DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
A thioester hydrolase which acts on esters formed between thiols such as DITHIOTHREITOL or GLUTATHIONE and the C-terminal glycine residue of UBIQUITIN.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A BETARETROVIRUS that causes pulmonary adenomatosis in sheep (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE).
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Proteins synthesized by HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES such as the HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Genus of non-oncogenic retroviruses which establish persistent infections in many animal species but are considered non-pathogenic. Its species have been isolated from primates (including humans), cattle, cats, hamsters, horses, and sea lions. Spumaviruses have a foamy or lace-like appearance and are often accompanied by syncytium formation. SIMIAN FOAMY VIRUS is the type species.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE with type C morphology, that causes malignant and other diseases in wild birds and domestic fowl.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins encoded by the REV GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Substances or materials used in the course of housekeeping or personal routine.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that regulates the expression of the viral structural and regulatory proteins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). rev is short for regulator of virion.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.

Using physical-chemistry-based substitution models in phylogenetic analyses of HIV-1 subtypes. (1/1525)

HIV-1 subtype phylogeny is investigated using a previously developed computational model of natural amino acid site substitutions. This model, based on Boltzmann statistics and Metropolis kinetics, involves an order of magnitude fewer adjustable parameters than traditional substitution matrices and deals more effectively with the issue of protein site heterogeneity. When optimized for sequences of HIV-1 envelope (env) proteins from a few specific subtypes, our model is more likely to describe the evolutionary record for other subtypes than are methods using a single substitution matrix, even a matrix optimized over the same data. Pairwise distances are calculated between various probabilistic ancestral subtype sequences, and a distance matrix approach is used to find the optimal phylogenetic tree. Our results indicate that the relationships between subtypes B, C, and D and those between subtypes A and H may be closer than previously thought.  (+info)

Ontogeny of hepatitis C virus (HCV) hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) heterogeneity and HVR1 antibody responses over a 3 year period in a patient infected with HCV type 2b. (2/1525)

Hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) sequences of 96 clones at six time-points representing 27 variants in two major and one minor group were identified in a patient with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection over 3 years. Major and selected minor variants were used to design synthetic peptides corresponding to the HVR1 C terminus. Peptide ELISA reactivity with IgG was plotted against the corresponding clone frequency, and three patterns emerged: (1) three peptides were unreactive; (2) antibodies against two peptides followed emergence of the corresponding variant, suggesting isolate-specificity; (3) antibodies against four peptides preceded the appearance of the corresponding variant, indicating cross-reactivity or previous exposure. Cross-reactivity was investigated further: sera from six time-points were tested against 11 unrelated HVR1 peptides, seven of which (63.6%) showed cross-reactivity at all time-points. Cross-reactivity of nine patient-specific peptides tested against a panel of 45 heterologous sera from chronic HCV carriers ranged between 0 and 20%. Only three of 27 variants appeared at more than one time-point and in two cases specific and/or cross-reactive HVR1 antibodies coexisted with the corresponding variant, consistent with emergence of escape mutants. In addition, analysis of HVR1 IgG reactivity within a group of closely related patient-specific peptides revealed a loss of reactivity in one peptide attributable to a single amino acid substitution. Interferon-alpha treatment considerably reduced viral RNA but, paradoxically, heterogeneity increased.  (+info)

Protection of macaques against intrarectal infection by a combination immunization regimen with recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmne gp160 vaccines. (3/1525)

We previously reported that immunization with recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmne envelope (gp160) vaccines protected macaques against intravenous challenge by the cloned homologous virus E11S but that this protection was only partially effective against the uncloned virus, SIVmne. In the present study, we examine the protective efficacy of this immunization regimen against infection by a mucosal route. We found that the same gp160-based vaccines were highly effective against intrarectal infection not only with the E11S clone but also with the uncloned SIVmne. Protection against mucosal infection is therefore achievable by parenteral immunization with recombinant envelope vaccines. Protection appears to correlate with high levels of SIV-specific antibodies and, in animals protected against the uncloned virus, the presence of serum-neutralizing activities. To understand the basis for the differential efficacies against the uncloned virus by the intravenous versus the intrarectal routes, we examined viral sequences recovered from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of animals early after infection by both routes. We previously showed that the majority (85%) of the uncloned SIVmne challenge stock contained V1 sequences homologous to the molecular clone from which the vaccines were made (E11S type), with the remainder (15%) containing multiple conserved changes (the variant types). In contrast to intravenously infected animals, from which either E11S-type or the variant type V1 sequences could be recovered in significant proportions, animals infected intrarectally had predominantly E11S-type sequences. Preferential transmission or amplification of the E11S-type viruses may therefore account in part for the enhanced efficacy of the recombinant gp160 vaccines against the uncloned virus challenge by the intrarectal route compared with the intravenous route.  (+info)

Dual and recombinant infections: an integral part of the HIV-1 epidemic in Brazil. (4/1525)

We systematically evaluated multiple and recombinant infections in an HIV-infected population selected for vaccine trials. Seventy-nine HIV-1 infected persons in a clinical cohort study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were evaluated for 1 year. A combination of molecular screening assays and DNA sequencing showed 3 dual infections (3.8%), 6 recombinant infections (7.6%), and 70 (88.6%) infections involving single viral subtypes. In the three dual infections, we identified HIV-1 subtypes F and B, F and D, and B and D; in contrast, the single and recombinant infections involved only HIV-1 subtypes B and F. The recombinants had five distinct B/F mosaic patterns: Bgag-p17/Bgag-p24/Fpol/Benv, Fgag-p17/Bgag-p24/Fpol/Fenv, Bgag-p17/B-Fgag-p24/Fpol/Fenv, Bgag-p17/B-Fgag-p24/Fpol/Benv, and Fgag-p17/B-Fgag-p24/Fpol/Fenv. No association was found between dual or recombinant infections and demographic or clinical variables. These findings indicate that dual and recombinant infections are emerging as an integral part of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Brazil and emphasize the heterogenous character of epidemics emerging in countries where multiple viral subtypes coexist.  (+info)

Feline immunodeficiency virus subtype C is prevalent in northern part of Taiwan. (5/1525)

The seroepidemiological survey of cats conducted in northern part of Taiwan in 1998 revealed that the positive rate of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infection was 21.9% (7/32) and the rate was much higher than those of previous reports. We succeeded in isolation of three strains of FIV from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the blood samples. Nucleotide sequences of the env variable V3 to V5 region of the strains revealed that the isolates from distinct areas belong to subtype C. These data together with our previous report (Inada et al. 1997. Arch. Virol., 142: 1459-1467) indicate that FIV subtype C is prevalent in northern part of Taiwan.  (+info)

Characterization of a neutralization-escape variant of SHIVKU-1, a virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome in pig-tailed macaques. (6/1525)

A chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-4) containing the tat, rev, vpu, and env genes of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) in a genetic background of SIVmac239 was used to develop an animal model in which a primate lentivirus expressing the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein caused acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in macaques. An SHIV-infected pig-tailed macaque that died from AIDS at 24 weeks postinoculation experienced two waves of viremia: one extending from weeks 2-8 and the second extending from week 18 until death. Virus (SHIVKU-1) isolated during the first wave was neutralized by antibodies appearing at the end of the first viremic phase, but the virus (SHIVKU-1b) isolated during the second viremic phase was not neutralized by these antibodies. Inoculation of SHIVKU-1b into 4 pig-tailed macaques resulted in severe CD4(+) T cell loss by 2 weeks postinoculation, and all 4 macaques died from AIDS at 23-34 weeks postinoculation. Because this virus had a neutralization-resistant phenotype, we sequenced the env gene and compared these sequences with those of the env gene of SHIVKU-1 and parental SHIV-4. With reference to SHIV-4, SHIVKU-1b had 18 and 6 consensus amino acid substitutions in the gp120 and gp41 regions of Env, respectively. These compared with 10 and 3 amino acid substitutions in the gp120 and gp41 regions of SHIVKU-1. Our data suggested that SHIVKU-1 and SHIVKU-1b probably evolved from a common ancestor but that SHIVKU-1b did not evolve from SHIVKU-1. A chimeric virus, SHIVKU-1bMC17, constructed with the consensus env from the SHIVKU-1b on a background of SHIV-4, confirmed that amino acid substitutions in Env were responsible for the neutralization-resistant phenotype. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that neutralizing antibodies induced by SHIVKU-1 in pig-tailed macaque resulted in the selection of a neutralization-resistant virus that was responsible for the second wave of viremia.  (+info)

Epitope mapping of CCR5 reveals multiple conformational states and distinct but overlapping structures involved in chemokine and coreceptor function. (7/1525)

The chemokine receptor CCR5 is the major coreceptor for R5 human immunodeficiency virus type-1 strains. We mapped the epitope specificities of 18 CCR5 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to identify domains of CCR5 required for chemokine binding, gp120 binding, and for inducing conformational changes in Env that lead to membrane fusion. We identified mAbs that bound to N-terminal epitopes, extracellular loop 2 (ECL2) epitopes, and multidomain (MD) epitopes composed of more than one single extracellular domain. N-terminal mAbs recognized specific residues that span the first 13 amino acids of CCR5, while nearly all ECL2 mAbs recognized residues Tyr-184 to Phe-189. In addition, all MD epitopes involved ECL2, including at least residues Lys-171 and Glu-172. We found that ECL2-specific mAbs were more efficient than NH2- or MD-antibodies in blocking RANTES or MIP-1beta binding. By contrast, N-terminal mAbs blocked gp120-CCR5 binding more effectively than ECL2 mAbs. Surprisingly, ECL2 mAbs were more potent inhibitors of viral infection than N-terminal mAbs. Thus, the ability to block virus infection did not correlate with the ability to block gp120 binding. Together, these results imply that chemokines and Env bind to distinct but overlapping sites in CCR5, and suggest that the N-terminal domain of CCR5 is more important for gp120 binding while the extracellular loops are more important for inducing conformational changes in Env that lead to membrane fusion and virus infection. Measurements of individual antibody affinities coupled with kinetic analysis of equilibrium binding states also suggested that there are multiple conformational states of CCR5. A previously described mAb, 2D7, was unique in its ability to effectively block both chemokine and Env binding as well as coreceptor activity. 2D7 bound to a unique antigenic determinant in the first half of ECL2 and recognized a far greater proportion of cell surface CCR5 molecules than the other mAbs examined. Thus, the epitope recognized by 2D7 may represent a particularly attractive target for CCR5 antagonists.  (+info)

Early assembly step of a retroviral envelope glycoprotein: analysis using a dominant negative assay. (8/1525)

As for most integral membrane proteins, the intracellular transport of retroviral envelope glycoproteins depends on proper folding and oligomeric assembly in the ER. In this study, we considered the hypothesis that a panel of 22 transport-defective mutants of the human T cell leukemia virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein might be defective in ER assembly. Upon cell cotransfection with wild-type envelope, however, the vast majority of these transport-defective mutants (21 of 22) exerted a specific trans-dominant negative effect. This effect was due to random dimerization of the mutated and wild-type glycoproteins that prevented the intracellular transport of the latter. This unexpected result suggests that association of glycoprotein monomers precedes the completion of folding. The only mutation that impaired this early assembly was located at the NH2 terminus of the protein. COOH-terminally truncated, soluble forms of the glycoprotein were also trans-dominant negative provided that their NH2 terminus was intact. The leucine zipper-like domain, although involved in oligomerization of the envelope glycoproteins at the cell surface, did not contribute to their intracellular assembly. We propose that, at a step subsequent to translation, but preceding complete folding of the monomers, glycoproteins assemble via their NH2-terminal domains, which, in turn, permits their cooperative folding.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Human immunodeficiency virus envelope protein Gp120 induces proliferation but not apoptosis in osteoblasts at physiologic concentrations. AU - Cummins, Nathan W.. AU - Klicpera, Anna. AU - Sainski, Amy M.. AU - Bren, Gary D.. AU - Khosla, Sundeep. AU - Westendorf, Jennifer J.. AU - Badley, Andrew D.. PY - 2011/9/12. Y1 - 2011/9/12. N2 - Patients with HIV infection have decreased numbers of osteoblasts, decreased bone mineral density and increased risk of fracture compared to uninfected patients; however, the molecular mechanisms behind these associations remain unclear. We questioned whether Gp120, a component of the envelope protein of HIV capable of inducing apoptosis in many cell types, is able to induce cell death in bone-forming osteoblasts. We show that treatment of immortalized osteoblast-like cells and primary human osteoblasts with exogenous Gp120 in vitro at physiologic concentrations does not result in apoptosis. Instead, in the osteoblast-like U2OS cell line, cells ...
Phylogenetic analysis of full-length env sequences from Gag-Env-GM-CSF group (Group II)) macaques.All the macaques in this group were vaccinated and challenged
The inner structural Gag proteins and the envelope (Env) glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) traffic independently to the plasma membrane, where they assemble the nascent virion. HIV-1 carries a relatively low number of glycoproteins in its membrane, and the mechanism of Env recruitment and virus incorporation is incompletely understood. We employed dual-color super-resolution microscopy visualizing Gag assembly sites and HIV-1 Env proteins in virus-producing and in Env expressing cells. Distinctive HIV-1 Gag assembly sites were readily detected and were associated with Env clusters that always extended beyond the actual Gag assembly site and often showed enrichment at the periphery and surrounding the assembly site. Formation of these Env clusters depended on the presence of other HIV-1 proteins and on the long cytoplasmic tail (CT) of Env. CT deletion, a matrix mutation affecting Env incorporation or Env expression in the absence of other HIV-1 proteins led to much smaller ...
ISO/IEC 7826-1, ISO/IEC 7826-2, ISO 2382-4:1987, ISO 5281:1977, ISO 639:1988, ISO 8601:1988, ISO 8859-1:1987, prENV 12265, ENV 12537-1:1997, ENV 12537-2:1997, ENV 12381:1996, ENV 12435:1999, ENV 12388:1996, ENV 12443:1997, ENV 13606-2:2000, ENV 13606-3:2000, ENV 13606-4:2000 ...
The env protein from an endogenous retrovirus may represent an attractive TAA for CAR-mediated T-cell therapy. This is based on our demonstration that melanoma, but not normal tissues, expresses HERV-K env protein and that a HERV-K env-specific CAR can recognize this TAA in vitro and in vivo.. The 6H5 mAb was used to evaluate the cellular expression of HERV-K env. We observed that only tumor cells (cell lines and primary biopsy material) express HERV-K env in contrast to benign skin from the same patients. Furthermore, the transition from primary to metastatic melanoma was associated with increased expression of this TAA. This supports results by others that high HERV-K env levels correlates with increased metastatic capacity (35). Two distinct patterns of expression of this TAA were observed. Punctate and diffuse distribution of HERV-K env was found in the cell membrane and cytosol, respectively. Punctate staining may be associated with HERV-K env protein involved in (i) recycling of the HERV-K ...
LG enV VX11000 vs Kyocera DuraForce Pro. Compare the specs and features of the LG enV VX11000 and Kyocera DuraForce Pro to see which is better.
From: https://github.com/mvduin/py-uio/blob/master/etc/udev/rules.d/10-of-symlink.rules # allow declaring a symlink for a device in DT ATTR{device/of_node/symlink}!=, \ ENV{OF_SYMLINK}=%s{device/of_node/symlink} ENV{OF_SYMLINK}!=, ENV{DEVNAME}!=, \ SYMLINK+=%E{OF_SYMLINK}, \ TAG+=systemd, ENV{SYSTEMD_ALIAS}+=/dev/%E{OF_SYMLINK ...
From: https://github.com/mvduin/py-uio/blob/master/etc/udev/rules.d/10-of-symlink.rules # allow declaring a symlink for a device in DT ATTR{device/of_node/symlink}!=, \ ENV{OF_SYMLINK}=%s{device/of_node/symlink} ENV{OF_SYMLINK}!=, ENV{DEVNAME}!=, \ SYMLINK+=%E{OF_SYMLINK}, \ TAG+=systemd, ENV{SYSTEMD_ALIAS}+=/dev/%E{OF_SYMLINK ...
Here we have studied how an early activation step of Mo-MLV Env proceeds in its three protomeric units: simultaneously in all of them or sequentially in one after the other. We followed the isomerization of the intersubunit disulfide and the subsequent SU release in Env that was triggered in vitro by Ca2+ depletion or in vivo by the receptor on rat XC cells. Our results suggested a sequential activation of the protomers according to the scheme (SU-TM)3 → (SU-TM)2TM → (SU-TM)TM2 → TM3. Thus, in this reaction, the protomers of Env release their SU one after the other, forming asymmetric oligomer intermediates (I-1 and I-2). In contrast, the TM subunits of the isomerized protomers stay noncovalently associated with the partially activated Env. At present, we cannot conclude what controls the sequential protomer activation. One possibility is that it is controlled through sequential receptor interactions. However, a single receptor-protomer interaction might also be sufficient. According to ...
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The coexpression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins and receptors leads to the lysis of single cells by a process that is dependent upon membrane fusion. This cell lysis was inhibited by low-molecular-weight compounds that interfere with receptor binding or with receptor-induced conformational transitions in the envelope glycoproteins. A peptide, T20, potently inhibited cell-cell fusion but had no effect on single cell lysis mediated by the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. Thus, critical events in the lysis of single cells by the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins occur in intracellular compartments accessible only to small inhibitory compounds.
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against the N332 supersite of the HIV envelope (Env) trimer are the most common bnAbs induced during infection, making them promising leads for vaccine design. Wild-type Env glycoproteins lack detectable affinity for supersite-bnAb germline precursors and are …
Centralized (ancestral and consensus) HIV-1 envelope immunogens induce broadly cross-reactive T cell responses in laboratory animals; however, their potential to elicit cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies has not been fully explored. Here, we report the construction of a panel of consensus subtype B (ConB) envelopes and compare their biologic, antigenic, and immunogenic properties to those of two wild-type Env controls from individuals with early and acute HIV-1 infection. Glycoprotein expressed from full-length (gp160), uncleaved (gp160-UNC), truncated (gp145), and N-linked glycosylation site deleted (gp160-201N/S) versions of the ConB env gene were packaged into virions and, except for the fusion defective gp160-UNC, mediated infection via the CCR5 co-receptor. Pseudovirions containing ConB Envs were sensitive to neutralization by patient plasma and monoclonal antibodies, indicating the preservation of neutralizing epitopes found in contemporary subtype B viruses. When used as DNA vaccines ...
The dependency between your primary structure of HIV envelope glycoproteins (ENV) as well as the neutralization data for given antibodies is quite complicated and depends upon a lot of factors, like the binding affinity of confirmed antibody for confirmed ENV protein, and the intrinsic infection kinetics of the viral strain. against HIV-1. = 0.99561 and dependent variable = 0.99 Target + 0.002) and for the test Gata1 collection (= 0.9674 and dependent variable = 0.99 Target + 0.016). These results are demonstrated in Number 2 which presents the related regression analysis, while Number 3 shows the error histogram. The mean squared prediction error (MSEP) was 0.015. Number 2 Regression analysis for the training and test data. Figure 3 Error histogram. 3. Conversation The difficulty of HIV-1 ENV structural biology asks for complementary information from numerous techniques such as NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, cryo-electron microscopy or tomography to understand the computer virus ...
The humanised IgG4 monoclonal antibody GNbAC1 targets the envelope protein (Env) of the human endogenous multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (HERV-W MSRV), which may play a critical role in multiple sclerosis.. The study assesses the long-term safety of GNbAC1 in patients with RRMS and the long-term efficacy of GNbAC1 in terms of MRI outcomes, relapse rate, disability and disease progression. ...
The humanised IgG4 monoclonal antibody GNbAC1 targets the envelope protein (Env) of the human endogenous multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (HERV-W MSRV), which may play a critical role in multiple sclerosis (MS).. This study evaluates the effect on MRI lesions parameters, the safety and pharmacokinetics of GNbAC1 in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. ...
3. The role of the HIV/SIV cytoplasmic tail in pathogenesis. Dr. Hoxies group has identified endocytosis signals in the cytoplasmic tails of HIV, SIV and FIV Env proteins that reduce Env expression on the surface of infected cells. Dr. Hoxie has proposed that these signals could be relevant in pathogenesis by enabling virus-producing cells to survive host anti-viral immune responses. He has shown in an SIV model that viruses with mutations in this domain are markedly attenuated in vivo and controllable by host immune responses. Ongoing studies are addressing the mechanism for this attenuation, the components of the host immune response that are involved, and defects in viral assembly that are believed to underlie this effect ...
Since the late 1970s, 8.4 million people worldwide, including 1.7 million children, have died of AIDS, and an estimated 22 million people are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)(1). During 1995 and 1996, major clinical and laboratory dis ...
LG enV Touch vs Sanyo Katana Eclipse. Compare the specs and features of the LG enV Touch and Sanyo Katana Eclipse to see which is better.
Martin Panter added the comment: The test tries using ProxyHandler directly. It looks like that handler intentionally ignores the request if it matches no_proxies (Issue 6894), so I think Piotrs approach of adjusting the tests is correct. The patch looks good to me, though I would drop that blank line in test_proxy_qop_auth_works ...
When looking for a fresh start, it is the best to relocate to a place that is different from where you used to live. For most people living in a stressful env(...)
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OBJECTIVES: To examine whether syncytin-1 has immune regulatory functions and is carried by human placental exosomes. Further, to examine whether corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) can induce the production of syncytin-1. STUDY DESIGN: Human placental exosomes were isolated from placental explant, primary trophoblast and BeWo cell cultures. The presence of exosomes was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. Exosomal protein was probed with 3 separate antibodies targeting syncytin-1. Syncytin-1 immunosuppression was tested, using either a syncytin-1 recombinant ectodomain protein or a synthetic peptide with the human syncytin-1 immunosuppressive domain sequence, in an in vitro human blood culture system immune challenged with LPS or PHA. The inhibition of cytokine production by syncytin-1 was determined by ELISA of TNF-α, IFN-γ and CXCL10. BeWo cells were stimulated with CRH or vehicle for 24 h. mRNA and Protein was extracted from the cells for real-time PCR and ...
There have been many examples of virus-glycoprotein pairs that do not efficiently produce infectious pseudotyped virus together. For example, HIV-1 does not pseudotype efficiently with Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Env, influenza virus hemagglutinin, or lymphocytic choriomeningitis glycoprotein (4, 16). However, most of these virus-glycoprotein pairs do yield some infectious pseudotyped particles, albeit at an inefficient level. The incompatibility between HIV-1 and GaLV Env (specifically Env proteins containing the GaLV cytoplasmic domain) is unique because it is so absolute, yielding essentially no infectious particles. It is now clear that this extreme incompatibility is the result of at least two factors. First, HIV-1 shows a general incompatibility with the GaLV Env cytoplasmic tail that is not related to Vpu (Fig. 4). This incompatibility has not been addressed here but is likely the result of poor fusogenicity. Second, MLV/GaLV Env incorporation into HIV-1 particles is prevented by the HIV-1 ...
For protection from HIV-1 infection, a vaccine should elicit both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. A novel vaccine regimen and adjuvant that induce high levels of HIV-1 Env-specific T cell and antibody (Ab) responses was developed in this study. The prime-boost regimen that used combinations of replication-competent vaccinia LC16m8Δ (m8Δ) and Sendai virus (SeV) vectors expressing HIV-1 Env efficiently produced both Env-specific CD8+ T cells and anti-Env antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). These results sharply contrast with vaccine regimens that prime with an Env expressing plasmid and boost with the m8Δ or SeV vector that mainly elicited cellular immunities. Moreover, co-priming with combinations of m8Δs expressing Env or a membrane-bound human CD40 ligand mutant (CD40Lm) enhanced Env-specific CD8+ T cell production, but not anti-Env antibody production. In contrast, priming with an m8Δ that coexpresses CD40Lm and Env elicited more anti-Env Abs with higher avidity, but
HIV-1 envelopes from two series of primary isolates (from Swedish patients 5 and 6), from JR-FL and BaL (prototypic monocyte/macrophage tropic viruses) and from HXB-2 (a prototypic T-cell-line-adapted virus), have been screened for their ability to elicit neutralizing antibody to HIV-1. Rabbits were primed by gene gun inoculation with plasmids expressing secreted monomeric (gp120) and oligomeric (gp140) forms of each Env. After four to six DNA immunizations administered over a 1-year period, rabbits were boosted with 10(8) plaque-forming units of a mixture of seven recombinant vaccinia viruses which express chimeric gp140 Envs (primary clade B sequences in a IIIb-related BH10 backbone). Neutralizing antibodies were assayed against two T-cell-line-adapted viruses (MN and IIIb), two non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) and two syncytium-inducing (SI) primary isolates, and two HIV-1-NL4-3-recombinants with patients 5 or 6 Envs (NL4-3/5A, NL4-3/6C). The DNA priming and recombinant vaccinia virus boosting raised low
It could very well be that current science has cause and effect up-side-down: we are not made of viruses, but viruses are made of us. For a major part, the genomes of all organisms exists of what we now call TEs (transposable and transposed elements). We have found out that they fulfill many crucial functions in regulating gene expression and keeping the genome together. I prefer to call TEs after their functions in the genome: variation-and-integrity-assuring genetic elements (VIGEs). In my paper of 2009, I describe how we are able to understand the origin of RNA viruses from VIGEs commonly referred to as ERVs. In my 2013 paper, I demonstrate that the syncytin gene does not originate in the genes of an RNA virus (ERV-W), as it is generally believed, but that a particular VIGE (gag-pol element know as an endogenous retrovirus) picked up the syncytin gene from the genome to become a provirus. There is ample evidence for this view and summarized in my papers. In other word, we see the for-runners ...
The high affinity interaction between the envelope (env)glycoprotein of HIV-1 and the cell surface glycoprotein CD4 is a central molecular event in AIDS pathogenesis. This interaction not only...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Boosting of HIV-1 neutralizing antibody responses by a distally related retroviral envelope protein. AU - Uchtenhagen, Hannes. AU - Schiffner, Torben. AU - Bowles, Emma. AU - Heyndrickx, Leo. AU - La Branche, Celia. AU - Applequist, Steven E.. AU - Jansson, Marianne. AU - De Silva, Thushan. AU - Back, Jaap Willem. AU - Achour, Adnane. AU - Scarlatti, Gabriella. AU - Fomsgaard, Anders. AU - Montefiori, David. AU - Stewart-Jones, Guillaume. AU - Spetz, Anna Lena. PY - 2014/6/15. Y1 - 2014/6/15. N2 - Our knowledge of the binding sites for neutralizing Abs (NAb) that recognize a broad range of HIV-1 strains (bNAb) has substantially increased in recent years. However, gaps remain in our understanding of how to focus B cell responses to vulnerable conserved sites within the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). In this article, we report an immunization strategy composed of a trivalent HIV-1 (clade B envs) DNA prime, followed by a SIVmac239 gp140 Env protein boost that aimed to focus the ...
3. The role of the HIV/SIV cytoplasmic tail in pathogenesis. Dr. Hoxies group has identified endocytosis signals in the cytoplasmic tails of HIV, SIV and FIV Env proteins that reduce Env expression on the surface of infected cells. Dr. Hoxie has proposed that these signals could be relevant in pathogenesis by enabling virus-producing cells to survive host anti-viral immune responses. He has shown in an SIV model that viruses with mutations in this domain are markedly attenuated in vivo and controllable by host immune responses. Ongoing studies are addressing the mechanism for this attenuation, the components of the host immune response that are involved, and defects in viral assembly that are believed to underlie this effect ...
Signed-off-by: Serge Gautherie ,winehq-git_serge_180711 at gautherie.fr, --- dlls/ntdll/tests/env.c , 2 +- dlls/ntdll/tests/ntdll_test.h , 2 +- 2 files changed, 2 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-) diff --git a/dlls/ntdll/tests/env.c b/dlls/ntdll/tests/env.c index 4e2ef82..48c9ed8 100644 --- a/dlls/ntdll/tests/env.c +++ b/dlls/ntdll/tests/env.c @@ -1,5 +1,5 @@ /* - * Unit test suite for ntdll path functions + * Unit test suite for ntdll env functions * * Copyright 2003 Eric Pouech * diff --git a/dlls/ntdll/tests/ntdll_test.h b/dlls/ntdll/tests/ntdll_test.h index d403a74..6727835 100644 --- a/dlls/ntdll/tests/ntdll_test.h +++ b/dlls/ntdll/tests/ntdll_test.h @@ -1,5 +1,5 @@ /* - * Unit test suite for ntdll path functions + * Unit test suite for ntdll functions * * Copyright 2003 Eric Pouech * -- 2.10.0.windows.1 ...
wrote: > Hi Michael, > > You need to use Mix.ar() around the array of Saws that results from > passing it an array of frequency arguments. The reason is that Pan > deals with UGens not arrays of UGens. > > RJK > > On Fri, 27 Apr 2001, michael wrote: > > > help a forgetful monkey. > > when i put an array of freqs into the Saw, like Saw.ar([freq, freq+0.1.rand]),1) to chorus- > the > > idea is to mimic my jp6, so ultimately ill want 6 or 6 million, whichever i can get away > with... > > i get a mix error or a synth error. i thought you could just add in an array and it would > > automatically mix it. i think ive managed this before, but obviously im missing something. > > Pbind( > > \ugenFunc, { arg pan, freq, freqnv, db; > > var env, out, freaknv, freak; > > env = Env.linen(2,6,1); > > freaknv = Env.linen(2,1,4,freqnv); > > freak = EnvGen.kr(freaknv); > > Pan2.ar( > > EnvGen.ar(env, > > RLPF.ar(Saw.ar(freq), freak, 0.5), > > 0, db), > > pan)}, > > \pan, 0, > > \degree, ...
I originally wanted to study zoology at a different uni but didnt get in, so I applied for env sci instead. Just a question, given that my interest is really in zoology (and to some extend botany) would a degree in ecology be closer to that. I guess ecology is part of biology, and that biology is part of env sci. So I will do some ecology in my unit, should I do more do you think given my interests? Or would it be more sensible to complete my env sci and then do some study or work specifically in ecology after? Or even, finish my env sci and then study zoology ...
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In this study, we have investigated the effect of specific mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) on antibody production in an effort to improve humoral immune responses to this glycoprotein by DNA vaccination. Mice were injected with plasmid expression vectors encoding HIV Env with modifications in regions that might affect this response. Elimination of conserved glycosylation sites did not substantially enhance humoral or cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) immunity. In contrast, a modified gp140 with different COOH-terminal mutations intended to mimic a fusion intermediate and stabilize trimer formation enhanced humoral immunity without reducing the efficacy of the CTL response. This mutant, with deletions in the cleavage site, fusogenic domain, and spacing of heptad repeats 1 and 2, retained native antigenic conformational determinants as defined by binding to known monoclonal antibodies or CD4, oligomer formation, and virus neutralization in vitro. Importantly, ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
A major assumption in this study was that the IAS Env obtained by Ca2+ depletion in the presence of alkylator corresponds to a structural intermediate in the receptor‐activated Env. Its validity was suggested by several facts. First, Ca2+ depletion facilitates receptor‐mediated fusion of virus with cells, whereas the reaction is reversibly suppressed by high Ca2+ (,1.8 mM) (Wallin et al, 2004). This suggests that removal of Ca2+ mediates receptor‐induced activation as well. Second, receptor activation elicits a pathway of conformational changes that appears identical with that obtained in vitro by Ca2+ depletion. This includes a stage with the exposure of the CXXC thiol and the intersubunit disulphide for external modifications (IAS), the disulphide isomerization reaction and SU dissociation (Wallin et al, 2004; M Sjöberg, unpublished results). Finally, recent analyses by us have shown that Env triggering in vitro or in vivo results in a similarly SDS‐sensitive IAS oligomer in the ...
The best known and most studied of the human env-derived genes is Syncytin 1 or ERVWE1, which was originated from a human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) of the HERV-W family inserted in human Chr.7q21 (Blond et al. 1999; Mi et al. 2000). Multiple inactivating mutations were found in the gag and pol coding sequences of the provirus. Conversely, the env gene maintained an ORF coding for a 538 amino acid polypeptide that has all characteristic features of Env proteins and mediates intercellular fusion in vitro (Blond et al. 2000; Frendo et al. 2003; Mi et al. 2000). Recently, a molecular evolution study of the HERV-W provirus in several ape species and in 24 humans showed that in all of them Syncytin 1 was conserved and retained its receptor-mediated fusogenic activity (Mallet et al. 2004). However, an analysis of the synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions indicated a relatively high degree of amino acid changes in hominoids (Bonnaud et al. 2004), which could be consistent with a low degree of ...
Traditional vaccine approaches have failed for HIV and novel strategies are now being sought to develop immunogens designed to elicit specific activity against known broad neutralization epitopes. Structure-based vaccine design has great potential but, thus far, remains a largely unproven concept. Further structural information for the envelope (Env) glycoproteins, gp120 and gp41, is needed, particularly for understanding trimer-specific antibodies and their epitopes and to clarify atomic details of the structural elements responsible for masking crucial epitopes and for mediating the conformational rearrangements undertaken during the process of receptor-binding and membrane fusion ...
ERVW-1 (Endogenous Retroviral family W, Env (C7), member 1), Authors: Juliette Gimenez, François Mallet. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
usr/bin/perl use FCGI; while (FCGI::accept ,= 0) { die if $ENV{FCGI_APACHE_ROLE} ne AUTHENTICATOR; die if $ENV{FCGI_ROLE} ne AUTHORIZER; # This authorizer assumes that the RequireBasicAuth option of # AuthnzFcgiCheckAuthnProvider is On: die if !$ENV{REMOTE_PASSWD}; die if !$ENV{REMOTE_USER}; print STDERR This text is written to the web server error log.\n; if ( ($ENV{REMOTE_USER } eq foo ,, $ENV{REMOTE_USER} eq foo1) && $ENV{REMOTE_PASSWD} eq bar ) { print Status: 200\n; print Variable-AUTHNZ_1: authnz_01\n; print Variable-AUTHNZ_2: authnz_02\n; print \n; } else { print Status: 401\n\n; # If a response body is written here, it will be returned to # the client ...
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"Regulation of human immunodeficiency virus env expression by the rev gene product". Journal of Virology. 63 (5): 1959-66. doi: ... Rev-mediated export from the nucleus increases cytoplasmic levels of the structural mRNAs (gag, pol, and env). Gag, pol and env ... located in an intron downstream of the env gene. The domain also contains a nuclear localization signal. Rev's nuclear export ... immediately downstream of the env gene. The RRE remains functional if translocated, but needs to remain in the same orientation ...
... precedes the env gene. The function of OrfA in viral replication is unclear, however the orfA-encoded product may display many ... It has the typical genomic structure of retroviruses and includes LTR, vif, pol, gag, orfA, env, and rev genes. The Gag ... On the contrary, env, vif, orfa, and rev are the least conserved and exhibit the most genetic diversity among FIV strains. The ... LTCI Product Information, T-Cyte Therapeutics, Inc., archived from the original on 16 August 2012, retrieved 28 July 2012 T- ...
Gp120 is coded by the HIV env gene, which is around 2.5 kb long and codes for around 850 amino acids. The primary env product ... The diversity of env has been shown to increase by 1-2% per year in HIV-1 group M and the variable units are notable for rapid ... HIV envelope gene HIV entry to the cell gp41 CD4 CCR5 Entry inhibitor Structure and genome of HIV "Licenses Sold for Research ... Consequently, insertions in env, which confer more PNGSs on gp120 may be more tolerated by the virus as higher glycan density ...
... encoded by the viral gene env. 120000 Da (Daltons). Gp41 transmembrane envelope protein TM, also encoded by the viral gene env ... They may also have additional accessory genes depending on the virus (e.g., for HIV-1: vif, vpr, vpu, nef) whose products are ... Protease PR encoded by the pro gene (part of pol gene in some viruses). dUTPase DU encoded by the pro gene (part of pol gene in ... As with all retroviruses, lentiviruses have gag, pol and env genes, coding for viral proteins in the order: 5´-gag-pol-env-3´. ...
... are expressed from genes which include the Env, Pol and Gag genes. GeoVax is currently conducting multiple site Phase 2 Human ... "Specifically, the HVTN plans to clinically test a novel vaccine product developed by GeoVax scientists that expresses human ... vaccine both of which lead to the insertion of genes into primate DNA which leads to foreign protein expression. With the ... clinical trials for HIV/AIDS preventive vaccine products following successful completion of multiple Phase 1 human clinical ...
tev: This gene is only present in a few HIV-1 isolates. It is a fusion of parts of the tat, env, and rev genes, and codes for a ... HIV employs a sophisticated system of differential RNA splicing to obtain nine different gene products from a less than 10kb ... The envelope glycoprotein (Env)gp 120/41 is essential for HIV-1 entry into cells. Env serves as a molecular target of a ... within the env gene. Another RNA structure that has been identified is gag stem loop 3 (GSL3), thought to be involved in viral ...
The function of the auxiliary gene vif is not fully known. The vif gene product, a 29 kDa protein, induces a weak immune ... exists inside the env gene. An auxiliary gene, vif (viral infectivity factor), is also encoded. However, the number and role of ... The env gene is translated into a single precursor polyprotein that is cleaved by a host protease into two proteins, the ... The gag gene encodes three final glycoprotein products: the capsid, the nucleocapsid, and the matrix protein which links the ...
These viruses have genes called accessory genes, in addition to gag, pro, pol and env genes. Accessory genes are located ... These two glycoprotein products stay in close affiliation, and they are transported to the plasma membrane after further ... Env proteins play a role in association and entry of virions into the host cell. Possessing a functional copy of an env gene is ... In addition, some retroviruses may carry genes called oncogenes or onc genes from another class. Retroviruses with these genes ...
VAMP These proteins originate from the env gene of endogenous retroviruses. They are domesticated viral class I fusion proteins ... Eukaryotic genomes contain several gene families, of host and viral origin, which encode products involved in driving membrane ... Fusion proteins can originate from genes encoded by infectious enveloped viruses, ancient retroviruses integrated into the host ...
The gene for Tax is found within the pX region between the env gene and one of the long terminal repeats of the viral genome; ... A Tax Gene Product (Tax) is a nuclear protein that has a molecular weight of about 37,000 to 40,000 daltons. Tax is produced by ... ISBN 0120392410.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) Ross, TM; Pettiford, SM; Green, PL (Aug 1996). "The tax gene of ... Womack, edited by W. Jean Dodds, James E. (1997). Molecular genetics, gene transfer, and therapy. San Diego, Calif.: Academic ...
... gene products, env MeSH D12.776.964.970.880.325.330 - hiv envelope protein gp41 MeSH D12.776.964.970.880.325.350 - hiv envelope ... gene products, rev (HIV) MeSH D12.776.964.950.800.400 - gene products, tat MeSH D12.776.964.950.800.410 - gene products, tax ... gene products, rex MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.480 - gene products, tax (gene) MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.650 - oncogene protein ... gene products, rex MeSH D12.776.964.775.750.480 - gene products, tax MeSH D12.776.964.775.750.650 - oncogene protein gp140(v- ...
Genes,+env at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) env+Gene+Products,+Human+Immunodeficiency+ ... The env mRNA must be spliced for expression. The mature product of the env gene is the viral spike protein, which has two main ... Env is a viral gene that encodes the protein forming the viral envelope. The expression of the env gene enables retroviruses to ... env gene codes for a polyprotein gp70 (P10259) that is cleaved to yield the surface (SU) and transmembrane (TM) Env products. ...
Merial produces a recombinant vaccine consisting of canarypox virus carrying FeLV gag and env genes (sold as PUREVAX FeLV in ... "LTCI Product Information". T-Cyte Therapeutics, Inc. Archived from the original on 2012-08-16. Retrieved 28 July 2012. "T-Cyte ... The virus comprises 5' and 3' LTRs and three genes: Gag (structural), Pol (enzymes) and Env (envelope and transmembrane); the ... The absence of any observed adverse events in several animal species suggests that the product has a very low toxicity profile ...
The transcribed and translated products of the HERV-W Env gene come from retroviral DNA thus the human body detects these ... formed indicating the HERV-W env gene can cause homotypic and heterotypic cell-cell fusion. As a control a gene known to be ... The HERV-W Env gene expressed in a vector was transfected into TELCeB6 cells, and TELac2 cells, to test for virus-cell and cell ... HERV-W's main gene expression is ERVWE-1 which is a highly fusogenic env glycoprotein also called syncytin-1 because it induces ...
This gene product may be seen to play a dual role in both regulating CDK and RNA polymerase II (RNAP2) activities. Cyclin K ... CDK 13 may also be characterized to interact with HIV mRNA splicing, alongside Nef, and the underexpression of Gag and Env ... Cyclin-K is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNK gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ... "Entrez Gene: CCNK cyclin K". Baek K, Brown RS, Birrane G, Ladias JA (February 2007). "Crystal structure of human cyclin K, a ...
The ability to infect other cells is determined by the presence of the retroviral env genes which encode coat proteins. ... relative to maturation and are therefore associated with intermediate transcriptions and reverse transcription products in ... and genes themselves. This includes genes that encode reverse transcriptase, integrase, and capsid proteins. The reverse ...
RSV has four genes: gag - encodes capsid proteins pol - encodes reverse transcriptase env - encodes the envelope gene src - ... It is cleaved by virus encoded protease, releasing products found in the infectious virion. These cleaved products include the ... Env is made up of gp85 and gp37, which are glycoproteins that assemble into oligomers. The function of env is to bind RSV to ... The src gene was taken up by RSV and incorporated into its genome conferring it with the advantage of being able to stimulate ...
HERV-R_7q21.2 provirus ancestral envelope (Env) polyprotein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ERV3 gene. The human ... evidence for a function for envelope gene products". Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences. 99 (2): 113-20. doi:10.3109/ ... Similar endogenous retroviral Env genes like syncytin-1 have important roles in placental formation and embryonic development ... Cohen M, Powers M, O'Connell C, Kato N (December 1985). "The nucleotide sequence of the env gene from the human provirus ERV3 ...
Lenz, J; Crowther R; Straceski A; Haseltine WA (1982). "Nucleotide Sequences of the Akv env Gene". Journal of Virology. 42 (2 ... and uvrC Gene Products". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 81 (12): 3821-3824. Bibcode:1984PNAS...81.3821F. doi: ... If that were true for one gene, then why not all the human genes? New tools had been developed that allowed what had been ... "Cis-Acting Sequences Responsive to the rev Gene Product of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus". Journal of Acquired Immune ...
Opper FH, Isaacs KL, Warshauer DM (December 1990). "Esophageal obstruction with a dietary fiber product designed for weight ... Genes & Development. 4 (8): 1357-64. doi:10.1101/gad.4.8.1357. PMC 2227413. Tarazov PG, Ryzhkov VK, Markochev AB, Noskov AA (30 ... "Interaction of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev protein with a structured region in env mRNA is dependent on ...
... which is indicated by the env gene. Although similar to the gene carrying out the same function in retroviruses, the env gene ... These genes overlap so they encode a protease that processes the resulting transcript into functional gene products. Gag gene ... Mutations caused by retrotransposons include: Gene inactivation Changing gene regulation Changing gene products Acting as DNA ... They differ by the order of sequences in pol genes. Env genes are found in LTR retrotransposon types Ty1-copia (Pseudoviridae ...
Differences between these strains occurs in the env gene, with divergence ranging from 85% to 99%. The discovery of a ... GaLV is transmitted horizontally by contact with excretory products of infected gibbons. However, it is also hypothesised to be ... Retroviral vectors are used in ex vivo gene therapy, which involves the modification of cells in vitro, to replace genes that ... GaLV Envelope Protein has biomedical significance due to its utility as a viral vector in cancer gene therapy and gene transfer ...
The M-PMV genome contains four genes: 5'-gag-pro-pol-env-3'. Gag encodes group-specific antigen (nucleocapsid proteins), Pro ... These mature Gag-cleavage products then repeat the process of infecting new cells and lay roles during the early stages of the ... M-PMV-based vector is a candidate for delivering therapeutic genes in human gene transfer. Based on the M-PMV 1) promoter ... The immunosuppressive segment in the env sequences of M-PMV found to be around 60% similar (highly conserved) to that of ...
The AttoChip identifies genes, viruses and bacteria-causing diseases from a blood sample. It can detect the presence of the ... "ENV to study how fogging practices are conducted". Archived from the original on 9 December 2005. Retrieved 12 September 2005 ... Singapore residents are also arming themselves with anti-mosquito products including insecticides, repellents and electronic ... ENV to study how fogging practices are conducted - Channel NewsAsia (11 September 2005) Health Minister seeks to reduce dengue ...
... env and rev), encoding 19 proteins. Three of these genes, gag, pol, and env, contain information needed to make the structural ... Since donors may therefore be unaware of their infection, donor blood and blood products used in medicine and medical research ... The envelope protein, encoded by the HIV env gene, allows the virus to attach to target cells and fuse the viral envelope with ... The six remaining genes, tat, rev, nef, vif, vpr, and vpu (or vpx in the case of HIV-2), are regulatory genes for proteins that ...
10 (1-2): 1-7. doi:10.20798/wildlifeconsjp.10.1-2_1. "環境省_未承認の遺伝子組換えメダカの回収のお願いについて". www.env.go.jp. Retrieved 2019-11-29. ... In 2011, researchers discovered that almost 15% of wild-caught medaka in Nara had a himedaka-specific gene marker. In addition ... "Identification of KiSS-1 Product Kisspeptin and Steroid-Sensitive Sexually Dimorphic Kisspeptin Neurons in Medaka (Oryzias ... Moreover, the medaka is the first non-mammalian vertebrate species for which a sex-determination gene (DMY)
... structure consists of two protein subunits cleaved from a Gp160 protein precursor encoded for by the HIV-1 env gene: the Gp120 ... This bind results in gp41, the other protein product of gp160, to be released from its metastable conformation and insert ... Nazari R, Joshi S (Aug 2008). "CCR5 as target for HIV-1 gene therapy". Current Gene Therapy. 8 (4): 264-72. doi:10.2174/ ... CCR5 - C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (gene/pseudogene) - Homo sapiens (human) Information from NCBI Gene Database Crystal ...
Ikeda, H.; Nonomiya, T.; Usami, M.; Ohta, T; Ōmura, S. (1999). "Organization of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the ... Nakano, H.; Ōmura, S. (2009). "Chemical biology of natural indolocarbazole products: 30 years since the discovery of ... an Env Glycan-Specific Lectin Devoid of T-Cell Mitogenic Activity". PLOS ONE. 5 (6): e11143. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...511143M. doi: ... Ernest Guenther Award in the Chemistry of Natural Products (American Chemical Society) 2007 - Hamao Umezawa Memorial Award 2008 ...
Env. Micro. 71(7):3741-3746. *^ Tor, J., C. Xu, J. M. Stucki, M. Wander, G. K. Sims. 2000. Trifluralin degradation under micro- ... However, the emerging trend is that the large gene repertoires of potent pollutant degraders such as LB400 and RHA1 have ... They are able to oxidize the environmentally harmful hydrocarbons while producing harmless products, following the general ... Env. Sci. Tech. 34:3148-3152. *^ Heider J & Rabus R (2008). "Genomic Insights in the Anaerobic Biodegradation of Organic ...
As of 2004, 98% of all U.S. farms were family-owned and -operated.[33] Most meat and dairy products are now produced on large ... For more information on the program, the EPA directs interested persons to http://livestock.rti.org/ or http://www.erc-env.org/ ... Commonly consumed animal products like beef, milk, and eggs can be efficiently produced with proper CAFO management. ... Due to their increased efficiency, CAFOs provide a source of low cost animal products: meat, milk and eggs. CAFOs may also ...
The inactivation of tumor suppressor gene products: p53". Virology. 384 (2): 285-293. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2008.09.034.. ... All retroviruses have three major coding domains; gag, pol and env. In the gag region of the virus, the synthesis of the ... "The human papilloma virus-16 E7 oncoprotein is able to bind to the retinoblastoma gene product". Science. 243 (4893): 934-937. ... involves either insertion of additional viral oncogenic genes into the host cell or to enhance already existing oncogenic genes ...
Fermentation products such as Spinosad (a macro-cyclic lactone). *Chitosan: a plant in the presence of this product will ... "Encouraging innovation in biopesticide development" (PDF) (News alert). European Commission DG ENV. 18 December 2008. Issue 134 ... with a silicone surfactant that let the RNA molecules enter air-exchange holes in the plant's surface that disrupted the gene ... Products based on extracts of plants such as garlic have now been registered in the EU and elsewhere[13][citation needed]. ...
... env and rev), encoding 19 proteins. Three of these genes, gag, pol, and env, contain information needed to make the structural ... donor blood and blood products used in medicine and medical research are routinely screened for HIV.[108] ... The six remaining genes, tat, rev, nef, vif, vpr, and vpu (or vpx in the case of HIV-2), are regulatory genes for proteins that ... encoded by the HIV env gene, allows the virus to attach to target cells and fuse the viral envelope with the target cell's ...
Originally, the wild type was conceptualized as a product of the standard[1] "normal" allele at a locus, in contrast to that ... Manipulation of the genes behind these traits led to the current understanding of how organisms form and how traits mutate ... "Identification of an env-defective HIV-1 mutant capable of spontaneous reversion to a wild-type phenotype in certain T-cell ... Amplification of advantageous genes allows the best traits in a population to be present at much higher percentages than normal ...
... env gene product - Environmental chemistry - Enzyme - epidermal growth factor - epidermal growth factor receptor - Epidiorite ... gene - gene expression - gene pool - gene regulatory network - genetic carrier - genetic code - genetic drift - Genetic ... epigenetics - Epinephrine - equine gonadotropin - erbA gene - erbB gene - erbB-2 gene - erbB-2 receptor - erythropoietin - ... nef gene product - neoplasm protein - Nernst equation - nerve - nerve growth factor - nerve growth factor receptor - nerve ...
Products in this category include: Insect pheromones and other semiochemicals Fermentation products such as Spinosad (a macro- ... European Commission DG ENV. 18 December 2008. Issue 134. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 May 2012. Retrieved 20 April ... with a silicone surfactant that let the RNA molecules enter air-exchange holes in the plant's surface that disrupted the gene ... Many biofungicidal products also show capacities to stimulate plant host defense and other physiological processes that can ...
Key genes and enzymes for ergot alkaloid biosynthesis have been identified in epichloae and include dmaW, encoding ... Many Epichloë endophytes produce a diverse range of natural product compounds with biological activities against a broad range ... Env. Exp. Bot. 63 (1-3): 183-199. doi:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2007.10.021.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Hunt MG.; ... Young CA, Felitti S, Shields K, Spangenberg G, Johnson RD, Bryan GT, Saikia S, Scott B (2006). "A complex gene cluster for ...
Regional Ecosystem Description Database, Version 3.: www.env.qld.gov.au/environment/science. Environmental Protection Agency, ... Differences in soil properties are a product of underlying parent material and landscape position. The main rainforests in the ... montane to coastal environments and provides an important ecological function enabling migration of fauna and exchange of genes ... Regional Ecosystem Database v3 www.env.qld.gov.au/environment/science Hopkins et al 1993 Scenic Spectrums 1992 ACTFR 1998. ...
J. Env. Qual. 37 (supplement): S97-S115. Richard Koelsch, Carol Balvanz, John George, Dan Meyer, John Nienaber, Gene Tinker. " ... Milk and milk products were used in Vedic rituals. In the postvedic period products of the cow-milk, curd, ghee, but also cow ... The scientists found cattle have about 22,000 genes, and 80% of their genes are shared with humans, and they share about 1000 ... Most cattle are not kept solely for hides, which are usually a by-product of beef production. Hides are most commonly used for ...
Some degree of gene flow is normal adaptation and not all gene and genotype constellations can be preserved. However, ... Intro To Env Engg (Sie), 4E. McGraw-Hill Education (India) Pvt Ltd. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-07-067117-1. Retrieved 28 June 2011. ... Hawkins E.S., Reich; Reich, MR (1992). "Japanese-originated pharmaceutical products in the United States from 1960 to 1989: an ... gene patents and process patents. Governments struggle to decide whether to focus on for example, genes, genomes, or organisms ...
Qadir, M.I.; Malik, S.A. (2011). "Genetic Variation in the HR Region of the env Gene of HIV: A Perspective for Resistance to ... Qadirphages: He discovered local bacteriophages to be used as anti-bacterial products which were named as Qadirphages. The ... Fungal Research: He also discovered new genes in local fungi which are involved in curing skin diseases caused by these local ... "Pakistani scientists discover new genes in fungus for skin disease cure". 2016-07-20. "Formula for Medicine of Corona". Daily ...
The Env budding associated protein found in the transmembrane domain of the viron contains an endoplasmic reticulum retention ... 20% of released virions contain double stranded DNA as a product of late stage reverse transcription. The outer membrane of the ... Foamy viruses also contain structural genes that are distinct to their particular genus. The Gag protein is not always ...
... as frame shifting of the original SCA3 gene product encoding CAG/polyglutamines to GCA/polyalanines. Ribosomal slippage during ... such as the gag-pol-env retroviral proteins. This is fairly common in viruses and also occurs in bacteria and yeast (Farabaugh ... There are 120 genes and 150 mutations that play a role in primary immunodeficiencies. The standard treatment is currently gene ... The nucleotide sequence of the suspected gene is provided from published gene sequences or from cloning and sequencing of the ...
It is due to a mutation inside the gene NR1H3, an arginine to glutamine mutation in the position p.Arg415Gln, in an area that ... 2012). "Secretory products of multiple sclerosis B cells are cytotoxic to oligodendroglia in vitro". Journal of Neuroimmunology ... an Antibody Antagonist of the Human Endogenous Retrovirus Type-W env Protein, in Participants with Relapsing Remitting Multiple ...
The visible product of that research, Top7, was featured as the RCSB PDB's 'Molecule of the Month' in October 2006; a ... "Homing Endonuclease Genes: New Tools for Mosquito Population Engineering and Control". Grand Challenges in Global Health. ... 2007). "Development of IgG1 b12 scaffolds and HIV-1 env-based outer domain immunogens capable of eliciting and detecting IgG1 ... Windbichler N, Papathanos PA, Catteruccia F, Ranson H, Burt A, Crisanti A (2007). "Homing endonuclease mediated gene targeting ...
These and other gene expression tools now enable precise control of the expression of the genes that encode novel metabolic ... The engineered microorganism is capable of secreting the final product from the cell, thereby purifying it from all other ... Appl Environ Microbiol 78:70 Chou 2012 Appl Env Microbiol 78:7829 Bokinsky 2011 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108:19949 Peralta- ... The microorganisms were engineered with a ten-enzyme biosynthetic pathway using genes from ''Artemisia annua'', Saccharomyces ...
... groups based on both their degree of sequence similarity and the order of encoded gene products. Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy groups ... A major difference with Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons is that retroviruses have an envelope protein (ENV). A ... The Pol gene produces three proteins: a protease (PR), a reverse transcriptase endowed with an RT (reverse-transcriptase) and ... doi:10.1016/j.gene.2006.08.007. PMID 17052864. Neumann, P; Pozárková, D; Macas, J (October 2003). "Highly abundant pea LTR ...
Regulation of human immunodeficiency virus env expression by the rev gene product.. M L Hammarskjöld, J Heimer, B Hammarskjöld ... Regulation of human immunodeficiency virus env expression by the rev gene product. ... Regulation of human immunodeficiency virus env expression by the rev gene product. ... Regulation of human immunodeficiency virus env expression by the rev gene product. ...
env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus*env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus ... "env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus" by people in this website by year, and whether "env Gene Products, Human ... "env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus" by people in Profiles.. * Munro JB. HIV Env on Lockdown. Cell Host Microbe. ... env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus [D12.776.964.775.325.164]. *Human Immunodeficiency Virus Proteins [D12.776. ...
Gene Products, env * Protein Sorting Signals Grant support This work was supported by Università di Pisa grant no. 599999_2017_ ... Multiple nucleotide alignment of MMTV-like env gene sequences isolated from cat showed 97% and 99% similarity with HMTV and ... Results showed that the presence of MMTV-like env sequence in FMCs was 7% (6/86), while all the CMCs and canine dysplastic ... Mouse mammary tumour virus-like env nucleotide and p14 signal peptide are present in feline mammary carcinomas, but not in ...
Env) mimetics displaying ordered trimeric symmetry has ushered in a new era in HIV-1 vaccination. The recently reported native ... env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus / chemistry* * env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus / genetics ... The development of soluble envelope glycoprotein (Env) mimetics displaying ordered trimeric symmetry has ushered in a new era ... and 3D electron microscopy reconstructions of Fab-trimer complexes revealed a horizontal binding angle to the Env spike. These ...
Genes,+env at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) env+Gene+Products,+Human+Immunodeficiency+ ... The env mRNA must be spliced for expression. The mature product of the env gene is the viral spike protein, which has two main ... Env is a viral gene that encodes the protein forming the viral envelope. The expression of the env gene enables retroviruses to ... env gene codes for a polyprotein gp70 (P10259) that is cleaved to yield the surface (SU) and transmembrane (TM) Env products. ...
Of note, integration in gene-dense regions was more strongly favored in the antisense env vector data than in previously ... No VSV-G envelope sequences were detected in any final product or in any subject (Table 2). In addition, no subject developed ... IFN-γ production after HIV-1 env in vitro stimulation of PBMCs was assessed for an env antigen-specific response by a standard ... integration by the antisense env vector was favored in features associated with gene dense regions such as G/C-rich sequences ...
0/Antibodies, Neutralizing; 0/HIV Antibodies; 0/env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus ...
Computational cluster analysis of HIV-1 Env membrane distribution.Global cluster analysis of Env distribution at the plasma ... gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/metabolism*. Minor. *Cluster Analysis. *HeLa Cells ... of Env. CT deletion, a matrix mutation affecting Env incorporation or Env expression in the absence of other HIV-1 proteins led ... of Env. CT deletion, a matrix mutation affecting Env incorporation or Env expression in the absence of other HIV-1 proteins led ...
Assembly of virions depends on HIV-1 protease (pol gene), which cleaves the polypeptide products of HIV mRNA into their ... env (gp120 and gp41):: Formed from cleavage of gp160 to form envelope glycoproteins.. gp120-attachment to host CD4+ T cell ( ...
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which ... Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen. ... are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. ... env Gene Products 6. DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases (RNA ... gag Protein; Gene Products, gag; Gene Product, gag; Retroviral Antigen gag Protein; gag Antigens; gag Gene Related Protein; gag ...
Categories: Gene Products, env Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ... website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products ...
env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus [D12.776.964.775.325.164]. *HIV Envelope Protein gp120 [D12.776.964.775.325.164 ... env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus [D12.776.964.775.562.500]. *HIV Envelope Protein gp120 [D12.776.964.775.562.500 ... env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus [D12.776.964.970.880.325.164]. *HIV Envelope Protein gp120 [D12.776.964.970. ... External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight ...
env Gene ProductsIBA 02/2012 - 07/2008. 2. Sirolimus (Rapamycin)FDA Link 01/2012 - 10/2009. ... HOMEPRODUCTSSERVICESCOMPANYCONTACTFAQ. ResearchDictionaryPharmaMobile. Sign Up FREE or Login Username:. ...
Gene Products, env/genetics*. *Hominidae/genetics*. *Hominidae/virology. *Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters/metabolism ... Image corresponds to nucleotides 6877 to 7876 spanning the junction of the pol and env genes. Lines in red, cyan green and ... A single HERV-T provirus in hominid genomes includes an env gene (hsaHTenv) that has been uniquely preserved. This apparently ... No Env) together with a GFP reporter gene to monitor expression. Cells were challenged with MLV particles pseudotyped with ...
Title: "Structure/Function Analysis of the HIV env Gene Product". PI: Dr. Silvia A. González. ...
"Regulation of human immunodeficiency virus env expression by the rev gene product". Journal of Virology. 63 (5): 1959-66. doi: ... Rev-mediated export from the nucleus increases cytoplasmic levels of the structural mRNAs (gag, pol, and env). Gag, pol and env ... located in an intron downstream of the env gene. The domain also contains a nuclear localization signal. Revs nuclear export ... immediately downstream of the env gene. The RRE remains functional if translocated, but needs to remain in the same orientation ...
Gene. Primer. Genome location. Primer sequence (5′ → 3′). Product, bp. Type. preM-env. KFD-EF2. 459-478. TGGTGTTCTCTGCGACAGTT. ... preM, premembrane; env, envelope; KFD, Kyasanur Forest disease; NS5, nonstructural protein 5.. †Internal primers for sequencing ... website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products ...
The protein product of this oncogene, p48v-myb, is partially encoded by the retroviral gag and env genes. We demonstrated that ... and gene product. The product of the AMV oncogene (myb) is a 48,000 Mr protein, p48myb, encoded by a transduced segment (amv) ... The products of the c-myb gene and its altered viral counterparts are nuclear proteins, a large fraction of which are ... Its protein product p48v-myb is a nuclear, sequence-specific, DNA-binding protein which activates gene expression in transient ...
Gene Products, env/genetics/immunology. *Gene Products, nef/genetics/immunology. *HIV Infections/prevention & control ... Bottom Line: Additionally, a greatly enhanced de novo env-specific CTL response was induced in vivo after immunization of mice ... Bottom Line: Additionally, a greatly enhanced de novo env-specific CTL response was induced in vivo after immunization of mice ... Additionally, a greatly enhanced de novo env-specific CTL response was induced in vivo after immunization of mice with ...
Schematic representation of the proviral form of a retrovirus and its env gene products. (a) Genomic proviral structure and ... Among the gag,pol, and env retroviral genes, thepol gene, encoding reverse transcriptase (RT), is by far the most conserved ... In contrast to the pol gene, the env gene, encoding the protein involved in virus entry, has long been considered a highly ... The screening procedure should be of great help to identify within genomes env orenv-like genes which could be involved either ...
... it should be noted that different retroviral gene products (pol versus env) and different HERV-K subgroups (HML versus K102) ... full-length provirus that contains a nondefective env glycoprotein gene (11) and functional long terminal repeats. ERV3 env ... RT-PCR products from patient breast tumor samples were cloned into the pGEX 4T-1 GST gene fusion vector (Pharmacia). Plasmids ... HERV-K env RT-PCR products derived from four individual breast cancer patient tissue samples were cloned, and eight independent ...
env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus. dc.title. Origin and evolution of HIV-1 in breast milk determined by single- ... Moreover, clonally amplified virus env genes in milk produced functional virus Envs that were all CCR5 tropic. Milk and plasma ... In this study, HIV envelope (env) genes were sequenced from virus variants amplified by single-genome amplification from ... virus env genes in milk. The limited compartmentalization and the clonal amplification of evolving, functional viruses in milk ...
... reactive by enzyme immunoassay must demonstrate immunoreactivity to both the gag gene product p24 and to an env gene product ( ... persons with reactivity to p19 and to an env gene product (gp46 and/or gp61/68) but without reactivity to p24 have been found ... Serum specimens with no immunoreactivity to any HTLV gene product in additional, more specific tests are considered false ... but it does not distinguish antibodies to specific HTLV gene products. None of the supplementary tests have been licensed by ...
As with all retroviruses, lentiviruses have gag, pol and env genes, coding for viral proteins in the order: 5´-gag-pol-env-3´. ... They may also have additional accessory genes depending on the virus (e.g., for HIV-1: vif, vpr, vpu, nef) whose products are ... Protease PR encoded by the pro gene.. *dUTPase DU encoded by the pro gene (part of pol gene in some viruses), the role of which ... Lentivirus is primarily a research tool used to introduce a gene product into in vitro systems or animal models. Large-scale ...
Product:. ALVAC vCP1452,LIPO-5,LIPO-6T. Antigen:. Canarypox env, gag and pol genes and CTL epitopes nef and pol B; 6 ... lipopeptides containing CTL epitopes from the Env, Gag and Nef B; Gag, Nef, and Pol B, and one lipopeptide derived from tetanus ...
Gene Products, env/physiology; Gene Products, gag/physiology; Moloney murine leukemia virus/chemistry/*genetics/*metabolism; ... For MLV, this is mediated by Gag and Env, and occurs on endosomal vesicles. Here, we report that MLV Psi acts at several steps ...
Gene Products, env/*physiology; Giant Cells/*cytology ... As murine leukemia virus (MLV) Env and HTLV Env present close ... This resistance was not due to the absence of functional receptors for HTLV Env, as these cells were susceptible to infection ... Indeed, in all resistant cell lines, truncation of the last 8 amino acids of the HTLV Env cytoplasmic domain (HdC8) was ... Here, we identified murine, hamster, canine, and porcine cell lines that are resistant to HTLV-1 Env-induced syncytium ...
Gp120 is coded by the HIV env gene, which is around 2.5 kb long and codes for around 850 amino acids. The primary env product ... The diversity of env has been shown to increase by 1-2% per year in HIV-1 group M and the variable units are notable for rapid ... Consequently, insertions in env, which confer more PNGSs on gp120 may be more tolerated by the virus as higher glycan density ... so the authors hypothesize that the number of PNGSs in env might affect the fitness of the virus by providing more or less ...
Viral RNA loads (VLs) of individual variants were calculated as a product of the total viral RNA load and the fractional ... Sequence diversity in the env gene is clustered in variable regions, termed V1 through V5, that encode surface loops in the Env ... High throughput functional analysis of HIV-1 env genes without cloning. J. Virol. Methods 143104-111. [PMC free article] [ ... Using heteroduplex tracking assays targeting the highly variable V3 or V4-V5 regions of the HIV-1 env gene in eight subjects, ...
  • Analysis of the structure and sequence of several different env genes suggests that Env proteins are type 1 fusion machines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Env proteins of the Avian Sarcoma and Leukosis virus (ASLV) and the Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) are both trimers of SU-TM heterodimers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inner structural Gag proteins and the envelope (Env) glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) traffic independently to the plasma membrane, where they assemble the nascent virion. (nih.gov)
  • We employed dual-color super-resolution microscopy visualizing Gag assembly sites and HIV-1 Env proteins in virus-producing and in Env expressing cells. (nih.gov)
  • Formation of these Env clusters depended on the presence of other HIV-1 proteins and on the long cytoplasmic tail (CT) of Env. (nih.gov)
  • CT deletion, a matrix mutation affecting Env incorporation or Env expression in the absence of other HIV-1 proteins led to much smaller Env clusters, which were not enriched at viral assembly sites. (nih.gov)
  • B) Differential distribution of cluster size for Env(wt) on the surface of HeLa cells in the presence and absence of other viral proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. (curehunter.com)
  • Independently isolated clones of HERV-K env cDNA generated recombinant proteins of the expected size. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The proteins encoded by Myb genes bind to DNA and regulate the expression of other genes that control cell division, differentiation, and cell death. (stanford.edu)
  • In contrast to the pol gene, the env gene, encoding the protein involved in virus entry, has long been considered a highly diverging sequence in relation to the highly diverse sequences of the receptor molecules with which the env proteins interact for virus-cell interaction and entry. (asm.org)
  • The env gene encodes a polypeptide which is cleaved into two proteins (Fig. 1 ), the surface protein (SU), which is involved in receptor recognition, and the transmembrane (TM) subunit, which anchors the whole env complex to the membrane and is directly responsible for cell membrane fusion and virus entry. (asm.org)
  • Variation in R5 Env proteins can also influence the ability of a virus to utilize various levels of CD4 and CCR5 found on different cell types, such as macrophages and T cells ( 23 , 25 , 64 , 67 , 89 , 95 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This Phase I study was directed at evaluating the safety profile and the immunogenicity of the vaccination with recombinant HIV-1 Tat and V2-deleted Env (delta-V2 Env) proteins administered in association in healthy, immunologically competent adults, compared to delta-V2 Env or Tat alone. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A Phase I, Open Label, Safety and Immunogenicity Vaccine Trial Based on the Association of Recombinant HIV-1 Biologically Active Tat and V2-deleted Env Proteins in HIV Uninfected Healthy Adult Volunteers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These 2 proteins are products of the HIV env gene. (prn.org)
  • One of these roles involves the incorporation of the viral envelope (Env) proteins into virus particles. (frontiersin.org)
  • Its identification may point to functionally important regions of a gene and is thus of potential interest to protein engineers who alter proteins to produce new functions. (genetics.org)
  • In contrast, antibodies to the envelope (ENV) precursor protein gp160 and the final ENV proteins (gp120 and gp41) can be detected in specimens from virtually all HIV-infected persons regardless of clinical stage (4-9). (cdc.gov)
  • The pilot-scale production of the various TV1 DNA vaccine constructs and env proteins described here should provide an initial platform upon which to improve the immunogenicity of these subtype C HIV envelope vaccines. (sun.ac.za)
  • Transcriptional activity of the envelope (env) and polymerase proteins appears to have remained intact ( 2, 3 ), although HERVs do not apparently produce infectious virions, are poorly expressed in somatic cells, and are not expressed in other species ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • characteristic features in common with the genome of other retroviruses: long terminal repeats (L TR), and coding regions for internal proteins (gag), for re- verse transcriptase (pol), and for glycosylated virion surface proteins (env) , ar- ranged in the sequence gag, pol, env from the 5' to the 3' end of the genome. (springer.com)
  • To identify the presence of human endogenous retroviral gene product in human tissue, we prepared several recombinant proteins by using gene technology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We analyzed the properties of multiple Env proteins isolated from five patients who experienced an initial decline in viral load after ENF therapy followed by subsequent rebound due to emergence of ENF-resistant HIV-1. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Prior to ENF therapy, each patient harbored genetically and phenotypically diverse Env proteins that used CCR5 and/or CXCR4 to elicit membrane fusion. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Coreceptor usage patterns of the Envs isolated from two patients underwent homogenization following ENF therapy, whereas in the other three patients, recombination appeared to allow the introduction of a single HR1 sequence with ENF resistance mutations into phenotypically distinct Env proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Analysis of individual Env clones also revealed that prior to ENF therapy, there was sometimes marked heterogeneity in the susceptibility of individual Env proteins to coreceptor inhibitors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We will then focus on the genes and proteins encoded by HERV-K(HML-2) as well as inactivation of these proviruses by postinsertional mutations and their inhibition by antiretroviral factors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Some ERVs have been 'co‐opted' for human biological processes, and the nucleic acids and proteins of these ERVs are able to modify human gene expression and regulatory networks in a cell and tissue‐specific manner, with implications for healthy development, immune function and susceptibility to diseases. (els.net)
  • Our quantitative pulse-chase studies suggest that of the two populations of MuMTV env precursors that are present in MuMTV-producing cells, only Pr70env is processed intracellularly to give rise to the mature MuMTV envelope proteins gp52 and gp36. (biomedsearch.com)
  • By means of an SV-40 vector in transfected simian cells, the cloned gag and env genes of ARV-2 were shown to express viral proteins. (wikigenes.org)
  • Although the Env glycoprotein interacts with viral matrix proteins and cellular proteins associated with lipid rafts, its possible role during the early replication events remains unclear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among the various viral proteins, the FeLV env-gene product (SU) and the envelope transmembrane protein p15E were considered promising candidates for the serological diagnosis of FeLV infection. (uzh.ch)
  • We have applied the yeast two-hybrid system to monitor protein-protein interactions between viral proteins, and to identify new host proteins that interact with the Gag, Pol and Env gene products. (columbia.edu)
  • Viral particles produced from CasES+4070A-NSCS contained both CasBrE and 4070A gp70 Env proteins. (omeka.net)
  • Infectious lentiviruses have three main genes coding for the viral proteins in the order: 5´-gag-pol-env-3´ (see figure 2). (genetherapynet.com)
  • Probing Structural Variation and Dynamics in the HIV-1 Env Fusion Glycoprotein. (umassmed.edu)
  • The importance of glycosylation of Env in HIV-1 was ascertained by synthesizing the glycoprotein in the presence of a glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of soluble envelope glycoprotein (Env) mimetics displaying ordered trimeric symmetry has ushered in a new era in HIV-1 vaccination. (nih.gov)
  • Additional endogenous retroviral sequences that may be transcriptionally active in humans include ERV3 and HERV-E. ERV3 is a single-copy, full-length provirus that contains a nondefective env glycoprotein gene (11) and functional long terminal repeats. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Triggering the env glycoprotein of SIV-17EFr with soluble CD4 had no significant effect in infectivity, but triggering of the same glycoprotein of SIV/17E-Cl allowed it to enter cells in a CD4-independent fashion. (elsevier.com)
  • This gene is the envelope glycoprotein gene which appears to have been selectively preserved. (abnova.com)
  • VRC 5736, VRC 5737, and VRC 5738 are designed to express HIV-1 Env glycoprotein from clade A, clade B, and clade C, respectively. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • ENV Viral glycoproteins produced as a precursor (gp160), which is processed to give a noncovalent complex of the external glycoprotein gp120 and the transmembrane glycoprotein gp41. (lanl.gov)
  • All three cell lines were found to shed large amounts of the MuMTV env precursor polyprotein as well as the mature non-virion-associated glycoprotein, gp52, into the culture medium. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The Env glycoprotein also plays an important role in viral assembly at a late step of infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Truncation of the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the Env glycoprotein is acquired by SIV in the course of adaptation to human cells, and is known to be a determinant of SIV pathogenicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that the long CT of the Env glycoprotein was required for association of Env with lipid rafts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results indicate that the long cytoplasmic tail of the SIV Env glycoprotein may govern post-entry replication events and plays a role in the assembly process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multiple nucleotide alignment of MMTV-like env gene sequences isolated from cat showed 97% and 99% similarity with HMTV and MMTV, respectively, while the others two presented some polimorphisms. (nih.gov)
  • It is believed that the intracellular transport of the nascent protein depends, to some extent, on the oligomerization of Env precursors, which allows hydrophobic sequences to be buried inside the protein structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maximum likelihood trees and statistical tests of compartmentalization revealed interspersion of plasma and milk HIV env sequences in the majority of subjects, indicating limited or no compartmentalization of milk virus variants. (duke.edu)
  • Finally, phylogenetic comparison of longitudinal milk and plasma virus env sequences revealed synchronous virus evolution and new clonal amplification of evolved virus env genes in milk. (duke.edu)
  • A stretch of noncoding sequences separates the gag and the pol genes. (springer.com)
  • A nearly 40-kb region, including the tcp-acf gene cluster, is flanked on both sides by putative 20-bp att -like attachment sequences (Fig. 1 ) ( 26 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Since proviruses carry their own transcriptional promoters and regulators within the Long Terminal Repeats (LTRs), HERV sequences are able to initiate transcription of the proviral gag , pro , pol and env genes, but also to initiate transcription of neighboring cellular genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Proviruses that integrate in the vicinity of a gene can influence its expression through potent viral regulatory sequences. (aacrjournals.org)
  • With more than 500,000 elements, there are over 20-fold more HERV sequences than there are human genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • The coding sequences of the retroviral genes gag , pr o, pol and env are flanked by long terminal repeats (LTRs) at the 5′ and 3′ ends. (els.net)
  • Therefore, the encapsidation sequences and the donor splice site were removed from viral DNA to give expression of the gag and pol genes without virus production. (asm.org)
  • The promoter in the long terminal repeat was fused to a site near the first ATG codon of the env gene, thereby deleting the encapsidation sequences and the gag and pol genes to give expression of the env gene without virus production. (asm.org)
  • The feline and human sequences are colinear within the open reading frame from the putative c-myc product but show insertions and deletions relative to each other outside this domain. (gla.ac.uk)
  • In this provirus the v-myc sequences are located at the 3′ end of the pol gene, replacing pol and env sequences. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Nucleotide sequence analysis of CT4 shows an open reading frame for a v-myc gene product which may be expressed without fusion to any viral protein sequences. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Unlike previously identified avian v-myc genes, the feline v-myc genes contain exon 1-derived sequences, but these have been truncated or internally deleted. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Because of the high prevalence of these inactive forms, the immune system often produces antibodies which target inactive Env, rather than active forms of the envelope protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epitope mapping of the neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) indicated major contacts with the V2 apex, and 3D electron microscopy reconstructions of Fab-trimer complexes revealed a horizontal binding angle to the Env spike. (nih.gov)
  • PNGSs allow for the binding of long-chain carbohydrates to the high variability regions of gp120, so the authors hypothesize that the number of PNGSs in env might affect the fitness of the virus by providing more or less sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, insertions in env, which confer more PNGSs on gp120 may be more tolerated by the virus as higher glycan density promotes the viral ability to evade antibodies and thus promotes higher viral fitness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies to the polymerase (POL) gene products (p31, p51, and p66) are also commonly detected if these antigens are present on the Western blot strips. (cdc.gov)
  • Priming rabbits with DNA plasmids encoding V2-deleted TV1 gp140 (gp140TV1ΔV2), followed by boosting with oligomeric protein (o-gp140TV1ΔV2) in MF59 adjuvant, elicited higher titers of env-binding and autologous neutralizing antibodies than priming with DNA vaccines encoding the full-length TV1 env (gp160) or the intact TV1 gp140. (sun.ac.za)
  • Immunization with V2-deleted subtype B SF162 env and V2-deleted TVl env together using a multivalent vaccine approach induced high titers of oligomeric env-binding antibodies and autologous neutralizing antibodies against both the subtypes B and C vaccine strains, HIV-1 SF162 and TV1, respectively. (sun.ac.za)
  • Immunization of rhesus macaques with the V2-deleted TV1 DNA prime/protein boost also elicited high titers of env-binding antibodies and moderate titers of autologous TV1 neutralizing antibodies. (sun.ac.za)
  • Presence of Gag and Env antibodies in GCT patients is not correlated with activation of individual loci. (biomedcentral.com)
  • gag-And env-specific serum antibodies in cats after natural and experimental infection with feline immunodeficincy virus, Veterinary Microbiology, 39:153-165 (1994). (patentgenius.com)
  • Resistance to MMTV infection was recessive and was dependent on interferon (IFN)-γ production, because I/LnJ mice with targeted deletion of the INF-γ gene failed to produce any virus-neutralizing antibodies. (rupress.org)
  • The mature product of the env gene is the viral spike protein, which has two main parts: the surface protein (SU) and the transmembrane protein (TM). (wikipedia.org)
  • Targeting a type I transmembrane protein, the HIV-1 envelope (env) protein, for expression in the cytoplasm, rather than allowing its normal co-translational translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum, sensitized target cells expressing this mutant more rapidly for lysis by an env-specific CTL clone. (nih.gov)
  • Among them, the transmembrane (TM) subunit of the envelope gene is involved in virus entry through membrane fusion. (asm.org)
  • Gp41 transmembrane envelope protein TM, also encoded by the viral gene env . (wikipedia.org)
  • 275:23417-23420, 2000), and because activation of syncytium formation by MLV Env generally requires cleavage of the R peptide in the cytoplasmic domain of the Env transmembrane (TM) component, we assessed whether truncation of the cytoplasmic domain of HTLV Env would alleviate this resistance. (cnrs.fr)
  • Thus, we evaluated p15E and three other FeLV antigens, namely, a recombinant env-gene product, whole FeLV, and a short peptide from the FeLV transmembrane protein, for their potential to detect FeLV infection. (uzh.ch)
  • The retroviral glycoproteins are oligomeric complexes that are composed of SU-TM heterodimers, which are made in the endoplasmic reticulum after the translation of the glycosylated Env precursor. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV-1 carries a relatively low number of glycoproteins in its membrane, and the mechanism of Env recruitment and virus incorporation is incompletely understood. (nih.gov)
  • Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) envelope (Env) glycoproteins induce fusion, leading to rampant syncytium formation in a broad range of cell lines. (cnrs.fr)
  • VRC-HIVADV014-00-VP (rAd) is a recombinant product composed of 4 adenoviral vectors (Ad) (in a 3:1:1:1 ratio) that encode the HIV-1 Gag/Pol polyprotein from clade B and HIV-1 Env glycoproteins from clades A, B, and C, respectively. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Screening of HIV-1 Env glycoproteins for the ability to raise neutrali" by Joan F. L. Richmond, Farah Mustafa et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • The Env glycoproteins of retroviruses play an important role in the initial steps of infection involving the binding to cell surface receptors and entry by membrane fusion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We compared SIV viruses with full length or truncated (T) Env glycoproteins to analyze possible differences in entry and post-entry events, and assembly of virions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SIV and HIV Env glycoproteins contain a relatively long cytoplasmic domain (150-200 amino acids) compared with most other retroviral Env glycoproteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expression of the env gene enables retroviruses to target and attach to specific cell types, and to infiltrate the target cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • While there are significant differences in sequence of the env gene between retroviruses, the gene is always located downstream of gag, pro, and pol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of retroviral elements, including endogenous retroviruses, have relied essentially on the retroviral pol gene expressing the highly conserved reverse transcriptase. (asm.org)
  • Due to most probably very stringent constraints for enzymatic activity, this gene is highly conserved not only among retroviral elements but also among a large series of elements requiring a reverse transcription step, including endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) and retrotransposons, group II introns, and the cellular telomerase genes, as well as some plasmidic elements from procaryotes ( 51 ). (asm.org)
  • Unlike other retroviruses, however, lentiviruses have two regulatory genes , tat and rev . (wikipedia.org)
  • Retroviruses are important tools for gene therapy because of their ability to integrate into the host cells genome and obtain long term gene expression. (hubpages.com)
  • Both lentiviruses and standard retroviruses use the gag, pol, and env genes for packaging. (origene.com)
  • Oncogenic retroviruses are a potent tool for the identification of cancer-causing genes as well as for further study of their oncogenic potential. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The progressive strategy using the nonacute retroviruses for simultaneous identification of multiple candidate cancer-causing genes in a given animal tumor model is called retroviral tagging. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Compared to type II HERV‐K (HML‐2) endogenous retroviruses, type I HERV‐K (HML‐2) endogenous retroviruses have a 292 bp deletion in the junction of pol and env , resulting in a different splice donor that produces an np9 transcript instead of rec . (els.net)
  • The env gene codes for the gp160 protein which forms a homotrimer, and is cleaved into gp120 and gp41 by the host cell protease, furin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary env product is the protein gp160, which gets cleaved to gp120 (~480 amino acids) and gp41 (~345 amino acids) in the endoplasmatic reticulum by the cellular protease furin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The env gene product is first translated as gp160 and then intracellularly cleaved into gp120 and gp41. (prn.org)
  • The env gene specifies a glycosylated polypeptide with a molecular weight of 160,000 (gp160) that is processed to gp120 and smaller gene products. (sciencemag.org)
  • Among the gag , pol , and env retroviral genes, the pol gene, encoding reverse transcriptase (RT), is by far the most conserved among the retroid elements ( 33 ). (asm.org)
  • Lentiviral vectors appear promising for gene transfer to humans. (pnas.org)
  • Additionally, a greatly enhanced de novo env-specific CTL response was induced in vivo after immunization of mice with recombinant vaccinia vectors expressing the cytoplasmic env mutant. (nih.gov)
  • The Pantropic Retroviral Expression System includes our GP2-293 packaging cell line, the pVSV-G envelope plasmid, and two MMLV-based retroviral expression vectors that allow you to express your gene of interest from alternative promoters. (clontech.com)
  • Recombinant DNA technologies greatly facilitated development of many viral products which were later incorporated into vectors for effective vaccines. (hindawi.com)
  • Those are the main properties that make viruses highly attractive gene-delivery vehicles (or vectors). (news-medical.net)
  • Many types of viral vectors have been used in a wide array of basic and clinical studies, and genetic tools made possible to construct novel viruses intended for gene therapy, but also the development of vaccines. (news-medical.net)
  • Viral vectors can be applied in gene therapy in order to treat different diseases such as cancer, metabolic diseases, heart defects and neurodegenerative disorders. (news-medical.net)
  • Recent discovery that specific serotypes of adeno-associated virus gene delivery vectors have the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier upon intravenous administration has led to the possibility of perinatal gene therapy. (news-medical.net)
  • A plethora of such non-viral systems incorporate parts of viral vectors in order to escalate the efficiency of gene delivery or expression. (news-medical.net)
  • Recombinant viral vectors have also been used to deliver human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gene products, in conjunction with a protein boost using env-gp120 when searching for HIV vaccine, but results have been largely disappointing. (news-medical.net)
  • We wished to construct cell lines that supply the gene products of gag, pol, and env for the growth of replication-defective reticuloendotheliosis retrovirus vectors without production of the helper virus. (asm.org)
  • ENF is a 36-amino-acid synthetic peptide that corresponds to residues 127 to 162 of the HR2 domain in the gp41 subunit of the HIV-1 Env protein. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The research activity of our unit is focused on the characterization of products of antisense transcription in a region of the env gene encompassing gp120 and gp41 (HIV antisense protein, ASP). (chuv.ch)
  • Results showed that the presence of MMTV-like env sequence in FMCs was 7% (6/86), while all the CMCs and canine dysplastic lesions scored negative. (nih.gov)
  • The role of rev was further elucidated when it was found that Rev acts in trans to target a specific sequence present in the env gene of HIV-1 to initiate export of incompletely spliced HIV-1 RNA from the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV-derived elements include the 5′ and 3′ long terminal repeat (LTR), a packaging signal (Ψ), tRNA primer-binding site (pbs), central polypurine tract and central termination sequence (cPPT and CTS), splice acceptor and donor sites (SA and SD), Tat-dependent HIV promoter (P), Gag gene, rev response element (RRE), and 3′ polypurine tract (PPT). (pnas.org)
  • citation needed] The rev response element (RRE) is a 240 base-pair sequence located in the second intron of the HIV-1 genome, immediately downstream of the env gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rev initially binds to the purine-rich stem-loop IIB, then binds to a secondary site in stem-loop I. The RRE sequence is cis-acting, and is necessary to achieve high levels of env mRNA in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations are changes in the DNA sequence that may alter gene function. (stanford.edu)
  • The diversity of env has been shown to increase by 1-2% per year in HIV-1 group M and the variable units are notable for rapid changes in amino acid sequence length. (wikipedia.org)
  • As infection progresses into the chronic phase, sequence diversification occurs throughout the viral genome, most dramatically in the envelope gene ( env ), as a result of selection of humoral and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune escape mutations ( 6 , 20 , 44 , 74 , 97 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Sequence diversity in the env gene is clustered in variable regions, termed V1 through V5, that encode surface loops in the Env protein that are important targets of the host antibody response ( 20 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The mutation specifically target the immunogenic peptide presented my the rhesus macaques haplotype mamu-B*17, as it doesn't affect the env sequence (sinonimous mutation). (mixcloud.com)
  • Proviruses that integrate into a gene coding sequence can either inactivate the gene or, through gene truncation, change its function. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A single HERV-T provirus in hominid genomes includes an env gene (hsaHTenv) that has been uniquely preserved. (nih.gov)
  • This apparently exapted HERV-T env could not support virion infection but could block ancHTenv mediated infection, by causing MCT-1 depletion from cell surfaces. (nih.gov)
  • Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to examine expression of the envelope ( env ) region of ERV3, HERV-E4-1, and HERV-K in breast cancer cell lines, human breast tumor samples, adjacent uninvolved breast tissues, nonmalignant breast tissues, and placenta. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In HERV-K-positive breast cancer tissues, Northern blot analysis demonstrated full-length proviral and spliced env transcripts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This gene is part of an HERV provirus on chromosome 7 that has inactivating mutations in the gag and pol genes. (abnova.com)
  • The 538-amino acid protein is a member of the Gamma type-C retroviral envelope protein family, HERV class-I W env subfamily. (biocompare.com)
  • The human endogenous retrovirus (HERV-K) envelope (env) protein is a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) expressed on melanoma but not normal cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • HERV-K env-specific CAR derived from mouse monoclonal antibody was introduced into T cells using the transposon-based Sleeping Beauty (SB) system. (aacrjournals.org)
  • HERV-K env-specific CAR + T cells were expanded ex vivo on activating and propagating cells (AaPC) and characterized for CAR expression and specificity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We detected HERV-K env protein on melanoma but not in normal tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
  • After electroporation of T cells and selection on HERV-K + AaPC, more than 95% of genetically modified T cells expressed the CAR with an effector memory phenotype and lysed HERV-K env + tumor targets in an antigen-specific manner. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Even though there is apparent shedding of this TAA from tumor cells that can be recognized by HERV-K env-specific CAR + T cells, we observed a significant antitumor effect. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Adoptive cellular immunotherapy with HERV-K env-specific CAR + T cells represents a clinically appealing treatment strategy for advanced-stage melanoma and provides an approach for targeting this TAA on other solid tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We use a non-viral gene therapy method whereby T cells are engineered to express HERV-K envelope (env)-specific CAR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our preclinical data suggest that we can specifically target and kill tumor cells expressing HERV-K env antigen while not attacking the normal cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • HERV-K env is expressed on tumor cells derived from hematologic malignancies and solid tumors as well as after infection such as CD4 T cells bearing HIV. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This provides an attractive opportunity that one CAR design targeting HERV-K env to be used to treat a variety of disease states. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The accessory protein Rec, a product of differential splicing of env transcript, is presumed to translocate into the nucleus and facilitate the export of HERV RNAs into the cytoplasm. (els.net)
  • The presence of HERV‐K (HML‐2) RNA in the cytosol is detected by the cytosolic immune receptors retinoic acid‐inducible gene‐1 (RIG‐I) and melanoma differentiation‐associated protein 5 (MDA5), which then activates downstream immune signalling processes. (els.net)
  • Two viruses under investigation as possible triggers for CFS, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), can transactivate the human endogenous retrovirus-K18 (HERV- K18) env gene, whose product encodes a superantigen (SAg). (tufts.edu)
  • Thus, these viruses could lead to induction of the HERV-K18 env SAg, which then could lead to overstimulation of the immune system causing the symptoms of CFS. (tufts.edu)
  • however, we found HERV-K18 env expression was the same in CFS patients as healthy controls and did not correlate with CFS symptoms. (tufts.edu)
  • however, viral copy number failed to correlate with HERV-K18 env expression. (tufts.edu)
  • Lastly, because EBV was shown to transactivate HERV-K18 env, we examined the HERV-K18 env genotype in CFS patients with a history of EBV-infectious mononucleosis (EBV-IM) and compared it to CFS patients without a history of EBV-IM. (tufts.edu)
  • also found a particular HERV-T gene that was unexpectedly well preserved in the human genome. (elifesciences.org)
  • In this study, HIV envelope (env) genes were sequenced from virus variants amplified by single-genome amplification from plasmas and milk of 12 chronically HIV-infected, lactating Malawian women. (duke.edu)
  • The viral genome has the coding capacity for the Moloney murine leukemia virus gag gene product and contains large deletions in pol and env genes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Most interestingly, the HTLV genome contains a region between the 3' end of the env gene and the L TR, called the pX region, that encompasses four open reading frames. (springer.com)
  • The genes involved in the biosynthesis of TCP reside in a pathogenicity island, which has been reported to correspond to the genome of another filamentous phage (designated VPIΦ) and to encode functions necessary for the production of infectious VPIΦ particles. (asm.org)
  • The ctxAB genes encoding cholera toxin reside in the genome of a lysogenic filamentous phage (CTXΦ) ( 47 ), whereas the genes encoding the major colonization factor, TCP, are encoded by the TCP gene cluster or island ( 7 , 30 , 34 , 40 , 43 , 44 ). (asm.org)
  • Alteration of the gene structure and/or expression leading to cellular transformation and tumor growth can be experimentally achieved by insertion of the retroviral genome into the host DNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • If the transposons also mobilize, they could insert themselves into other places in the genome, and mutate other genes in the process. (alzforum.org)
  • To analyze expression of both operons under different growth conditions, transcriptional and translational gene fusions of the first genes of each operon to lacZ have been constructed in plasmids unable to replicate in Sphingomonas and integrated by recombination into the genome of strain TFA. (asm.org)
  • We have recently shown that the env protein of the murine Mo-MuLV and the primate Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV) are actually immunosuppressive in vivo, based on an assay involving rejection of tumor cells engrafted into immunocompetent mice ( 6 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Here, we identified murine, hamster, canine, and porcine cell lines that are resistant to HTLV-1 Env-induced syncytium formation. (cnrs.fr)
  • As murine leukemia virus (MLV) Env and HTLV Env present close structural homologies (F. J. Kim, I. Seiliez, C. Denesvre, D. Lavillette, F. L. Cosset, and M. Sitbon, J. Biol. (cnrs.fr)
  • Introduce and express target genes in pluripotent cell lines including murine or human hematopoietic, embryonic stem (ES), and embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells. (clontech.com)
  • Publications] ITOH et al: 'Induction of endogenous retroviral gene product(SU) by 1L-6 in murine hepatocytes' clinical and Experimental Immunology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Expression and disposition of the murine mammary tumor virus (MuMTV) envelope gene products by murine mammary tumor cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We hypothesized that the gp70 Env product of an endogenous murine leukemia virus could be a target antigen for TS/A-specific CTLs and investigated this possibility in four different TS/A cell lines engineered with the genes that encode IFN-α, IFN-γ, interleukin-4, and B7.1, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Experimental deletion of rev resulted in the inability to detect the Env protein and levels of env mRNA in the cell cytoplasm were significantly diminished. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Rev protein binds unspliced gag and pol transcripts and incompletely spliced env, vif, vpr and vpu transcripts at the RRE, facilitating export to the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Concurrently, an HIV-1-based lentiviral vector expressing a 937-base antisense gene against the HIV envelope, termed VRX496, was developed ( Fig. 1 A ). This vector retains the full LTRs of HIV, and, therefore, expression of the antisense is up-regulated upon wild type HIV infection of the cell. (pnas.org)
  • This resistance was not due to the absence of functional receptors for HTLV Env, as these cells were susceptible to infection with HTLV Env-pseudotyped virions. (cnrs.fr)
  • Furthermore, HdC8-mediated cell-to-cell infection titers varied according to the target cell lines and could be significantly higher than that observed with HTLV Env on HeLa cells. (cnrs.fr)
  • These data indicate that a determinant located within the 8 carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic amino acids of TM plays a distinct role in HTLV Env-mediated cell-to-cell infection and syncytium formation. (cnrs.fr)
  • Diversification of env results in the presence of multiple, coexisting env variants in the peripheral blood that continually evolve during the course of infection ( 31 , 41 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Protection against FIV challenge infection by genetic vaccination using minimalistic DNA constructs for FIV env gene and feline IL-12 expression. (uzh.ch)
  • I. Immune response to recombinant FIV env gene products and outcome after challenge infection. (uzh.ch)
  • RESULTS: Herein, we show that infection of NSCs expressing CasBrE SU with 4070A (CasES+4070A-NSCs) resulted in the redistribution of CasBrE SU from a strictly secreted product to include retention on the plasma membrane. (omeka.net)
  • Lentiviral infection have advantages over other gene therapy methods including high-efficiency infection of dividing and non-dividing cells, long-term stable expression of a transgene, and low immunogenicity. (genetherapynet.com)
  • Env is a viral gene that encodes the protein forming the viral envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • GP2-293 stably expresses the essential viral packaging genes gag and pol, however, the viral envelope (env) must be supplied in trans via transient transfection. (clontech.com)
  • The clinical use of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide (ENF) can select for drug-resistant HIV-1 strains bearing mutations in the HR1 region of the viral envelope (Env) protein. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, the use of these new drugs is complicated by the fact that they target, either directly or indirectly, the highly variable viral envelope (Env) protein. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We are seeking an individual who has interests in prokaryotic molecular genetics/biochemistry with an emphasis on DNA sequencing, and gene product characterization. (bio.net)
  • This gene encodes the inducible isozyme. (nih.gov)
  • flvi-2 encodes the gene bmi-1, whose product is implicated as a myc-collaborator in the induction of B- and T-cell lymphoma. (gla.ac.uk)
  • thus, each host gene locus is hit by the provirus integration in many cells of the target tissue at different positions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have also analyzed a cloned FeLV provirus, CT4, which contains the host-derived myc gene. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The env mRNA must be spliced for expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was found that without rev expression, there was a marked increase in nuclear env RNA, which suggests that rev plays an important role in the nuclear export of env mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • A novel protein was found to be involved in the translation of gag and env mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the SU and TM domains are encoded by the viral env gene and are translated from spliced mRNA as a single polyprotein precursor that must be proteolytically cleaved by host proteases during transport to the cell surface. (hubpages.com)
  • Reference genes are used in relative gene expression analysis to normalize for variation in the amount of input messenger RNA (mRNA) among samples. (bio-rad.com)
  • We have found that genes associated with cVIS are frequently, but not in all cases, deregulated at the mRNA level as a result of proviral integration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These studies can be a precursor to the development of novel drugs which aim to block a gene-product to treat a disease. (genetherapynet.com)
  • In rare cases, when that cell is a precursor of a sperm or egg cell, then the viral genes may then be passed on to the animal's offspring, ultimately leaving genetic traces that can be studied in modern animals. (elifesciences.org)
  • Cancer is caused by mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. (stanford.edu)
  • Here, we present the chicken model for the identification of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in solid tumors by mapping the cVIS. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Abstract Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) B is a mitogen and chemoattractant for smooth muscle cells in vitro, and expression of a recombinant PDGF B gene in porcine arteries stimulates intimal thickening. (ahajournals.org)
  • Gain-of-function mutations can activate oncogenes, whereas loss-of-function mutations can inactivate tumor suppressor genes. (stanford.edu)
  • Publications] KITAMURA et al: 'A retinoic acid responsive gene,MK,is preferentially expressed in the proximal tubiles of the kidney and human tumor cell lines' American Journal of Pathology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The expression levels of selected genes and their human orthologues have been assayed in chicken and selected human renal tumor samples, and their possible correlation with tumor development, has been suggested. (aacrjournals.org)
  • New names are continually being added to the list of known oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and stability genes, reflecting the complexity of genetic changes behind the scene of malignant transformation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Transfer and expression of cytokine or costimulatory genes into tumor cells has been regarded as a powerful tool to trigger a potent antitumor reaction in both experimental models and clinical trials. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the proviral DNA of the pathogenic virus clone SIVmac239 with full length Env was imported to the nucleus about 20-fold more efficiently than proviral DNA of SIVmac239T with T Env, and 100-fold more efficiently than an SIVmac18T variant with a single mutation A239T in the SU subunit and with a truncated cytoplasmic tail (CT). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The arginine-rich motif (ARM) is located between amino acids 38-49 of the rev gene and forms an alpha-helical secondary structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gp120 is coded by the HIV env gene, which is around 2.5 kb long and codes for around 850 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, in all resistant cell lines, truncation of the last 8 amino acids of the HTLV Env cytoplasmic domain (HdC8) was sufficient to overcome resistance to HTLV Env-induced syncytium formation. (cnrs.fr)
  • We now describe a flexible and efficient approach involving virus-like particles containing simian immunodeficiency virus lentiviral gene product protein X and pseudotyping with CXCR4-tropic HIV Env. (cdc.gov)
  • Splice signals within HERVs can also result in variant transcripts of cellular genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Keeping Env molecules on the nascent virus low may be important for escape from the humoral immune response, while cell-cell contacts mediated by surrounding Env molecules could promote HIV-1 transmission through the virological synapse. (nih.gov)
  • Distinct biological characteristics encoded by different env variants, such as coreceptor use, cellular tropism, and sensitivity to immune pressure, may drive, or result from, HIV-1 compartmentalization. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • I also identify multiple new human-chimpanzee orthologs subject to positive selection, among them genes that are involved in reproductive functions, immune defense, and the nervous system. (genetics.org)
  • In this edition I present you an very interesting and novel finding recently published in Journal of Experimental Medicine by Maness et al: the immune system induces the mutation by the SIV of an DRIP (defective ribosomal product) that is immunogenic and induces strong dominant responses in monkeys infected with SIV. (mixcloud.com)
  • The techniques in this study can be used to define the extent of variability of the env gene product among different virus isolates and may identify the nature and patterns of the humoral immune response that lead to an immunologically protected state. (sciencemag.org)
  • Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. (curehunter.com)
  • The gag gene specifies two polypeptides of 70,000 and 55,000 molecular weight (p70 and p55), both of which contain p24, the major structural protein of the mature virion. (sciencemag.org)
  • Regulation of human immunodeficiency virus env expression by the rev gene product. (asm.org)
  • env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus" by people in this website by year, and whether "env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus" by people in Profiles. (umassmed.edu)
  • The Env protein of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) also has a trimeric structure of heterodimers. (wikipedia.org)
  • External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. (harvard.edu)
  • To study cell entry of SIV, we constructed a cell line, xKLuSIV, derived from non-susceptible human K562 cells, that express the firefly luciferase reporter gene under control of a minimal SIV long terminal repeat (LTR). (elsevier.com)
  • In applying this test to several thousand human-chimpanzee gene orthologs, I show that such variation clusters are not generally caused by relaxed selection. (genetics.org)
  • For human populations, candidates include genes mediating adaptations to UV exposure or pathogens, such as malaria. (genetics.org)
  • The envelope (env) and structural (gag) gene products of human T-cell leukemia (lymphotropic) virus type III were identified by immunoaffinity chromatography, immunoprecipitation, and two-dimensional oligopeptide mapping methods. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bio-Rad collaborated with Biogazelle, leaders in real-time PCR research, to design and experimentally validate PCR primers for gene expression assays across the human and mouse transcriptomes. (bio-rad.com)
  • In: Vos J. Viruses in Human Gene Therapy. (news-medical.net)
  • One of env gene product derived from human endogenous retrovirus like genomic DNA was produced in E. coli. (nii.ac.jp)
  • By using antibody against recombinant env gene product we observed the presence of human endogenous retroviral antigen in the placenta. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 9 The v- sis gene is a homologue of the human PDGF B gene. (ahajournals.org)
  • SIV particles with full length Env were released from rhesus monkey PBMC, whereas a restriction of release of virus particles was observed from human 293T, CEMx174, HUT78 or macrophages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Another common application is to use a lentivirus to introduce a new gene into human or animal cells . (genetherapynet.com)
  • For example, a model of mouse hemophillia is corrected by expressing wild-type platlet-factor VIII, the gene that is mutated in human hemophillia. (genetherapynet.com)
  • These treatments, like most current gene therapy experiments, show promise but are yet to be established as safe and effective in controlled human studies. (genetherapynet.com)
  • The feline c-myc gene shows close homology to other mammalian c-myc genes, particularly human c-myc. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Localisation of Three Epitopes of the ENV Protein of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus", Molecular Immunology, 1992, vol. 29, pp. 565-572. (patentgenius.com)
  • Using mutant molecular clones, we studied the determinants for CD4 independence, all of which are confined to the env gene. (elsevier.com)
  • Virus isolation should not only be evaluated with HTLV-specific tests (antigen assay or immunofluorescence) but, where available, also by assays for particle-associated RT, preferentially product-enhanced RT (PERT) assay. (asmscience.org)
  • Moreover, clonally amplified virus env genes in milk produced functional virus Envs that were all CCR5 tropic. (duke.edu)
  • Our results highlight the low immunogenic potential of the HIV-1 Env and demonstrate that different Envs have different potentials to raise low titer neutralizing antibody. (umassmed.edu)
  • Rabbits were primed by gene gun inoculation with plasmids expressing secreted monomeric (gp120) and oligomeric (gp140) forms of each Env. (umassmed.edu)
  • After the emergence of X4 virus, env genes encoding both CCR5 and CXCR4 tropism can coexist for extended periods of time, maintaining a diverse V3 population ( 10 , 54 , 85 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Using heteroduplex tracking assays targeting the highly variable V3 or V4-V5 regions of the HIV-1 env gene in eight subjects, we found that all detectable coexisting HIV-1 variants in the peripheral blood generally decayed at similar rates during the initiation of HAART, suggesting that all of the variants were produced by cells with similar life spans. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. (abnova.com)
  • These DNA primer pairs were designed by prioritizing the gene regions most commonly found in transcript variants. (bio-rad.com)
  • Pathogenic gene fusions have been identified in several histologic types of salivary gland neoplasia, but not previously in acinic cell carcinoma (AcCC). (stanford.edu)
  • In deciding on a new regimen for patients who have failed an antiretroviral regimen, careful consideration should be given to the treatment history of the individual patient and the patterns of mutations associated with different medicinal products. (medicines.org.uk)
  • CSF and disease, mutations of superoxide dismutase 1 gene plasma were collected from cases and controls. (who.int)
  • Evolution of sex chromosomes is expected to lead to degeneration of Y-linked genes due to lack of recombination that slows down adaptive evolution ( R ice 1987 ) and exacerbates the processes of genetic hitchhiking, background selection, and Muller's ratchet that lead to accumulation of deleterious mutations and gene loss (reviewed in C harlesworth 1991 , 2008 ). (genetics.org)
  • A combined vaccine strategy based on the early regulatory protein Tat in association with the late structural protein Env modified to increase its immunogenicity (delta-V2Env) has been evaluated in pre-clinical studies in both small animals and monkeys. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Product Description: VRC-HIVDNA016-00-VP is composed of 6 closed, circular DNA plasmids that are each 16.67% (by weight) of the vaccine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Each of the 6 plasmids in this vaccine expresses a single gene product. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Gp120 surface envelope protein SU, encoded by the viral gene env . (wikipedia.org)
  • P24 capsid protein CA, encoded by the viral gene gag . (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses have evolved by borrowing and modifying cellular genes to become extremely efficient at nucleic acid delivery to different cell types, avoiding at the same time immunosurveillance by an infected host. (news-medical.net)
  • Proposed functions for Vpr include the targeting the nuclear import of preintegration complexes, cell growth arrest, transactivation of cellular genes, and induction of cellular differentiation. (lanl.gov)
  • The arginine-rich domain of Rev interacts with the rev-binding element (RBE), which is part of the HIV Rev response element (RRE) located in an intron downstream of the env gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immediately adjacent to and downstream of the tcp cluster is the acf gene cluster ( 8 ), which is assumed to encode an accessory colonization factor, although the exact nature of this colonization factor is unclear. (asm.org)
  • A putative integrase gene ( int ) is located downstream of and adjacent to the tcp-acf gene cluster ( 18 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Two additional genes named thnR and thnY have been identified downstream of thnCA3A4 genes. (asm.org)
  • We observed that early steps in replication of SIV with full length or T Env were similar in dividing and non-dividing cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A nuclear localization signal is encoded in the rev gene, which allows the Rev protein to be localized to the nucleus, where it is involved in the export of unspliced and incompletely spliced mRNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene retained its ability to produce an envelope protein for about 13 to 19 million years. (elifesciences.org)
  • The observed Env accumulation surrounding Gag assemblies, with a lower density on the actual bud, could facilitate viral spread in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Adenovirus-mediated In Vivo Gene Therapy. (news-medical.net)
  • To define the mechanisms by which PDGF B gene expression induces intimal thickening in vivo, we examined its effects on smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, extracellular matrix synthesis, and inflammatory cell infiltration in intimal lesions of pig arteries after direct gene transfer of a recombinant PDGF B gene. (ahajournals.org)
  • These data suggest that PDGF B gene expression promotes intimal expansion by both proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells followed by synthesis of extracellular matrix and therefore acts through several mechanisms to play a role in the pathogenesis of intimal lesions in vivo. (ahajournals.org)
  • The delivery of recombinant genes into vascular cells at specific sites in the circulation permits the systematic analysis of gene function in the arterial wall in vivo. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the absence of Rev, mRNAs of the HIV-1 late (structural) genes are retained in the nucleus, preventing their translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic analysis of 48 virus- products. (cdc.gov)
  • VSV-G is separated from the other packaging genes for safety by several pause signals and a cis -acting ribozyme derived from the tobacco mosaic ringspot virus (sTobRV+Rz) that will cleave any read-through RNA. (pnas.org)
  • HIV can be produce by sequential expression of 3 genes gag,env and pol (Fig.2)those genes will be cleaved by protease P10 and than the subunits of the virus will self-assembled into mature virus. (igem.org)
  • Indeed a virus such as HIV, displays ans organised sequential activation of genes that could be controled by a FIFO circuit. (igem.org)
  • A re-enginered virus could be based on a FIFO setup where gag p10 is first expressed and Env the last (without Pol to avoid pathogenicity). (igem.org)
  • An Env mutant C787S which eliminated palmitoylation did not abolish Env incorporation into lipid rafts, but prevented virus assembly. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The neurovirulence of this virus has been genetically mapped to the surface expressed subunit (SU) of the env gene. (omeka.net)
  • There are additional genes (also called accessory genes) depending on the virus (e.g., for HIV-1: vif, vpr, vpu, tat, rev, nef) whose products are involved in regulation of synthesis and processing viral RNA and other replicative functions. (genetherapynet.com)
  • In our case, we will expressed gag p10 and finaly Env (without Pol to avoid pathogenicity) the FIFO in this case will be essential. (igem.org)
  • Lentiviruses can integrate a significant amount of viral cDNA into the DNA of the host cell and can efficiently infect nondividing cells, so they are one of the most efficient methods of gene delivery . (wikipedia.org)
  • sites are at both ends, and the putative integrase gene is near the right end of the island. (asm.org)
  • Computational cluster analysis of HIV-1 Env membrane distribution.Global cluster analysis of Env distribution at the plasma membrane was performed based on super-resolution images of HeLa cells transfected with pCHIV/pCHIVmEos.FP, pCHIV. (nih.gov)
  • After cleavage, the products of the env gene are transported in vesicles to the plasma membrane where they are incorporated onto budding virions. (hubpages.com)
  • The main steps in the process were the loss of the virus's env gene and the alteration of its plasma membrane targetting signal to target instead the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. (panspermia.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this report we provided evidence that 4070A Env and CasBrE SU physically interact within NSCs leading to CasBrE SU retention on the plasma membrane, incorporation into viral particles, restoration of mCAT-1 binding, and capacity for initiation of TM-mediated fusion events. (omeka.net)
  • The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. (curehunter.com)
  • LasR also activates the expression of other genes, including rsaL, coding for the RsaL protein which acts as a transcriptional repressor of lasI. (bireme.br)
  • For MLV, this is mediated by Gag and Env, and occurs on endosomal vesicles. (cnrs.fr)

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