protein | CLTR2 Antibody
... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Complete information for CYSLTR2 gene (Protein Coding), Cysteinyl Leukotriene Receptor 2, including: function, ... No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CYSLTR2 Gene Domains & Families for CYSLTR2 Gene Gene Families for CYSLTR2 Gene ... Reptilia. -- 34 *22 (a). ManyToMany. *GL343558.1:383891-384853. zebrafish. (Danio rerio). Actinopterygii. LOC100002717 33 * ...
Fibre Ultrastructure | Springer for Research & Development
2008). Identification of reptilian genes encoding hair keratin-like proteins suggests a new scenario for the evolutionary ... 2009). Expression patterns of keratin intermediate filament and keratin associated protein genes in wool follicles. ... Structure and expression of genes for a class of cysteine-rich proteins of the cuticle layers of differentiating wool and hair ... 2007). Characterization of the exocuticle a-layer proteins of wool. Experimental Dermatology, 16(11), 951-960.CrossRefPubMed ...
Lauren O'Connell | Stanford Medicine Profiles
... although the molecular characterization and distribution of the progesterone receptor protein throughout the reptilian brain is ... gene expression, (2) reduced expression of maternal care-related genes in the POA, and/or (3) increased expression of genes ... Androgens coordinate neurotransmitter-related gene expression in male whiptail lizards GENES BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR OConnell, L. A ... We then determined whether these genes are expressed in dopaminergic cells. We find many striking similarities in these gene ...
Shauna Murray | University of Technology Sydney
Schwartz, TS, Murray, SA & Seebacher, F 2008, Novel reptilian uncoupling proteins: molecular evolution and gene expression ... If so, we aimed to place reptilian UCP genes within a phylogenetic context and to determine whether the expression of UCP genes ... gene , and sxtG gene can be used to investigate such selection. The information on genes related to saxitoxin. synthesis in ... We compared these genes to known dinoflagellate ketosynthase genes and investigated the evolution and diversity of the strains ...
"Feathers" on the big, "feathers" on the small, but "feathers" for dinosaurs one and all? - THE...
Novel Reptilian Uncoupling Proteins: Molecular Evolution and Gene Expression During Cold Acclimation. Proc. R. Soc. B. Vol. 275 ... Reptilian Uncoupling Protein: Functionality and Expression in Sub-Zero Temperatures. J. Exp. Biol. Vol. 211:1456-1462. ... UCP1 is pretty much a mammal-only protein. Birds have a similar protein known as UCP3, which seems to function in much the same ... one that seems to have evolved from the same uncoupling protein family). All of these uncoupling proteins function during cold ...
Glutamate-rich protein 4 - Wikipedia
"ERICH4 glutamate rich 4 [Homo sapiens (human)]". NCBI - Gene. "ERICH4 Orthologs". NCBI - BLAST. "ERICH4 Gene (Protein Coding ... No significant similarities were found in the vertebrates Aves, Reptilia, Amphibia, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes or Agnatha. ... As suggested by the proteins name, glutamate-rich protein 4, the protein is most highly composed of glutamic acid amino acids ... Glutamate-rich protein 4 is encoded by the gene ERICH4 and can be otherwise known as chromosome 19 open reading frame 69 ( ...
Frontiers | Venoms of Rear-Fanged Snakes: New Proteins and Novel Activities | Ecology and Evolution
Neofunctionalization of Spilotes sulphureus 3FTx genes has even resulted in the evolution within a single venom of 3FTxs ... These venoms have also been discovered to contain several unique venom protein families. New venom protein superfamilies in RFS ... Though this same protein superfamily is commonly found in the venoms of elapid (front-fanged) snakes, no elapid 3FTxs appear to ... Though this same protein superfamily is commonly found in the venoms of elapid (front-fanged) snakes, no elapid 3FTxs appear to ...
Difference between revisions of "Talk:Counterexamples to Evolution" - Conservapedia
And about my creature example, the genes that were mutated did not have "meaning" because they did not code for proteins that ... "Evolutionary relationships among copies of beta keratin genes from several avian and reptilian orders" Journal of Integrative ... But wait! Losing a structure is not the same as losing the genes for that structure! Indeed, the genes were there the whole ... And genes are not organized according to body parts. Scientists have discovered that genes interact with each other. The system ...
Frontiers | The Cellular Prion Protein: A Player in Immunological Quiescence | Immunology
... the physiological role of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) remains elusive. Here, we present a novel concept suggesting that ... the physiological role of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) remains elusive. Here, we present a novel concept suggesting that ... Cellular prion protein is a 210-residue glycoprotein, encoded by a single-copy gene denoted Prnp (17, 18). It is mainly located ... The glycosylation sites of mammalian PrPC appear invariant and they are conserved in avian, reptilian, and amphibian PrPC ...
Evolutionary tree of *all* proteins
What I would like to see is where one has the sequences to the protein in question (actually, the gene making the protein in ... What this gains you is that you never have to say something like, Well, the mamalian sequence looks a bit like the reptilian ... Thats why you really want to use the gene sequence, rather than the protein sequence. Theres a lot of information in the DNA ... Evolutionary tree of *all* proteins. Dale R. Worley drw at kutta.mit.edu Fri Oct 14 10:13:49 EST 1994 *Previous message: ...
Increased rate of hair keratin gene loss in the cetacean lineage | BMC Genomics | Full Text
As suggested by the less-is-more hypothesis, we do not rule out the possibility that the gene loss of hair-type keratin genes ... We identified lineage-specific gene duplications and gene loss among the Laurasiatherian and Euarchontoglires species included ... with lineage specific gene duplication and gene loss. Nevertheless, there is also evidence for an increased rate of ... We found that both type I and II gene clusters are fairly conserved among the terrestrial mammals included in this study, ...
GenomicsGenomeCodingChromosomeAvianMammalsMolecularKeratin-associated proteinsGenomesPutativeEncodeAminoFamily of actin-bindingVertebratesLineagesPromoterCaseinEvolutionaryCysteine-rich proteinsHair-keratin genesSequencesMembraneIntracellularAntibodiesAntibodyMutationsViral proteinsCell surface proteinsGenomicTransmembranePathwaysAntigenNucleotideRegulationExpressionSquamataReptilesImmuneChromosomesEmbryosPhylogenyNucleicHUMANSpeciesSuperfamilyPolymeraseKinaseHerpesvirusesVenom proteinsEncodes a proteinSequence similaritySimilarity
- Direction of the arrows indicate the direction of keratin genes in the genome. (biomedcentral.com)
- The complete RNA genome sequence of the archetype reptilian paramyxovirus, Fer-de-Lance virus (FDLV), has been determined. (eurekamag.com)
- Researchers say that exploring the genome of the platypus, which sits at a unique evolutionary intersection between reptiles and mammals, may yield novel insights into the process of evolution and the physiological repercussions of gaining or losing genes. (the-scientist.com)
- The platypus genome is a wonderful mixture of reptilian and mammalian features," said linkurl:Wesley Warren,;http://genome.wustl.edu/Bio/WarrenBIO.cgi a Washington University geneticist who was the first author on the paper. (the-scientist.com)
- Among the surprises that Warren and his collaborators turned up among the estimated 2.3 billion nitrogenous base pairs that make up the platypus genome were that platypus venom, which males harbor in hind-leg spurs, is made up of proteins that result from duplications of defensin-like, C-type natriuretic peptide, and linkurl:nerve growth factor;https://www.the-scientist.com/article/display/14146/ genes. (the-scientist.com)
- Also, casein genes, which code for milk proteins, are tightly clustered in the platypus genome, as they are in other mammals. (the-scientist.com)
- http://genome.ucsc.edu/cgi-bin/hgGateway?clade=other&org=Platypus "I hope that more people will go back to those gene sets and look at them in more detail," Warren said. (the-scientist.com)
- The publication of the platypus genome is accompanied by five companion papers in __Genome Research__ today that explore in greater detail some of the functions of platypus genes mentioned in the Nature manuscript. (the-scientist.com)
- The team found that the platypus genome contains about the same number of protein-coding genes as other mammals - approximately 18,500. (genome.gov)
- The mix of reptilian, mammalian and unique characteristics of the platypus genome provides many clues to the function and evolution of all mammalian genomes," said Richard K. Wilson, Ph.D., director of Washington University School of Medicine's Genome Sequencing Center and the paper's senior author. (genome.gov)
- Interestingly, the platypus genome harbors both reptilian and mammalian genes associated with egg fertilization. (genome.gov)
- However, researchers discovered that, like other mammals, the platypus genome contains a tightly clustered set of genes that produce the casein proteins that make up milk. (genome.gov)
- However, the researchers also found that the platypus genome has experienced an expansion in the genes that code for a particular type of odor receptor, called a vomeronasal receptor. (genome.gov)
- Here, we report comparative sequence analyses of putative toxin gene homologs from Russell's viper ( Daboia russelii ) using whole-genome sequencing data obtained from shed skin. (peerj.com)
- Genome-scale knockout screens assigned putative functional relevance to the RNA-protein interactions observed by ChIRP-MS. The endoplasmic-reticulum-localized RNA-binding proteins vigilin and ribosome-binding protein 1 directly bound viral RNA and each acted at distinct stages in the life cycle of flaviviruses. (stanford.edu)
- I attended the Genome Informatics conference this November, where I gave a talk on my recent work on the spatial dependency of gene expression. (iastate.edu)
- In most vertebrates, MHC genes are located in one contiguous region of the genome. (g3journal.org)
- The CRV genome is approximately 190 kb and contains a large number of unique genes in addition to the set of conserved Chordopoxvirus genes found in all such viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
- Upon sequencing the viral genome, others noted that this virus was also unusual because of the lack of a series of common immuno-suppressive genes. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, the genome contains multiple genes of unknown function that are likely to function in reducing the anti-viral response of the host. (biomedcentral.com)
- CUL5 (Cullin 5) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- PVALB (Parvalbumin) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- LDLR (Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- IL17RD (Interleukin 17 Receptor D) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- PARVA (Parvin Alpha) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- GSC (Goosecoid Homeobox) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- RHO (Rhodopsin) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- GDF6 (Growth Differentiation Factor 6) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- MUC6 (Mucin 6, Oligomeric Mucus/Gel-Forming) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- TBC1D28 (TBC1 Domain Family Member 28) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- MTF2 (Metal Response Element Binding Transcription Factor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- ROR1 (Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- CALML3 (Calmodulin Like 3) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- PLBD2 (Phospholipase B Domain Containing 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- KLHL1 (Kelch Like Family Member 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- CELSR3 (Cadherin EGF LAG Seven-Pass G-Type Receptor 3) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- CACFD1 (Calcium Channel Flower Domain Containing 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- CYSLTR2 (Cysteinyl Leukotriene Receptor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- But the researchers also found traces of the platypus' mammalian ancestry in its 52 chromosomes and estimated 18,527 protein-coding genes. (the-scientist.com)
- PDK1 (Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- Promotes recruitment of the PRC2 complex to the inactive X chromosome in differentiating XX ES cells and PRC2 recruitment to target genes in undifferentiated ES cells (By similarity). (genecards.org)
- Glutamate-rich protein 4 is encoded by the gene ERICH4 and can be otherwise known as chromosome 19 open reading frame 69 (C19orf69). (wikipedia.org)
- Connecting lines indicate keratins genes on the same chromosome/genomic scaffold. (biomedcentral.com)
-  ,  Moreover, the PS genetic locus, PROS, consists of two genes which are located on chromosome 3 but on different sides of the centromere: an active alpha PS gene (PROS1) at q11.2 and an inactive beta pseudogene (PROS2) at p21-cen. (hamdanjournal.org)
- Although monotremes share a XX female/XY male sex chromosome system with other mammals, their sex chromosomes show homology to the chicken Z chromosome, including the DMRT1 gene, which is a dosage-dependent sex determination gene in birds. (edu.au)
- Sequencing and mapping of 12 clones containing class I and II MHC genes from a bacterial artificial chromosome library indicated that the core MHC region is located on chromosome 13q. (g3journal.org)
- However, duplication and translocation of MHC genes outside of the core region was evident, because additional class I MHC genes were located on chromosome 4p. (g3journal.org)
- The phylogeny of reptilian herpesviruses (HVs) relative to mammalian and avian HVs was investigated by using available gene sequences and by alignment of encoded amino acid sequences and derivation of trees by maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods. (lancs.ac.uk)
- Estimated dates for branching events in the development of reptilian, avian, and mammalian Alphaherpesvirinae lineages could plausibly be accounted for in part but not completely by ancient coevolution of these virus lines with reptilian lineages and with the development of birds and mammals from reptilian progenitors. (lancs.ac.uk)
- A BLAST analysis was used to suggest that this antibody would react with VDAC1/Porin1 from a wide range or organisms, including avian, mammalian, aquatic and reptilian sources based on 100% homology for the immunogen sequence. (thermofisher.com)
- Postdoctoral fellow João Botelho prepares avian, mammalian and reptilian embryos by performing CLARITY, a procedure that makes tissue transparent to provide clearer imaging. (yalescientific.org)
- In vitro , ranaviruses replicate in a wide variety of cultured fish, amphibian, reptilian, avian and mammalian cells at temperatures up to 32°C. Infection causes cytopathic effects culminating in cell death, likely by apoptosis and/or the marked inhibition of host DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. (ictvonline.org)
- Neofunctionalization of Spilotes sulphureus 3FTx genes has even resulted in the evolution within a single venom of 3FTxs selectively neurotoxic to different prey taxa (mammals or lizards), allowing this non-constricting RFS to take larger mammalian prey. (frontiersin.org)
- To determine whether different repertoire of keratin genes among mammals can potentially explain the phenotypic hair features of different lineages, we characterized the type I and II clusters of alpha keratins from eight mammalian species, including the hairless dolphin and minke whale representing the order Cetacea. (biomedcentral.com)
- We found that both type I and II gene clusters are fairly conserved among the terrestrial mammals included in this study, with lineage specific gene duplication and gene loss. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here we present a comprehensive characterization of alpha-keratin genes among mammals and elucidate the mechanisms involved in the evolution of this gene family. (biomedcentral.com)
- Interestingly, cetaceans present an increased loss of hair-type keratin genes when compared to other terrestrial mammals. (biomedcentral.com)
- Among mammals, the number and nature of genes associated to the alpha-keratin gene family may vary. (biomedcentral.com)
- For example, the platypus, which belongs to the monotreme branch of the mammalian lineage, shares many of the genes that code for chemoreceptive proteins in other mammals. (the-scientist.com)
- Mammals have distinct sets of proteins that have evolved as efficient substrates for cornification-associated cross-linking [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The uncoupling protein UCP1 provides eutherian mammals with an efficient thermogenic mechanism. (biomedcentral.com)
- The platypus also shares more than 80 percent of its genes with other mammals whose genomes have been sequenced. (genome.gov)
- Compared to most mammals, chickens and lizards have a relatively poor complement of odorant receptor genes responsible for their ability to detect smells. (genome.gov)
- Researchers also found that genes related to the immune system of the platypus are very similar to those of other mammals, with a few key differences. (genome.gov)
- This protein coordinates proper embryonic development of many skin-associated structures in mammals, birds, and reptiles. (answersingenesis.org)
- Much like in mammals, reptilian hibernation also involves radical changes in behaviour and physiology [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Compared to most mammals, chicken and lizard have a relatively poor complement of odorant receptor genes responsible for their ability to detect smells. (technologynetworks.com)
- The modern bird is believed by the evolutionary scientists of our modern age to have evolved from reptilian ancestors, arising from the dinosaurs in a similar fashion to the mammals and modern reptiles. (blogspot.com)
- They found that while monotremes still have one functional vitellogenin gene, in placental and marsupial mammals, all three have become pseudogenes (regions of the DNA that still closely resemble the functional gene, but which contain a few differences that have effectively turned the gene off). (eurekalert.org)
- Citation: Brawand D, Wahli W, Kaessmann H (2008) Loss of egg yolk genes in mammals and the origin of lactation and placentation. (eurekalert.org)
- Sex Determination - ATRX, DMRT1, DMRT7 and WT1  "One of the most puzzling aspects of monotreme reproductive biology is how they determine sex in the absence of the SRY gene that triggers testis development in most other mammals. (edu.au)
- We show that these four genes in the adult platypus have the same expression pattern as in other mammals, suggesting that they have a conserved role in sexual development independent of genomic location. (edu.au)
- The primary encoded protein consists of 130 amino acids and has a predicted molecular mass of 14.5 kDa and isoelectric point of 4 pI. (wikipedia.org)
- Protein S (PS) is an anticoagulant Vitamin K-dependent plasma gamma-carboxylated glycoprotein of 75 kD molecular weight consisting of 635 amino acids residues. (hamdanjournal.org)
- Cysteine-rich keratin-associated proteins (KRTAPs) are important components of hair whereas the molecular components of feathers have remained incompletely known. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our study also illustrates that evolutionary analyses of antiviral gene families are critical towards understanding molecular principles that govern host-virus interactions and species-specific susceptibility to viral infection. (nih.gov)
- Because newly identified green turtle herpesvirus (GTHV) is associated pathogenically with marine turtle fibropapillomatosis (FP) and it has not been isolated in vitro, molecular sequencing and analysis of the genomic DNA of this putative reptilian herpesvirus will enhance the current understanding of GTHV in causing the FP disease. (columbia.edu)
- Esocids (members of the pike family) are regarded as having the closest extant preduplicated (diploid) genomes to salmonids, based on molecular phylogenetic studies, karyotype data, and comparative analyses of expressed gene sequences. (thefishsite.com)
- Our study highlights the usefulness of shed skin in obtaining good quality high-molecular weight DNA for comparative genomic studies, and provides evidence towards the unique features and evolution of putative venom gene homologs in vipers. (peerj.com)
- CRISPR/Cas9 serves as a pair of molecular scissors by cutting out particular segments of DNA, in which activated or inactivated genes can then be pasted at the site of the cut. (yalescientific.org)
- 2010). Location of keratin-associated proteins in developing fiber cuticle cells using immunoelectron microscopy. (springer.com)
- Thus, although the majority of mammalian genomes encode two Mx genes, this apparent stasis masks the dramatic effects that recombination and diversifying selection have played in shaping the evolutionary history of Mx genes. (nih.gov)
- Although the protein products of these viruses have been studied in depth, how the RNA genomes operate inside human cells is poorly understood. (stanford.edu)
- When compared with the major venom proteins in Russell's viper studied previously, we found 45-100% sequence similarity between the venom proteins and their putative homologs in the skin. (peerj.com)
- Additionally, comparative analyses of 20 putative toxin gene family homologs provided evidence of unique sequence motifs in nerve growth factor (NGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), Kunitz/Bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (Kunitz BPTI), cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5, andpathogenesis-related1 proteins (CAP) and cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP). (peerj.com)
- DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase II, etc.), whereas the 27 ranavirus-specific genes do not show identify with putative genes outside the genus Ranavirus suggesting that they may play specific roles impacting host-virus interaction. (ictvonline.org)
- Exons I-VIII encode protein segments that are homologous to Vitamin K-dependent clotting proteins and are bounded by introns whose position and type are identical with other members of this protein family. (hamdanjournal.org)
- The myxovirus resistance (Mx) genes encode interferon-inducible GTPases that constitute a major arm of the cell-autonomous defense against viral infection. (nih.gov)
- One proposed strategy to engineer gene drives would adapt naturally occurring genetic elements found in eukaryotes and bacteria called toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems, in which a tightly linked pair of genes encode a trans -acting toxin and cis -acting antidote. (pnas.org)
- Classical class I and II MHC genes encode cell-surface proteins that present antigens to T cells, thus facilitating self/nonself recognition. (g3journal.org)
- Poxviruses encode numerous proteins that block the host anti-viral response, including proteins that resist the actions of both type I and type II interferons (IFN). (biomedcentral.com)
- The human protein has one identifiable mixed cluster from amino acid 91 to 116 with 3 positively-charged, 15 negatively-charged, and 8 neutral amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
- Proteins in this family are typically 140 amino acids in length and ERICH4 is a known human member of this family. (wikipedia.org)
- The alpha helix segments span from amino acids 2-9, 21-24, 47-58, 61-94, and 104-111 in the protein sequence. (wikipedia.org)
- Program analysis in SWISS-Model proposes a tertiary structure for ERICH4 by matching the protein against the template of NLRP6 with a sequence identity of 25.79%, sequence similarity of 0.30, and coverage of 0.43 for amino acids 43-92 in ERICH4. (wikipedia.org)
- ERICH4 has proposed phosphorylation at serine amino acids 28 and 96 and amino acid 36, a threonine, by casein kinase II and protein kinase c, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
- The UL28 gene is 2250 bp long and encodes a 750-amino acid peptide known as ICP18.5 assembly protein of herpesviruses. (columbia.edu)
- Domain characterization supported this prediction, therefore, we tested the ability of the Robetta protein structure prediction server to model the amino acid sequence of this protein on a well-characterized RNA binding domain. (biomedcentral.com)
Family of actin-binding1
- This gene encodes a member of the parvin family of actin-binding proteins. (genecards.org)
- At least three different VDAC genes have been identified in vertebrates. (thermofisher.com)
- The paper shows that milk-protein genes arose in a common ancestor of all existing mammalian lineages and preceded the loss of the genes that encoded egg proteins. (eurekalert.org)
- A new paper by David Brawand, Walter Wahli, and Henrik Kaessmann investigates the transition in offspring nutrition by comparing the genes of representatives of these three different mammalian lineages with those of the chicken--an egg-laying, milkless control. (eurekalert.org)
- The authors found that there are similar genetic regions in all three mammalian lineages, suggesting that the genes for casein (a protein found in milk) arose in the mammalian common ancestor between 200 and 310 million years ago, prior to the evolution of the placenta. (eurekalert.org)
- This meant that the genes associated with egg production gradually mutated, becoming pseudogenes, without affecting the fitness of the mammalian lineages. (eurekalert.org)
- Binds to the metal-regulating-element (MRE) of MT1A gene promoter (By similarity). (genecards.org)
- One of these regulatory factors is the liver specific transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF1), a binding site which is located in the 638 base pair promoter area at the 5' end of the PS gene. (hamdanjournal.org)
- The release of YB-1 from promoter DNA coupled with its ability to bind RNA and shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm is suggestive of a regulatory loop for coordinating SMalphaA gene output in human pulmonary myofibroblasts at both the transcriptional and translational levels. (saladgaffe.cf)
- I ordered the entire panel, including the gene tests, as well as the soy, egg, casein, and yeast panel (though I added the last tests later when we had the positive results for genes and IgA antibodies and IgA antitissue transglutaminase, plus our son also had an abnormal fat result on the fat malapsorption test). (blogspot.com)
- 2008). Identification of reptilian genes encoding hair keratin-like proteins suggests a new scenario for the evolutionary origin of hair. (springer.com)
- Rear-fanged snake venoms are therefore of considerable research interest due to the evolutionary novelties they contain, providing insights into the evolution of snake venom proteins and potential predator-prey coevolution in a broader phylogenetic context. (frontiersin.org)
- We combined the available genomic information with phylogenetic analysis to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the evolutionary patterns of keratin gene clusters. (biomedcentral.com)
- Evolutionary Analyses Suggest a Function of MxB Immunity Proteins Beyond Lentivirus Restriction. (nih.gov)
- Now evolutionary biologists Nicolas Di-Poï and Michel Milinkovitch believe they have found this scale-hair-feather connection in the previously undiscovered reptilian embryo's placodes. (answersingenesis.org)
- The discovery of placodes on reptile embryos is being seen as proof of the evolutionary connection between reptilian scales, bird feathers, and mammalian hair. (answersingenesis.org)
- Thus, the characterisation of elovl5 in Northern pike provides insights into the evolutionary divergence of duplicated genes, and the ecological adaptations of salmonids which have enabled colonisation of nutrient poor freshwaters. (beds.ac.uk)
- Structure and expression of genes for a class of cysteine-rich proteins of the cuticle layers of differentiating wool and hair follicles. (springer.com)
- The critical role of hair-keratins in hair biology is revealed by the fact that a variety of epidermal diseases are caused by mutations in single hair-keratin genes [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The large number of 3FTx protein sequences available, together with a growing database of RFS venom 3FTxs, make possible predictions concerning structure-function relationships among these toxins and the basis of selective toxicity of specific RFS venom 3FTxs. (frontiersin.org)
- Snake venom genes and their products offer an excellent model system to study gene duplication, evolution of regulatory DNA sequences, and biochemical diversity and novelty of venom proteins. (peerj.com)
- Venom studies, so far, have extensively used data from proteomics experiments alongside individual gene sequences or sequences of particular family members to study variations on gene structure and their sequence composition. (peerj.com)
- We found a total of seven class I sequences and 11 class II β sequences, with evidence for duplication and pseudogenization of genes within the tuatara lineage. (g3journal.org)
- 5. An expression vector comprising the nucleic acid according to claim 1 and further comprising regulatory sequences for expression of the fusion protein. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- Low density lipoprotein (LDL) is normally bound at the cell membrane and taken into the cell ending up in lysosomes where the protein is degraded and the cholesterol is made available for repression of microsomal enzyme 3-hydro. (genecards.org)
- Low density lipoprotein (LDL) is normally bound at the cell membrane and taken into the cell ending up in lysosomes where the protein is degraded and the cholesterol is made available for repression of microsomal enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, the rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis. (genecards.org)
- This gene encodes a membrane protein belonging to the interleukin-17 receptor (IL-17R) protein family. (genecards.org)
- The encoded protein is a glycosylated type I membrane protein that belongs to the ROR subfamily of cell surface receptors. (genecards.org)
- They are plasma membrane proteins containing seven epidermal growth factor-like repeats, nine cadherin domains and two laminin A G-type repeats in their ectodomain. (genecards.org)
- fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins catalyze rapid lipid mixing between a PLV and a target cell's plasma membrane. (bioprocessintl.com)
- Our second candidate also incorporates the virus's envelope (E) and membrane (M) proteins. (bioprocessintl.com)
- However, the membrane also has proteins that are called IMP, or integral membrane proteins. (keithallenkay.com)
- In a membrane, proteins change shape, effectively opening the olive. (keithallenkay.com)
- This protein is predicted to be intracellular without any transmembrane regions. (wikipedia.org)
- The process of intracellular protein cross-linking involves either transglutamination, the covalent connection of glutamine and lysine residues, or disulfide bonding, that is, the covalent connection of cysteine residues. (biomedcentral.com)
- In another study appearing in the same issue of Science, Mary Schweitzer, of North Carolina State University, and colleagues found that extracts of T. rex bone reacted with antibodies to chicken collagen, further suggesting the presence of birdlike protein in the dinosaur bones. (abihaidarmotors.com)
- Here we have raised antibodies against the E. histolytica homologue of fibrillarin, a highly conserved protein known to be a marker for nucleolus. (nih.gov)
- Anti-VDAC/Porin Antibody is directed against human VDAC1/Porin1 protein. (thermofisher.com)
- Mutations in this gene cause the autosomal dominant disorder, familial hypercholesterolemia. (genecards.org)
- Mutations in this gene are associated with Klippel-Feil syndrome, microphthalmia, and Leber congenital amaurosis. (genecards.org)
- Here we report a characterisation of ZP1 proteins carrying mutations from infertile patients, which suggests that, in human, filament cross-linking by ZP1 is crucial to form a stable ZP. (nature.com)
Cell surface proteins1
- The low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene family consists of cell surface proteins involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis of specific ligands. (genecards.org)
- Sequence analysis shows that this DNA fragment contains the entire gene of the UL28, as well as the partial genomic sequence of the UL27 gene. (columbia.edu)
- tRNAscan-SE: a program for improved detection of transfer RNA genes in genomic sequence. (nih.gov)
- Using comprehensive identification of RNA-binding proteins by mass spectrometry (ChIRP-MS), we took an RNA-centric viewpoint of flaviviral infection and identified several hundred proteins associated with both DENV and ZIKV genomic RNA in human cells. (stanford.edu)
- Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are a central component of the vertebrate immune system and usually exist in a single genomic region. (g3journal.org)
- GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and transmembrane signaling receptor activity . (genecards.org)
- This protein contains no significant hydrophobic or transmembrane segments which are supported with comparison to five of ERICH4's orthologs (Graymouse lemur, Sheep, House mouse, African elephant, and Opossum). (wikipedia.org)
- Catenins link the transmembrane protein cadherin to the cytoskeleton and thus function in cell-cell adhesion. (biomedcentral.com)
- Catenin (derived from "catena", "chain" in Latin) is a gene family that links the transmembrane protein cadherin to the cytoskeleton and functions in cell-cell adhesion [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The internal lipid bilayer likely contains transmembrane proteins. (ictvonline.org)
- Among its related pathways are Regulation of retinoblastoma protein and Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation Pathways and Lineage-specific Markers . (genecards.org)
- Among its related pathways are Mesodermal Commitment Pathway and Activated PKN1 stimulates transcription of AR (androgen receptor) regulated genes KLK2 and KLK3 . (genecards.org)
- In all tissues stress response pathways were induced during hibernation, as well as evidence for gene expression regulation at transcription, translation and post-translation. (biomedcentral.com)
- In reptilian embryos, however, the Fgf8 and WnT pathways are active in only two small regions of the face. (yalescientific.org)
- Potential targets for this CRV protein include the host interferon response and miRNA pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
- The tuatara MHC is characterized by high repeat content and low gene density compared with other species and we found no antigen processing or MHC framework genes on the MHC gene-containing clones. (g3journal.org)
- By contrast, class II molecules comprise two polypeptide chains, α and β, each encoded by a separate gene, expressed only on specialized antigen-presenting cells such as B cells or macrophages, and present peptides derived from extracellular pathogens to CD4+ T helper cells ( Kappes and Strominger 1988 ). (g3journal.org)
- 1. A nucleic acid encoding a fusion protein comprising a peptide or polypeptide antigen and more than one human (SEQ. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- To the degree that this idea has been tested, the evidence is consistent with standard theory: nucleotide positions that don't affect the protein sequence show faster change (genetic drift) than positions that do affect the sequence. (bio.net)
- The sequencing of the first mitochondrial carriers (adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), phosphate carrier (PiC) and UCP) revealed that these metabolite transporters have common structural features and thus belong to the same protein family. (biomedcentral.com)
- The encoded protein may be involved in the regulation of contact-dependent neurite growth and may play a role in tumor formation. (genecards.org)
- Regulation of AS is dictated primarily by RNA‐binding proteins (RBPs) that can bind to specific RNA sequence elements and which can act as either activators of repressors (Coelho & Smith, 2014 ). (embopress.org)
- Ligands of this family bind various TGF-beta receptors leading to recruitment and activation of SMAD family transcription factors that regulate gene expression. (genecards.org)
- Increased expression of this gene is associated with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. (genecards.org)
- According to STRING analysis, ERICH4 has multiple predicted interactions with other proteins including proteins with associated immune function and expression within the gastrointestinal tract or testes from textmining. (wikipedia.org)
- HNF1 and PS is not well understood and to confirm the importance of HNF1 in regulating expression of PS small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) which will knockout the HNF1 gene expression can be used, and the effect on PS expression monitored. (hamdanjournal.org)
- HepG2 rRNA bands shows a good quality of RNA expression, Analysis of the total RNA quantity can be determined by spectrophotometric analysis, The best housekeeping genes were UBC and YWHAZ therefore, there has been used as a reference for the primers samples in efficiency test. (hamdanjournal.org)
- HNF1 and PROS1 shows a good expression but with low efficiency which is not required to carry further gene knockdown experiment, SYBR green dye is less sensitive than TaqMan because it presents a non specific detection (primer dimers) were all dsDNA products are detected including primer dimers, contaminating DNA, and PCR product from mis annealed primer. (hamdanjournal.org)
- The ability to produce physiologically critical LC-PUFA from dietary fatty acids differs greatly among teleost species, and is dependent on the possession and expression of fatty acyl desaturase and elongase genes. (thefishsite.com)
- Thus, comparison between the sequence, activity and expression of pike and salmon Elovl5 genes may provide insights into mechanisms that have driven the evolution and ecological adaptations of salmonids. (thefishsite.com)
- We reveal a potential developmental basis that generates morphological diversity in the temporal region of the reptilian skull by performing a comparative analysis of gene expression in the embryos of reptile species with different skull morphology. (springeropen.com)
- By investigating genes known to regulate early osteoblast development, we find dorsoventrally broadened unique expression of the early osteoblast marker, Runx2 , in the temporal region of the head of turtle embryos that do not form temporal fenestrae. (springeropen.com)
- Furthermore, through comparison of gene expression pattern in the embryos of turtle, crocodile, and snake species, we find a possible correlation between the spatial patterns of Runx2 and Msx2 expression in cranial mesenchymal cells and skull morphology of each reptilian lineage. (springeropen.com)
- Regulatory modifications of Runx2 and Msx2 expression in osteogenic mesenchymal precursor cells are likely involved in generating morphological diversity in the temporal region of the reptilian skull. (springeropen.com)
- Here we examine gene expression in the Australian central bearded dragon ( Pogona vitticeps ) using mRNA-seq and label-free quantitative mass spectrometry in matched brain, heart and skeletal muscle samples from animals at late hibernation, 2 days post-arousal and 2 months post-arousal. (biomedcentral.com)
- 1997) Protein Expression and Purification, vol. 9, pp. 61-68. (patents.com)
- The first pathway involves the expression of a protein known as fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8). (yalescientific.org)
- AS is an integral part of regulated programs of gene expression, often acting in concert with transcriptional control, but affecting different functionally related sets of genes (Blencowe, 2006 ). (embopress.org)
- The expression of rRNA genes generally takes place in a specialized nuclear compartment-the nucleolus. (nih.gov)
- The apparent ability of ranaviruses to express conserved, functional gene products despite marked variations in co-linearity suggests that gene expression is not linked to gene order and is consistent with the previously observed high level of genetic recombination. (ictvonline.org)
- Denver, R.J., Pavhi, S. and Shi, Y.B. (1997) Thyroid Hormone-Dependent Gene Expression Program for Xenopus Neural Development. (scirp.org)
- Caputo V, Odierna G, Aprea G (1994) A chromosomal study of Eumeces and Scincus , primitive members of the Scincidae (Reptilia, Squamata). (springer.com)
- These are the same gene families in which duplications make toxins in many venomous reptiles. (the-scientist.com)
- Morphology of the temporal region of the reptilian skull is highly diverse and historically it has been treated as an important character for classifying reptiles and has helped us understand the ecology and physiology of each species. (springeropen.com)
- Galapagos reptiles: serum protein immunoelectrophoresis. (reptarium.cz)
- This appears to be an example of convergent evolution of venom genes from existing immune system genes (defensins). (wikipedia.org)
- Scientists think that the expansion of this gene family in platypus may be involved in boosting the immune system of their very immature offspring, which hatch very developmentally immature. (technologynetworks.com)
- Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are central to the vertebrate immune response. (g3journal.org)
- Such work can also lead to a better understanding of the reptilian immune system. (biomedcentral.com)
- The invention is an DNA vaccine and method of use thereof for modulating the immune response against the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of malaria parasites, using the CR2 binding motifs of C3d, especially p28. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- Bounous G, Letourneau L, Kongshavn PAL (1983) Influence of dietary-protein type on the immune-system of mice. (springer.com)
- The alpha-keratin gene family is nested within the type I (acidic) and type II (basic) gene clusters that are located in two different chromosomes, whereas the KAPs subfamilies are embedded in the type I keratin gene domain [ 6 ] (Figure 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
- BMP4 is a signaling protein controlling development in many parts of the embryos of many sorts of organisms. (answersingenesis.org)
- When genes meet nomenclature: Tortoise phylogeny and the shifting generic concepts of Testudo and Geochelone. (reptarium.cz)
- book nucleic acids proteins and carbohydrates 1976 reflecting how ' The Great Disappointment ' made out in 1844, when Daniel-prophecy nightlife Albert Miller were his instance that Christ would deceive at any download of that order, is what Redpill is standing her economy up for. (krugerquarterhorses.com)
- Books in the book nucleic acids proteins( G6PC) removal that opening name Ia Man contact work. (krugerquarterhorses.com)
- technical was women of Nazi book nucleic acids proteins and, as they came Baltic Host government power. (krugerquarterhorses.com)
- In the later vehicles of the book nucleic acids proteins and carbohydrates 1976 Siegi and his Not late nation, Lotte, push loved, now, in Britain. (krugerquarterhorses.com)
- Five main approaches have emerged in the first flush of COVID-19 vaccine development: viral vectors, protein subunits, inactivated viruses, attenuated viruses, and nucleic acids. (bioprocessintl.com)
- No human paralogs were found for the gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Protein S (PS) is a known Vitamin K dependent plasma glycoprotein that is produced in many human tissues including the liver. (hamdanjournal.org)
-  Total PS concentration in the human plasma is approximately 0.35 μM: 38% as free PS form and 62% as PS-C4 binding protein (C4BP) complex form. (hamdanjournal.org)
- The ribosomal RNA genes in the human parasite Entamoeba histolytica and its reptilian counterpart Entamoeba invadens are located on extrachromosomal circles. (nih.gov)
- We identified lineage-specific gene duplications and gene loss among the Laurasiatherian and Euarchontoglires species included in the study. (biomedcentral.com)
- As suggested by the 'less-is-more' hypothesis, we do not rule out the possibility that the gene loss of hair-type keratin genes in these species might be associated to the hairless phenotype and could have been adaptive in response to new selective pressures imposed by the colonization of a new habitat. (biomedcentral.com)
- Although platypus venom has a broadly similar range of effects and is known to consist of a similar selection of substances to reptilian venom, it appears to have a different function from those poisons produced by non-mammalian species: its effects are not life-threatening but nevertheless powerful enough to cause serious impairment to the victim, which can lead to temporary paralysis. (wikipedia.org)
- In the present study, we analyzed the gene presence/absence for members of the catenin family from fully sequenced representative metazoans by searching public databases and applying species-specific BLAST searches. (biomedcentral.com)
- Monotremes--once a diverse group, but now restricted both in species number and distribution--have a much more reptilian beginning, as they lay eggs filled with yolk. (eurekalert.org)
- Ranaviruses infect one or more species within the classes Reptilia, Amphibia and Osteichthyes and cause systemic infections. (ictvonline.org)
- This gene encodes a secreted ligand of the TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily of proteins. (genecards.org)
- This gene belongs to the flamingo subfamily, which is included in the cadherin superfamily. (genecards.org)
- This encoded receptor is a member of the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors. (genecards.org)
- Though this same protein superfamily is commonly found in the venoms of elapid (front-fanged) snakes, no elapid 3FTxs appear to show prey-specific toxicity (with the exception of perhaps Micrurus ). (frontiersin.org)
- The uncoupling proteins (UCPs), a family of transporters belonging to the mitochondrial carrier protein superfamily, which is found in all eukaryotic organisms, provide the pathway for proton reentry. (biomedcentral.com)
- Beta and p120 are homologous subfamilies based on sequence and structural comparisons, and are members of the armadillo repeat protein superfamily. (biomedcentral.com)
- To date, all proteins proposed to form transduction channels in ciliated mechanosensory cells are members of the TRP channel superfamily. (jneurosci.org)
- GO annotations related to this gene include sequence-specific DNA binding and RNA polymerase II repressing transcription factor binding . (genecards.org)
- The encoded protein is part of the integrin-linked kinase signaling complex and plays a role in cell adhesion, motility and survival. (genecards.org)
- This gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor that modulates neurite growth in the central nervous system. (genecards.org)
- Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity . (genecards.org)
- Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein kinase activity and pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) kinase activity . (genecards.org)
- VACV-Cop E3 is a dsRNA binding protein that blocks the action of the IFN-inducible dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). (biomedcentral.com)
- Phylogenetic analysis of the GHTV UL28 gene showed a high sequence homology with the UL28 homologs of other herpesviruses and supports the current classification of GTHV to be a member of Alphaherpesvirinae. (columbia.edu)
- Because of the limited complexity of these venoms, they represent a more tractable source to inform about the biological roles of specific venom proteins that are found in the venoms of this rich diversity of snakes. (frontiersin.org)
Encodes a protein1
- By using sensitive database searches for similarity, we observed that gene 157 of CRV-strain Zimbabwe (CRV-ZWE) encodes a protein with a domain that is predicted to bind dsRNA. (biomedcentral.com)
- mcdonald at wsuhub.uc.twsu.edu writes: One danger in trying to build a comprehensive line of descent for all proteins using sequence similarity alone occurs when you reach a certain level of dis-similarity. (bio.net)
- Among currently identified ranaviruses, sequence similarity within the major capsid protein is approximately 70% or higher. (ictvonline.org)
- Required to repress Hox genes by enhancing H3K27me3 methylation of the PRC2 complex (By similarity). (genecards.org)
- In some conditions may act as an inhibitor of PRC2 activity: able to activate the CDKN2A gene and promote cellular senescence by suppressing the catalytic activity of the PRC2 complex locally (By similarity). (genecards.org)