Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS producing tumors in primates. Originally isolated from a fibrosarcoma in a woolly monkey, WMSV is a replication-defective v-onc virus which carries the sis oncogene. In order to propagate, WMSV requires a replication-competent helper virus.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A large superfamily of cell surface membrane proteins characterized by their four transmembrane domains. They play a role in a variety of processes such as cellular adhesion and motility. They may be involved in the organization of cell surface MEMBRANE MICRODOMAINS that regulate the activation of LEUKOCYTES.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
Infections caused by the HTLV or BLV deltaretroviruses. They include human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED).
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*35 allele family.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*51 allele family.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.
A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.
An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.
Agents used to prevent or reverse the pathological events leading to sickling of erythrocytes in sickle cell conditions.
One of the sickle cell disorders characterized by the presence of both hemoglobin S and hemoglobin C. It is similar to, but less severe than sickle cell anemia.
Oxygen-carrying RED BLOOD CELLS in mammalian blood that are abnormal in structure or function.

Time-resolved fluorescence investigation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein: influence of the binding of nucleic acids. (1/2457)

Depending on the HIV-1 isolate, MN or BH10, the nucleocapsid protein, NCp7, corresponds to a 55- or 71-amino acid length product, respectively. The MN NCp7 contains a single Trp residue at position 37 in the distal zinc finger motif, and the BH10 NCp7 contains an additional Trp, at position 61 in the C-terminal chain. The time-resolved intensity decay parameters of the zinc-saturated BH10 NCp7 were determined and compared to those of single-Trp-containing derivatives. The fluorescence decay of BH10 NCp7 could be clearly represented as a linear combination (with respect to both lifetimes and fractional intensities) of the individual emitting Trp residues. This suggested the absence of interactions between the two Trp residues, a feature that was confirmed by molecular modeling and fluorescence energy transfer studies. In the presence of tRNAPhe, taken as a RNA model, the same conclusions hold true despite the large fluorescence decrease induced by the binding of tRNAPhe. Indeed, the fluorescence of Trp37 appears almost fully quenched, in keeping with a stacking of this residue with the bases of tRNAPhe. Despite the multiple binding sites in tRNAPhe, the large prevalence of ultrashort lifetimes, associated with the stacking of Trp37, suggests that this stacking constitutes a major feature in the binding process of NCp7 to nucleic acids. In contrast, Trp61 only stacked to a small extent with tRNAPhe. The behavior of this residue in the tRNAPhe-NCp7 complexes appeared to be rather heterogeneous, suggesting that it does not constitute a major determinant in the binding process. Finally, our data suggested that the binding of NCp7 proteins from the two HIV-1 strains to nonspecific nucleic acid sequences was largely similar.  (+info)

Tagging the human immunodeficiency virus gag protein with green fluorescent protein. Minimal evidence for colocalisation with actin. (2/2457)

The assembly and budding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, encoded solely in the Gag protein precursor Pr55Gag, occur at the plasma membrane of infected cells. However, little is known about the routing of the Gag molecule from its site of synthesis in the cytoplasm to the site of budding, with past studies suggesting that the cytoskeleton, particularly actin, may be involved in the translocation. We have constructed a T7 promoter-driven gag gene fusion with green fluorescent protein (GFP) that expresses Gag-GFP in both cells and supernatant. The distribution of Gag-GFP was the same as Gag only, suggesting that cellular routing was not affected by fusion to GFP, and using colabelling techniques, Gag-GFP was shown to have no particular colocalisation with actin. After detergent extraction of expressing cells, Gag and Gag-GFP remained cell associated, whereas GFP only was wholly released. These data suggest that Gag may associate with other cytoskeletal components or, perhaps more likely, that a partial assembly to a large-molecular-weight intermediate occurs before localisation at the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Two types of HTLV-1 particles are released from MT-2 cells. (3/2457)

The MT-2 cell line transformed by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) contains one complete provirus and seven defective proviruses. Four defective genomes have an identical structure (LTR-MA-deltaCA-pX-LTR) with an open reading frame that spans from MA to pX, giving rise to a 3.4-kb (24S) RNA transcript encoding a chimeric Gag-pX protein, p28. MT-2 cells release two distinct types of virions. The major "classic" type of particle has a buoyant density of 1.155-1.16 g/cm3 and contains the standard HTLV-I structural proteins and reverse transcriptase (RT). In addition, about 5% of particles are "light," approximately 1.12 g/cm3, and contain p28, RT activity, and the 3.4-kb RNA transcript. RT-PCR and in vitro translation indicate that some of the classic HTLV-1 particles package 3.4-kb RNA as well as full-length 8.5-kb RNA. In addition to matrix features, the p28 protein has a motif resembling a zinc finger at the C-terminal, pX0 region, which may play a role in the assembly of the defective light virions.  (+info)

Opposing effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 matrix mutations support a myristyl switch model of gag membrane targeting. (4/2457)

Targeting of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag precursor Pr55(gag) to the plasma membrane, the site of virus assembly, is primarily mediated by the N-terminal matrix (MA) domain. N-myristylation of MA is essential for the stable association of Pr55(gag) with membranes and for virus assembly. We now show that single amino acid substitutions near the N terminus of MA can dramatically impair assembly without compromising myristylation. Subcellular fractionation demonstrated that Gag membrane binding was compromised to a similar extent as in the absence of the myristyl acceptor site, indicating that the myristyl group was not available for membrane insertion. Remarkably, the effects of the N-terminal modifications could be completely suppressed by second-site mutations in the globular core of MA. The compensatory mutations enhanced Gag membrane binding and increased viral particle yields above wild-type levels, consistent with an increase in the exposure of the myristyl group. Our results support a model in which the compact globular core of MA sequesters the myristyl group to prevent aberrant binding to intracellular membranes, while the N terminus is critical to allow the controlled exposure of the myristyl group for insertion into the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Vif and the p55(Gag) polyprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are present in colocalizing membrane-free cytoplasmic complexes. (5/2457)

The Vif protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a potent regulator of viral infectivity. Current data posit that Vif functions late in replication to modulate assembly, budding, and/or maturation. Consistent with this model, earlier indirect immunofluorescence analyses of HIV-1-infected cells demonstrated that Vif and Gag colocalize to a substantial degree (J. H. M. Simon, R. A. M. Fouchier, T. E. Southerling, C. B. Guerra, C. K. Grant, and M. H. Malim, J. Virol. 71:5259-5267, 1997). Here, we describe a series of subcellular fractionation studies which indicate that Vif and the p55(Gag) polyprotein are present in membrane-free cytoplasmic complexes that copurify in sucrose density gradients and are stable in nonionic detergents. Both Vif and Gag are targeted to these complexes independent of each other, and their association with them appears to be mediated by protein-protein interactions. We propose that these complexes may represent viral assembly intermediates and that Vif is appropriately localized to influence the final stages of the viral life cycle and, therefore, the infectivity of progeny virions.  (+info)

Detection and induction of equine infectious anemia virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses by use of recombinant retroviral vectors. (6/2457)

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) appear to be critical in resolving or reducing the severity of lentivirus infections. Retroviral vectors expressing the Gag/Pr or SU protein of the lentivirus equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) were constructed and used to evaluate EIAV-specific CTL responses in horses. Three promoters, cytomegalovirus, simian virus SV40, and Moloney murine sarcoma virus (MoMSV) long terminal repeat (LTR), were used, and there was considerable variation in their ability to direct expression of Gag/Pr and SU. Vectors expressing EIAV proteins under the direction of MoMSV LTR and using the gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) Env for internalization were efficient at transducing equine kidney (EK) target cells and were effective targets for EIAV-specific CTL lysis. CTL from EIAV-infected horses caused lysis of retroviral vector-transduced EK cells expressing either Gag/Pr or SU in an ELA-A-restricted manner. In contrast, lysis of recombinant vaccinia virus-infected EK cells expressing Gag/Pr and SU/TM was often non-LA-A restricted. Five horses were immunized by direct intramuscular injection with a mixture of retroviral vectors expressing Gag/Pr or SU, and one responded with EIAV-specific CTL. This result indicates that retroviral vector stimulation of CTL in horses needs to be optimized, perhaps by inclusion of appropriate cytokine genes in the constructs. However, the studies demonstrated that retroviral vector-transduced target cells were very effective for in vitro dissection of EIAV-specific CTL responses.  (+info)

Interaction of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid with actin. (7/2457)

The nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the retrovirus Gag protein plays several important roles in the viral life cycle, including virus assembly, viral genomic RNA encapsidation, primer tRNA placement, and enhancement of viral reverse transcription. In this study, deletion of NC domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag was found to drastically reduce virus particle production in CD4(+) T cells. Cellular fractionation experiments showed that although most of the uncleaved wild-type HIV-1 Gag, unmyristylated Gag, and p6(Gag) domain-truncated Gag molecules copurified with the host cell cytoskeleton, most of the mutant Gag molecules lacking both the NC and p6(Gag) domains failed to cofractionate with cytoskeleton. In wild-type virus-infected cells, in which the viral protease was active, the cleaved NCp7 copurified with the cytoskeleton, whereas most of the MAp17 and CAp24 did not. Monoclonal antibody against actin coimmunoprecipitated full-length Gag and p6(Gag) domain-truncated Gag molecules from cell lysates but failed to precipitate the truncated mutant Gag molecules lacking NC plus p6(Gag). Purified recombinant NCp7, but not CAp24, was able to bind F-actin in cosedimentation experiments. Furthermore, wild-type NCp7 and a zinc finger mutant NCp7(F16A), like a cellular actin-binding protein (the villin headpiece), bound F-actin in a dose-dependent fashion in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that HIV-1 NCp7 can bind F-actin directly and that interaction between HIV-1 Gag and the actin cytoskeleton through the NC domain may play an important role in HIV-1 assembly and/or other steps of the viral life cycle.  (+info)

Human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 differ in the predominant mechanism used for selection of genomic RNA for encapsidation. (8/2457)

Retroviral RNA encapsidation is a highly selective process mediated through recognition by the viral Gag proteins of cis-acting RNA packaging signals in genomic RNA. This RNA species is also translated, producing the viral gag gene products. The relationship between these processes is poorly understood. Unlike that of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the dominant packaging signal of HIV-2 is upstream of the major splice donor and present in both unspliced and spliced viral RNAs, necessitating additional mechanisms for preferential packaging of unspliced genomic RNA. Encapsidation studies of a series of HIV-2-based vectors showed efficient packaging of viral genomes only if the unspliced, encapsidated RNA expressed full-length Gag protein, including functional nucleocapsid. We propose a novel encapsidation initiation mechanism, providing selectivity, in which unspliced HIV-2 RNA is captured in cis by the Gag protein. This has implications for the use of HIV-2 and other lentiviruses as vectors.  (+info)

To gain a better understanding of the assembly process in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), we first established the conditions under which recombinant SIV Gag lacking the C-terminal p6 domain (SIV GagΔp6) assembled in vitro into spherical particles. Based on the full multimerization capacity of SIV GagΔp6, and to identify the Gag sequences involved in homotypic interactions, we next developed a pull-down assay in which a panel of histidine-tagged SIV Gag truncation mutants was tested for its ability to associate in vitro with GST-SIVGagΔp6. Removal of the nucleocapsid (NC) domain from Gag impaired its ability to interact with GST-SIVGagΔp6. However, this Gag mutant consisting of the matrix (MA) and capsid (CA) domains still retained 50% of the wild-type binding activity. Truncation of SIV Gag from its N-terminus yielded markedly different results. The Gag region consisting of the CA and NC was significantly more efficient than wild-type Gag at interacting in vitrowith GST-SIVGagΔp6. ...
Current candidate vaccines fail to protect primates against challenge with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the presence of antibody responses; this underlines the importance of studying cell-mediated immunity to HIV and identifying specific epitopes that stimulate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Using a recombinant vaccinia virus to express the gag protein of HIV-1 we found HLA class-I-restricted gag-specific CTL in thirteen out of fifteen healthy HIV seropositive patients. We then used short synthetic peptides in the lysis assay to screen for gag CTL epitopes. In one patient we have identified a peptide in p24 that is recognized by CTL in association with HLA-B27. This peptide, and further peptide sequences defined by these methods, could be incorporated in vaccines designed to induce cell-mediated immunity against HIV.
Codon-optimized genes were synthesized for the SIVmac239 Gag, a mutant Gag with mutations in the major homology region, and a chimeric Gag containing a protein destruction signal at the N-terminus of Gag. The mutant and chimeric Gag were expressed at levels comparable to that observed for the wild-type Gag protein but their stability and release into the medium were found to be significantly reduced. Immunization of mice with DNA vectors encoding the mutant or chimeric Gag induced fourfold higher levels of anti-SIV Gag CD4 T cell responses than the DNA vector encoding the wild-type SIV Gag. Moreover, anti-SIV Gag CD8 T cell responses induced by DNA vectors encoding the mutant or chimeric Gag were found to be 5- to 10-fold higher than those induced by the DNA construct for the wild-type Gag. These results indicate that mutations disrupting assembly and/or stability of the SIV Gag protein effectively enhance its immunogenicity when expressed from DNA vaccines ...
We have examined structural interactions between Gag proteins within Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) particles by making use of the cysteine-specific cross-linking agents iodine and bis-maleimido hexane. Virion-associated wild-type M-MuLV Pr65Gag proteins in immature particles were intermolecularly cross-linked at cysteines to form Pr65Gag oligomers, from dimers to pentamers or hexamers. Following a systematic approach of cysteine-to-serine mutagenesis, we have shown that cross-linking of Pr65Gag occurred at cysteines of the nucleocapsid (NC) Cys-His motif, suggesting that the Cys-His motifs within virus particles are packed in close proximity. The M-MuLV Pr65Gag protein did not cross-link to the human immunodeficiency virus Pr55Gag protein when the two molecules were coexpressed, indicating either that they did not coassemble or that heterologous Gag proteins were not in close enough proximity to be cross-linked. Using an assembly-competent, protease-minus, cysteine-minus Pr65Gag protein ...
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The subject invention provides novel and advantageous methods for identifying amino acid sequences in random peptide libraries that can bind to Gag polypeptides. The subject invention also establishes a novel in vitro system that can be used to test competitive inhibitors of retrovrial capsid assembly. Also provided are peptides, and compositions containing these peptides, which are inhibitors of the retrovirus Gag protein(s) function. Chimeric Gag polypeptides are also provided.
gag Gene Products: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
The Lingappa lab studies viral host interactions involved in assembly of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other viruses. Previously, our group demonstrated that immature HIV-1 capsid assembly in cells occurs through a pathway of assembly intermediates, and is facilitated by the catalytic activity of the host enzymes ABCE1 and DDX6. Our recent studies show that ABCE1 binds directly to HIV Gag through an ancient binding site that is present even in the Ty3 retrotransposon Gag protein. One current project in the lab involves understanding the evolution of the ABCE1 binding site in different retroviral Gag proteins. A second project in the lab involves studying how HIV-1 genomic RNA is packaged into the assembling virus in cells. A third project address how polymorphisms that arise in Gag in vivo can enhance ABCE1-Gag binding, thereby accelerating the kinetics of assembly and increasing virus particle production. The latter studies have important implications for viral pathogenesis, ...
The Lingappa lab studies viral host interactions involved in assembly of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other viruses. Previously, our group demonstrated that immature HIV-1 capsid assembly in cells occurs through a pathway of assembly intermediates, and is facilitated by the catalytic activity of the host enzymes ABCE1 and DDX6. Our recent studies show that ABCE1 binds directly to HIV Gag through an ancient binding site that is present even in the Ty3 retrotransposon Gag protein. One current project in the lab involves understanding the evolution of the ABCE1 binding site in different retroviral Gag proteins. A second project in the lab involves studying how HIV-1 genomic RNA is packaged into the assembling virus in cells. A third project address how polymorphisms that arise in Gag in vivo can enhance ABCE1-Gag binding, thereby accelerating the kinetics of assembly and increasing virus particle production. The latter studies have important implications for viral pathogenesis, ...
HIV-specific cellular immunity is hampered in most HIV-infected individuals, partly because the virus infects CD4+ T cells, the key cell subset in all immune responses. CD4 is the primary HIV receptor (CD4), but infection requires a co-receptor (CCR5) which is carried mainly by activated T cells. During primary HIV-infection, two types of CD4+ T cells mainly become infected: (i) Sub-activated T cells of all specificities within the mucosal linings, particularly in the gut; and (ii) HIV-specific T cell clones, that proliferates and are activated as a normal response to HIV infection itself. The HIV-specific immunity therefore becomes severely compromised early in the infection. Patients having better T cells specific to parts of the HIV Gag matrix protein usually progress slower towards AIDS than patients with poor T cell responsitivity towards Gag.. Therapeutic immunization in HIV aims to strengthen the HIV-specific cellular immunity, usually in the absence of replicating HIV with antiretroviral ...
Despite great advances in AIDS diagnosis and treatment, the continuing devastation of the AIDS epidemic demands continuing efforts to understand all aspects of...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Philip R Tedbury, Peter Y Mercredi, Christy R Gaines, Michael F Summers, Eric O Freed].
I am posting this for someone else, please reply to: jjohn at apple.somatix.com Does anyone know of a source to obtain a Mab against p12 gag protein? Any help would be greatly appreciated... thanks Barb -- I really like to feel that I am on solid ground, and that is never solid ground. -- Mary Leakey ...
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Demongraphics of GAG... what do you fit in? This is meant to get a sense of GAG and for us members to get to know each other. A bunch of random questions 1) Where are you from? 2) Relationship...... asked under [email protected] Community
Learn GAGs facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
White House adviser Kelly Anne Conway said President Trump was well within his bounds to ask for a gag order to be lifted by the Justice Department.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Creation and expression of myristylated forms of Rous sarcoma virus Gag protein in mammalian cells. AU - Wills, John. AU - Craven, Rebecca. AU - Achacoso, J. A.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), a member of the avian sarcoma and leukosis family of retroviruses, has long been known to be capable of infecting and transforming mammalian cells; however, such transformed cells do not release virus particles. The RSV gag product (Pr76(gag)) produced in these cells is not released into the culture medium or proteolytically processed to release mature products. Thus, the behavior of Pr76(gag) in mammalian cells is much like that of mammalian retroviral Gag proteins which have been altered so as to block the addition of myristic acid at residue 2 (Gly). Because the RSV gag product does not possess a myristic acid addition site, we hypothesized that the creation of one by oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis might permit particles to be released from mammalian cells. ...
The mature cores of all retroviruses contain a major structural protein known as the CA (capsid) protein. Although it appears to form a shell around the ribonucleoprotein complex that contains the viral RNA, its function in viral replication is largely unknown. Little sequence similarity exists between the CA proteins of different retroviruses, except for a region of about 20 amino acids termed the major homology region (MHR). To examine the role of the CA protein in particle assembly and release, mutants of Rous sarcoma virus were created in which segments of CA were deleted or single conserved residues in the MHR were altered. The ability of the deletion mutants to release particles at rates similar to the wild-type protein demonstrated that the CA domain of Gag is not an essential component of the minimal budding machinery. Certain point mutations in the MHR region did block assembly and release in certain cell types, presumably by perturbing the global structure of the Gag precursor. Another ...
Viral genomes of the human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) family are integrated into the human chromosome and are transmitted vertically as Mendelian genes. Although viral particles are released by some transformed cells, they have never been shown to be infectious. In general, gammaretroviruses are produced as immature viral particles by accumulation of the Gag polyproteins at the plasma membrane, which subsequently bud from the cell surface. After release from the cell, Gag is further processed by proteolytic cleavage by the viral protease (PR), which results in morphologically mature particles with condensed cores. The HERV-K Gag polyprotein processing and function has not yet been precisely determined. We generated a recombinant poxvirus, encoding the human endogenous retrovirus K consensus gag-pro-pol genes (MVA-HERV-Kcon) and obtained high levels of HERV-K Gag expression. The resulting retroviral particle assembled at the plasma membrane, as is typical for gammaretroviruses; and immature as well
We have previously shown that this expression of human immunodeficiency computer virus Saquinavir type 1 (HIV-1) Gag protein in spheroplasts produces Gag virus-like particles (VLPs) at the plasma membrane indicating that yeast has all the host factors necessary for HIV-1 Gag assembly. levels of intracellular Gag expression and Gag N-terminal myristoylation in yeast. Both Gags showed the same membrane-binding ability and were incorporated into lipid raft fractions at a physiological concentration of salt. HIV-2 Gag however failed to form a high-order multimer and easily dissociated from the membrane phenomena which were not observed in higher eukaryotic cells. A series of chimeric Gags between HIV-1 and HIV-2 and Gag mutants with amino acid substitutions revealed that a defined region in helix 2 of HIV-2 MA (located on the membrane-binding surface of MA) affects higher-order Gag assembly and particle production in yeast. Together these data suggest that yeast may lack a host factor(s) for ...
The hypothesis that the intrapatient emergence of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte escape variants contributes to the evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 at the population (interpatient) level was tested using the HLA-A*0201-restricted gag p17 epitope SLYNTVATL. Using a simple experimental design, we investigated the evolutionary processes operating within this epitope among patients while compensating for the confounding influence of intrapatient natural selection. Using this approach, we revealed a pattern of A*0201-driven escape within patients, followed by the sustained transmission of these escape variants among patients irrespective of their HLA type.
The polypeptide composition of HIV-I virus-like particles produced by CV-I cells during mono- and coinfection with recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) strains containing the whole (p55) and carboxyterminal truncated (p48) gag genes and gag-pol sequence is studied. In monoinfection both the gag-strains actively produced virus-like particles consisting of non-processed p55Gag and p48Gag polyprotein without p6 domain. In case of a coinfection of the cells with one of these strains and the rVV producing p160Gag-Pol polyprotein the virus-like particles consisted of p24 protein and a negligible amount of non-processed Gag precursors. The share of p24 protein increased in proportion to the duration of coinfection and decreased with a reduction of multiplicity of infection with rVV carrying p160Gag-Pol. Hence, the absence of p6 domain does not influence the processing of Gag proteins during virus-like particles assembly and budding. In contrast to the natural systems of HIV-I development, in the rVV expression
BACKGROUND: HIV Gag-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses are important for HIV immune control. Pulsing overlapping Gag peptides on autologous lymphocytes (OPAL) has proven immunogenic and effective in reducing viral loads in multiple pigtail macaque studies, warranting clinical evaluation. METHODOLOGY: We performed a phase I, single centre, placebo-controlled, double-blinded and dose-escalating study to evaluate the safety and preliminary immunogenicity of a novel therapeutic vaccine approach OPAL-HIV-Gag(c). This vaccine is comprised of 120 15mer peptides, overlapping by 11 amino acids, spanning the HIV Gag C clade sequence proteome, pulsed on white blood cells enriched from whole blood using a closed system, followed by intravenous reinfusion. Patients with undetectable HIV viral loads (|50 copies/ml plasma) on HAART received four administrations at week 0, 4, 8 and 12, and were followed up for 12 weeks post-treatment. Twenty-three people were enrolled in four groups: 12 mg (n = 6), 24 mg (n = 7)
Selection of T-cell vaccine antigens for chronic persistent viral infections has been largely empirical. To define the relationship, at the population level, between the specificity of the cellular immune response and viral control for a relevant human pathogen, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the 160 dominant CD8(+) T-cell responses in 578 untreated HIV-infected individuals from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Of the HIV proteins targeted, only Gag-specific responses were associated with lowering viremia. Env-specific and Accessory/Regulatory protein-specific responses were associated with higher viremia. Increasing breadth of Gag-specific responses was associated with decreasing viremia and increasing Env breadth with increasing viremia. Association of the specific CD8(+) T-cell response with low viremia was independent of HLA type and unrelated to epitope sequence conservation. These population-based data, suggesting the existence of both effective immune responses and responses lacking ...
Selection of T-cell vaccine antigens for chronic persistent viral infections has been largely empirical. To define the relationship, at the population level, between the specificity of the cellular immune response and viral control for a relevant human pathogen, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the 160 dominant CD8(+) T-cell responses in 578 untreated HIV-infected individuals from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Of the HIV proteins targeted, only Gag-specific responses were associated with lowering viremia. Env-specific and Accessory/Regulatory protein-specific responses were associated with higher viremia. Increasing breadth of Gag-specific responses was associated with decreasing viremia and increasing Env breadth with increasing viremia. Association of the specific CD8(+) T-cell response with low viremia was independent of HLA type and unrelated to epitope sequence conservation. These population-based data, suggesting the existence of both effective immune responses and responses lacking
The capsid protein (CA) of the mature human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) contains an N-terminal beta-hairpin that is essential for formation of the capsid core particle. CA is generated by proteolytic cleavage of the Gag precursor polyprotein during viral maturation. We have determined the NMR structure of a 283-residue N-terminal fragment of immature HIV-1 Gag (Gag(283)), which includes the intact matrix (MA) and N-terminal capsid (CA(N)) domains. The beta-hairpin is unfolded in Gag(283), consistent with the proposal that hairpin formation occurs subsequent to proteolytic cleavage of Gag, triggering capsid assembly. Comparison of the immature and mature CA(N) structures reveals that beta-hairpin formation induces a approximately 2 A displacement of helix 6 and a concomitant displacement of the cyclophylin-A (CypA)-binding loop, suggesting a possible allosteric mechanism for CypA-mediated destabilization of the capsid particle during infectivity. Structure of the N-terminal 283-residue fragment ...
The products of the Gag polyproteins of infectious retroviruses perform highly complex orchestrated tasks during the assembly, budding, maturation, and infection stages of the viral replication cycle. During viral assembly, the proteins form membrane associations and self-associations that ultimately result in budding of an immature virion from the infected cell. Gag precursors also function during viral assembly to selectively bind and package two plus strands of genomic RNA. Endogenous Gag proteins may have kept, lost or modified their original function during evolution ...
Matrix protein p17 targets Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins to the plasma membrane via a multipartite membrane binding signal, that includes its myristoylated N-terminus. Also mediates nuclear localization of the preintegration complex. Implicated in the release from host cell mediated by Vpu (By similarity).
How GAGs in TWO STEP Work: When your pig consumes the patented blend of cartilage contained in TWO STEP the GAGs are absorbed from your pigs stomach into the body. The GAGs are probably broken down into proteoglycans first. The six different basic GAGs are similar in structure and composed of the same proteoglycans, so the various GAGs are somewhat interchangeable. After leaving the stomach, the GAGs reappear in the cartilage of the joints after having been carried by the blood system to the site near the cartilage and then migrating across cell membranes into the cartilage. There is no blood system in the cartilage which is why GAGS are somewhat slow acting. To help you better understand this, please find a diagram below of a synovial joint.. ...
BACKGROUND: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) constitute approximately 8% of the human genome and have long been considered junk. The sheer number and repetitive nature of these elements make studies of their expression methodologically challenging. Hence, little is known of transcription of genomic regions harboring such elements. RESULTS: Applying a recently developed technique for obtaining high resolution melting temperature data, we examined the frequency distributions of HERV-W gag element into 13 Tm categories in human tissues. Transcripts containing HERV-W gag sequences were expressed in non-random patterns with extensive variations in the expression between both tissues, including different brain regions, and individuals. Furthermore, the patterns of such transcripts varied more between individuals in brain regions than other tissues. CONCLUSION: Thus, regulated expression of non-coding regions of the human genome appears to include the HERV-W family of repetitive elements. Although it
We here report expression patterns of transcripts containing HERV-W gag sequences in human tissues. Transcripts containing HERV sequences in general, along with other repetitive regions of the genome are generally not prioritized in human genomics studies. Due to the difficulty in finding specific primers and probe sequences, cross-reactions between different elements would render regular PCR or array based techniques ineffective for distinguishing individual members within a HERV-family. Tm-analysis has the advantage of detecting variations in the sequence of an amplified region, predicting the least number of different sequences required to account for a set of Tm data. It can, however, never predict more than the minimum number of different sequences as different sequences can have indistinguishable Tms [29]. Expression pattern variations between such sequences can therefore remain undetected. However, with Tm-analysis it is possible to screen samples for differences in expression patterns ...
Lab 2 ,pubmed,PMC3585150,/pubmed, In this study the researchers used Super-Resolution Microscopy in order to attempt to understand the gag proteins and envelope recruitment and how exactly the HIV-1 virus is incorporated into the cell (which was previously not known). They were able to see the GAG assembly sites along with teh HIV-1 envelope proteins in the envelope expressing cells. It was discovered that the envelope accumulation outside of and surrounding the GAG assemblies (rather than directly being in contact with it) was able to assist the spread of the virus in vivo. ...
Synonyms for gag in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for gag. 80 synonyms for gag: muzzle, tie, restraint, silence, muffle, muzzle, quieten, stifle, stop up, suppress, silence, subdue, muffle, curb, stifle, muzzle, quieten. What are synonyms for gag?
Although many different components gather to form a single virion, the Gag protein is the only one necessary for assembly. It attaches to the inner face of the cells outer membrane and when enough Gag molecules flood an area, they coalesce in a way that spontaneously forms a sphere.... When enough Gag molecules get close and start bumping into each other, the cells outer membrane starts to bulge outward into a budding virion and then pinches off to form an individual, infectious particle. ...
PI(4,5)P2 plays a much broader role during the HIV-1 particle assembly process than assumed; it is indispensable not only for recruitment of Gag to the plasma membrane but also for the maintenance of Gag assemblies.
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Retrotransposon TYA Gag gene co-transcribed with TYB Pol; translated as TYA or TYA-TYB polyprotein; Gag is a nucleocapsid protein that is the structural constituent of virus-like particles (VLPs); similar to retroviral Gag
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A year after the reinstatement of the global gag rule under United States President Donald Trump, family planning NGOs are beginning to take stock of their losses.
But this distinction was not located in G. Proteoglycan Wnt signaling pathway ranges The amounts of HA and GAG are revealed in Fig. In the seventy two h tradition non U0126 dealt with with IL 1, ...
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Acute self-limiting diarrhoea, which is very common and frequently not seen by the medical practitioner, is usually infective and mild, and resolves within days. In Australia most infective cases are viral. The causes of diarrhoea are numerous, thus making a detailed history and examination very important in leading to the diagnosis. Chronic diarrhoea is that lasting at least 4-6 weeks. Important causes are presented in FIGURE 44.1. ...
1511715PRTArtificialSIV gag peptide 117 117Pro Ala Val Asp Leu Leu Lys Asn Tyr Met Gln Leu Gly Lys Gln1 5 10 1511815PRTArtificialSIV gag peptide 118 118Leu Leu Lys Asn Tyr Met Gln Leu Gly Lys Gln Gln Arg Glu Lys1 5 10 1511915PRTArtificialSIV gag peptide 119 119Tyr Met Gln Leu Gly Lys Gln Gln Arg Glu Lys Gln Arg Glu Ser1 5 10 1512015PRTArtificialSIV gag peptide 120 120Gly Lys Gln Gln Arg Glu Lys Gln Arg Glu Ser Arg Glu Lys Pro1 5 10 1512115PRTArtificialSIV gag peptide 121 121Arg Glu Lys Gln Arg Glu Ser Arg Glu Lys Pro Tyr Lys Glu Val1 5 10 1512215PRTArtificialSIV gag peptide 122 122Arg Glu Ser Arg Glu Lys Pro Tyr Lys Glu Val Thr Glu Asp Leu1 5 10 1512315PRTArtificialSIV gag peptide 123 123Glu Lys Pro Tyr Lys Glu Val Thr Glu Asp Leu Leu His Leu Asn1 5 10 1512415PRTArtificialSIV gag peptide 124 124Lys Glu Val Thr Glu Asp Leu Leu His Leu Asn Ser Leu Phe Gly1 5 10 1512514PRTArtificialSIV gag peptide 125 125Glu Asp Leu Leu His Leu Asn Ser Leu Phe Gly Gly Asp Gln1 5 1012615PRTArtificialHIV-1 gag ...
APOBEC proteins have evolved in mice and humans as potent innate defences against retroviral infections. APOBEC3G (hA3G) in humans and mouse APOBEC3 (mA3) deaminate cytidine in single-stranded DNA which ultimately results in hypermutation of newly synthesized proviral DNA. Other deaminase-independent mechanisms of inhibition have been identified, such as directly inhibiting reverse transcription. Both HIV and murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) have evolved mechanisms to evade the action of the APOBEC proteins. HIV encodes the Vif protein which binds to hA3G and facilitates its rapid degradation through the proteasome. The mechanism(s) by which exogenous MuLVs evade mA3 inhibitory activity is unknown. Exogenous MuLVs encode a glycosylated gag protein (gGag) originating from an alternate CUG start site upstream of the AUG start site of the Gag structural polyproteins. gGag is synthesized to similar amounts as the structural Gag polyprotein in MuLV infected cells but is glycosylated in the endoplasmic
Foamy viruses (FVs) of the Spumaretrovirinae subfamily are distinct retroviruses, with many features of their molecular biology and replication strategy clearly different from those of the Orthoretroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency, murine leukemia, and human T cell lymphotropic viruses. The FV Gag N-terminal region is responsible for capsid formation and particle budding via interaction with Env. However, the critical residues or motifs in this region and their functional interaction are currently ill-defined, especially in non-primate FVs. Mutagenesis of N-terminal Gag residues of feline FV (FFV) reveals key residues essential for either capsid assembly and/or viral budding via interaction with the FFV Env leader protein (Elp). In an in vitro Gag-Elp interaction screen, Gag mutations abolishing particle assembly also interfered with Elp binding, indicating that Gag assembly is a prerequisite for this highly specific interaction. Gradient sedimentation analyses of cytosolic proteins indicate
BackgroundOne unique feature of the foamy virus (FV) capsid protein Gag is the absence of Cys-His motifs, which in orthoretroviruses are irreplaceable for multitude functions including viral RNA genome recognition and packaging. Instead, FV Gag contains glycine-arginine-rich (GR) sequences at its C-terminus. In case of prototype FV (PFV) these are historically grouped in three boxes, which have been shown to play essential functions in genome reverse transcription, virion infectivity and particle morphogenesis. Additional functions for RNA packaging and Pol encapsidation were suggested, but have not been conclusively addressed.ResultsHere we show that released wild type PFV particles, like orthoretroviruses, contain various cellular RNAs in addition to viral genome. Unlike orthoretroviruses, the content of selected cellular RNAs in PFV capsids was not altered by viral genome encapsidation. Deletion of individual GR boxes had only minor negative effects (2 to 4-fold) on viral and cellular RNA
Gag-Pol polyprotein: Mediates, with Gag polyrotein, the essential events in virion assembly, including binding the plasma membrane, making the protein-protein interactions necessary to create spherical particles, recruiting the viral Env proteins, and packaging the genomic RNA via direct interactions with the RNA packaging sequence (Psi). Gag-Pol polyprotein may regulate its own translation, by the binding genomic RNA in the 5-UTR. At low concentration, the polyprotein would promote translation, whereas at high concentration, the polyprotein would encapsidate genomic RNA and then shutt off translation.
Retroviral matrix proteins are components of envelope-associated capsids of retroviruses. These proteins line the inner surface of viral envelopes and are associated with viral membranes. Matrix proteins are produced as N-terminal domains of Gag precursor polyproteins. The Gag polyprotein directs the assembly and release of virus particles from infected cells. The Gag polyprotein has three domains required for activity: an N-terminal membrane-binding (M) domain (which corresponds to the matrix protein) that directs Gag to the plasma membrane, an interaction (I) domain involved in Gag aggregation, and a late assembly (L) domain that mediates the budding process . During viral maturation, the Gag polyprotein is cleaved by the retroviral protease into several corresponding structural proteins, yielding the matrix (MA), capsid (CA), and nucleocapsid (NC) proteins, and some smaller peptides. Gag-derived proteins govern the entire assembly and release of the virus particles, with matrix proteins ...
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The inner structural Gag proteins and the envelope (Env) glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) traffic independently to the plasma membrane, where they assemble the nascent virion. HIV-1 carries a relatively low number of glycoproteins in its membrane, and the mechanism of Env recruitment and virus incorporation is incompletely understood. We employed dual-color super-resolution microscopy visualizing Gag assembly sites and HIV-1 Env proteins in virus-producing and in Env expressing cells. Distinctive HIV-1 Gag assembly sites were readily detected and were associated with Env clusters that always extended beyond the actual Gag assembly site and often showed enrichment at the periphery and surrounding the assembly site. Formation of these Env clusters depended on the presence of other HIV-1 proteins and on the long cytoplasmic tail (CT) of Env. CT deletion, a matrix mutation affecting Env incorporation or Env expression in the absence of other HIV-1 proteins led to much smaller ...
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Define probang gag. probang gag synonyms, probang gag pronunciation, probang gag translation, English dictionary definition of probang gag. n. A long, slender, flexible rod having a tuft or sponge at the end, used to remove foreign bodies from or apply medication to the larynx or esophagus.
Since its discovery in 1917, heparin has been a fascinating, and in a way elusive, molecule. Heparin is a glycosoaminoglycan (GAG) formed by repeated sulphated oligosaccharide units. Natural preparations of heparin (usually obtained from bovine lung or porcine intestinal mucosa) can vary in the length of the polymeric unit and therefore have different molecular weights. As such, the biological actions of this GAG can vary quantitatively between different batches of the molecule. The initial activity ascribed to heparin was its capacity to prolong the process of blood clotting, an effect due to its potentiating interaction with the natural inhibitor of thrombin, antithrombin III. These properties have led to widespread use of heparin as an anticoagulant although scant attention has been paid to other biological activities of this GAG.. This situation has changed in recent years. In fact is has long been recognised that heparin has a wide range of biological effects in addition to its well ...
In perinatally HIV-1-infected youths living in France, we previously reported that Gag-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell proliferation is more frequently detected
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Simon, Bieniasz and Jouvenet found that the Gag molecules are recruited from the inside of the cell and travel to the cells surface. When enough Gag molecules get close and start bumping into each other, the cells outer membrane starts to bulge outward into a budding virion and then pinches off to form an individual, infectious particle. At this point, the researchers showed that the virion is a lone entity, no longer exchanging resources with the cell. By using tricks from optics and physiology, they were able to watch the steps of viral assembly, budding, and even scission off the cell surface. With such a view they can start to describe the entire lifeline in the birth of the virus ...
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HIV-1 and other retroviruses exit infected cells by budding from the plasma membrane, a process requiring membrane fission. The primary late assembly (L) domain in the p6 region of HIV-1 Gag mediates the detachment of the virion by recruiting host Tsg101, a component of the class E vacuolar protein …
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Rabbit polyclonal GAG antibody validated for WB, ELISA. Referenced in 3 publications. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant full length protein
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We speculate that during the late stages of the viral life cycle when mostly structural proteins such as Gag are expressed, SDF-1 induced CXCR4 downregulation is attenuated resulting in the accumulation of densensitized CXCR4 within intracellular compartments ...
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minggu ke 2 ujian, didera sariawan berat (seminggu gag ilang2... wew) dan ternyata saya kedatangan tamu: SAKIT GIGI... huhuhu :( awalnya gigi geraham bawah, sebelah kiri, no 2 dari depan, tanggal... WEks!! ya patah, dulu pas awal smp ditambal, trus sma cuil, dan sekarang pas kuliah lepas.. wadoww!! selasa siang,, awalnya gag sakit, bahkan saya gag…
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This gene product mainly transfers sulfate to N-acetylgalactosamine. The regulated expression of each member of this gene ... This gene belongs to the sulfotransferase gene family. Sulfotransferases generate sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) moieties ... This gene is part of a gene cluster on chromosome Xp11.23. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000147119 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... "Entrez Gene: CHST7 carbohydrate (N-acetylglucosamine 6-O) sulfotransferase 7". Human CHST7 genome location and CHST7 gene ...
These genes overlap so they encode a protease that processes the resulting transcript into functional gene products. Gag gene ... Mutations caused by retrotransposons include: Gene inactivation Changing gene regulation Changing gene products Acting as DNA ... Between the long terminal repeats there are genes that can be transcribed equivalent to retrovirus genes gag and pol. ... Although similar to the gene carrying out the same function in retroviruses, the env gene is used to determine whether the gene ...
The gag gene provides the basic physical infrastructure of the virus, and pol provides the basic mechanism by which ... HIV employs a sophisticated system of differential RNA splicing to obtain nine different gene products from a less than 10kb ... tev: This gene is only present in a few HIV-1 isolates. It is a fusion of parts of the tat, env, and rev genes, and codes for a ... gag (group-specific antigen) codes for the precursor gag polyprotein which is processed by viral protease during maturation to ...
Gag/pol translational readthrough site Gene+Products,+pol at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH ... Pol (DNA polymerase) refers to a gene in retroviruses, or the protein produced by that gene. Products of pol include: Common to ... HIV's gag and pol genes do not produce their proteins in their final form, but as larger combination proteins; the specific ... pol+Gene+Products,+Human+Immunodeficiency+Virus at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
The two forms are distinguished by the gene product involved; Type A involves a malfunction in the GALNS gene, while Type B ... AKA GAGs, or mucopolysaccharides). In Morquio syndrome, the specific GAG which builds up in the body is called keratan sulfate ... Morquio syndrome is inherited from an autosomal recessive inherited gene. Every person has two copies of the genes needed to ... The buildup of GAGs in different parts of the body causes symptoms in many different organ systems. In the US, the incidence ...
This gene is part of an HERV provirus on human chromosome 19 that has inactivating mutations in the gag and pol genes. This ... The gene's protein product is expressed in the placenta and acts as a syncytin in Old World monkeys, but has lost the fusogenic ... "Entrez Gene: Endogenous retrovirus group V member 2, envelope". Retrieved 2017-09-13. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) v ... Endogenous retrovirus group V member 2, envelope is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ERVV-2 gene. Many human ...
The gag gene encodes three final glycoprotein products: the capsid, the nucleocapsid, and the matrix protein which links the ... The function of the auxiliary gene vif is not fully known. The vif gene product, a 29 kDa protein, induces a weak immune ... The protease cleaves the gag and pol polyprotein precursor. The viral tat gene encodes a 94-amino acid protein. Tat is the most ... An auxiliary gene, vif (viral infectivity factor), is also encoded. However, the number and role of auxiliary genes varies by ...
As a result, structural proteins, resulting from polypeptide products of gag and gag-pol genes, that are necessary for the HIV ...
As with all retroviruses, lentiviruses have gag, pol and env genes, coding for viral proteins in the order: 5´-gag-pol-env-3´. ... They may also have additional accessory genes depending on the virus (e.g., for HIV-1: vif, vpr, vpu, nef) whose products are ... Protease PR encoded by the pro gene.. *dUTPase DU encoded by the pro gene (part of pol gene in some viruses), the role of which ... Lentivirus is primarily a research tool used to introduce a gene product into in vitro systems or animal models. Large-scale ...
Pol and Gag genes. GeoVax is currently conducting multiple site Phase 2 Human clinical trials for HIV/AIDS preventive vaccine ... "Specifically, the HVTN plans to clinically test a novel vaccine product developed by GeoVax scientists that expresses human ... With the GeoVax vaccine a variety of HIV proteins (both surface and internal) are expressed from genes which include the Env, ... vaccine both of which lead to the insertion of genes into primate DNA which leads to foreign protein expression. ...
It has the typical genomic structure of retroviruses and includes LTR, vif, pol, gag, orfA, env, and rev genes. The Gag ... however the orfA-encoded product may display many of the attributes of HIV-1 accessory gene products such as Vpr, Vpu or Nef. ... Of FIV's genome, Pol is the most conserved across FIV strains along with gag. On the contrary, env, vif, orfa, and rev are the ... LTCI Product Information, T-Cyte Therapeutics, Inc., archived from the original on 16 August 2012, retrieved 28 July 2012 T- ...
Their binding of PSG can be affected by heparin, which is a competitive inhibitor that binds to the GAG portion of a PG. ... Pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein is a major product of the syncytiotrophoblast in the placenta, reaching concentrations ... These genes belong to a specific gene family; they are a subgroup of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family of genes. CEAs ... The protein portion of the PSG varies depending on the gene coding for it. Several of the genes and proteins have been ...
... the gene is always located downstream of gag, pro, and pol. The env mRNA must be spliced for expression. The mature product of ... Genes,+env at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) env+Gene+Products,+Human+Immunodeficiency+ ... Viral structural protein Gene+Products,+env at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Coffin JM, ... Env expression is regulated by the gene product of rev. Experimental deletion of rev resulted in the inability to detect the ...
All functional LTR-retrotransposons encode a minimum of two genes, gag and pol, that are sufficient for their replication. Gag ... groups based on both their degree of sequence similarity and the order of encoded gene products. Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy groups ... The Gag and Pol genes are encoded in the same mRNA. Depending on the host species, two different strategies can be used to ... Gag proteins form virus-like particles in the cytoplasm inside which reverse-transcription occurs. The Pol gene produces three ...
Especially after Gene's marriage, the strip's setting expanded to include Gene's family's home, their farm, and their farm ... Arlo and Janis is an American gag-a-day comic strip written and drawn by Jimmy Johnson. It is a leisurely paced domestic ... Johnson wrote, "I've always enjoyed serial strips, but they change the nature of the product. Ultimately, I think I prefer the ... "A highlight of the strip's run was when Janis bobbed her shoulder-length hair." Gene (Eugene) is their son. Arlo and Janis were ...
He is, in fact, a very good song-and-dance man, the only member of his generation who bears comparison with Gene Kelly and Dan ... Britishers have been afforded chances to view such products as "The Tommy Steele Story" and "Tommy the Toreador," but we ... Dailey ... [George Sidney's] timing tends to lag, his sight gags telegraph ahead, and his songs drag." Clifford Terry of the ...
His mother is often a carrier; i.e., she has one abnormal and one normal IDS gene, and she passes along the abnormal gene to ... The most commonly used laboratory screening test for an MPS disorder is a urine test for GAGs. The urine test for GAGs can ... When the body breaks down proteoglycans, one of the resulting products is mucopolysaccharides, otherwise known as ... The rate of GAGs buildup is not the same for all people with Hunter syndrome, resulting in a wide spectrum of medical problems ...
These viruses have genes called accessory genes, in addition to gag, pro, pol and env genes. Accessory genes are located ... These two glycoprotein products stay in close affiliation, and they are transported to the plasma membrane after further ... The proteins encoded by the gag and pol genes are translated from genome-length mRNAs into Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins. In ... In addition, some retroviruses may carry genes called oncogenes or onc genes from another class. Retroviruses with these genes ...
... gag-jun) MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.470 - gene products, rex MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.480 - gene products, tax (gene) MeSH ... gene products, rev (HIV) MeSH D12.776.964.950.800.400 - gene products, tat MeSH D12.776.964.950.800.410 - gene products, tax ... gag-jun) MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.750.470 - gene products, rex MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.750.480 - gene products, tax MeSH ... gag-jun) MeSH D12.776.964.775.750.470 - gene products, rex MeSH D12.776.964.775.750.480 - gene products, tax MeSH D12.776. ...
Merial produces a recombinant vaccine consisting of canarypox virus carrying FeLV gag and env genes (sold as PUREVAX FeLV in ... "LTCI Product Information". T-Cyte Therapeutics, Inc. Archived from the original on 2012-08-16. Retrieved 28 July 2012. "T-Cyte ... The virus comprises 5' and 3' LTRs and three genes: Gag (structural), Pol (enzymes) and Env (envelope and transmembrane); the ... The absence of any observed adverse events in several animal species suggests that the product has a very low toxicity profile ...
RSV has four genes: gag - encodes capsid proteins pol - encodes reverse transcriptase env - encodes the envelope gene src - ... The gag protein (Pr76) for RSV contains 701 amino acids. It is cleaved by virus encoded protease, releasing products found in ... The src gene was taken up by RSV and incorporated into its genome conferring it with the advantage of being able to stimulate ... The src gene is oncogenic as it triggers uncontrolled growth in abnormal host cells. It was the first retroviral oncogene to be ...
This running gag was given a backstory in the special "Friend or Foe", where it is revealed that Krabs and Plankton created the ... The Krabby Patty burger is a menu item sold by the Krusty Krab as a fast food product. It is considered to be one of the most ... Created by the restaurant's founder Eugene Krabs and his archenemy Plankton, it is what the main character SpongeBob cooks ... A running gag is Plankton's obsession with obtaining it as a way to produce the sandwiches and attract customers to his across- ...
Additional appearances by people like Eugene Levy and Kevin Dunn, and others, add to the hilarity, although many of the jokes ... How could director Christopher Guest [...] have reduced himself to staging gags such as Farley's slap-fest with hostile Injuns ... reflected on the failure of the end product: The script was brilliant. We even hired Christopher Guest to direct it. I've ... Chris Farley as Bartholomew Hunt Matthew Perry as Leslie Edwards Eugene Levy as Guy Fontenot Kevin Dunn as Hidalgo Lisa ...
CRK (gene) has been shown to interact with: BCAR1, Cbl gene, Dock180, EPS15, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Grb2, IRS4, ... v-Crk, a transforming oncoprotein from avian sarcoma viruses, is a fusion of viral "gag" protein with the SH2 and SH3 domains ... 1994). "Expression of the v-crk oncogene product in PC12 cells results in rapid differentiation by both nerve growth factor- ... Adapter molecule crk also known as proto-oncogene c-Crk is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRK gene. The CRK protein ...
This gene product may be seen to play a dual role in both regulating CDK and RNA polymerase II (RNAP2) activities. Cyclin K ... CDK 13 may also be characterized to interact with HIV mRNA splicing, alongside Nef, and the underexpression of Gag and Env ... Cyclin-K is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNK gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ... "Entrez Gene: CCNK cyclin K". Baek K, Brown RS, Birrane G, Ladias JA (February 2007). "Crystal structure of human cyclin K, a ...
Sherr CJ, Rettenmier CW (1986). "The fms gene and the CSF-1 receptor". Cancer Surv. 5 (2): 221-32. PMID 3022923. ... Sherr CJ, Rettenmier CW, Sacca R, Roussel MF, Look AT, Stanley ER (July 1985). "The c-fms proto-oncogene product is related to ... a functional signal peptide that directs synthesis of a transforming glycoprotein in the absence of feline leukemia virus gag ... Rettenmier CW, Roussel MF, Sherr CJ (1988). "The colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) receptor (c-fms proto-oncogene product) ...
... the inordinate degree of product placement in the film constitutes a running gag. Almost every scene features a mention or ... of Du Jour Serena Altschul as herself Carson Daly as himself Aries Spears as the other Carson Daly Eugene Levy as himself ... The film has been praised for its satirical take on American pop culture, and for its prescience in satirizing product ... but the constant appearance of product placements seems rather hypocritical." On Metacritic, the film scores a 47 out of 100, ...
The resulting transcript and protein product is: DNA: 5' - AAC AGC CTG CTT ACG GCT CTC - 3' 3' - TTG TCG GAC GAA TGC CGA GAG - ... the 20th nucleotide of the gene for the beta chain of hemoglobin is altered from the codon GAG to GTG. Thus, the 6th amino acid ... DNA: 5' - AAC AGC CTG CGT ACG GCT CTC - 3' 3' - TTG TCG GAC GCA TGC CGA GAG - 5' mRNA: 5' - AAC AGC CUG CGU ACG GCU CUC - 3' ... Protein: Asn Ser Leu Arg Thr Ala Leu LMNA missense mutation (c.1580G>T) introduced at LMNA gene - position 1580 (nt) in the DNA ...
Other protein degradation genes that can cause ALS when mutated include VCP, OPTN, TBK1, and SQSTM1. Three genes implicated in ... European Medicines Agency, Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products. 22 September 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 ... including an overactive gag reflex. An abnormal reflex commonly called Babinski's sign also indicates upper motor neuron damage ... the most common ALS gene in Europe is C9orf72, followed by SOD1, TARDBP, and FUS, while the most common ALS gene in Asia is ...
Gin-Sling's half-caste daughter Gene Tierney - the result of a coupling between Gin-Sling and British official Sir Guy ... That part of the gag ... had an implicit association with the name of Erich von Stroheim, another émigré Viennese filmmaker ... Charteris Walter Houston - is the product of European finishing schools rather than a courtesan raised in her mother's whore ... p. 47:"... all the depravity [of Colton's play] could not be spelled out exactly ... Gene Tierney's nickname Poppy ... is the ...
Serotypes of HLA-B gene products antigen. -. Broad. antigen. Split antigens B7. B5. B51. B52. ... 1agb: ANTAGONIST HIV-1 GAG PEPTIDES INDUCE STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN HLA B8-HIV-1 GAG PEPTIDE (GGRKKYKL-3R MUTATION) ... In humans, the HLA-B gene and two related genes, HLA-A and HLA-C, are the major genes in MHC class I. ... HLA is the human version of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a gene family that occurs in many species. Genes in ...
"Journal of Natural Products. 79 (3): 629-61. doi:10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b01055. PMID 26852623. ... the utilization of natural ... Rasmussen N (2014). Gene Jockeys: Life Science and the rise of Biotech Enterprise. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ... GAG) polysaccharides, which are essential extracellular matrix (ECM) components to help remodel the ECM.[69] The discovery of ... Such a molecule might be extracted from a natural product or even be a drug on the market which could be improved upon (so- ...
Siskel, Gene (November 22, 1991). "`Beauty And The Beast` Has A Song In Its Heart". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 26, 2015.. ... and Jay Sherman's attempts to cover up the embarrassing lyrics make for one of the best gags on the list".[339] It was ... Timothy Wegner described the finished product in his book Image Lab as a "huge and elegant" ballroom in which "the walls are ... Gene Siskel described Lansbury's voice, which spans two octaves from F3 to B♭5,[75] as "richly textured".[83] Meanwhile, ...
Gene expression and biochemistryEdit. These are the proteinogenic amino acids, which are the building blocks for proteins. They ... Amino acids are the end product of protein.The general structure of an α-amino acid, with the amino group on the left and the ... GAA, GAG 6.3 Conditionally Phenylalanine F Phe UUU, UUC 3.9 Yes Glycine G Gly GGU, GGC, GGA, GGG 7.2 Conditionally ...
Nitrogenous waste products accumulate in the systemic circulation (hence the older term "portosystemic encephalopathy"). The ... Loss of glutamate transporter gene expression (especially EAAT 2) has been attributed to acute liver failure.[11] ... are at risk of obstructing their airway due to decreased protective reflexes such as the gag reflex. This can lead to ... a breakdown product of hemoglobin which is conjugated and excreted by the liver). Together with the severity of encephalopathy ...
It is encoded by the codons GAA or GAG. The acid can lose one proton from its second carboxyl group to form the conjugate base ... The resulting α-ketoacid product is often a useful one as well, which can contribute as fuel or as a substrate for further ... A gene expressed in glial cells actively transports glutamate into the extracellular space,[24] while, in the nucleus accumbens ... All meats, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, and kombu are excellent sources of glutamic acid. Some protein-rich plant foods ...
... sense foreign objects such as mucous and food that may result in a gag reflex and corresponding gagging sensation. ... published first in a joint paper in 1991 that described the very large family of about one thousand genes for odorant receptors ... as these are typically considered the product of nervous system activity. The emergence of mental phenomena from the activity ... as well as a component within the vagus nerve dedicated to the gag reflex. The facial nerve connects to taste buds in the ...
The most famous of these was a scene during the movie Anchors Aweigh, in which actor Gene Kelly danced with an animated Jerry ... They said that the colors would be too bright for the audience and they would get sick of the gags and leave.[35] However, the ... Terrytoons produced 26 cartoons a year for E.W. Hammons' Educational Pictures, which in turn supplied short-subject product to ... However, they were more successful than the Gene Deitch Tom and Jerry shorts, which were produced overseas during 1961 and 1962 ...
It is encoded by the codons GAA or GAG. The acid can lose one proton from its second carboxyl group to form the conjugate base ... The resulting α-ketoacid product is often a useful one as well, which can contribute as fuel or as a substrate for further ... Grabowska, A.; Nowicki, M.; Kwinta, J. (2011). "Glutamate dehydrogenase of the germinating triticale seeds: Gene expression, ... All meats, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, and kombu are excellent sources of glutamic acid. Some protein-rich plant foods ...
Gene expression and biochemistry[change , change source]. These are the proteinogenic amino acids, which are the building ... Amino acids are the end product of protein.The general structure of an α-amino acid, with the amino group on the left and the ... GAA, GAG 6.3 Conditionally Phenylalanine F Phe UUU, UUC 3.9 Yes Glycine G Gly GGU, GGC, GGA, GGG 7.2 Conditionally ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Amino_acid&oldid=7330065#Gene_expression_and_biochemistry" ...
"Entrez Gene: TGFB3 transforming growth factor, beta 3".. *^ Herpin A, Lelong C, Favrel P (May 2004). "Transforming growth ... Renovo shares plummet 75% as scar revision product Juvista fails to meet study endpoints, 14 February 2011 ... "Betaglycan can act as a dual modulator of TGF-beta access to signaling receptors: mapping of ligand binding and GAG attachment ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • type III transforming growth factor beta receptor binding. • cytokine activity. • type I ...
The inactivation of tumor suppressor gene products: p53". Virology. 384 (2): 285-293. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2008.09.034.. ... All retroviruses have three major coding domains; gag, pol and env. In the gag region of the virus, the synthesis of the ... "The human papilloma virus-16 E7 oncoprotein is able to bind to the retinoblastoma gene product". Science. 243 (4893): 934-937. ... involves either insertion of additional viral oncogenic genes into the host cell or to enhance already existing oncogenic genes ...
Namely You - by Johnny Mercer & Gene de Paul (1956) Commander Publications. *Love in a Home - by Johnny Mercer & Gene de Paul ( ... Dogpatch characters pitched consumer products as varied as Grape-Nuts cereal, Kraft caramels, Ivory soap, Oxydol, Duz and Dreft ... daily gag, adventure, soap opera, and "an almost lost comic ideal: the disinterested comment on life's pattern and meaning." In ... Lonesome Polecat, written by Johnny Mercer & Gene de Paul for the musical Seven Brides for Seven Brothers (1954), was later ...
Examples of GAGs include: Name. Hexuronic acid / Hexose. Hexosamine. Linkage geometry between predominant monomeric units. ... "Natural Product Reports. 19: 312-331. doi:10.1039/B100916H. PMID 12137280.. *^ Jin L, Abrahams JP, Skinner R, Petitou M, Pike ... With regard to HSGAGs, a multimeric enzyme encoded by EXT1 and EXT2 of the EXT family of genes, transfers both GlcNAc and GlcA ... Most prevalent GAG Dermatan sulfate. GlcUA or IdoUA or IdoUA(2S). GalNAc or GalNAc(4S) or GalNAc(6S) or GalNAc(4S,6S). 'IdoUAβ1 ...
Gag genes of the virus for the Capsid and Delivery system. This process is called retroviral gene therapy, having the ability ... FDA (2011) Considering Whether an FDA-Regulated Product Involves the Application of Nanotechnology, Guidance for Industry, ... and lentiviral gene delivery systems.[61] These gene therapy vectors have been used in cats to send genes into the genetically ... Perkel, Jeffrey M. Viral Mediated Gene Delivery. sciencemag.org *^ Cepko, C.; Pear, W. (2001). "Overview of the Retrovirus ...
"Eugene Register-Guard. August 11, 1973. Retrieved February 2, 2017.. *^ a b Harvest of Horror: Mass Murder in Houston (1975) p ... He was gagged, strangled and buried in Corll's boat shed.[182]. 1972[edit]. *February 9: Willard Branch, Jr. 17. The son of a ... Corll's family opened a new shop, which they named Pecan Prince[14] in reference to the brand name of the family product. In ... "Eugene Register-Guard. August 11, 1973. Retrieved November 8, 2017.. *^ "Houston Deaths Now 27". Ellensburg Daily Record. ...
5' ---CTC GAG--- 3' 3' ---GAG CTC--- 5' BspAAI, BstVI, MlaAI, PaeR7I, SauLPII, SlaI, Sol10179I, XhoI ... Cut: Cutting site and DNA products of the cut. The recognition sequence and the cutting site usually match, but sometimes the ... Shimotsu H, Takahashi H, Saito H (November 1980). "A new site-specific endonuclease StuI from Streptomyces tubercidicus". Gene ... "A nomenclature for restriction enzymes, DNA methyltransferases, homing endonucleases and their genes". Nucleic Acids Res. 31 ...
Three of these genes, gag, pol, and env, contain information needed to make the structural proteins for new virus particles.[23 ... donor blood and blood products used in medicine and medical research are routinely screened for HIV.[108] ... The six remaining genes, tat, rev, nef, vif, vpr, and vpu (or vpx in the case of HIV-2), are regulatory genes for proteins that ... The RNA genome consists of at least seven structural landmarks (LTR, TAR, RRE, PE, SLIP, CRS, and INS), and nine genes (gag, ...
Some adenoviruses under specialized conditions can transform cells using their early gene products. E1A (binds Retinoblastoma ... "Chimeric adenovirus 5/35 vector containing the clade C HIV gag gene induces a cross-reactive immune response against HIV". ... Schematic diagram of the linear adenovirus genome, showing Early genes (E) and Late genes (L). ... Potential Applications for Gene and Cell-Based Therapies in the New Era of Personalized Medicine". Genes & Diseases. 4 (2): 43- ...
... or sale of products from the Indian clinic where the product was prescribed and purchased. The spokesperson said that products ... McLain, Deckle (1996). "A New Kind of Gag Order; Fortunately the Appeals Courts Don't Like Them". Communications and the Law. ... Emery, Gene (24 November 1991), "SCIENCE/TECHNOLOGY Troubled times for the Maharishi Medical branch accused of deception, ... Products[edit]. MAPI offices, in the Fairfield Business Park located north of Fairfield, Iowa.[37][38] It was built according ...
Do not use pyrethrin containing products on cats as this is a toxin for felines. ... gagging, regurgitation (dogs) and enlarged pupils (cats). Occasionally a single limb may appear to be weak or lame. A tick ... Gene sequence of the tick toxin shows high homology to scorpion toxins.[57] ... people have experienced spectacular allergic reactions when they have come into contact with both live and dead tick products. ...
Humor, black comedy, gag-a-day, satire, anthropomorphic. Pearls Before Swine (also known as Pearls) is an American comic strip ... "This Little Piggy Stayed Home (March 2004): "Product Detail"". Andrewsmcmeel.com. Archived from the original on September 27, ... Gene Lyons. *Mary Mitchell. *Cokie Roberts and Steven V. Roberts. *Diana West ... A recurring gag in the comics involves Goat suddenly and unexpectedly being knocked out by a blow to the head when he states ...
Advertised a brand new product called Spam;[17] this show featured musical numbers by jazz great Artie Shaw.. *The Swan Soap ... One running gag during this period, stretching into the television era, was Burns' questionable singing voice, as Gracie ... Gene Hackman (1992). *Tommy Lee Jones (1993). *Martin Landau (1994). *Kevin Spacey (1995) ... He also became one of the show's running gags, when his involvement in Gracie's harebrained ideas would get him fired at least ...
Since Ag-gag laws prohibit video or photographic documentation of farm activities, these practices have been documented by ... For example, some laws govern methods of killing animals for food, clothing, or other products, and other laws concern the ... Fiber-Ostrow, Pamela, Lovell, Jarret S. (2016) behind a veil of secrecy: animal abuse, factory farms, and Ag-Gag legislation. ... Fiber-Ostrow, Pamela, Lovell, Jarret S. (2016) behind a veil of secrecy: animal abuse, factory farms, and Ag-Gag legislation. ...
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which ... Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen. ... are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. ... gag Protein; Gene Products, gag; Gene Product, gag; Retroviral ... gag; Polyproteins, gag; Protein, gag; Proteins, Viral gag; Proteins, gag Viral; Viral Proteins, gag; gag Gene Product; gag ...
Gene Products, gag / metabolism* * HeLa Cells * Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 / chemistry* ... The inner loop of tetraspanins CD82 and CD81 mediates interactions with human T cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 Gag protein J ... The matrix (MA) domain of human T cell lymphotrophic virus, type 1 (HTLV-1), Gag interacts with the cytoplasmic face of the ... Thus, association of HTLV-1 Gag with tetraspanin-enriched microdomains is mediated by the inner loops of CD81 and CD82. ...
Gag). Despite significant progress in defining both the viral and cellular determinants of HIV-1 assembly and release, the ... trafficking pathway used by Gag to reach its site of assembly in the infected cell remains to be elucidated … ... HIV-1 particle production is driven by the Gag precursor protein Pr55( ... gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus / chemistry * gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus / genetics ...
Amino acid substitutions at HIV-1 Gag p7/p1 and p1/p6 cleavage sites may be selected under antiretroviral pressure or represent ... Fusion Proteins, gag-pol / genetics, metabolism. Gene Products, gag / genetics*. HIV Infections / drug therapy, physiopathology ... 0/Capsid Proteins; 0/Fusion Proteins, gag-pol; 0/Gene Products, gag; 0/HIV Protease Inhibitors; 0/NCP7 protein, Human ... 0/gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus; 0/gag protein p1, Human immunodeficiency virus; EC 3.4.23.-/HIV Protease ...
Gene Products, gag/biosynthesis. *Gene Products, gag/ultrastructure. *HIV-1/ultrastructure*. *Humans ... Expression of the Gag protein in eukaryotic cells leads to the budding of membranous virus-like particles (VLPs). ... We propose a model in which lateral interactions between Gag protein molecules yields arrays that are organized into sectors ... but local order was evidenced by small arrays of Gag protein that formed facets within the curved sectors. A consistent 270 A ...
Gene namesi. Name:TY1A-DR5. Synonyms:YDRWTy1-4 GAG ... products target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> isoformsi produced by ... The ratio of Gag:Gag-Pol varies between 20:1 and 5:1 (By similarity).By similarity ... Gag-p4By similarityAdd BLAST. 39. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. ... Transposon Ty1-DR5 Gag polyproteinAdd BLAST. 440. ,p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing section describes the extent of ...
... with Gag-Pol polyprotein, the essential events in virion assembly, including binding the plasma membrane, making the protein- ... Covers physical interactions between the gene product of interest and another molecule (or ion, or complex).,/p> ,p>More ... Ribosomal frameshifting at the gag-pol genes boundary occurs at low frequency and produces the Gag-Pol polyprotein. This ... sp,P03347,GAG_HV1B1 Gag polyprotein OS=Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BH10) OX=11678 GN=gag PE= ...
Gene Products, gag. Grant support. *R01 AI 36396/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States ...
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product:. Yes. Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product:. No. ... Redirected High Affinity Gag‐Specific Autologous T Cells for HIV Gene Therapy. The safety and scientific validity of this study ... If the WT‐gag‐TCR or the α/6‐gag‐TCR T cells are found in the blood at five years after the 1st infusion of T cells, then the ... Biological: WT-gag-TCR modified T cells Biological: α/6-gag-TCR modified T cells Other: STI or Drug Holiday Phase 1 ...
The gene product Murr1 restricts HIV-1 replication in resting CD4+ lymphocytes. Nature 426, 853-857 (2003). ... Directly infected resting CD4+ T cells can produce HIV Gag without spreading infection in a model of HIV latency. PLoS Pathog. ... Differential gene and transcript expression analysis of RNA-seq experiments with TopHat and Cufflinks. Nat. Protoc. 7, 562-578 ... Differential analysis of gene regulation at transcript resolution with RNA-seq. Nat. Biotechnol. 31, 46-53 (2013). ...
Gene Products, Gag. Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or ... Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen. ... All Topics Biotechnology Biotech Business Biotech Products Cancer Cardiovascular Dermatology Drug Discovery Endocrinology ... All Topics Biotechnology Biotech Business Biotech Products Cancer Cardiovascular Dermatology Drug Discovery Endocrinology ...
0 (Adjuvants, Immunologic); 0 (Cytokines); 0 (Gene Products, gag); 0 (Interleukin-15); 0 (Interleukin-2); 0 (Vaccines, DNA); 0 ... Produtos do Gene gag/gen tica. Produtos do Gene gag/imunologia. Vetores Gen ticos. Imuniza o. Imunomodula o. Interleucina-15/ ... Produtos do Gene pol/gen tica. Produtos do Gene pol/metabolismo. Seres Humanos. Infec es por Retroviridae/virologia. Spumavirus ... Viral gene replacements are influenced by host restriction genes and Pathogenic potential maps to the transmembrane subunit ...
For amplification of a 352-bp product of the PRAME gene, samples were adjusted to 50-μl reaction mixes supplemented with 2 mM ... GAG CCC TCG GAG CCC TCC AGG-3′; rab13fora, 5′-GTC TGA TCA TTC GCT TTG CAG AGG-3′; EAR3fora, 5′-CCA ATT CAC CTG CGA GGG CTG C-3 ... Gene names are indicated. Twenty-seven distinct genes are significantly upregulated in the HL lines, and 45 distinct genes are ... 27 genes are specifically and consistently upregulated in the HL cell lines, and 45 genes are downregulated. Three of the genes ...
Protein Product. gag-pol fusion protein Feature Type. transposable_element_gene Description. Retrotransposon TYA Gag and TYB ... Gene. Gene Systematic Name. Protein Coordinates. Accession ID. Description. Source. No. of Genes with Domain. ... Click on a gene or domain name to go to its specific page within SGD; drag any of the gene or domain objects around within the ... Gag), reverse transcriptase (RT), protease (PR), and integrase (IN); similar to retroviral genes 1 2 EC Number. 3.4.23.-, 3.1. ...
... gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus). ... 0 (gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus). [Em] Mes ... Infant-derived Gag-protease NL4-3 recombinant viruses ( = 41) were found to have a significantly lower Gag-protease-driven ... Env immunodominance over Gag and strong Env-mediated selection pressure on HIV are observed only in subjects expressing HLA-B* ... Thus, although Gag-specific CD8 T-cell responses may usually have greater anti-HIV efficacy, factors independent of protein ...
Phylogenetic tree of 246 gag-sequences, including 118 Bangladeshi HIV-1 C strains in green.The HIV1-C strains found in ... gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics*. Minor. *Adolescent. *Adult. *Bangladesh/epidemiology ... pone-0079193-g001: Phylogenetic tree of 246 gag-sequences, including 118 Bangladeshi HIV-1 C strains in green.The HIV1-C ... pone-0079193-g001: Phylogenetic tree of 246 gag-sequences, including 118 Bangladeshi HIV-1 C strains in green.The HIV1-C ...
Gene Products, gag/*metabolism; HIV-1/*physiology/ultrastructure; Leukemia Virus, Murine/*physiology ... Less MLV Gag is found associated with late endosomes in cells lacking AP-1, and our results suggest that AP-1 and AP-3 could ... The clathrin adaptor complex AP-1 binds HIV-1 and MLV Gag and facilitates their budding. Camus, G.; Segura-Morales, C.; Molle, ... We propose that AP-1 promotes Gag release by transporting it to intracellular sites of active budding, and/or by facilitating ...
Categories: Gene Products, gag Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ... website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products ...
A) The gag gene was amplified from viral RNA using a nested PCR approach. Due to insertions and deletions, the gag amplicon may ... After the splice-overlap-extension PCR41, combined LTR-gag products should be approximately 3,200 bp in length, as depicted in ... Once the gag gene has been made suitable for cloning by fusion to the 5 LTR from MJ4, which contains the necessary NgoMIV ... The gag gene from each chimera is then sequenced and compared to the initial population PCR amplicon to ensure cloning fidelity ...
This gene product mainly transfers sulfate to N-acetylgalactosamine. The regulated expression of each member of this gene ... This gene belongs to the sulfotransferase gene family. Sulfotransferases generate sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) moieties ... This gene is part of a gene cluster on chromosome Xp11.23. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000147119 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... "Entrez Gene: CHST7 carbohydrate (N-acetylglucosamine 6-O) sulfotransferase 7". Human CHST7 genome location and CHST7 gene ...
1997) MHC class I-associated peptides produced from endogenous gene products with vastly different efficiencies. J. Immunol. ... Fine specificity of the immunodominant p17Gag CTL responses.Two regions within p17Gag(p17Gag residues 16 to 34 and 71 to 88) ... The results show that 3 out of 46 peptides spanning p17Gag and p24Gagsequences tested contain two-thirds of the dominant Gag- ... of the total length of p17Gag and p24Gag, but which represent two-thirds of the dominant Gag-specific CTL responses detected. ...
... and cslB gene products from the appropriate templates. The annealing temperature was 50°C. DNA sequences were determined by the ... GAG lyase gene expression in F. heparinum.It has been reported that HepI is one of the dominating fractions of F. heparinum ... 35). For the study of GAG lyase gene expression in F. heparinum, FM (40) was supplemented with 1% heparin (MH) or 1% ... Expression System for High Levels of GAG Lyase Gene Expression and Study of the hepA Upstream Region in Flavobacterium ...
Molecular pathology of SCDHemoglobin Genes and Products in SCD-SS. Sickle Cell Disease: Pharmacologic Treatment ... this results from mutation in the β-globin gene that changes the 6th amino acid from glutamic acid to valine. ... GAG GTG Glutamic acid. Valine. Molecular pathology of SCDThe sickle mutation. The s Mutation ...
GAG genes participate in mitochondrial fission. A, Cells harboring GFP-labeled mitochondria and mutant for FZO1 alone (strain ... This association requires neither the DNM1 nor GAG2 gene products. However, the localization of Dnm1p to the mitochondrial ... Figure 3: GAG genes participate in mitochondrial fission. A, Cells harboring GFP-labeled mitochondria and mutant for FZO1 alone ... Figure 3: GAG genes participate in mitochondrial fission. A, Cells harboring GFP-labeled mitochondria and mutant for FZO1 alone ...
The RSV gag product (Pr76(gag)) produced in these cells is not released into the culture medium or proteolytically processed to ... The RSV gag product (Pr76(gag)) produced in these cells is not released into the culture medium or proteolytically processed to ... The RSV gag product (Pr76(gag)) produced in these cells is not released into the culture medium or proteolytically processed to ... The RSV gag product (Pr76(gag)) produced in these cells is not released into the culture medium or proteolytically processed to ...
GAG TCA ACG GAT TTG GTC GT-3′); GAPDH reverse (5′-TTG ATT TTG GAG GGA TCT CG-3′). The PCR products were analyzed using agarose ... Gene silencing of either the HuR- or β-actin gene resulted in decreased expression of the β-actin gene. Therefore, the HuR gene ... In contrast, the β-actin gene had no effect on HuR gene expression. However, the downregulation of the β-actin gene after gene ... GAPDH gene silencing had no effect on HuR gene expression. β-actin gene silencing had no effect on the expression of HuR as ...
1996) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes defined by env show high frequency of recombinant gag genes. J. Virol. 70: ... Version 1.0 is the currently available commercial test (product codes 83088 and 83102; Roche Diagnostics). Versions 1.0+ and ... All four versions amplify the same region in the gag gene of HIV-1. Version 1.0 uses primers SK462 and SK431 and yields a 142- ... 1993) Phylogenetic analysis of gag genes from seventy international HIV-1 isolates provides evidence for multiple genotypes. ...
These genes overlap so they encode a protease that processes the resulting transcript into functional gene products. Gag gene ... Mutations caused by retrotransposons include: Gene inactivation Changing gene regulation Changing gene products Acting as DNA ... Between the long terminal repeats there are genes that can be transcribed equivalent to retrovirus genes gag and pol. ... Although similar to the gene carrying out the same function in retroviruses, the env gene is used to determine whether the gene ...
  • Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. (curehunter.com)
  • Mediates, with Gag-Pol polyprotein, the essential events in virion assembly, including binding the plasma membrane, making the protein-protein interactions necessary to create spherical particles, recruiting the viral Env proteins, and packaging the genomic RNA via direct interactions with the RNA packaging sequence (Psi). (uniprot.org)
  • The immature HIV-1 particle is traditionally described as having a well ordered, icosahedral structure made up of uncleaved Gag protein surrounded by a lipid bilayer containing envelope proteins. (nih.gov)
  • BACKGROUND: Retroviral envelope (Env) proteins are known to exhibit immunosuppressive properties, which become apparent not only in retroviral infections, but also in gene-based immunizations using retroviral immunogens, where envelope interferes with the induction of CD8 T cell responses towards another, simultaneously or subsequently delivered, immunogen. (bireme.br)
  • Thus, the behavior of Pr76(gag) in mammalian cells is much like that of mammalian retroviral Gag proteins which have been altered so as to block the addition of myristic acid at residue 2 (Gly). (elsevier.com)
  • The values of these reactivities were elevated especially in serum samples of HIV- individuals showing cross-reaction with gag proteins on Western blot. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Amino acid sequence comparison of HIV-1 gag proteins with those of human endogenous retroviruses (ERV K10, ERV 3) revealed significant similarities predominantly in the domains showing elevated antibody cross-reactions. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Specific antibodies to HIV-1 gag proteins are probably mainly directed to tertiary structure defined epitopes formed by particle formation of the p24 monomers to the nucleocapsid. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • In murine leukemia virus (MLV) maturation, Gag is cleaved at three sites, resulting in formation of the matrix (MA), p12, capsid (CA), and nucleocapsid (NC) proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Thus, concerted cleavage of each of the Gag proteins in a virion at three sites induces multiple changes in the particle. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The hydrophilic nature of these compounds inhibits membrane binding and function of the modified proteins, including HIV-1 Gag. (pnas.org)
  • This segment has 55 to 60% amino acid homology to a 50-amino-acid region of the gag nucleic acid-binding proteins encoded by human T-cell lymphotropic viruses types I and II and bovine leukemia virus. (asm.org)
  • The proteins encoded by Myb genes bind to DNA and regulate the expression of other genes that control cell division, differentiation, and cell death. (stanford.edu)
  • 6 These variants differ in the length of the core proteins and number of attached GAGs ( Figure 1 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • Analysis and Transfection of Human Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor (aFGF) cDNA Clones and Structural Analysis of the Human aFGF Gene reveals Features Shared within a Family of Homologous Proteins. (indigo.ca)
  • Various mechanisms such as the expression of chemoresistance genes and heat shock proteins by the tumor may be responsible for varying response rates and locoregional recurrences of the treatment. (hindawi.com)
  • GAG The genomic region encoding the capsid proteins (group specific antigens). (lanl.gov)
  • Several alternatively spliced REST/NRSF/XBR mRNAs encoding proteins with nine, five, or four zinc finger motifs are transcribed from REST/NRSF/XBR gene. (jneurosci.org)
  • Such biological variation compounded by the high sequence identity within gene families currently overwhelms the complete and routine characterization of mammalian proteins by MS. A new data base of human proteins (and their possible variants) was created and searched using tandem mass spectrometric data from intact proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • This first application of top down MS/MS to wild-type human proteins demonstrates both gene-specific identification and the unambiguous characterization of multifaceted mass shifts (Δ m values). (mcponline.org)
  • 5 6 These latter factors, encoded by the E2A gene, belong to the family of basic helix loop helix (bHLH) proteins. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Even in the absence of any other viral proteins, HIV-1 Gag can form extracellular virus-like particles (VLPs) that resemble authentic HIV virions. (rupress.org)
  • Domain organization of the HIV-1 Gag and human Tsg101 and Hrs proteins. (rupress.org)
  • The HIV Gag and Hrs proteins are aligned to emphasize their similarities, with the NH 2 -terminal membrane-binding domains separated from the COOH-terminal protein-protein interaction domains by a vertical dashed line. (rupress.org)
  • characteristic features in common with the genome of other retroviruses: long terminal repeats (L TR), and coding regions for internal proteins (gag), for re- verse transcriptase (pol), and for glycosylated virion surface proteins (env) , ar- ranged in the sequence gag, pol, env from the 5' to the 3' end of the genome. (springer.com)
  • The gag (group antigen) gene encodes proteins that make up the nucleocapsid of the virus as well as a matrix layer, the two of which surround the RNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Depending on the species, pol can also encode protease, a protein that cleaves the initial multiprotein products of retrovirus translation to make functional proteins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In order to individuate the gene(s) involved in F12-HIV-induced interference, vectors expressing each of the nine F12-HIV proteins were transfected in HIV-susceptible HeLa CD4 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • These data indicate that F12-HIV homologous viral interference is the consequence of the synergistic anti-HIV effects of Gag, Vif, and Nef proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • We conclude that it is not the overall magnitude but rather the breadth, magnitude, and functional capacity of CD8 T-cell responses to certain conserved proteins, like Gag, which predict effective antiviral HIV-specific CD8 T-cell function. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • One potential explanation for enhanced antiviral pressure by Gag-specific but not other virus-specific CD8 T-cell responses may be differences in the fitness cost associated with escape mutations within the highly conserved Gag protein compared to that of other viral proteins ( 5 , 23 , 27 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We have previously identified mutant alleles of genes encoding two Rab proteins, Ypt3 and Ryh1, through a genetic screen using the immunosuppressant drug FK506 in fission yeast. (genetics.org)
  • To correlate selected gene expression changes to the localization of respective proteins, we performed immunostainings of cultured neurospheres and of brain sections from adult mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • The Drosophila melanogaster gypsy transposable element encodes putative gene products homologous to retroviral proteins. (asm.org)
  • The second one encodes a putative protein which shows extensive amino acid homology to retroviral proteins, including gag-specific protease, reverse transcriptase, and DNA endonuclease. (asm.org)
  • Polymorphism of HIV type 1 gag p7/p1 and p1/p6 cleavage sites: clinical significance and implications for resistance to protease inhibitors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We also show that processing is mediated by the gag-encoded protease and that removal of the amino terminus to create Pr76(gagX) results in an inability to form particles or be processed. (elsevier.com)
  • These genes overlap so they encode a protease that processes the resulting transcript into functional gene products. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the assembled virion is released from the cell, Gag is cleaved at several sites by the viral protease (PR). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These correspond to parts of the protease, reverse transcriptase, and endonuclease domains of the MLV pol gene. (asm.org)
  • HIV can be produce by sequential expression of 3 genes gag,env and pol (Fig.2), those genes are be cleaved by protease P10 and then the subunits of the virus will self-assembled into mature virus. (igem.org)
  • when genes 1 and 2 are expressed, the protease P10 cleaves gag that self-assembles. (igem.org)
  • First, when they genes 1 and 2 will be expressed, the protease P10 will cleave gag that will self-assemble. (igem.org)
  • Phylogenetic tree of 246 gag-sequences, including 118 Bangladeshi HIV-1 C strains in green.The HIV1-C strains found in Bangladesh do not fall into a country specific clade, instead our results point to repeated introductions with substantial in-country transmission only among PWIDs. (nih.gov)
  • The results show that 3 out of 46 peptides spanning p17 Gag and p24 Gag sequences tested contain two-thirds of the dominant Gag-specific epitopes, irrespective of the clade, ethnicity, or age group studied. (asm.org)
  • They differ by the order of sequences in pol genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human endogenous retroviruslike genome with type C pol sequences and gag sequences related to human T-cell lymphotropic viruses. (asm.org)
  • For example, host gene transduction by retroelements has been suggested to be both common and to have the potential to create new chimeric genes by the shuffling of existing sequences. (plantphysiol.org)
  • mays ) retrotransposon Bs1 has transduced sequences from three different host genes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • We discuss potential functions based on domain conservation and evidence for functional constraints between the transduced sequences and their host gene counterparts. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In addition to the P(S/T)AP sequence found in HIV-1 Gag, distinct late domain sequences have also been identified and characterized in several other enveloped RNA viruses. (rupress.org)
  • A stretch of noncoding sequences separates the gag and the pol genes. (springer.com)
  • Expresses the gene products ZM96 gp120 (clade C strain) linked to the sequences encoding the HIV-1 transmembrane anchor (TM) sequence of gp41 (28 amino acids clade B LAI strain) and gag and pro (clade B LAI strain). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Since proviruses carry their own transcriptional promoters and regulators within the Long Terminal Repeats (LTRs), HERV sequences are able to initiate transcription of the proviral gag , pro , pol and env genes, but also to initiate transcription of neighboring cellular genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pol gene products include enzymes reverse transcriptase, integrase and ribonuclease H domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pol gene (a type of polymerase) encodes reverse transcriptase, which copies the RNA into DNA, and integrase, which integrates the DNA into the host chromosome. (encyclopedia.com)
  • gag is short for group-specific antigen. (curehunter.com)
  • Nanda's research team is now investigating the interplay of molecular interactions that anchor what's known as the HIV-1 Gag (group-specific antigen) protein to the cell membrane. (tennessee.edu)
  • Antibodies to the HIV-1 major group-specific antigen (GAG) protein p24, and its precursor p55, are the earliest detected after infection by Western blot and tend to decrease or become undetectable with onset or progression of clinical symptoms (4-9). (cdc.gov)
  • Expression of the Gag protein in eukaryotic cells leads to the budding of membranous virus-like particles (VLPs). (nih.gov)
  • The regulated expression of each member of this gene family may be an important determinant of sulfated GAGs expression and the associated function of chondroitin sulfates as regulators of many biologic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surprisingly, we have found that expression of high levels of the unmodified (wild-type) product, Pr76(myr0), results in low levels of particle formation and precursor processing. (elsevier.com)
  • To further extend the finding, we determined whether HuR expression affects β-actin gene expression and in turn affects corneal fibroblast migration and wound healing. (molvis.org)
  • Reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses showed that when the HuR gene was silenced, β-actin expression was significantly downregulated. (molvis.org)
  • However, when the β-actin gene was silenced, its expression was significantly decreased but showed no effect on HuR gene expression. (molvis.org)
  • The results show that downregulation of the HuR gene results in decreased β-actin gene expression, which in turn results in decreased motility and proliferation of corneal fibroblasts. (molvis.org)
  • Expression of the major viral structural protein, termed the Gag polyprotein, is sufficient for assembly of retrovirus particles in permissive cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Work from our laboratory has shown that Myb acts in opposition to Rb-E2F to epigenetically regulate gene expression. (stanford.edu)
  • 7 Expression of the versican gene is regulated by a promoter that harbors a typical TATA box and potential binding sites for several transcription factors such as AP2, CCAAT enhancer protein, and cAMP-responsive elements. (ahajournals.org)
  • Expression of the chemoresistance genes mdr1, mrp1, mrp2, and lrp and of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) in the tumor tissue was analysed using RT-PCR and western blot analysis. (hindawi.com)
  • Among the main causes for failure of treatment is the resistance of tumor cells against the action of cytostatic drugs, which is based on the expression of certain genes such as the multidrug resistance gene ( mdr1 ), coding for the p-glycoprotein ( p-gp ) [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • TAT Transactivator of HIV gene expression. (lanl.gov)
  • One of two essential viral regulatory factors (Tat and Rev) for HIV gene expression. (lanl.gov)
  • Our data suggest that REST/NRSF/XBR is a negative regulator rather than a transcriptional silencer of neuronal gene expression and counteracts with positive regulators to modulate target gene expression quantitatively in different cell types, including neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Obtain the tightest possible control of gene expression, using Tet-On 3G or Tet-Express systems. (clontech.com)
  • The Pantropic Retroviral Expression System includes our GP2-293 packaging cell line, the pVSV-G envelope plasmid, and two MMLV-based retroviral expression vectors that allow you to express your gene of interest from alternative promoters. (clontech.com)
  • Alterations of membrane lipids and in gene expression of ganglioside metabolism in different brain structures in a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To elucidate this, we evaluated gene expression of ganglioside synthesis (GM3, GD3 and GM2/GD2 synthases) and degradation of (Neuraminidase1) enzymes in the cerebellum and hippocampus by RT-sq-PCR. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Murine studies have provided evidence that B cell development is controlled by a network of transcription factors and cytokine signaling that coordinates stage-specific expression of B lineage genes ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • 3 EBF in turn regulates expression of a cascade of B cell-specific genes ( 1 , 2 ) required for the transition from the common lymphoid progenitor to pro-B cells ( 6 , 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • There was a significant correlation of the C3435T polymorphism in exon 26 of the ABCB1 gene with lower intestinal P-gp expression levels and elevated oral bioavailability of digoxin. (nature.com)
  • Previous studies demonstrated that the expression of genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthetase (FAS), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) was significantly altered in NAFLD [ 10 ], further linking the occurrence of NAFLD with disorders of hepatic lipid metabolism. (hindawi.com)
  • We therefore used oligonucleotide arrays to define global alterations in gene expression in MIN6 cells after 48-h pretreatment with oleate or palmitate. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Oleate and palmitate also induced expression of chemokines (MCP-1 and GRO1 oncogene) and genes of the acute phase response (serum amyloid A3). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The results highlight links between regulated gene expression and phenotypic alterations in palmitate versus oleate-pretreated β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Circulating nutrients regulate the function of pancreatic β-cells at multiple levels: they acutely stimulate insulin secretion, modulate insulin biosynthesis, and, over the longer term, bring about adaptive changes in gene expression ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although initial studies of β-cell dysfunction due to chronic lipid exposure focused on metabolic alterations ( 5 , 7 ), more recent emphasis has been on changes in β-cell gene expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • At present, however, there is no comprehensive documentation of the global alterations in gene expression that would occur in lipid-treated β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Sun 14 has demonstrated that constitutive expression of the Id1 gene under control of the B-cell-specific mb-1 promotor impairs mouse B-cell development, and the cells exhibit a similar phenotype to the one described for the E2A-deficient mice. (bloodjournal.org)
  • β-glucuronidase is used as a reporter gene in GUS assays to monitor gene expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The optimal conditions for the enzymatic hydrolysis of α-hydroxytriazolam, one of the major metabolites of triazolam in human urine, were determined using β-glucuronidase Type IX-A. It is used as a reporter gene in GUS assays to monitor gene expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • An example of this is reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T. The genome of complex retroviruses, such as HTLV, can contain several other genes that regulate genome expression or replication and are not present in simple retroviruses. (encyclopedia.com)
  • They can also affect the expression of nearby cellular genes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Transfer and expression of cytokine or costimulatory genes into tumor cells has been regarded as a powerful tool to trigger a potent antitumor reaction in both experimental models and clinical trials. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Conversely, expression of either the tat, rev, or vpu F12-HIV gene increased the rate of HIV release, and no apparent effects on HIV replication were observed in cells expressing either the F12-HIV vpr, pol, or env gene. (elsevier.com)
  • In terms of gene expression (mRNA) in blood there have been found to be increases in neutrophil-related genes in sepsis-induced and influenza-induced ARDS, but whole blood expression does not give a robust diagnostic test for ARDS. (springer.com)
  • We applied cDNA microarrays with 13,627 clones to measure dynamic gene expression changes during the in vitro differentiation of neural progenitor cells that were isolated from the subventricular zone of postnatal day 7 mice and grown in vitro as neurospheres. (jneurosci.org)
  • Expression changes of selected genes were confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. (jneurosci.org)
  • Ten different groups of gene expression dynamics obtained by cluster analysis are described. (jneurosci.org)
  • To learn more about the early and probably decisive mechanisms of this process, we have studied dynamic gene expression changes during the first 4 d of in vitro neurosphere differentiation with cDNA microarrays. (jneurosci.org)
  • We identified genes with relevant expression changes during this process and classified the results according to functional categories. (jneurosci.org)
  • Human CHST7 genome location and CHST7 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of gag2 fzo1 and gag3 fzo1 double mutants revealed that these new gag lesions similarly prevented the fragmentation of mitochondrial tubules (Fig. 3 A) and allowed growth on glycerol-containing medium (Fig. 3 B), indicating that mitochondrial genome loss was prevented. (nih.gov)
  • Some recent studies suggest that over evolutionary time scales, transposons have contributed to the evolution of genes and genomes by providing means for gene and genome diversification ( Kazazian, 2004 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • We have investigated the dynamic nature of the mitochondrial compartment by employing a genetic screen to identify gene products necessary for the maintenance of mitochondrial compartments and genome integrity in the yeast S. cerevisiae (T horsness and F ox 1990 , 1993 ). (genetics.org)
  • The nuclear gene TRP1 , necessary for tryptophan biosynthesis, was integrated into the yeast mitochondrial genome and the nuclear TRP1 gene was deleted. (genetics.org)
  • The viral genome has the coding capacity for the Moloney murine leukemia virus gag gene product and contains large deletions in pol and env genes. (sciencemag.org)
  • The human proteome is a highly complex extension of the genome wherein a single gene often produces distinct protein forms due to alternative splicing, RNA editing, polymorphisms, and posttranslational modifications. (mcponline.org)
  • Top down MS therefore has a bright future for enabling precise annotation of gene products expressed from the human genome by non-mass spectrometrists. (mcponline.org)
  • Most interestingly, the HTLV genome contains a region between the 3' end of the env gene and the L TR, called the pX region, that encompasses four open reading frames. (springer.com)
  • Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. (curehunter.com)
  • In this study, we found that the cell membrane metalloprotease TRAB domain-containing protein 2A (TRABD2A) inhibited this production in resting CD4 + T cells by degrading the virion structural precursor polyprotein Gag at the plasma membrane. (nature.com)
  • Cells with any of the gag mutations displayed aberrant mitochondrial morphology characterized by elongated, unbranched tubes and highly fenestrated structures. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, each of the gag mutations prevented mitochondrial fragmentation caused by loss of the mitochondrial fusion factor, Fzo1p, or by treatment of cells with sodium azide. (nih.gov)
  • DNA transposons insert themselves into different genomic locations without copying themselves that can cause harmful mutations (see horizontal gene transfer). (wikipedia.org)
  • We introduced mutations into MLV that inhibited cleavage at individual sites in Gag. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cancer is caused by mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. (stanford.edu)
  • Mutations are changes in the DNA sequence that may alter gene function. (stanford.edu)
  • Gain-of-function mutations can activate oncogenes, whereas loss-of-function mutations can inactivate tumor suppressor genes. (stanford.edu)
  • Although traditionally regarded as causes of detrimental mutations, recent evidence suggests that transposons may play a role in host gene diversification and evolution. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Mutation of nuclear genes can alter the rate at which mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is transferred to the nucleus, and these mutations have been named yme , for y east m itochondrial DNA e scape. (genetics.org)
  • Our study revealed that deletions of GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes or the distinct point mutations of XRCC1 gene are associated with cervical and esophageal cancers. (frontiersin.org)
  • CSF and disease, mutations of superoxide dismutase 1 gene plasma were collected from cases and controls. (who.int)
  • Dideoxy-sequencing of gag-pol identified subtype and resistance mutations from plasma viral RNA and proviral DNA. (stanford.edu)
  • However, there is a key difference between retroviruses and retrotransposons, which is indicated by the env gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although similar to the gene carrying out the same function in retroviruses, the env gene is used to determine whether the gene is retroviral or retrotransposon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike other retroviruses, however, lentiviruses have two regulatory genes , tat and rev . (wikipedia.org)
  • Both lentiviruses and standard retroviruses use the gag, pol, and env genes for packaging. (origene.com)
  • Three genes are universally present in the genomes of retroviruses that are capable of replication, such as murine (mouse) leukemia virus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) is a congenital disorder caused by the deficiency of α-l-iduronidase (IDUA), with the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the CNS. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • β-Glucuronidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of β-glucuronic acid residues from the non-reducing termini of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Previous research, as described in the previous project, has identified existing anticancer properties of complex sugars from shellfish termed 'glycosaminoglycans' (GAGs). (kidscan.org.uk)
  • Antibodies to gag antigens in lions and other large felines indicate the existence of another yet to be unidentified virus related to feline lentivirus and the ovine/caprine lentiviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies to the polymerase (POL) gene products (p31, p51, and p66) are also commonly detected if these antigens are present on the Western blot strips. (cdc.gov)
  • Presence of Gag and Env antibodies in GCT patients is not correlated with activation of individual loci. (biomedcentral.com)
  • [4] Some groups have cross-reactive gag antigens (e.g., the ovine , caprine , and feline lentiviruses). (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at Targeted Genetics also presented a poster (Abstract #87) demonstrating the utility of an assay that can be used for testing the stability and relative potency of different lots AAV-HIV gag based vaccines. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • These data highlight our focus on developing commercially viable products, said H. Stewart Parker, president and chief executive officer at Targeted Genetics. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • Utilizing the power of the yeast two-hybrid system, genetic screens, and somatic cell genetics, Dr. Goff has discovered several host gene products that interact with retroviral protein or RNA and modulate infectivity and escape from host restriction by distinct mechanisms. (osu.edu)
  • Despite significant progress in defining both the viral and cellular determinants of HIV-1 assembly and release, the trafficking pathway used by Gag to reach its site of assembly in the infected cell remains to be elucidated. (nih.gov)
  • We propose that AP-1 promotes Gag release by transporting it to intracellular sites of active budding, and/or by facilitating its interactions with other cellular partners. (cnrs.fr)
  • Cotranslational modification of Gag with the saturated fatty acid myristic acid (tetradecanoic acid, abbreviated here as 14:0) to the N-terminal glycine is required for the binding of Gag to cellular membranes as well as the subsequent assembly and budding of virions/VLPs ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • This non-specific activity of Gag likely promotes packaging of cellular mRNAs. (cnrs.fr)
  • Thus, the significance of cellular gene transduction for gene diversification in the absence of a disease phenotype remains to be determined. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Proposed functions for Vpr include the targeting the nuclear import of preintegration complexes, cell growth arrest, transactivation of cellular genes, and induction of cellular differentiation. (lanl.gov)
  • The HIV-1 Gag protein recruits the cellular factor Tsg101 to facilitate the final stages of virus budding. (rupress.org)
  • Splice signals within HERVs can also result in variant transcripts of cellular genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Co-application of plasmids encoding IL2, IL12, IL21, IL28A and especially GM-CSF rescued the induction of GagL -specific CD8 T cells in mice vaccinated with FV Leader-Gag and Env. (bireme.br)
  • Mice that were immunized with plasmids encoding Leader-Gag and Env and the cytokines IL1 , IL12, IL15, IL28A or GM-CSF, but not Leader-Gag and Env without any cytokine, showed significantly reduced viral loads upon a high-dose Friend virus challenge infection. (bireme.br)
  • Product Description: VRC-HIVDNA016-00-VP is composed of 6 closed, circular DNA plasmids that are each 16.67% (by weight) of the vaccine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Each of the 6 plasmids in this vaccine expresses a single gene product. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Plasmids VRC 4401, VRC 4409 and VRC 4404 are designed to express clade B HIV-1 Gag, Pol and Nef, respectively. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • PCR amplification of antimicrobial resistance genes among four plasmids isolated from Salmonella serovar Typhimurium phage type DT193 isolates. (asm.org)
  • To test this possibility, the gag mutants were crossed to a yeast strain deleted for the mitochondrial fusion factor gene, FZO1. (nih.gov)
  • Five allelic mutants of the diabetes (db) gene have been previously described in mice and rats causing obesity, infertility, and varying degrees of diabetes. (physiology.org)
  • Five extant allelic mutants of the Lepr gene have been identified in inbred mice and rats ( 2 , 10 , 13 , 18 , 32 ). (physiology.org)
  • RNA splicing occurs in the two large exons, 7 and 8, that encode the GAG attachment sites, giving rise to V0, V1, V2, and V3 forms of versican. (ahajournals.org)
  • VRC-HIVADV014-00-VP (rAd) is a recombinant product composed of 4 adenoviral vectors (Ad) (in a 3:1:1:1 ratio) that encode the HIV-1 Gag/Pol polyprotein from clade B and HIV-1 Env glycoproteins from clades A, B, and C, respectively. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We hypothesized that the gp70 Env product of an endogenous murine leukemia virus could be a target antigen for TS/A-specific CTLs and investigated this possibility in four different TS/A cell lines engineered with the genes that encode IFN-α, IFN-γ, interleukin-4, and B7.1, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • RESULTS: In the Friend retrovirus mouse model, immunization with a plasmid encoding the Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV) Leader-Gag protein resulted in induction of a strong GagL -specific CD8 T cell response, while the response was completely abrogated by co-immunization with an F-MuLV Env-encoding plasmid. (bireme.br)
  • Between the long terminal repeats there are genes that can be transcribed equivalent to retrovirus genes gag and pol. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the gene is retroviral it can evolve from a retrotransposon into a retrovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single protein, termed Gag, is responsible for retrovirus particle assembly. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • LOC105372269 (Endogenous Retrovirus Group K Member 8 Gag Polyprotein-Like) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • These findings confirm the essential role of bHLH factors in B-cell development and demonstrate the feasibility of retrovirus-mediated gene transfer as a tool to genetically modify human B-cell development. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The matrix (MA) domain of human T cell lymphotrophic virus, type 1 (HTLV-1), Gag interacts with the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane and is concentrated at tetraspanin-enriched microdomains. (nih.gov)
  • By using this in vivo detection system to visualize Gag trafficking in living macrophages, Gag was observed to accumulate both at the plasma membrane and in an apparently internal compartment that bears markers characteristic of late endosomes or multivesicular bodies. (nih.gov)
  • VLPs consist of a multimerized array of 1,000-1,500 Gag molecules surrounded by a lipid envelope obtained from the host cell plasma membrane ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Gag associates with the plasma membrane, where virus assembly takes place. (lanl.gov)
  • In this study, sensitive enzyme-linked immunospot (elispot) assays have been utilized to identify the dominant Gag-specific CTL epitopes targeted by adults and children infected with clade-B or -C virus. (asm.org)
  • Virus isolation should not only be evaluated with HTLV-specific tests (antigen assay or immunofluorescence) but, where available, also by assays for particle-associated RT, preferentially product-enhanced RT (PERT) assay. (asmscience.org)
  • Such assays are a critical component of the vaccine manufacturing process and are required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for approval of all vaccine products. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • A series of chimeric genes was constructed by reciprocal exchange of DNA segments between the SHT and THT cDNAs. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The data are to be presented today in a poster session (Abstract #84) at the 10th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Gene Therapy in Seattle (ASGT). (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • Abstract #87 describes a relative potency assay for a candidate AAV serotype 1 (AAV1)-based vector encoding gag genes from HIV. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • This epitope is closely homologous with dominant HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus Gag-specific CTL epitopes. (asm.org)
  • We report that CD8 + T cell responses specific for Gag and, in particular, the immunodominant p24 epitope KK10 correlate with control of HIV-1 replication in human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 patients. (rupress.org)
  • Remarkably, although HLA-B57-restricted CD8 + T cell populations can present several HIV-derived epitopes, the HLA-B27-restricted CD8 + T cells in HIV-1 patients usually target one particular immunodominant epitope in p24 Gag (residues 263-272), namely B27-KK10 ( 7 , 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • The insertion of the tag at this position did not interfere with Gag trafficking, virus assembly or release, particle infectivity, or the kinetics of virus replication. (nih.gov)
  • The gene product Murr1 restricts HIV-1 replication in resting CD4 + lymphocytes. (nature.com)
  • Since Gag-specific CD8 T cells have repeatedly been associated with lower viremia, we examined the influence of Gag specificity on the ability of unstimulated CD8 T cells from chronically infected persons to inhibit virus replication in autologous CD4 T cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These data indicate that enhanced suppression of HIV replication is associated with broader targeting of Gag. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A group of 41 peptides, each 24 amino acids long and overlapping with each other by 12 residues spanning the total gag open reading frame (orf) of HIV-1 (HTLV-IIIBH 10 isolate) were synthesized using Fmoc chemistry. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • A motif of basic residues mediates binding to a consensus E-box (CANNTG) sequence present in promoters or enhancers of target genes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The hepA upstream region was also studied using cslA as a reporter gene, and the transcriptional start site was determined to be 26 bp upstream of the start codon in the chondroitinase AC transconjugant strain. (asm.org)
  • The effects of gene silencing were analyzed at the transcriptional and translational levels. (molvis.org)
  • Biologic Tissues consist of the cells,the extracellular matrix (made up of a complex of cell secretions immobilized in spaces continuous with cells), and the signaling systems, which are brought into play through differential activation of Genes or cascades of genes whose secreted or transcriptional products are responsible for cueing tissue building and differentiation. (eventbrite.com)
  • The LTRs contain promoter elements and transcriptional start sites that enable the retroviral genes to be expressed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Dr. Goff defined the functional domains of viral pol gene products, which are separable into the, RNA/DNA polymerase and RNase H domains, and integrase. (osu.edu)
  • Gp120 surface envelope protein SU, encoded by the viral gene env . (wikipedia.org)
  • Gp41 transmembrane envelope protein TM, also encoded by the viral gene env . (wikipedia.org)
  • P24 capsid protein CA, encoded by the viral gene gag . (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein sequence for the given gene in S288C and other strains, when available. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Although this particular sequence contains no long open reading frames, computer searches have revealed several segments of amino acid homology with known retroviral gene products. (asm.org)
  • Interestingly, the last two pol domains are equidistant in RTVL-H2 and the type C murine retroviruslike DNA sequence (MuRRS), both having deletions of equal sizes relative to the MLV pol gene. (asm.org)
  • For pol, the start is taken to be the first T in the sequence TTTTTTAG, which forms part of the stem loop that potentiates ribosomal slippage on the RNA and a resulting -1 frameshift and the translation of the Gag-Pol polyprotein. (lanl.gov)
  • This biological complexity poses a significant analytical and bioinformatic challenge to the detailed analysis of mammalian proteomes by MS and is exacerbated by the presence of gene families sharing high sequence identity ( 2 , 3 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Sequence analysis of cDNA fragments showed a deletion of one G residue located in exon 12 of the leptin receptor gene. (physiology.org)
  • Lentiviruses can integrate a significant amount of viral cDNA into the DNA of the host cell and can efficiently infect nondividing cells, so they are one of the most efficient methods of gene delivery . (wikipedia.org)
  • n = 13) Gag-specific responses, as assessed by gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot assay, were selected from 288 highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-naive HIV-1 clade C-infected South Africans, matching groups for total magnitude of HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses and CD4 T-cell counts. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To define the site of assembly and characterize the Gag trafficking pathway in this physiologically relevant cell type, we have made use of the biarsenical-tetracysteine system. (nih.gov)
  • Ono, A., Orenstein, J. M. & Freed, E. O. Role of the Gag matrix domain in targeting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 assembly. (nature.com)
  • Retroviral assembly is driven by Gag, and nascent viral particles escape cells by recruiting the machinery that forms intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular bodies. (cnrs.fr)
  • This observation highlights the critical role of this region of Gag in assembly. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Modification of HIV-1 Gag with myristic acid, a saturated 14-carbon fatty acid (14:0), is essential for HIV-1 assembly. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, treatment of cells with 14-carbon unsaturated fatty acids inhibited Gag-driven particle assembly. (pnas.org)
  • For example, NMT inhibitors have been shown to prevent both membrane binding of Gag as well as virus assembly ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • The 55-kDa Gag precursor is called assemblin to indicate its role in viral assembly. (lanl.gov)
  • The HIV Gag protein orchestrates viral assembly and budding, and forms the structural shell of the immature virus (for review see Göttlinger, 2001 ). (rupress.org)
  • To elucidate the domain or the key amino acid that determines the amine substrate specificity, we isolated a tyramine N -hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (THT) gene from pepper. (plantphysiol.org)
  • During viral maturation, the Gag polyprotein is always cleaved into at least three cleavage products, termed (from N to C terminus) matrix (MA), capsid (CA), and nucleocapsid (NC) ( 43 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This gene encodes a member of the insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein family. (genetex.com)
  • This transposable element is 7,469 base pairs long and encodes three putative protein products. (asm.org)
  • Sulfotransferases generate sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) moieties during chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • These data suggest that the observed ganglioside changes result from a combined effect of GAGs on ganglioside biosynthesis and degradation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • It functions by binding to the mRNAs of certain genes, including insulin-like growth factor 2, beta-actin and beta-transducin repeat-containing protein, and regulating their translation. (genetex.com)
  • Significantly, the internal Gag rapidly translocated to the junction between the infected macrophages and uninfected T cells following macrophage/T-cell synapse formation. (nih.gov)
  • These data indicate that a population of Gag in infected macrophages remains sequestered internally and is presented to uninfected target cells at a virological synapse. (nih.gov)
  • All subjects who receive WT‐gag‐TCR or the α/6‐gag‐TCR T cells will be enrolled in a Long Term Follow up study to monitor subjects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If the WT‐gag‐TCR or the α/6‐gag‐TCR T cells are no longer found in the blood after five years, then subjects will be contacted yearly for the next 10 years. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If the WT‐gag‐TCR or the α/6‐gag‐TCR T cells are found in the blood at five years after the 1st infusion of T cells, then the subjects will continue to be seen once a year until the WT‐gag‐TCR or the α/6‐gag‐TCR T cells are no longer found in the blood for a maximum of 15 years. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 200 and a recorded historical viral load setpoint, will receive a WT-gag-TCR modified autologous T cells, followed one week later by a 16 week treatment interruption. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Single dose of WT-gag-TCR modified T cells infused over 3 consecutive days. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Less MLV Gag is found associated with late endosomes in cells lacking AP-1, and our results suggest that AP-1 and AP-3 could function on the same pathway that leads to Gag release. (cnrs.fr)
  • The RSV gag product (Pr76(gag)) produced in these cells is not released into the culture medium or proteolytically processed to release mature products. (elsevier.com)
  • Because the RSV gag product does not possess a myristic acid addition site, we hypothesized that the creation of one by oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis might permit particles to be released from mammalian cells. (elsevier.com)
  • In all aspects examined, the behavior of myristylated Pr76 was identical to that of the authentic product produced in avian cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we demonstrate that treatment of cells with 14:1 n -9 and 14:2 n -6 fatty acids reduced the affinity of Gag for rafts but not membranes in general. (pnas.org)
  • They identified two gag precursor polyproteins in the cytoplasm of HIV-infected cells: Pr53gag, which corresponds to the primary translational product, and Pr39gag, which corresponds to an intermediate product of cleavage of Pr53gag. (wikigenes.org)
  • The identification of a common cis -acting silencer element, a neuron-restrictive silencer element (NRSE), in multiple neuron-specific genes, together with the finding that zinc finger transcription factor REST/NRSF/XBR could confer NRSE-mediated silencing in non-neuronal cells, suggested that REST/NRSF/XBR is a master negative regulator of neurogenesis. (jneurosci.org)
  • Schoenherr and Anderson, 1995a ) was identified as a factor that could interact with a 23 bp cis -element, a neuron-restrictive silencer element (NRSE/RE1), and mediate silencing of type II voltage-dependent sodium channel (NaCh II) and SCG10 genes in non-neuronal cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • Introduce and express target genes in pluripotent cell lines including murine or human hematopoietic, embryonic stem (ES), and embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells. (clontech.com)
  • Inactivation of the Stat5 locus by using conventional gene targeting resulted in the complete lack of mammary alveolar epithelium, suggesting that the progenitor cells were unable to proliferate. (asm.org)
  • In a reporter gene assay in HepG2 cells, the ABCC2 −24T construct showed an 18.7% reduced activity ( P =0.003). (nature.com)
  • The assay is an in vitro method that tests the capacity of a recombinant AAV1 vector to transduce cells and express the HIV protein gag p24. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • Around a dozen genes have now been identified as being lipid-regulated in β-cells ( 10 - 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We hereby demonstrate that HeLa CD4 cells expressing the F12-HIV gag, vif, or nef gene were resistant, to different degrees, to infection with T-cell-line-adapted HIV-1 strains. (elsevier.com)
  • As previously shown in subjects with low viremia, CD8 T cells from high Gag responders exhibited a more polyfunctional cytokine profile and a stronger ability to proliferate in response to HIV stimulation than did low Gag responders, which mainly exhibited monofunctional CD8 T-cell responses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our study revealed genes known or suggested to play a role in neurogenesis, but in addition revealed many new interesting genes with potential relevance for the maintenance, migration, and differentiation of neural progenitor cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • Both types of particle were heterogeneous in size, varying in diameter from 1200-2600 A. Larger particles appeared to be broken into semi-spherical sectors, each having a radius of curvature of approximately 750 A. No evidence of icosahedral symmetry was found, but local order was evidenced by small arrays of Gag protein that formed facets within the curved sectors. (nih.gov)
  • Immature HIV-1 particles and VLPs both have a multi-sector structure characterized, not by an icosahedral organization, but by local order in which the structures of the matrix and capsid regions of Gag change upon cleavage. (nih.gov)
  • Gag gene products associate with other retrotransposon transcripts to form virus-like particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importantly, Hrs 222-777 can recruit Tsg101 and rescue the budding of virus-like Gag particles that are missing native late domains. (rupress.org)
  • P-gp is encoded by the ABCB1 (multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1)) gene, localized on chromosome 7q21, and MRP2 by the ABCC2 gene, localized on chromosome 10q23-24. (nature.com)
  • Per the design of the clinical trial, subjects received a single, intravenous injection of ABO-102 to deliver the AAV viral vector systemically throughout the body to introduce a corrective copy of the gene that underlies the cause of the MPS IIIA disease. (globenewswire.com)
  • In the trial, subjects received a single intravenous injection of ABO-102 to facilitate systemic delivery of a corrective copy of the gene associated with onset and progression of MPS IIIA. (globenewswire.com)
  • Thus, association of HTLV-1 Gag with tetraspanin-enriched microdomains is mediated by the inner loops of CD81 and CD82. (nih.gov)
  • In the gag region of RTVL-H2, there is a segment with significant homology to a region of the gag protein p30 of type C baboon endogenous virus. (asm.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene contains four K homology domains and two RNA recognition motifs. (genetex.com)
  • However, most infections are due to res- firmed by PCR amplification for the F or N gene products, or piratory syncytial virus (RSV) (2). (cdc.gov)
  • CAT TGA G) and hMPV-NR1 (GAG AAC AAC ACT TGC terns resembling those seen in RSV infections. (cdc.gov)
  • The five GAG lyases were purified from these transconjugant strains and shown to be identical to their wild-type counterparts. (asm.org)
  • Because diabetic symptoms vary greatly among strains, other genes seem to play important interacting roles as well. (physiology.org)
  • This gene is part of a gene cluster on chromosome Xp11.23. (wikipedia.org)
  • A provirus on chromosome 22q11.21 appears strongly upregulated in pathologic GCT tissues and may explain high HML-2 Gag protein levels in GCTs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Amino acid substitutions at HIV-1 Gag p7/p1 and p1/p6 cleavage sites may be selected under antiretroviral pressure or represent natural polymorphisms. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Alteration of the C-terminal end of CA blocked CA-NC cleavage but also reduced the efficiency of particle formation and, in some cases, severely disrupted the ability of Gag to assemble into regular structures. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In the murine leukemia viruses (MLVs), Gag is cleaved at three sites during maturation, resulting in the formation of four cleavage products, i.e. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Furthermore, knockout of the pct1 + gene encoding a choline phosphate cytidyltransferase rescued the gdi1-i11 mutation. (genetics.org)
  • Here we report the identification and phenotypic characterization of a new spontaneous mutation of the db gene, Lepr db-NCSU , in an outbred CD-1 mouse. (physiology.org)
  • The effects of gene silencing on cell migration and cell proliferation were analyzed using a modified Boyden chamber and with a wound healing assay, respectively. (molvis.org)
  • Here, we examine in a HLA-B27 + HIV seronegative vaccinee persistent HIV-specific vaccine-induced anti-Gag CD4 + and CD8 + T cell responses. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we present the sentinel analysis of vaccine-induced multifunctional anti-HIV Gag-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cell responses in a HLA-B*2705 + HIV-vaccine recipient, their changes after infection, and how they compare with those detectable in two nonvaccinated HLA-B*2705 + chronically HIV-infected individuals. (pnas.org)
  • For comparative purposes, we studied anti-Gag T cell responses in two chronically HIV-1-infected HLA-B*2705-positive subjects who were enrolled at the Adult HIV Clinic of the University of Alabama at Birmingham. (pnas.org)
  • Recurrent rearrangements of the Myb/SANT-like DNA-binding domain containing 3 gene (MSANTD3) in salivary gland acinic cell carcinoma. (stanford.edu)
  • Pathogenic gene fusions have been identified in several histologic types of salivary gland neoplasia, but not previously in acinic cell carcinoma (AcCC). (stanford.edu)
  • The Role of Ras P21 Product in Cell Transformation. (indigo.ca)
  • Colocalizes with HIV-1 GAG at the cell edges. (genetex.com)
  • The balance between negative and positive regulators is critical in determining cell type and developmental stage-specific transcription of a gene. (jneurosci.org)
  • Alternatively, we offer three cell lines that stably express all three essential packaging genes ( gag, pol, and env ). (clontech.com)
  • We examined the genes involved in the processes of xenobiotics detoxification ( GSTM1 and GSTT1 ), DNA repair ( XRCC1 and XRCC3 ), and cell cycle regulation and apoptosis ( CCND1 and TP53 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Transgenic and gene targeted mice have contributed greatly to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying B-cell development. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The involvement of the E2A gene products in B-cell differentiation in the mouse has been well-documented. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Two groups generated E2A mutant mice and have shown that a severe block occurs at an early stage of B-cell differentiation before Ig gene rearrangements. (bloodjournal.org)
  • However, multiple studies ( 10 , 12 - 15 , 18 , 22 , 29 ) have shown that broadly directed and/or dominant HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses against the Gag protein, as measured by IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay, are associated with lower viremia in chronic HIV-1 infection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In contrast, non-Gag-specific T-cell responses, as shown in some studies, did not contribute to immune control. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The functional mechanism underlying enhanced viral control by Gag-specific CD8 T-cell responses has not been determined. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • ABEO ), a leading clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing novel gene and cell therapies for life-threatening rare diseases, announced one year data from Cohort 1 of the ongoing ABO-102 Phase 1/2 trial for Sanfilippo syndrome Type A (MPS IIIA). (globenewswire.com)
  • Results were announced during the Alliance for Regenerative Medicine's Cell & Gene Meeting on the Mesa being held this week in La Jolla, CA. (globenewswire.com)
  • vif , vpr , vpu , nef ) whose products are involved in regulation of synthesis and processing viral RNA and other replicative functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis and evaluation of monosulfate GAG mimics as anti-metastatic. (kidscan.org.uk)
  • However, the addition of myristic acid to Pr76(myr1) or Pr76(myr2) resulted in a fivefold enhancement in Gag function. (elsevier.com)
  • Mice in which either one or both Stat5 genes were inactivated have revealed unique and redundant roles of the two Stat5 isoforms. (asm.org)
  • These questions were now addressed with mice in which both Stat5 genes could be deleted in mammary epithelium at distinct time points in development. (asm.org)
  • 2 Versican interacts with hyaluronan, a long chain high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan (GAG), that is also present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of blood vessels and increases as versican in vascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Retro-viruses are also valuable research tools in molecular biology and gene therapy. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The potential to clarify the genetic and physiological bases of obesity and some forms of diabetes was significantly enhanced by the molecular characterization of the obese (ob) and diabetes (db) genes. (physiology.org)
  • Due to the presence of polymorphisms, alternative splicing, and posttranslational modifications (PTMs) 1 the human proteome is highly complex, often encoding multiple protein forms for a given gene ( 1 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Primary: To determine in healthy volunteers whether priming with a vaccinia HIV-1 gp160 envelope gene recombinant vaccine (HIVAC-1e) followed by boosting with one of two subunit recombinant HIV-1 envelope vaccines (Env 2-3 and gp120) provides enhanced immunogenicity compared to vaccination with the gp120 subunit vaccine alone. (bioportfolio.com)
  • GP2-293 stably expresses the essential viral packaging genes gag and pol, however, the viral envelope (env) must be supplied in trans via transient transfection. (clontech.com)