The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A plant family of the order Campanulales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying asparagine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
An order of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are nonmotile, do not catabolize carbohydrates, proteinaceous material, or organic compounds other than formate or carbon monoxide, and are widely distributed in nature.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The deletion and reinsertion of a segment of a nucleic acid sequence in the same place, but flipped in an opposite orientation.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying cysteine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Antibiotic produced by Streptomyces pactum used as an antineoplastic agent. It is also used as a tool in biochemistry because it inhibits certain steps in protein synthesis.
Measurement of this acid in the urine after oral administration of histidine provides the basis for the diagnostic test of folic acid deficiency and of megaloblastic anemia of pregnancy.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
One of the largest orders of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 10,000 species. Like AMPHIPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Amphipoda, they possess abdominal pleopods (modified as gills) and their bodies are dorsoventrally flattened.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glutamic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Animals that have no spinal column.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

Localization of psoriasis-susceptibility locus PSORS1 to a 60-kb interval telomeric to HLA-C. (1/1933)

Recent genome scans have established the presence of a major psoriasis-susceptibility locus in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex on chromosome 6p21.3. To narrow the interval for candidate gene testing, we performed a linkage-disequilibrium analysis of 339 families, with the use of 62 physically mapped microsatellite markers spanning the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). As detected by use of the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT), individual markers yielded significant linkage disequilibrium across most of the MHC. However, the strongest evidence for marker-trait disequilibrium was found in an approximately 300-kb region extending from the MICA gene to the corneodesmosin gene. Maximum-likelihood haplotypes were constructed across the entire MHC in the original sample and across a 1.2-Mb region of the central MHC in an expanded sample containing 139 additional families. Short (two- to five-marker) haplotypes were subjected to the TDT using a "moving-window" strategy that reduced the variability of TDT P values relative to the single-locus results. Furthermore, the expanded sample yielded a sharp peak of evidence for linkage disequilibrium that spanned approximately 170 kb and that was centered 100 kb telomeric to HLA-C. The 1.2-Mb interval was further dissected by means of recombinant ancestral haplotype analysis. This analysis identified risk haplotype 1 (RH1), which is a 60-kb fragment of ancestral haplotype 57.1, on all identifiable HLA risk haplotypes. One of these haplotypes exhibits significant linkage disequilibrium with psoriasis but does not carry Cw6, which is the HLA allele most strongly associated with the disease. These results demonstrate that RH1 is highly likely to carry the disease allele at PSORS1, and they exclude HLA-C and corneodesmosin with a high degree of confidence.  (+info)

Soggy, a spermatocyte-specific gene, lies 3.8 kb upstream of and antipodal to TEAD-2, a transcription factor expressed at the beginning of mouse development. (2/1933)

Investigation of the regulatory region of mTEAD-2, a gene expressed at the beginning of mouse pre-implantation development, led to the surprising discovery of another gene only 3.8 kb upstream of mTEAD-2. Here we show that this new gene is a single copy, testis-specific gene called SOGGY: (mSgy) that produces a single, dominant mRNA approximately 1.3 kb in length. It is transcribed in the direction opposite to mTEAD-2, thus placing the regulatory elements of these two genes in close proximity. mSgy contains three methionine codons that could potentially act as translation start sites, but most mSGY protein synthesis in vitro was initiated from the first Met codon to produce a full-length protein, suggesting that mSGY normally consists of 230 amino acids (26.7 kDa). Transcription began at a cluster of nucleotides approximately 150 bp upstream of the first Met codon using a TATA-less promoter contained within the first 0.9 kb upstream. The activity of this promoter was repressed by upstream sequences between -0.9 and -2.5 kb in cells that did not express mSgy, but this repression was relieved in cells that did express mSgy. mSgy mRNA was detected in embryos only after day 15 and in adult tissues only in the developing spermatocytes of seminiferous tubules, suggesting that mSgy is a spermatocyte-specific gene. Since mTEAD-2 and mSgy were not expressed in the same cells, the mSgy/mTEAD-2 locus provides a unique paradigm for differential regulation of gene expression during mammalian development.  (+info)

Automatic detection of conserved gene clusters in multiple genomes by graph comparison and P-quasi grouping. (3/1933)

We previously reported two graph algorithms for analysis of genomic information: a graph comparison algorithm to detect locally similar regions called correlated clusters and an algorithm to find a graph feature called P-quasi complete linkage. Based on these algorithms we have developed an automatic procedure to detect conserved gene clusters and align orthologous gene orders in multiple genomes. In the first step, the graph comparison is applied to pairwise genome comparisons, where the genome is considered as a one-dimensionally connected graph with genes as its nodes, and correlated clusters of genes that share sequence similarities are identified. In the next step, the P-quasi complete linkage analysis is applied to grouping of related clusters and conserved gene clusters in multiple genomes are identified. In the last step, orthologous relations of genes are established among each conserved cluster. We analyzed 17 completely sequenced microbial genomes and obtained 2313 clusters when the completeness parameter P: was 40%. About one quarter contained at least two genes that appeared in the metabolic and regulatory pathways in the KEGG database. This collection of conserved gene clusters is used to refine and augment ortholog group tables in KEGG and also to define ortholog identifiers as an extension of EC numbers.  (+info)

High-resolution transcript map of the region spanning D12S1629 and D12S312 at chromosome 12q13: triple A syndrome-linked region. (4/1933)

For those searching for human disease-causing genes, information on the position of genes with respect to genetic markers is essential. The physical map composed of ESTs and genetic markers provides the positional information of these markers as well as the starting point of gene identification in the form of genomic clones containing exons. To facilitate the effort of identification of genes in the region spanning D12S1629 and D12S312, we constructed a high-resolution transcript map with PAC/BAC/cosmid clones. The strategy for the construction of such a map involved utilization of STSs for the screening of the large insert bacterial chromosome libraries and a chromosome 12-specific cosmid library by hybridization. The contig was constructed based on the STS contents of the clones. The resulting high-resolution transcript map of the region between P273P14/SP6 and D12S312 spans 4.4 cM from 66.8 to 71.2 cM of the Genethon genetic map and represents approximately 2.4 Mb. It was composed of 81 BAC, 45 PAC, and 91 cosmid clones with a minimal tiling path consisting of 16 BAC and 4 PAC clones. These clones are being used to sequence this part of chromosome 12. We determined the order of 135 STSs including 74 genes and ESTs in the map. Among these, 115 STSs were unambiguously ordered, resulting in one ordered marker per 21 kb. The order of keratin type II locus genes was determined. This map would greatly enhance the positional cloning effort of the responsible genes for those diseases that are linked to this region, including male germ cell tumor as well as palmoplantar keratoderma, Bothnian-type, and triple A syndrome. This transcript map was localized at human chromosome 12q13.  (+info)

Developmentally regulated excision of a 28-base-pair sequence from the Paramecium genome requires flanking DNA. (5/1933)

The micronuclear DNA of Paramecium tetraurelia is estimated to contain over 50,000 short DNA elements that are precisely removed during the formation of the transcriptionally active macronucleus. Each internal eliminated sequence (IES) is bounded by 5'-TA-3' dinucleotide repeats, a feature common to some classes of DNA transposons. We have developed an in vivo assay to analyze these highly efficient and precise DNA excision events. The microinjection of a cloned IES into mating cells results in accurately spliced products, and the transformed cells maintain the injected DNA as extrachromosomal molecules. A series of deletions flanking one side of a 28-bp IES were constructed and analyzed with the in vivo assay. Whereas 72 bp of DNA flanking the eliminated region is sufficient for excision, lengths of 31 and 18 bp result in reduced excision and removal of all wild-type sequences adjacent to the TA results in complete failure of excision. In contrast, nucleotide mutations within the middle of the 28-bp IES do not prevent excision. The results are consistent with a functional role for perfect inverted repeats flanking the IES.  (+info)

Genomic organization and the promoter region of the round-spotted pufferfish (Tetraodon fluviatilis) CDC37 gene. (6/1933)

The CDC37 gene was isolated from a round-spotted pufferfish genomic library and characterized. This gene is composed of nine exons spanning 3.5 kb. Exon 1 contains the 5'-untranslated region and exon 2 contains the putative translation initiation site. By 5'-RACE (rapid amplication of cDNA ends) and sequence analysis, we deduced the promoter region for the CDC37 gene and found that it does not contain typical TATA or CCAAT box. The 1.8 kb DNA fragment upstream of the putative transcription initiation site contains numerous potential binding sites for transcription factors including CREB, E2A, Ets-1, GATA, NF-IL6 and PEA3. When this DNA fragment was placed upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene and transfected into a carp CF cell line, it could drive the synthesis of CAT enzyme four times more efficiently than the promoterless pCAT-Basic did. In addition, the CDC37 gene is linked to the TYK2 gene in a tail-to-head manner with a small intergenic region of 292 bp.  (+info)

Diversity in organization and the origin of gene orders in the mitochondrial DNA molecules of the genus Saccharomyces. (7/1933)

Sequencing of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae nuclear and mitochondrial genomes provided a new background for studies on the evolution of the genomes. In this study, mitochondrial genomes of a number of Saccharomyces yeasts were mapped by restriction enzyme analysis, the orders of the genes were determined, and two of the genes were sequenced. The genome organization, i.e., the size, presence of intergenic sequences, and gene order, as well as polymorphism within the coding regions, indicate that Saccharomyces mtDNA molecules are dynamic structures and have undergone numerous changes during their evolution. Since the separation and sexual isolation of different yeast lineages, the coding parts have been accumulating point mutations, presumably in a linear manner with the passage of time. However, the accumulation of other changes may not have been a simple function of time. Larger mtDNA molecules belonging to Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts have acquired extensive intergenic sequences, including guanosine-cytosine-rich clusters, and apparently have rearranged the gene order at higher rates than smaller mtDNAs belonging to the Saccharomyces sensu lato yeasts. While within the sensu stricto group transposition has been a predominant mechanism for the creation of novel gene orders, the sensu lato yeasts could have used both transposition- and inversion-based mechanisms.  (+info)

Nucleotide variation at the yellow gene region is not reduced in Drosophila subobscura: a study in relation to chromosomal polymorphism. (8/1933)

In contrast to Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans, the yellow (y) gene region of Drosophila subobscura is not located in a region with a strong reduction in recombination. In addition, this gene maps very close to the breakpoints of different inversions that segregate as polymorphic in natural populations of D. subobscura. Therefore, levels of variation at the y gene region in this species relative to those found in D. melanogaster and D. simulans may be affected not only by the change in the recombinational environment, but also by the presence of inversion polymorphism. To further investigate these aspects, an approximately 5.4-kb region of the A (=X) chromosome including the y gene was sequenced in 25 lines of D. subobscura and in the closely related species Drosophila madeirensis and Drosophila guanche. The D. subobscura lines studied differed in their A-chromosomal arrangements, A(st), A(2), and A(1). Unlike in D. melanogaster and D. simulans, levels of variation at the y gene region of D. subobscura are not reduced relative to those found at other genomic regions in the same species (rp49, Acp70A, and Acph-1). This result supports the effect of the change in the recombinational environment of a particular gene on the level of neutral variation. In addition, nucleotide variation is affected by chromosomal polymorphism. A strong genetic differentiation is detected between the A(1) arrangement and either A(st) or A(2), but not between A(st) and A(2). This result is consistent with the location of the y gene relative to the breakpoints of inversions A(1) and A(2). In addition, the pattern of nucleotide polymorphism in A(st)+A(2) and A(1) seems to point out that variation at the y gene region within these chromosomal classes is in the phase transient to equilibrium. The estimated ages of these arrangements assuming a star genealogy indicate that their origin cannot predate the D. madeirensis split. Therefore, the present results are consistent with a chromosomal phylogeny where Am(1), which is an arrangement present in D. madeirensis but absent in current populations of D. subobscura, would be the ancestral arrangement.  (+info)

Ortholog metrics are calculated for some groups of species, and these are used to classify a high confidence set of orthologs. The methodology uses two orthogonal sources of information, gene order conservation (GOC) and whole genome alignments (WGA).. The GOC score metric for a pair of orthologs measures whether the two genes up- and downstream of each gene in the ortholog pair are also orthologous, and allows for inversions and gene insertions. The WGA coverage metric determines the extent to which the orthologous regions have been aligned by pairwise LASTz alignments, primarily based on exonic coverage, with a small contribution from intronic coverage. Both metrics have a value between 0 and 100.. There is only an expectation for gene order conservation between species that are evolutionarily close; thus the GOC score is only calculated within Diptera, Chelicerata, and Hemiptera. Similarly, pairwise WGAs, and thus the related metric, are only available for a subset of fairly ...
The genome of an organism can be represented as a sequence of signed numbers. A natural question to investigate is how related two genomes are based on certain biologically plausible operations on their sequences. The canonical operation that has been considered is the inversion (or reversal) and the relative similarity between two genomes has been measured by finding the minimum numberof inversions that turn one sequence into another. Ten years ago Hannenhalli and Pevzner developed a rich theory and founda polynomial time algorithm to compute this distance for any two sequences, each with exactly one copy of a given number. Since then the theory has been refined and extended (to handle insertion/deletions) but there has existed no method to deal with two arbitrary sequences. In this presentation we investigate what operations are needed in orderto find a plausible distance between arbitrary sequences and show the techniques we are developing to handle them ...
Genome rearrangement is known as one of the main evolutionary mechanisms on the genomic level. Phylogenetic analysis based on rearrangement played a crucial role in biological research in the past decades, especially with the increasing avail- ability of fully sequenced genomes. In general, phylogenetic analysis aims to solve two problems: Small Parsimony Problem (SPP) and Big Parsimony Problem (BPP). Maximum parsimony is a popular approach for SPP and BPP which relies on itera- tively solving a NP-hard problem, the median problem. As a result, current median solvers and phylogenetic inference methods based on the median problem all face se- rious problems on scalability and cannot be applied to datasets with large and distant genomes. In this thesis, we propose a new median solver for gene order data that combines double-cut-join (DCJ) sorting with the Simulated Annealing algorithm (SA- Median). Based on this median solver, we built a new phylogenetic inference method to solve both SPP and BPP problems
As the genome projects of human, some model species, some economic important species and many microbe species have been accomplished, biology has entered into the era of genome. Since 10 years ago, the phylogeny studies utilizing the information of genome structure have been forming one of the forelands in evolutionary biology and systematics. Comparing to the mutations in nucleotide or amino-acid sequence, the changes of genome structure, such as the indels of introns, retroposon integrations, signature sequences, gene duplications and gene order rearrangements, are the rare phylogenetic information in larger time-space scale. Generally, the information can only be used in the phylogeny studies focusing on the taxa higher than family level. The knowledge about all the details of genome will make it possible to synthesize the genome information at different levels and to use total molecular evidence, including genome structure, DNA/RNA or protein sequences, the secondary of RNA and the three-dimensional
This graph shows the total number of publications written about Gene Order by people in this website by year, and whether Gene Order was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
UNLABELLED GeneSyn is a software tool that allows automatic detection of conserved gene order from annotated genomes. AVAILABILITY Available free of charge for Unix/Linux/Cygwin platforms at SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION
Gallut C, Barriel V, Vignes Lebbe R. 2000. Gene Order and Phylogenetic Information. Comparative Genomics. Empirical and Analytical Approaches to Gene Order Dynamics, Map Alignment and the Evolution of Gene Families. 1:123-132. Abstract ...
Hey guys! I really need help with this problem and I have no one else to ask as everyone is gone for the day....I was hoping someone could help me out and expla
(2013) Rubin, Green. BMC Genomics. Background: It is generally accepted that gene order in eukaryotes is nonrandom, with adjacent genes often sharing expression patterns across tissues, and that this organization may be important for gene regulation. Here we describe a novel method, based on an e...
The highly consistent gene order and axial colinear expression patterns found in vertebrate hox gene clusters are less well conserved across the rest of bilaterians. We report the first deuterostome instance of an intact hox cluster with a unique gene order where the paralog groups are not expressed in a sequential manner. The finished sequence from BAC clones from the genome of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, reveals a gene order wherein the anterior genes (Hox1, Hox2 and Hox3) lie nearest the posterior genes in the cluster such that the most 3 gene is Hox5. (The gene order is : 5-Hox1,2, 3, 11/13c, 11/13b, 11/13a, 9/10, 8, 7, 6, 5 - 3). The finished sequence result is corroborated by restriction mapping evidence and BAC-end scaffold analyses. Comparisons with a putative ancestral deuterostome Hox gene cluster suggest that the rearrangements leading to the sea urchin gene order were many and complex.
The evolutionary distance between two genomes can be estimated by computing a minimum length sequence of operations, called genome rearrangements, that transform one genome into another. Usually, a genome is modeled as an ordered sequence of genes, and most of the studies in the genome rearrangement literature consist in shaping biological scenarios into mathematical models. For instance, allowing different genome rearrangements operations at the same time, adding constraints to these rearrangements (e.g., each rearrangement can affect at most a given number of genes), considering that a rearrangement implies a cost depending on its length rather than a unit cost, etc. Most of the works, however, have overlooked some important features inside genomes, such as the presence of sequences of nucleotides between genes, called intergenic regions. In this work, we investigate the problem of computing the distance between two genomes, taking into account both gene order and intergenic sizes. The genome
(2000) Wilson et al. Molecular Biology and Evolution. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon (Arthropoda, Crustacea, Malacostraca), is presented. The gene content and gene order are identical to tho...
NORM-atlas gir tilgang til databasen i NORM for utvalgte bakteriearter og antibiotika over tid og fordelt på regioner. Verktøyet fremstiller norske resistensdata for ulike kliniske prøvematerialer, enten som andel resistente mikrober (R) eller samlet andel mikrober med resistens og intermediær følsomhet (R + I). Resistente mikrober (R) kan ikke behandles med det aktuelle antibiotikum. Mikrober som er intermediært følsomme (I) er forandret i forhold til villtypen, men kan fortsatt behandles dersom man bruker en høyere dose eller det aktuelle antibiotikum har en høy konsentrasjon på infeksjonsstedet. Andel med resistens og intermediær følsomhet (R + I) uttrykker samlet resistensutvikling ...
Mitchell EL et al. (1995) Determination of the gene order of the three loci CD2, NGFB, and NRAS at human chromosome band 1p13 and refinement of their localisation at the subband level by fluorescence in situ hybridisation.. ...
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Gene organization dynamics is actively studied because it provides useful evolutionary information, makes functional annotation easier and often enables to characterize pathogens. There is therefore a strong interest in understanding the variability of this trait and the possible correlations with life-style. Two kinds of events affect genome organization: on one hand translocations and recombinations change the relative position of genes shared by two genomes (i.e. the backbone gene order); on the other, insertions and deletions leave the backbone gene order unchanged but they alter the gene neighborhoods by breaking the syntenic regions. A complete picture about genome organization evolution therefore requires to account for both kinds of events. We developed an approach where we model chromosomes as graphs on which we compute different stability estimators; we consider genome rearrangements as well as the effect of gene insertions and deletions. In a first part of the paper, we fit a measure of
Nowadays we are in the big data era. The high-dimensionality ofdata imposes big challenge on how to process them effectively andefficiently. Fortunately, in practice data are not unstructured.Their samples usually lie around low-dimensional manifolds andhave high correlation among them. Such characteristics can beeffectively depicted by low rankness. As an extension to thesparsity of first order data, such as voices, low rankness is alsoan effective measure for the sparsity of second order data, suchas images. In this paper, I review the representative theories,algorithms and applications of the low rank subspace recoverymodels in data processing.
In Riksmaten adults 2010-11, a representative sample of 5000 individuals between 18-80 years living in Sweden were invited to participate in the study. The data collection took place between May 2010 and July 2011. Ri... ...
In the spring of 2016, public health survey Barn och Unga i Skåne 2016 was conducted among school children in grade 6, grade 9 and high school grade 2, in all 33 municipalities in Skåne. Almost 27,500 students ans... ...
The way this is usually proven in the finite element context is different, but many finite element schemes satisfy conservation properties. For example, if you think of the Stokes equations, as long as the pressure space contains the piecewise constant functions, then mass is conserved. Similar properties can often be shown for the mixed Laplace equation typically used for porous media flow. It is typically more complicated to show such properties for first order conservation equations, but even there it is sometimes possible if finite element spaces are appropriately chosen.. However, the ways you would show this results from the weak form of the equations, with particularly chosen test functions. It doesnt quite work as you suggest in your question.. ...
Geneticists use maps to describe the location of a particular gene on a chromosome. One type of map uses the cytogenetic location to describe a genes position. The cytogenetic location is based on a distinctive pattern of bands created when chromosomes are stained with certain chemicals. Another type of map uses the molecular location, a…
Click here to switch to the map view. The map label for this gene is insK [C] Identifier: 126446981 GI number: 126446981 Start: 1986962 End: 1987795 Strand: Direct Name: insK [C] Synonym: BMA10247_A2049 Alternate gene names: 126446981 Gene position: 1986962-1987795 (Clockwise) Preceding gene: 126447836 Following gene: 126447234 Centisome position: 84.45 GC content: 61.75 Gene sequence: ...
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The vertebrate mitochondrial genomes generally present a typical gene order. Exceptions are uncommon and important to study the genetic mechanisms of gene order rearrangements and their consequences on phylogenetic output and mitochondrial function. Antarctic notothenioid fish carry some peculiar rearrangements of the mitochondrial gene order. In this first systematic study of 28 species, we analyzed known and undescribed mitochondrial genome rearrangements for a total of eight different gene orders within the notothenioid fish. Our reconstructions suggest that transpositions, duplications, and inversion of multiple genes are the most likely mechanisms of rearrangement in notothenioid mitochondrial genomes. In Trematominae, we documented an extremely rare inversion of a large genomic segment of 5,300 bp that partially affected the gene compositional bias but not the phylogenetic output. The genomic region delimited by nad5 and trnF, close to the area of the Control Region, was identified as the hot spot
Genome rearrangements influence gene order and configuration of gene clusters in all genomes. Most land plant chloroplast DNAs (cpDNAs) share a highly conserved gene content and with notable exceptions, a largely co-linear gene order. Conserved gene orders may reflect a slow intrinsic rate of neutral chromosomal rearrangements, or selective constraint. It is unknown to what extent observed changes in gene order are random or adaptive. We investigate the influence of natural selection on gene order in association with increased rate of chromosomal rearrangement. We use a novel parametric bootstrap approach to test if directional selection is responsible for the clustering of functionally related genes observed in the highly rearranged chloroplast genome of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, relative to ancestral chloroplast genomes. Ancestral gene orders were inferred and then subjected to simulated rearrangement events under the random breakage model with varying ratios of inversions
Background: Combinatorial works on genome rearrangements have so far ignored the influence of intergene sizes,i.e. the number of nucleotides between consecutive genes, although it was recently shown decisive for the accuracyof inference methods (Biller et al. in Genome Biol Evol 8:1427-39, 2016; Biller et al. in Beckmann A, Bienvenu L, JonoskaN, editors. Proceedings of Pursuit of the Universal-12th conference on computability in Europe, CiE 2016, Lecturenotes in computer science, vol 9709, Paris, France, June 27-July 1, 2016. Berlin: Springer, p. 35-44, 2016). In this line, wedefine a new genome rearrangement model called wDCJ, a generalization of the well-known double cut and join (orDCJ) operation that modifies both the gene order and the intergene size distribution of a genome.Results: We first provide a generic formula for the wDCJ distance between two genomes, and show that computingthis distance is strongly NP-complete. We then propose an approximation algorithm of ratio 4/3, and two exact ones:a
Supplementary table Species, systematic position and accession number of mitochondrial genome sequences used in the phylogenetic analysis and for gene order comparisons
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Mycobacteriophages are viruses that infect mycobacterial hosts such as Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. All mycobacteriophages characterized to date are dsDNA tailed phages, and have either siphoviral or myoviral morphotypes. However, their genetic diversity is considerable, and although sixty-two genomes have been sequenced and comparatively analyzed, these likely represent only a small portion of the diversity of the mycobacteriophage population at large. Here we report the isolation, sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of 18 new mycobacteriophages isolated from geographically distinct locations within the United States. Although no clear correlation between location and genome type can be discerned, these genomes expand our knowledge of mycobacteriophage diversity and enhance our understanding of the roles of mobile elements in viral evolution. Expansion of the number of mycobacteriophages grouped within Cluster A provides insights into the basis of immune specificity
The circular mitochondrial genome has three regions - two small hypervariable (HVR) regions and a large coding region. Most of the variation in the mtDNA occurs in the non-coding HVR regions, as this variation does not affect the function of any proteins etc. The mtDNA sequencing available here can sequence just the HVR1 region, both hypervariable regions (HVR1 and HVR2) or the complete mitochondrial genome (HVR1, HVR2 and the coding region). If two individuals have a perfect match at their HVR1 and HVR2 regions, further comparison of the much larger coding region can provide a higher stringency comparison and further resolution. The coding region covers the remainder of the mitochondrial genome and the complete mitochondrial genome is 16,569 base pairs ...
Nucleic Acids Res. 2013 Feb 1;41(3):1406-15. doi: 10.1093/nar/gks1286. Epub 2012 Dec 14. Evaluation Studies; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
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Højst 1 isolat pr. salmonellaserovar pr. år fra samme epidemiologiske enhed må indgå i overvågningen. For æglæggende høner, slagtekyllinger og kalkuner udgør flokken den epidemiologiske enhed. For svin udgør bedriften den epidemiologiske enhed.. 2. Antal isolater, der skal testes. Antallet af salmonellaisolater, der skal indgå i overvågningen af antimikrobiel resistens pr. medlemsstat pr. år, er 170 for hver undersøgt population (dvs. æglæggende høner, slagtekyllinger, kalkuner og slagtesvin).. I medlemsstater, hvor der ved overvågnings- eller bekæmpelsesprogrammerne i et givet år tilvejebringes et lavere antal isolater end den tilstræbte stikprøvestørrelse, skal alle disse isolater indgå i overvågningen af antimikrobiel resistens.. I medlemsstater, hvor der tilvejebringes et højere antal isolater, indgår alle isolater eller et repræsentativt, tilfældigt udsnit, der mindst svarer til den tilstræbte stikprøvestørrelse.. 3. Test for antimikrobiel følsomhed. Som ...
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Following a spate of patient deaths in clinical trials testing modified T cells for the treatment of cancer, researchers work to reduce the treatments toxicity without sacrificing efficacy.. 0 Comments. ...
Hydrochlorthiazid hæmmer reabsorptionen af natrium og chlorid i de renale tubuli, hvilket medfører en øget, dosisafhængig udskillelse af natrium og vand. Natriuresen medfører en sekundær udskillelse af kalium og hydrogencarbonat. Den blodtryksænkende virkning skyldes initialt en reduktion i plasmavolumen og dermed i slagvolumen. Ved fortsat behandling skyldes blodtryksænkningen hovedsagelig et fald i den totale perifere vaskulære resistens ...
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The gene product also displayed a NADP-dependency in order to function at 80 °C. The ICDH gene isolated from C. noboribetus ... The gene was expressed in E. coli by ligating it to a T7 promoter and the resulting molecular weight of the gene product was ... Gene. 180 (1-2): 183-187. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(96)00451-9. PMID 8973365. Huber H, Stetter KO (2001). "Order II. ... A gene coding for isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) was cloned from Caldococcus noboribetus and sequenced. An amino acid sequence ...
Smith, Gene. "Colonel Parrish's Orders". American Heritage. 46 (3 - May/June 1995). Francis & Caso 1997, p. 258. "Tuskegee Army ... African-American Eugene Bullard served in the French air service during World War I because he was not allowed to serve in an ... The latter, a major, ordered them to leave and took their names as a means of arresting them when they refused. It was the ... Eugene Winslow founded Afro-Am Publishing in Chicago, Illinois, which published Great Negroes Past and Present in 1963. Daniel ...
The 30 teams that did not make the Super Bowl are ranked in order so the team with the worst record picks first and the team ... "Gene Schroeder". Retrieved April 24, 2009. "Billy Anderson". Retrieved April 24, 2009. "Howie Weiss Goes to Lions: Eight of 10 ... The two exceptions to this inverse order are made for teams that appeared in the previous Super Bowl; the Super Bowl champion ... "NFL Draft Basics:Determining Order of Selection". Retrieved April 23, 2009. "Max Baumgardner". Retrieved April 24, ...
"sweetgreen: Order Online". "Sweetgreen raises more lettuce to continue expansion". The Washington Post. ... "Inheriting the restaurant gene". The New York Times. Retrieved November 16, 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) https ... Bittman created the VB6 diet where you eat only vegan before 6pm in order to lose weight and "restore health." In September ...
In order to solve the linear system x = A − 1 b {\displaystyle x=A^{-1}b} , the traditional algebraic approach is to understand ... Golub, Gene H.; Van Loan, Charles F. (1996). Matrix Computations (3rd ed.). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN ... First, many important numerical problems have no direct solution; in order to find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of an ... ISBN 978-0-89871-361-9. Golub, Gene H. "A History of Modern Numerical Linear Algebra" (PDF). University of Chicago Statistics ...
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Smith, Gene (May-June 1995). "Colonel Parrish's Orders". American History. 46 (3). Retrieved June 11, 2011. "Brigadier General ... In 1948, President Harry Truman signed an Executive Order on equality of treatment and opportunity in the military, due in no ... Eugene Jacques Bullard The Red Tail Project Photo and biography of pilot Robert M. Glass "Red-Tail Angels": The Story of the ... 761st Tank Battalion Aerial warfare Bessie Coleman Executive Order 9981 List of African American Medal of Honor recipients ...
Armstrong, Gene (February 16, 2006). "Attached to Songs". Tucson Weekly. Retrieved July 4, 2015. "The 2016 Appointees to the ... she was made a member of the Order of Ontario. Every square inch of her refrigerator door at her farm house is covered with a ... Order of Ontario". December 14, 2016. Media related to Margo Timmins at Wikimedia Commons. ...
MTA spokesperson Gene Sansone said in 2006, "Most of the orders are given by a male voice, while informational messages come ... In 1998, a smaller contract of 212 cars, consisting of 100 in the base order and 112 in the optional order, was awarded to ... The cars are anticipated to be delivered from 2020 to 2023, with the option orders to be delivered by 2025. The R211 base order ... The order consists of 380 converted R142A cars and of 126 identical newly built cars. The R188s are similar to the R142s in ...
Richard Dawkins, The Selfish Gene. 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989, 198. McGrath, Alister E. (2008). The Order ... in order to acquit or to punish in varying degrees. In contrast to Richard Dawkins' view of faith as "blind trust, in the ... a stage where provided information is accepted in order to conform with social norms (school-going period). Synthetic- ...
"Ronnie Gene Blevins Joins 'Crawlspace'; Reiley McClendon Cast In 'Shangri-La Suite". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Business Media ... He appeared in the Law & Order: Special Victims Unit episode "Identity" in a dual role as identical twins Logan and Lindsay ... Green, Susan; Dawn, Randee (1 September 2009). Law & Order: Special Victims Unit Unofficial Companion. BenBella Books, Inc. p. ...
Gene Siskel gave the film two stars out of four and wrote that its setup "makes no attempt at credibility; its goal is to ... Reilly hands the gun to Ochoa, who orders Reilly to forget they found it. The press is informed that Paul is just another ... Siskel, Gene (August 9, 1974). "'Death' moves at a killing pace to prove its point". Chicago Tribune. Section 2, p. 3. Champlin ... Marcia Jean Kurtz, who played the receptionist at Paul's office, has appeared in multiple roles on the TV series Law & Order. ...
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Simmons, N.B. (2005). "Order Chiroptera". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal species of the World: a taxonomic and ... Cooper KL, Tabin CJ (January 2008). "Understanding of bat wing evolution takes flight". Genes Dev. 22 (2): 121-4. doi:10.1101/ ... Francis, C.M., Guillén, A., Robinson, M.F. (1999). Order Chiroptera: Bats. Wildlife of Lao PDR: 1999 Status Report . Khan, M.M ...
This seems to be the first example of two architectural orders, Doric and Ionic, co-existing in a single building. Almost ... 8-. ISBN 978-0-486-47648-3. M. Wilson Jones; Eugene Dwyer; Sergio L. Sanabria; Margaret Lyttleton; Nicola Coldstream (1 April ... 2016). Architectural Orders: (Grove Art Essentials). Oxford University Press. pp. 24-. ISBN 978-0-19-029793-0. Bianchi ...
... : In Chronological Order 1924-25 (1996). Document Records List of classic female blues singers Eagle, Bob; LeBlanc, ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link). Chadbourne, Eugene. "Bob Fuller: Artist Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved September 4, ... "Helen Gross: In Chronological Order 1924-25". AllMusic. Retrieved September 5, 2014. ...
Order Chiroptera. Pp. 312-529 in Wilson, D.E. and Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic ... Hall, Eugene; Kelson, Keith (1959). The Mammals of North America. University of California: Ronald Press Co. Simmons, N.B. 2005 ...
It ordered a jury trial to determine whether the purpose of the audit was, as the department maintained, to find out whether it ... Eugene Volokh. Retrieved November 23, 2010. "United States Supreme Court Hears Argument on Expectation of Privacy as to Text ... "Order list; December 14, 2009" (PDF).; U.S. Supreme Court. Kerr, Orin (December 14, 2009). "Supreme Court Grants Cert on Fourth ... Eugene Volokh. Retrieved November 28, 2010. Gordon, Philip L. (April 19, 2010). "Oral Argument in the Quon Text Messaging Case ...
Eugene, Or.: Cascade Books. pp. 5-6. ISBN 978-1606085608. "In Memoriam CANTOR EMERITUS: PAUL MANZ". Mount Olive Lutheran Church ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Laster, James H. (2002). Catalogue of choral music arranged in biblical order : ...
Grossman, Gene M; Helpman, Elhanan (2005). "Outsourcing in a Global Economy". The Review of Economic Studies. 72 (1): 135-159. ... Barnet, Richard; Cavanagh, John (1994). Global Dreams: Imperial Corporations and the New World Order. New York: Simon & ... Barnet, Richard; Cavanagh, John (1994). Global Dreams: Imperial Corporations and the New World Order. New York: Simon & ...
Maddaus, Gene (December 14, 2016). "Facing a Shutdown Order, VidAngel Will Start Making Movies". Variety. Retrieved February 25 ... Judge Birotte's order blocked VidAngel from circumventing copyright protection features on DVDs and also ordered them to stop ... In late 2016, a court order forced VidAngel to shut down its website until the trial; the company vowed to appeal. In June 2017 ... In June 2019, a Los Angeles jury ordered VidAngel to pay over $62 million in damages, $75,000 for each of the 819 films that ...
Volokh, Eugene. "Cox's Memorandum in Support of Temporary Restraining Order" (PDF). Retrieved January 11, 2013. "Obsidian's ... It also ordered a new trial on the blog post at issue. Obsidian Finance Group is a financial advisory firm which was managing ... Cox also asserted that even if the plaintiffs weren't public figures, in order for the plaintiffs to claim damages, they must ... in the words of Eugene Volokh, a professor at the UCLA School of Law, that nonprofessional press, especially bloggers, "for ...
These viruses have genes called accessory genes, in addition to gag, pro, pol and env genes. Accessory genes are located ... "Listing in Taxonomic Order - Index to ICTV Species Lists". Retrieved 11 April 2008. "retrovirus". Oxford English Dictionary. ... In addition, some retroviruses may carry genes called oncogenes or onc genes from another class. Retroviruses with these genes ... In example, for the gag gene; it is translated into molecules of the capsid protein, and for the pol gene; it is translated ...
Sloan, Gene (25 July 2018). "Construction begins on new Celebrity Cruises ship Celebrity Apex". USA Today. "Celebrity Cruises ... On 4 December 2014, Celebrity's parent company, Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd., announced that they had finalized an order with ... Orders Two New Ships". 4 December 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2019. Bloom, Laura Begley (30 November ...
"California Orders Stop To Gene Testing." Forbes. (2008-06-14). Retrieved on 2008-10-15. Goetz, Thomas. "Attention, California ... The state regulators asked the companies to prove a physician was involved in the ordering of each test and that state clinical ... "California Licenses 2 Companies to Offer Gene Services." New York Times. (2008-08-19). Retrieved 2008-10-15. Official ...
He sits out there in the desert and he's got this great vision of law and order and civilization and he kills people and does ... The overkill and the undertone do it in." Gene Siskel of the Chicago Tribune gave the film two stars out of four and wrote "Not ... Siskel, Gene (February 22, 1973). "John Wayne at his mythical best". Chicago Tribune. Section 2, p. 6. Thomas, Kevin (December ... Maria Elena is given a place to live and fine clothes ordered from a Sears Roebuck catalog. A mountain man called Grizzly Adams ...
International Order and Foreign Policy (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1978). The Humean Conception of International Relations ... "Sovereignty as 'Dominium'; Is there a Right of Humanitarian Intervention?", in: Michael Mastanduno, Gene Lyons (eds.), Beyond ... "Of Law and Human Action: A Jurisprudential Plea for a World Order Perspective in International Legal Studies", in: Falk, ... "Citizenship: On the Border of Order?", in: Alternatives vol. 19, no. 4 (Fall, 1994), pp. 485-506. "Changing Relations between ...
"Selassie's Guard Fights on UN Side". Eugene Register-Guard. 2 June 1951. "Haile Selassie's Draft Order". The Afro American. 17 ... Selassie ordered that the government of Ethiopia be moved to Gore and directed the mayor of Addis Ababa to maintain order in ... and have chosen the road to exile in order that our people will not be exterminated and in order to consecrate ourselves wholly ... Later, the Emperor ordered his son-in-law and Commander of the Gate (Dejazmach) Haile Selassie Gugsa, also in the area, to move ...
"Gangster says ex-official didn't order writer killed". Eugene Register-Guard. AP. 11 May 1985. Retrieved 12 May 2016. Morain, ... Tung testified during the trial that Chen Chi-li was relaying the order to kill Liu from Chiang Hsiao-wu, a "big boss," but he ... Based on testimony that he had killed Henry Liu in the 1986 federal trial, Tung was ordered to stand trial in June 1987, with ... Although the suit survived an early motion to dismiss as an act of state grounds, Judge Eugene F. Lynch dropped Taiwan from the ...
"Second Suspect Goes On Trial In Thrill Kill". Eugene Register-Guard. May 7, 1999. p. 21. "Seaside 'Thrill Kill' Suspect ... True Stories of Law & Order 2006: Berkley/Penguin. ISBN 0-425-21190-8. O'Kane, James (2005). Wicked Deeds: Murder in America. ... ISBN 0-7658-0289-9. "Gunman takes stand against murder defendant". Eugene Register-Guard. May 12, 1999. p. 14. " ... Maryland condo and ordered them to disrobe before shooting Ford three times and stabbing Crutchley several times in the abdomen ...
Eugene V. Debs, "Socialist Sunday School," Socialist News [Cleveland], vol. 1, no. 40 (Sept. 4, 1915), pg. 3. ... Observe and think in order to discover the truth. Do not believe what is contrary to reason and never deceive yourself or ...
See Gene Quinn, SCOTUS Blog founder asks Supreme Court to reconsider Mayo ruling in Sequenom v. Ariosa , IP Watchdog (Mar. 21, ... a b *^ According to the patent, fetal DNA is from 0.39% of ...
She describes how, in ancient Greece, the worshipers of Apollo emphasized order and calm in their celebrations. ... Gene Weltfish. This pamphlet was intended for American troops and set forth, in simple language with cartoon illustrations, the ... that any ordered approach to life had ever made to Ruth Benedict".[9] After working with Goldenweiser for a year, he sent her ... she undertook several writing projects in order to keep busy besides the everyday housework chores in her new life with Stanley ...
a b Claudio L. Afonso et al.: Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2016, in: Archives of Virology, Volume 161, Nr. 8, ... Familie Geminiviridae (ssDNA(+/-): die einzelnen Gene haben unterschiedliche Polarität). *Genus Becurtovirus. *Genus ... Gaya K. Amarasinghe et al.: Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2018, Archives of Virology, Band 163, Nr. 8, August ...
The study has uncovered toxin genes and other genes that may be responsible for the virulence of the fungus. In the long term ... Order: Helotiales Family: Helotiaceae Genus: Hymenoscyphus Species: H. fraxineus Binomial name Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Baral ... researchers aim to find the genes that confer resistance to the pathogen on some ash trees.[12] ...
In order to avoid this as much as possible, it is important for users to consistently take the exact amount of the drug at the ... As a result, structural proteins, resulting from polypeptide products of gag and gag-pol genes, that are necessary for the HIV ...
"Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed ... "New phylogenetic perspectives on the Cervidae (Artiodactyla) are provided by the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene". Proceedings ...
These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they ... One possible way to achieve this, which has been successful in mouse models, is to use inhibitors of Ras activation in order to ... Mutations in genes encoding these proteins can lead to inactivation of cadherin cell adhesions and elimination of contact ... Mutations in catenin genes can cause loss of contact inhibition that can promote cancer development and tumor formation. ...
Several genes factor into determining a person's natural skin color, so modifying only one of those genes can change skin color ... A mutation resulting in a disease state is often recessive, so both alleles must be mutant in order for the disease to be ... The DNA sequence of any genes in this region can then be compared to a database of DNA for genes whose function is already ... It may indicate that plant height is controlled by many genes of small effect, or by a few genes of large effect. ...
Berkowitz, S.A., Philo, J.S. Monitoring the Homogeneity of Adenovirus Preparations (a Gene Therapy Delivery System) Using ... has particles in order of density based on height. The object or particle of interest will reside in the position within the ... In order to investigate this phenomenon, a centrifuge with even higher speeds was needed, and thus the ultracentrifuge was ...
... and small-scale experiments that generate gene lists, in order to gain insight into molecular and chemical interactions, ... "Sigma-Aldrich Launches Your Favorite Gene Powered by Ingenuity, Sigma-Aldrich Co" (Press release). Sigma-Aldrich Co., Inc. ... IPA also lets researchers search for information on genes, proteins, chemicals, drugs, and reagents. Resulting information can ... Sigma-Aldrich leverages Ingenuity technology in their Your Favorite Gene application, and BD Biosciences leverages Ingenuity ...
Craig R. Smith; Laura J. Grange; David L. Honig; Lieven Naudts; Bruce Huber; Lionel Guidi; Eugene Domack (2011). "A large ... Order:. Decapoda. Infraorder:. Anomura. Superfamily:. Lithodoidea. Family:. Lithodidae. Samouelle, 1819. Genera[1]. ...
"Cross" (Eugene Novotney). The clave rhythm and clave concept have been used in some modern art music ("classical") compositions ... changing from one clave sequence to the other is a matter of reversing the order of the measures. ... Novotney, Eugene N. (1998) "Thesis: The 3:2 Relationship as the Foundation of Timelines in West African Musics" (registration ... Another clave-based composition that has "gone global" is the snare drum suite "Cross" by Eugene D. Novotney. ...
It has a core set of 1553 genes, plus 154 genes in its virulome, which contribute to virulence and 176 genes that maintain a ... For instance, the Xisco gene was recently described as a biomarker for PCR-based detection of S. pneumoniae and differentiation ... In S. pneumoniae, at least 23 genes are required for transformation. For a bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous ... Transformation is a complex developmental process requiring energy and is dependent on expression of numerous genes. ...
"UN climate panel ordered to make fundamental reforms". AFP. Google News. 2010-08-30. Archived from the original on 2010-08-31. ... Koprowski, Gene J (April 28, 2010). "EXCLUSIVE: Citizen's Group Plans Extensive Audit of U.N. Climate Report". Fox News. ... in order to hide the decline."[18] According to Antonio Regalado writing in Science Insider, Jones wrote e-mails stating that ...
... the blue colour requiring two genes derived independently from the two white parents.[9] ...
... encoded by the L gene, partially uncoats the nucleocapsid and transcribes the genes into positive-strand mRNAs, which are then ... Tom Clancy's 1996 novel, Executive Orders, involves a Middle Eastern terrorist attack on the United States using an airborne ... Ebolaviruses contain single-stranded, non-infectious RNA genomes.[46] Ebolavirus genomes contain seven genes including 3'-UTR- ... Clancy, Tom (1996). Executive Orders. New York: Putnam. ISBN 978-0399142185. . OCLC 34878804.. ...
They are labelled "Type I" if the defective gene is for an enzyme involved in the assembly or transfer of the Glc3Man9GlcNAc2- ... Scan the nascent protein in order to recognize and bind sequons.. *Move these two large substrates into their proper locations ... These octomers do not form higher order oligomers, and three of the eight proteins are glycosylated themselves.[7] OST in ...
a b c d e Eugene Kiely, Medicaid Estate Recovery Program,, Annenberg Public Policy Center, University of ... Each state operates its own Medicaid system, but this system must conform to federal guidelines in order for the state to ... Sebelius that states do not have to agree to this expansion in order to continue to receive previously established levels of ...
The wild mallard is the ancestor of most domestic ducks, and its naturally evolved wild gene pool gets genetically polluted by ... Due to the variability of the mallard's genetic code, which gives it its vast interbreeding capability, mutations in the genes ... Complete hybridisation of various species of wild duck gene pools could result in the extinction of many indigenous waterfowl. ... Kulikova, Irina V.; Zhuravlev, Yury N.; McCracken, Kevin G. (2004). "Asymmetric hybridization and sex-biased gene flow between ...
feed(lactose):-make(permease),make(galactosidase). make(Enzyme):-code(Gene,Enzyme),express(Gene). express(lac(X)):-amount( ... IC is a set of first-order classical formulae.. Normally, the logic program P does not contain any clauses whose head (or ... Like all enzymes, these are made if they are coded by a gene (Gene) that is expressed (described by the second rule). The two ... in a cluster of genes (lac(X)) - called an operon - that is expressed when the amounts (amt) of glucose are low and lactose are ...
The HLA genes fall in two categories (Type I and Type II). In general, mismatches of the Type-I genes (i.e. HLA-A, HLA-B, or ... In the case of allogeneic transplants, fresh HSC are preferred in order to avoid cell loss that might occur during the freezing ... as members of the same ethnic group are more likely to have matching genes, including the genes for HLA.[24] ... A mismatch of an HLA Type II gene (i.e. HLA-DR, or HLA-DQB1) increases the risk of graft-versus-host disease. In addition, a ...
Dhallan left his position at Holy Cross in 2000 in order to start his own company, Ravgen, with the pursuit of developing a ... 1] "Health , Hope for safe prenatal gene test". BBC News. February 2, 2007. Archived from the original on April 19, 2012. ...
Two genes, LAC12 and LAC4, allow K. marxianus to absorb and use lactose as a carbon source.[5] This species is considered to be ... Using 18S rRNA gene sequencing, it was suggested that K. marxianus, K. aestuarii, K. dobzhanskii, K. lactic, K. wickerhamii, K ... marxianus possesses the necessary genes to be crabtree positive.[5] K. marxianus is highly thermotolerant and able to withstand ...
The Caulobacter CB15 genome has 4,016,942 base pairs in a single circular chromosome encoding 3,767 genes.[7] The genome ... of the top level control is to ensure that the operations involved in the cell cycle occur in the proper temporal order. In ... These five proteins directly control the timing of expression of over 200 genes. The five master regulatory proteins are ... contains multiple clusters of genes encoding proteins essential for survival in a nutrient-poor habitat. Included are those ...
Orwin), Philip Craig (Gene Orwin), Beau Starr (Malcolm Vedder), Richard Waugh (Dr. Morley) and Ken Kramer (Dr. Vollmer). ... Other members of the cast (in credits order) include Bill Smitrovich (Inspector Cramer), Saul Rubinek (Lon Cohen), Colin Fox ( ... Carlisle donned his clothing and acquired a key in order to enter the apartment and kill her out of jealousy. ... and that he wants a face-to-face meeting in order to decide what to do with that information. ...
"DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes. 15 (4): 173-183. doi:10.1093/ ... In some regions, the first sips of toso are taken in order of age, from the youngest to the eldest. ...
Cones require significantly brighter light (i.e., a larger number of photons) in order to produce a signal. In humans, there ... NR2E3 further restricts cells to the rod fate by repressing cone genes. RORbeta is needed for both rod and cone development. ... CRX further defines the photoreceptor specific panel of genes being expressed. NRL expression leads to the rod fate. ... photoreceptor gene expression; and lastly axonal growth, synapse formation and outer segment growth. ...
After examination for signs and interviewing for symptoms, the doctor may order medical tests (e.g. blood tests), take a biopsy ... Many modern molecular tests such as flow cytometry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics, gene ... The Benedictine order was noted for setting up hospitals and infirmaries in their monasteries, growing medical herbs and ... History of present illness (HPI): the chronological order of events of symptoms and further clarification of each symptom. ...
"Eugene Register-Guard. 26 January 1976. Retrieved 27 June 2010.. *^ a b "Explore Our Past:2000 - present". British Airways. ... "British Airways orders two Airbus A318s to launch London City-New York route". Forbes. Archived from the original on 30 May ... As of October 2020[update], the British Airways operates a fleet of 249 aircraft with 55 orders. BA operates a mix of Airbus ... warning in order to prevent the 12,000 job cuts and pay cuts.[51] ...
Some research on gene orders in animals mitochondrial genomes reveal that the mutation rate of gene orders is not a constant ... Gene orders are the permutation of genome arrangement. A fair amount of research has been done trying to determine whether gene ... Grusea, Simona (September 2010). "Measures for the exceptionality of gene order in conserved genomic regions". Advances in ... orders evolve according to a molecular clock (molecular clock hypothesis) or in jumps (punctuated equilibrium). ...
Test Order - Carbapenemase Gene Detection. Pre-Approval Required. Isolates must be confirmed as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella ...
tRNAs modifications bring order to gene expression.. Gustilo EM1, Vendeix FA, Agris PF. ... Modifications of the anticodon stem and loop (ASL) of tRNA order the loop preventing frameshifting and allowing for accurate ... The posttranscriptional modification of RNA is a significant investment in genes, enzymes, substrates, and energy. Advances in ... These modifications have in common their contribution of order to tRNAs anticodon. ...
Conservation of gene order in relation to common gene content within and between prokaryotic domains. Each point represents a ... b) For X. fastidiosa, red lines indicate regions of high frequency of unique genes []. A low degree of gene order conservation ... Even between very distant species, remnants of gene order conservation exist in the form of highly conserved clusters of genes ... Location of the gene in the genome, expressed in absolute number of genes from minute zero. †Percentage of conservation of gene ...
... online and give the perfect gift. Send gift cards instantly to anyone. Powered by ...
Scientists at Johns Hopkins have discovered one way the p53 gene does what it s known for-stopping the colon cancer cells. ... With no p53 gene or miR-34a to stem tumor development, there s no brake in pancreatic cells and uncontrolled growth leads to ... P53 is one of the most commonly mutated genes in human cancers, says Mendell. And there is now a great deal of evidence that ... It turned out that the miR-34a gene is turned on by p53, and in fact, experiments demonstrated that p53 binds directly to the ...
23andMes Anne Wojcicki Says FDA Order Seriously Slowed Up Gene Test Sales. Elizabeth Nolan Brown , 3.10.2014 11:00 AM. ... Gavin Newsoms New Stay-at-Home Order a Deathblow to Californias Small Businesses The governors latest order dials up ... I ordered a kit right after they sent their nastygram to 23andMe, hoping Id get in before the doors closed. ... Florida Masseuse Ordered to Pay $31,573 After Soliciting Robert Kraft To Commit Prostitution Charges against Kraft were ( ...
... Ming-gang Du,1 Shan-Wen Zhang,2 and ... G. Hori, M. Inoue, S. I. Nishimuraet et al., "Blind gene classification-an ICA-based gene classification/clustering method," ... L. Wang, F. Chu, and W. Xie, "Accurate cancer classification using expressions of very few genes," IEEE/ACM Transactions on ... H. Wang, D.-S. Huang, X.-M. Zhao, and X. Huang, "A novel clustering analysis based on PCA and SOMs for gene expression patterns ...
... after a Chinese scientist said he had edited the genes of twin babies. ... The Chinese government on Thursday ordered a temporary halt to research activities for people involved in the editing of human ... Scientist He Jiankui said this week that he used a gene-editing technology known as CRISPR-Cas9 to alter the embryonic genes of ... He said gene editing would help protect the girls from infection with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. ...
Gene Order.. We observed that the ordering, relative to OriC, of the genes encoding the NAPs specific to particular stages of ... Although the spatial order of selected stage-specific genes corresponds well to the temporal order of expression during the ... Gene order and chromosome dynamics coordinate spatiotemporal gene expression during the bacterial growth cycle. Patrick ... Not only are the genes coordinating the major regulatory pathways ordered; their targets are ordered as well. Analyses of the ...
Lee, S.K., Kim, Y.H., Moon, B.R.: Finding the Optimal Gene Order in Displaying Microarray Data. GECCO, 2215-2226 (2003)Google ... Tsai, H.K., Yang, J.M., Kao, C.Y.: Applying Genetic Algorithms To Finding The Optimal Gene Order In Displaying The Microarray ... Ray S.S., Bandyopadhyay S., Pal S.K. (2005) New Genetic Operators for Solving TSP: Application to Microarray Gene Ordering. In ... Finally, the application of TSP with these operators to gene ordering from microarray data has been demonstrated. ...
... reveals a gene order wherein the anterior genes (Hox1, Hox2 and Hox3) lie nearest the posterior genes in the cluster such that ... The gene order is : 5-Hox1,2, 3, 11/13c, 11/13b, 11/13a, 9/10, 8, 7, 6, 5 - 3). The finished sequence result is corroborated ... We report the first deuterostome instance of an intact hox cluster with a unique gene order where the paralog groups are not ... with a putative ancestral deuterostome Hox gene cluster suggest that the rearrangements leading to the sea urchin gene order ...
... genes,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters ... In order understand the evolution of complex societies researchers ar...A team lead by Arizona State University organismal and ... Seeking social genes. ...In order understand the evolution of complex societies researchers ar...A team lead by Arizona State ... In order understand the evolution of complex societies, researchers are sequencing the genomes of social insects. The most ...
In his latest graphic novel, Dragon Hoops, New York Times bestselling author Gene Luen Yang turns the spotlight on his life, ...
Inferring the gene order of an extinct s ... Changes of gene orderings have been extensively used as a ...
Gene Editing Sped Up By Orders Of Magnitude Another example of why the future is coming sooner than you might expect. ... the team rapidly refined the design of a bacterium by editing multiple genes in parallel instead of targeting one gene at a ... Labs get bogged down with particular DNA sentences, tinkering at times with subsections of a single gene ad nauseam before ... Where could very rapid automated gene customization deliver its greatest punch in medical treatment? How about antibody ...
Old-order Amish found to have a gene mutation that protects against aging. Sunday, November 19, 2017 by: Zoey Sky Tags: aging, ...",Old-order Amish ... ... However, Amish people with two copies of the mutant gene have a rare bleeding disorder which causes the absence of PAI-1 in the ...
... and RpL7A genes, respectively. The gene order from the proximal side was exactly the same with no inconsistency with that of H ... Synteny and conserved gene order between B. mori and H. melpomene:. Recently, a linkage map was reported in a butterfly, H. ... Moreover, the gene order in LG10 and -11 of H. melpomene was conserved in LG5 and -15 of B. mori, respectively, providing the ... d) The order of genes, RpL19 (9C1F), RpL13 (5D7C), Bm-EF1α(11K9B), and patched (5C10F), on the chromosome corresponding to LG5 ...
... easy ordering of their custom sequences. The gBlocks Gene Fragments Ordering Tool provides that. The ordering interface has a ... You can then edit the sequence right within the Ordering Tool (Figure 1). Retesting sequence complexity is fast and ordering ... This example shows how the gBlocks Gene Fragments Ordering Tool Base Count feature identifies complexities and errors. These ... gBlocks® Gene Fragments. Sequence-verified, double-stranded DNA fragments to simplify cloning or genome editing. ...
In order to pass on their genes southern dumpling squid engage in up ...The research provides new insight into the evolution of ... In order to pass on their genes, southern dumpling squid engage in up to three hours of mating with each partner, but ... In order to pass on their genes southern dumpling squid engage in up ...The research provides new insight into the evolution of ...
Significant Gene Order and Expression Differences in Bordetella pertussis Despite Limited Gene Content Variation. Mary M. ... Significant Gene Order and Expression Differences in Bordetella pertussis Despite Limited Gene Content Variation ... Significant Gene Order and Expression Differences in Bordetella pertussis Despite Limited Gene Content Variation ... Significant Gene Order and Expression Differences in Bordetella pertussis Despite Limited Gene Content Variation ...
Ordering Genes in a Flagella Pathway by Analysis of Expression Kinetics from Living Bacteria ... Ordering Genes in a Flagella Pathway by Analysis of Expression Kinetics from Living Bacteria ... Ordering Genes in a Flagella Pathway by Analysis of Expression Kinetics from Living Bacteria ... Ordering Genes in a Flagella Pathway by Analysis of Expression Kinetics from Living Bacteria ...
... Currently, only consecutive bases are allowed. Specifically ... up to 18 consecutive N or K bases can be ordered, with a minimum of 125 bp of fixed, flanking sequence on either side of the ...
Phylogenetic analyses of complete cytochromeb genes of the order Carnivora with particular emphasis on the Caniformia. ... Irwin DM, Kocher TD, Wilson AC (1991) Evolution of the cytochromeb gene of mammals. J Mol Evol 32:128-144Google Scholar ... Irwin DM, Arnason U (1994) Cytochromeb gene of marine mammals: phylogeny and evolution. J Mammal Evol 2:37-55Google Scholar ... de Jong WW, Leunissen JAM, Wistow GJ (1993) Eye lens crystallins and the phylogeny of placental orders: evidence for a ...
China orders probe into scientist claims of first gene-edited babies. By AFP ... Gene editing is a potential fix for heritable diseases but it is extremely controversial because the changes would be passed ... Beijing has ordered an investigation into claims by a Chinese scientist to have created the worlds first genetically-edited ... "We have never done anything that will change the genes of the human race, and we have never done anything that will have ...
... 04.10.2011 ... A factor that is crucial for the proper positioning of genes in the cell nucleus has been discovered by a team of researchers ... Mutations in the genes that encode lamin proteins cause 14 different diseases in man, collectively termed laminopathies. These ... One of the muscle diseases caused by dominant mutations in the gene encoding lamin A is Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (AD- ...
... have identified seven genes that are indispensable in order for the ... Seven mostly unknown genes bring order to minimal genome cell division. Credit: Susanna M. Hamilton, Broad Communications. ... Home » Seven mostly unknown genes bring order to minimal genome cell division ... have identified seven genes that are indispensable in order for the "minimal genome" or JCV3.0 cell to divide into two equal ...
It uses a kind of chip apparatus of gene sequencing,The chip apparatus of the gene sequencing includes adjusting pedestal,Be ... The invention discloses the chips and gene order surveying method for gene sequencing, ... Chip and gene order surveying method for gene sequencing - Google Patents. Chip and gene order surveying method for gene ... 1. for the chip and gene order surveying method of gene sequencing, a kind of chip apparatus of gene sequencing, the gene are ...
... In order to optimize manufacturing and delivery time, synthetic ... Your high-quality, synthetic gene can then be subcloned into the vector of your choice using a variety of methods. A list of ... genes ≤5 kb in length will be provided in a "best-fit" IDT cloning vector. A choice of either ampicillin or kanamycin selection ...
  • Some research on gene orders in animals' mitochondrial genomes reveal that the mutation rate of gene orders is not a constant in some degrees. (
  • As more complete genomes are sequenced, conservation of gene order between different organisms is emerging as an informative property of the genomes. (
  • Conservation of gene order has been used for predicting function and functional interactions of proteins, as well as for studying the evolutionary relationships between genomes. (
  • Gene order conservation is a genomic measure that can be useful for studying relationships between prokaryotes and the evolutionary forces shaping their genomes. (
  • Conservation of gene order in prokaryotic genomes in relation to phylogenetic distance, measured as the number of substitutions in SSU rRNA. (
  • In order understand the evolution of complex societies, researchers are sequencing the genomes of social insects. (
  • A team, lead by Arizona State University organismal and systems biology professor Juergen Gadau, sequenced one of the genomes and set out to decipher which genes might be responsible for defining which ants work and which ants reproduce in a red harvester ant colony. (
  • Having multiple independently evolved social genomes helps us to better understand which genes are involved in crucial social traits, because those should be highly conserved," Gadau said. (
  • We address these problems, using the gene order of four core eudicot genomes (cacao, castor bean, papaya and grapevine) that have escaped any recent WGD events, and two others (poplar and cucumber) that descend from independent WGD s, in inferring the ancestral gene order of the rosid clade and those of its main subgroups, the fabids and malvids. (
  • We improve and adapt techniques including the OMG method for extracting large, paralogy-free, multiple orthologies from conflated pairwise synteny data among the six genomes and the PATHGROUPS approach for ancestral gene order reconstruction in a given phylogeny, where some genomes may be descendants of WGD events. (
  • Even comparing six genomes, retaining only the genes common to all six, removes 85% of the genes from each genome, almost completely spoiling the study as far as local syntenies are concerned. (
  • CoreGenes is designed to analyze two to five genomes simultaneously, generating a table of related genes- orthologs and putative orthologs. (
  • Mitochondrial genomes contributed well with sequence data and gene order characters to the deep metazoan phylogeny debate. (
  • Except for the special case of gene transfer from organelle genomes to the eukaryotic nucleus, only a few cases of lateral gene transfer involving eukaryotes have been described. (
  • We find that DCM-GRAPPA scales gracefully to at least 1,000 genomes of a few hundred genes each and retains surprisingly high accuracy throughout the range: in our experiments, the topological error rate rarely exceeded a few percent. (
  • OMA is an established resource to elucidate evolutionary relationships among genes from currently 2326 genomes covering all domains of life. (
  • How these processes may impact the dynamics of gene evolution was studied by comparing the patterns of gene structure changes, alternative splicing ( AS ), and codon substitution rates among wheat and model grass genomes. (
  • Mutations in the genes that encode lamin proteins cause 14 different diseases in man, collectively termed laminopathies. (
  • One of the muscle diseases caused by dominant mutations in the gene encoding lamin A is Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (AD-EDMD). (
  • Spermatogenesis also serves as an important checkpoint filtering out many de novo occurring gene mutations [ 10 , 11 ] and chromosomal rearrangements [ 12 , 13 ] by making their carriers sterile. (
  • The variation in tumor involvement between families and consistent pattern within 12 MEN-2A and 4 MEN-2B families studied suggest that the tumors in MEN-2 result from separate, specific mutations in a specific linear order of adjacent genes. (
  • Mutations along those genes are responsible for most cases of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. (
  • Many women with a history of those cancers in their families opt to undergo genetic testing to determine if they have the mutations on their BRCA genes that put them at increased risk for these diseases. (
  • While the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations put women at an increased risk of developing breast cancer, a study at Southampton University has found that those with the faulty gene are not less likely to survive. (
  • If a person's tumor is negative for the most common ALK gene rearrangements, tests for other less common mutations not detected by the current test or tests for the altered ALK protein may be used to help predict therapeutic responses. (
  • The likeliest candidates are natural "tumor-suppressing genes" that prevent genetic mutations or ensure mutant cells self-destruct before they grow into tumors. (
  • In wheat, 35% of these gene structure rearrangements resulted in frame-shift mutations and premature termination codons. (
  • Our results are consistent with the accelerated accumulation of AS isoforms, nonsynonymous mutations, and gene structure rearrangements in the wheat lineage, likely due to genetic redundancy created by WGDs . (
  • According to the hypothesis of Ohno (1970) , gene duplications lead to relaxed selection, which allows duplicated genes to accumulate mutations. (
  • Therefore, PCR-based markers that can be widely utilized for a variety of strains and are based on identified genes or sequences have been critically needed. (
  • We showed that codominant and conserved markers could be established by conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis of PCR products amplified from single-copy genes and unique genome sequences differing at the nucleotide level without the need for additional manipulation ( Y asukochi 1999 ). (
  • Easy tool for uploading or entering gBlocks ® Gene Fragments sequence requests, that also judges complexity, and allows you to edit the sequences on the spot. (
  • For cloning and CRISPR-mediated genome editing, researchers have been using gBlocks Gene Fragments and want fast, easy ordering of their custom sequences. (
  • This evolution can include gaining new functionality through horizontal transfer of genes, losing "antivirulence" genes, or altering the form or regulation of existing proteins through mutation in coding sequences or changes in promoters or operonic structures. (
  • Cao Y, Adachi J, Janke A, Pääbo S, Hasegawa M (1994) Phylogenetic relationships among eutherian orders estimated from inferred sequences of mitochondrial proteins: instability of a tree based on a single gene. (
  • Sequences with the highest similarities to this gene corresponded to a conserved gene pair, sudA and sudB , present in Thermotoga maritima , Treponema pallidum , and Pyrococcus furiosus , suggesting an LGT event from a prokaryote to a eukaryotic ancestor of diplomonads. (
  • The nucleotide sequences of intergenic regions between nine genes of pneumonia virus of mice establish the physical order of these genes in the viral genome. (
  • 1990). The nucleotide sequences of the clones confirm the locations of these genes and their mRNA transcripts in the viral genome. (
  • Mutational analysis of the gene start sequences of pneumonia virus of mice. (
  • The order of putative signal sequences and stop transfer sequences indicated that KUN NS1, NS2A and NS4B are probably cleaved in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, at a consensus site Val-X-Ala↓ where X is an uncharged residue, and NS2B, NS3 and NS5 are cleaved in the cytosol at the site Lys-Arg↓Gly. (
  • The court ruled that companies can obtain patents on the genes but cannot patent methods to compare those gene sequences. (
  • We can provide you with custom gene synthesis solutions, from short sequences to very long (up to 40kb) genes. (
  • In orthologous gene sets, significantly more acquired and lost exonic sequences were detected in wheat than in model grasses. (
  • The evolution of protein-coding sequences, gene exon-intron structure, and alternative splicing ( AS ) define the diversity of proteome structure and function ( Koonin and Wolf, 2010 ). (
  • We infer that spatial and temporal variation of DNA superhelicity during the growth cycle coordinates oxygen and nutrient availability with global chromosome structure, thus providing a mechanistic insight into how the organization of a complete bacterial chromosome encodes a spatiotemporal program integrating DNA replication and global gene expression. (
  • B ) Spatial ordering of regulatory genes on the E. coli chromosome along the OriC-Ter axis. (
  • This combination of approaches provides a detailed picture of a pathogenic species with little gene loss or gain but with the capacity to generate variation by rearranging its chromosome and altering gene expression. (
  • Rat Chromosome 10 (RNO10) harbors several important cancer-related genes. (
  • An extensive bioinformatic analysis and comparison of SAGE transcriptomes of the total testis, testicular somatic cells and other mouse tissues was performed and the theory of male-biased gene accumulation on the X chromosome was tested. (
  • Our results provide new evidence in favor of the theory of male-biased genes accumulation on the X chromosome in testicular somatic cells and indicate the opposite action of the meiotic X-inactivation in testicular germ cells. (
  • X-chromosome Gene Order in Different Mus Species Crosses" by Dennis A. Stephenson, Stephen G. Grant et al. (
  • Additional data now suggests that there may also be a difference in the arrangement of genes within the t-complex on chromosome 17. (
  • Genes on a chromosome as ataxia specialists examine patients, in order to determine the severity of their. (
  • A 22 marker Y-chromosome DNA test, USPS Priority shipping of a Bio-Gene DNA collection kit, detailed collection instructions, a prepaid UPS overnight return mailer for your DNA samples (USA addresses only), lab processing fees, and 100% accurate results from our AABB accredited testing laboratory. (
  • This example shows how the gBlocks Gene Fragments Ordering Tool Base Count feature identifies complexities and errors. (
  • Gene fragments from 200 to 3000 bp shipped plated, or in suspension and ready for use. (
  • FPKMs (fragments per kilobase of exon per million fragments mapped) per gene (rather than per isoform) were extracted and aggregated in tabular form. (103.61.226)
  • The finished sequence from BAC clones from the genome of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, reveals a gene order wherein the anterior genes (Hox1, Hox2 and Hox3) lie nearest the posterior genes in the cluster such that the most 3' gene is Hox5. (
  • A total of 523 BAC contigs, including 342 independent genes registered in public databases and 85 expressed sequence tags (ESTs), were placed onto the linkage map. (
  • have been performed, and our knowledge of silkworm genes and genome sequence has dramatically increased. (
  • You can then edit the sequence right within the Ordering Tool (Figure 1). (
  • Retesting sequence complexity is fast and ordering can proceed right away. (
  • The three species comprising the "classical" bordetellae have much in common, including very similar mechanisms of pathogenesis and a high degree of sequence similarity in shared genes, but they have different host ranges and abilities to survive outside a host. (
  • Specifically, up to 18 consecutive N or K bases can be ordered, with a minimum of 125 bp of fixed, flanking sequence on either side of the variable bases. (
  • Arnason U, Gullberg A (1994) Relationship of baleen whales established by cytochrome b gene sequence comparison. (
  • Arnason U, Gullberg A (1996) Sequence analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene identify five primary evolutionary lineages of extant cetaceans. (
  • Zakharov, I. 2008-05-04 00:00:00 Data reflecting evolutionary changes in chromosomal gene order can be used for phylogenetic reconstructions along with the results of nucleotide sequence comparison. (
  • While gene order is most similar to that of the brachiopod Terebratulina retusa , sequence based analyses of mitochondrial genes place nemerteans close to molluscs, phoronids and entoprocts without clear preference for one of these taxa as sister group. (
  • Therefore, candidate laterally transferred genes are easily identified in these projects with similarity searches against the public sequence databases. (
  • Sequence analysis of the 22K, SH and G genes of turkey rhinotracheitis virus and their intergenic regions reveals a gene order different from that of other pneumoviruses. (
  • Sequence analysis of the gene encoding the fusion glycoprotein of pneumonia virus of mice suggests possible conserved secondary structure elements in paramyxovirus fusion glycoproteins. (
  • Sequence of the major nucleocapsid protein gene of pneumonia virus of mice: sequence comparisons suggest structural homology between nucleocapsid proteins of pneumoviruses, paramyxoviruses, rhabdoviruses and filoviruses. (
  • This new mapping methodology, which has been used successfully to map both autosomal genes and sex-linked loci, utilizes naturally occurring polymorphisms at the level of the nucleotide sequence between inbred strains of mice and those derived from the wild species Mus spretus and Mus musculus. (
  • The NIH Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project aims to identify at least one full-ORF cDNA clone for each human and mouse gene, produce a high-accuracy sequence, and make the physical reagents easily available to researchers. (
  • Our high success rate in protein and antibody production also relies on the quality of our gene sequence engineering work and codon optimization service, both of which are based on strong empirical data, while providing cost effective, one-stop-shop solutions. (
  • Over 15 years of gene synthesis service experience provide our clients with the opportunity to create any custom synthetic DNA sequence. (
  • The reference was prepared by extracting the genomic sequence for each of the predicted genes with up to 2kb upstream and downstream bases whenever available from the corresponding IWGSC-CSS contig. (103.61.226)
  • Amish people with this gene mutation had a lower risk of diabetes, 30 percent lower fasting insulin levels, and more efficient metabolisms. (
  • But this is not the first time Chinese researchers have experimented with human embryo technology, and last September scientists at Sun Yat-sen University used an adapted version of gene-editing to correct a disease-causing mutation in human embryos. (
  • Another conclusion is that a disease-linked local mutation in lamin can impair muscle-specific reorganization of genes during tissue-specific promoter activation in a dominant manner. (
  • Single gene sequencing, deletion/duplication analysis and familial mutation analysis are also available for this gene. (
  • This testing is typically ordered along with or as a follow-up test to EGFR and KRAS mutation testing . (
  • An ALK mutation test is usually ordered after an individual has been diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma. (
  • If the cancer tissue contains a specific ALK gene rearrangement mutation or altered ALK protein, then the affected person is likely to benefit from an ALK kinase inhibitor drug therapy such as crizotinib and is not likely to benefit from anti-EGFR drug therapies. (
  • The research team identified a tiny bit of genetic code, a microRNA called miR-34a that participates in p53 s uncanny ability to kill cells likely to become malignant because of damaged genes in their nuclei. (
  • It turned out that the miR-34a gene is turned on by p53, and in fact, experiments demonstrated that p53 binds directly to the genetic material near miR-34a to promote its activation. (
  • With no p53 gene or miR-34a to stem tumor development, there s no brake in pancreatic cells and uncontrolled growth leads to cancer, says Anirban Maitra, M.B.B.S., associate professor of pathology, oncology and genetic medicine. (
  • In late 2013, the FDA sent 23andMe a letter ordering it to "immediately discontinue marketing" of its home genetic tests or face "seizure, injunction, and civil money penalties. (
  • Tsai, H.K., Yang, J.M., Kao, C.Y.: Applying Genetic Algorithms To Finding The Optimal Gene Order In Displaying The Microarray Data. (
  • These results support the hypothesis that genetic variants in BER genes contribute to bladder cancer risk through gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions. (
  • Human genes are not like new genetic tools or drugs, which can be patented because they are manufactured," said Daniel B. Ravicher, executive director of PUBPAT and co-counsel in the lawsuit. (
  • Gene order database gene order problems gene order determination gene order by recombination frequency Genetic and nutritional effects on the efficiency of P use of monogastric animals. (
  • ISSR loci in order to evaluate the genetic diversity of eight. (
  • Large deletions involving entire single exons or multiple exons, large insertions and other complex genetic events have been reported in many of these genes and will not be identified using this test methodology. (
  • Scientists have rendered the first gene and protein networks of human aging, an important step in understanding the genetic mechanisms of aging. (
  • This method facilitates the rapid, algorithmically guided condensation and curation of the progenitor collection into a high-quality, nonredundant collection that is suitable for rapid genetic screening and gene discovery. (
  • A genetic resource for rapid and comprehensive phenotype screening of nonessential Staphylococcus aureus genes. (
  • Gene therapy" is a broad category that refers to several emerging treatment approaches involving the novel science of genetic modification. (
  • The most obvious gene therapy approach is to fix the genetic fault that causes cells to become cancerous in the first place. (
  • NEW YORK and BASEL, Switzerland, March 11, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Axovant ( AXGT ), a clinical-stage company developing innovative gene therapies, today reported three-month data from an investigator-initiated study administering investigational AXO-AAV-GM2 gene therapy in a patient with advanced infantile Tay-Sachs disease, a rare and fatal pediatric neurodegenerative genetic disorder characterized by impaired β-Hexosaminidase A enzyme production. (
  • Pairwise genomic syntenies provide appropriate input to a parameter-free procedure of multiple ortholog identification followed by gene-order reconstruction in solving instances of the "small phylogeny" problem. (
  • Furthermore, if the gene is present in both the Giardia and Spironucleus projects, the phylogeny will show whether the gene has a common source in both lineages or it was a recent acquisition in one of the two lineages. (
  • For most of the estimated species phylogeny we see high support values and a high degree of concordance among individual nuclear gene trees. (
  • Our results show that jackknife is very useful to determine the confidence level of a phylogeny obtained from gene orders and a jackknife rate of 40% should be used. (
  • Chromosomal partition genes C and E ( parC and parE ) encode the subunits of topoisomerase IV, responsible for decatenation of newly replicated DNA in the terminal region ( 64 ) and relaxation of negative supercoils ( 65 ). (
  • In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? (
  • Interestingly, in both examples, the eukaryotes encode a single gene that corresponds to a conserved operon structure in prokaryotes. (
  • RNA-seq analysis showed that RUNX1 depletion led to up-regulation of genes associated with chromatin structure and down-regulation of genes related to extracellular matrix biology, as well as NEAT1 and MALAT1 lncRNAs. (
  • Even between very distant species, remnants of gene order conservation exist in the form of highly conserved clusters of genes. (
  • We show that the highly conserved spatial ordering of relevant genes along the chromosomal replichores largely corresponds both to their temporal expression patterns during growth and to an inferred gradient of DNA superhelical density from the origin to the terminus. (
  • Comparisons among individual gene products of six flaviviruses showed that E, NS1, NS3 and NS5 tended to be the most highly conserved, and C among the least conserved. (
  • Finally, the application of TSP with these operators to gene ordering from microarray data has been demonstrated. (
  • Different methods have been proposed for analyzing differentially expressed (DE) genes in microarray data. (
  • Comparative results in [ 12 , 13 ] show that the WAD method is powerful for detecting DE genes in microarray data. (
  • RUNX1 contributes to higher-order chromatin organization and gene regu" by A. Rasim Barutcu, Deli Hong et al. (
  • In this study, we are using molecular phylogenomic approaches on a data set of 252 single-copy genes on over 100 Cornales species. (
  • Because the clusters often span more than one operon, common regulation probably cannot be invoked as the cause of the maintenance of gene order. (
  • The highly consistent gene order and axial colinear expression patterns found in vertebrate hox gene clusters are less well conserved across the rest of bilaterians. (
  • We uncovered chromosomal clusters of adjacent genes with preferential expression in total testis and testicular somatic cells by a genome-wide search and found that the clusters encompassed a significantly higher number of genes than expected by chance. (
  • GraphTeams: a method for discovering spatial gene clusters in Hi-C. In order to get a genome assembly as good as possible, we compared and rated. (
  • Seyedsayamdost, M.R. High-throughput platform for the discovery of elicitors of silent bacterial gene clusters. (
  • In order understand the evolution of complex societies researchers ar. (
  • According to the researchers, the finding implies that, although the genes themselves are present in both worker and queen ants, when and where the genes are expressed is highly regulated and heritable from one generation to the next. (
  • Led by a pair of researchers in the lab of Harvard Medical School Professor of Genetics George Church, the team rapidly refined the design of a bacterium by editing multiple genes in parallel instead of targeting one gene at a time. (
  • Northwestern University researchers collaborated with Japan's Tohoku University to work on an experimental oral drug, called TM5614, that would inhibit the action of PAI-1 in Amish people with the mutant gene. (
  • In order to pass on their genes, southern dumpling squid engage in up to three hours of mating with each partner, but University of Melbourne researchers have found that this results in a reduced ability to swim for up to 30 minutes afterwards. (
  • A factor that is crucial for the proper positioning of genes in the cell nucleus has been discovered by a team of researchers from the Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research in Basel, Switzerland. (
  • Researchers at the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) and the National Institute of Standards and Technologies (NIST) have identified seven genes that are indispensable in order for the "minimal genome" or JCV3.0 cell to divide into two equal daughter cells. (
  • It also allows Myriad to prevent researchers from even looking at the genes without first getting permission. (
  • Researchers began to use a jackknife resampling method to assess the quality of gene order phylogenies. (
  • Young women with breast cancer have the same survival rates regardless of whether they have faulty BRCA genes, researchers have said. (
  • Wheat researchers at the John Innes Centre are pioneering a new technique that promises to improve gene discovery for the globally important crop. (
  • Many researchers believe that just as faulty genes are the key to cancer formation, modified genes may be the key to cancer treatment. (
  • Mesothelioma researchers are hopeful that gene therapy will bring us closer to a cure for mesothelioma . (
  • First, researchers have not been able to pinpoint a specific gene that can stop the progression of mesothelioma in most patients. (
  • If researchers can develop a vector that infects all the cells in a tumor while leaving the rest of the body's cells alone, it would enable a special form of targeted chemotherapy called suicide gene therapy . (
  • In contrast, we found evidence of altered gene order in the several strains that were examined and again found an association of IS 481 with sites of rearrangement. (
  • We hypothesize that some regions of the genome have a higher chance for intramolecular recombination than others and gene order data have to be analysed carefully to detect convergent rearrangement events. (
  • suggested there was a potential rearrangement in gene order between the laboratory mouse and wild-derived M. spretus. (
  • The final order in which the genes are rearranged is called a gene rearrangement profile. (
  • Within any normal population (sample) of T-cells, the cells and their gene rearrangement profiles are very diverse. (
  • In lymphoma, the T-cells in affected tissue (such as blood, lymph node, or skin) are identical and their gene rearrangement profiles are likewise identical. (
  • A T-cell receptor gene rearrangement test evaluates the T-cells in a person's sample to determine whether the majority of T-cell rearrangement profiles are diverse or identical. (
  • T-cell receptor gene rearrangement testing is used to help diagnose T-cell lymphomas and to evaluate for residual or recurrent disease after treatment. (
  • In some cases, testing for the altered ALK protein may be preferred over ALK gene rearrangement testing. (
  • A person whose cancer does not have an ALK gene rearrangement is not likely to benefit from ALK kinase inhibitor drug therapy. (
  • The evolutionary relationships among the Carnivora were studied in a phylogenetic analysis based on the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. (
  • During the last 5 years it has become clear that lateral gene transfer (LGT) is a widespread and important evolutionary process among prokaryotes ( 10 , 22 ). (
  • Alternatively, genes can become nonfunctional and eventually lost from evolutionary lineages. (
  • Among plant species, wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) provides a unique opportunity to study early phases of duplicated gene evolution after WGD , the impact of increased genome size on the evolutionary dynamic of gene space, and understand how these processes shaped the coding potential of the wheat genome. (
  • Comparisons with a putative ancestral deuterostome Hox gene cluster suggest that the rearrangements leading to the sea urchin gene order were many and complex. (
  • The putative impact of each gene to human aging was calculated by a combination of manual and computational methods, leading to a new holistic view of the genetics of aging. (
  • To identify functional and positional candidate genes in the affected region, we used radiation hybrid (RH) mapping and single- and dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques to construct a detailed chromosomal map of the proximal part of RNO10. (
  • In this study, we used a multifaceted analytic approach to explore the relationship between eight single nucleotide polymorphisms in base excision repair (BER) pathway genes, smoking, and bladder cancer susceptibility in a hospital-based case-control study. (
  • In this study, we estimated the frequency of eight SNPs from seven BER pathway genes, including MBD4 Glu 346 Lys, MUTYH Gln 335 His, OGG1 Ser 326 Cys, APEX1 Glu 148 Asp, XRCC1 Arg 194 Trp, XRCC1 Arg 399 Gln, ADP-ribosyltransferase ( ADPRT ) Val 762 Ala , and POLD1 Arg 119 His in bladder cancer cases and controls. (
  • All of the gene family sets can be used at the benchtop for focused pathway analysis and building your disease model of interest. (
  • Different gene pathway of interest? (
  • Genes implicated in similar functions are related mainly in trans across the chromosomal replichores, whereas DNA-binding transcriptional regulators interact predominantly with targets in cis along the replichores. (
  • This is largely due to the process of duplicate gene reduction, eventually affecting most pairs of duplicate genes created by the WGD , which distributes the surviving members of duplicate pairs between two homeologous chromosomal segments in an unpredictable way, fractionation [ 15 - 19 ], thus scrambling gene order and disrupting the phylogenetic signal. (
  • The chromosomal regions bounded by preferential DNAse I cleavage sites are referred to as supranucleosomal or higher order domains for purposes of discussion and analysis. (
  • Several research groups are adding genes from intracellular pathogens into the minimal cell one at a time to identify the critical pathogenic genes. (
  • If rearrangements in gene order have occurred between the more evolutionarily divergent Mus species it may limit the usefulness of interspecific crosses for ordering genes within the mouse genome. (
  • This test detects characteristic changes (rearrangements) in specific genes in T-cells. (
  • Rearrangements in certain parts of their DNA called receptor genes are a normal part of their development. (
  • This testing detects the presence of the most common ALK gene rearrangements in the DNA of cells in tumor tissue or the abnormal protein produced by the mutated gene in order to help guide cancer treatment. (
  • ALK gene rearrangements are most often seen in light smokers or non-smokers with adenocarcinoma non-small cell lung cancers, especially women of Asian descent. (
  • This test detects specific rearrangements in the ALK gene in the DNA of cancer cells and tissue. (
  • In contrast to the tissue-specific genes, an under-representation of X-linked genes in the total testis transcriptome but not in the transcriptomes of testicular somatic cells and other tissues was detected. (
  • The analysis of gene order differences gives evidence for a multiple independent occurrence of a large inversion in the mitochondrial genome of Lophotrochozoa and a re-inversion of the same part in gastropods. (
  • However, it turned out that they had to add another five genes, for a total of seven, to achieve their goal. (
  • The predicted sensitivity of Next-Generation Sequencing is approximately 98% for the detection of nucleotide base changes or homozygous deletions in the coding exons and exon/intron boundaries of the five genes analyzed. (
  • The patients, 12% of whom were found to have faulty genes, were followed up for an average of just over eight years. (
  • All types of cancer cells appear to have at least one essential thing in common: They have faulty genes. (
  • Broad patterns of gene expression revealed by clustering analysis of tumor and normal colon tissues probed by oligonucleotide arrays," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 96, no. 12, pp. 6745-6750, 1999. (
  • Tashjian, A. H. / MEN-2 tumor associations suggest a linear order of specific endocrine tumor genes . (
  • It is ordered when a person's tumor is unlikely to respond to a tyrosine kinase inhibitor and the health practitioner is considering an ALK kinase inhibitor drug therapy. (
  • Second, inserting these tumor-suppressing genes requires a microscopic delivery vehicle, or vector, that can penetrate deep into a tumor. (
  • The same vectors that could carry tumor-suppressing genes could also insert artificial "suicide genes" into cancer cells. (
  • The scattered distribution of the sudA and sudB gene pair and the phylogenetic analysis strongly suggest that lateral gene transfer was involved in the propagation of the genes in the three domains of life. (
  • In recent years, gene order data has attracted increasing attention from both biologists and computer scientists as a new type of data for phylogenetic analysis. (
  • In 2016, the team followed up with an even more downsized genome, consisting of 437 genes. (
  • When we published our 2016 paper [on JCV3.0], by our very conservative criteria, of the 437 genes, 149 we didn't know what they did," Glass said, although he noted that for almost half of those genes, "we had a good idea -- we might know that this gene is likely a transporter, for example, but not know what it transports. (
  • Gene order is extensively conserved between closely related species, but rapidly becomes less conserved among more distantly related organisms, probably in a cooperative fashion. (
  • Gene order conservation could therefore be used as a valid phylogenetic measure to study relationships between species. (
  • Conservation of gene order between all prokaryotic species in relation to phylogenetic distance, estimated by means of phylogenies of universal conserved proteins. (
  • Gene order conservation in the species studied, using (a) Escherichia coli and (b) Xylella fastidiosa as a reference. (
  • Individual species are plotted in the y axis and are ordered according to their phylogenetic distance (estimated by SSU rRNA substitutions) to the reference species. (
  • Gene orders of ancestral eudicot species, involving 10,000 or more genes can be reconstructed in an efficient, parsimonious and consistent way, despite paralogies due to WGD and other processes. (
  • This difficulty is compounded by the residual duplicate gene pairs created by the WGD , complicating orthology identification essential for gene order comparison between species descended from the doubling event and those outside it. (
  • The monophyly of Cornales is strongly supported by morphological and molecular data, whereas species-level relationships within the order have not been fully resolved. (
  • We hypothesize that the poor resolution of relationships among these species may be due to rapid speciation and inter-specific gene flow. (
  • In an attempt to address the issues of (i) interspecies variation in gene order, and (ii) possible differences in relative recombination frequencies within interspecific crosses, such crosses were constructed between the inbred laboratory strain C57BL/6JRos and two different wild-derived Mus species: M. musculus from Denmark and M. spretus. (
  • COI gene provided another means in the discrimination of Pityokteines species 20 Sept. 2017. (
  • These genes determine both the extent to Identification of Coffea species is extremely important, not only from the. (
  • Coffea species, to deduce In order to pursue this goal, we aimed to establish methods for the detection of. (
  • Popseq Ordered Triticum Aestivum Gene Expression (POTAGE, pronounced " pəʊˈtɑːʒ ") is a web application which integrates map location information with gene expression and inferred functional annotation. (103.61.226)
  • Functional characterization of the S. cerevisiae genome by gene deletion and parallel analysis. (
  • OMA provides pairwise and groupwise orthologs, functional annotations, local and global gene order conservation (synteny) information, among many other functions. (
  • This is the first time a gene therapy has been administered to a child with Tay-Sachs disease, and it is remarkable that we have not only seen good safety and tolerability to date, but also evidence of functional β-Hexosaminidase A enzyme activity," said Dr. Gavin Corcoran, Executive Vice President of Research and Development at Axovant. (
  • The specific patents the lawsuit challenged are on the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. (
  • The NAP-encoding gene closest to OriC is hupA , encoding histone-like protein from E. coli strain U93 (HU)α. (
  • Right after sending her husband's sperm into her egg, an embryologist also sent in CRISPR/Cas9 protein and instructions to perform a gene surgery intended to protect the girls from future HIV infection," he said. (
  • Am going through the literature of TFPI-2 protein, where some people have studied its role in apoE knockout mice by replacing TFPI-2 gene by gene therapy. (
  • Every single gene codes for a specific protein and determins thereby its. (
  • With more than 15 years of experience in custom gene synthesis, gene subcloning, recombinant protein production , and antibody development, 90+ technical experts, and PhD account managers with considerable field expertise in gene synthesis services, resulting from over a decade of experience, and state of the art equipment, ProteoGenix has demonstrated its core expertise in this domain. (
  • In fact, several crucial nodes in the networks were identified by way of specialized software: a number of genes so far not linked to aging were chosen by a "guilt-by-association" methodology based on protein-protein interaction maps and data-mining algorithms. (
  • T4 Gene 32 Protein is a single-stranded DNA binding protein required for bacteriophage T4 replication and repair. (
  • Here we present phylogenetic and gene order analyses on the small subunit of glutamate synthase (encoded by gltD ) and its homologues, including the large subunit of sulfide dehydrogenase (encoded by sudA ). (
  • Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses indicate that the gene for the small subunit of glutamate synthase was transferred from a low-GC gram-positive bacterium to a common ancestor of animals, fungi, and plants. (
  • Our analyses, together with several recent publications, show that lateral gene transfers from prokaryotes to unicellular eukaryotes occur with appreciable frequency. (
  • Our objective is to test these phylogenetic inferences using multiple nuclear genes in a coalescence-based analyses. (
  • Partial N-terminal amino acid analyses of KUN virus-specified proteins identified the polyprotein cleavage sites and the definitive gene order. (
  • OBJECTIVE- We sought to identify type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes through a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) in the Amish. (
  • 2017 Genes in Space Winner Sophia Chen designed an experiment to study the effects of DNA damage in astronauts and their susceptibility to cancer. (
  • Sigma Bioinformatics has methodically mapped all TRC3 ORF clones to each current gene set. (
  • Our ready-to-use MISSION® TRC3 Open Reading Frame (ORF) clones allow for stable integration, enrichment of cells, and long-term gene expression in difficult-to-transfect cell lines utilizing our best. (
  • Ancestral gene order reconstruction for flowering plants has lagged behind developments in yeasts, insects and higher animals, because of the recency of widespread plant genome sequencing, sequencers' embargoes on public data use, paralogies due to whole genome duplication ( WGD ) and fractionation of undeleted duplicates, extensive paralogy from other sources, and the computational cost of existing methods. (
  • Motivation: Phylogenetic reconstruction from gene-order data has attracted increasing attention from both biologists and computer scientists over the last few years. (
  • Thus, reconstruction based on gene-order data can now be accomplished with high accuracy on datasets of significant size. (
  • Later, when the web was in its toddler stage, deep in the throes of excessive speculation that marked the first dot com bubble, Gene talked in 2000 about the "dark horse on the horizon" that threatened to turn the web into one big shopping mall with no place for innovators, creators, culture, and speech just for the sake of speech. (
  • In Escherichia coli crosstalk between DNA supercoiling, nucleoid-associated proteins and major RNA polymerase σ initiation factors regulates growth phase-dependent gene transcription. (
  • Genes are coded instructions for making proteins, the molecules that control how cells work. (
  • APE special guests Jamaica Dyer (Weird Fishes), Dean Haspiel (Billy Dogma, in addition to his work with Harvey Pekar [Quitter] and Jonathan Ames [The Alcoholic]), Phoebe Gloeckner (The Diary of a Teenage Girl), and Dash Shaw (Bottomless Belly Button), along with Nate Powell (Swallow Me Whole), and Gene Luen Yang (American Born Chinese), talk with moderator Shaenon K. Garrity (Narbonic, Skin Horse) about their very personal work. (
  • A fair amount of research has been done trying to determine whether gene orders evolve according to a molecular clock (molecular clock hypothesis) or in jumps (punctuated equilibrium). (
  • We use the gene order evidence to evaluate the hypothesis that the order Malpighiales belongs to the malvids rather than as traditionally assigned to the fabids. (
  • In [ 19 ], the FC is combined with the hypothesis testing for assessing prediction error in the selection of the DE genes. (
  • Scientist He Jiankui said this week that he used a gene-editing technology known as CRISPR-Cas9 to alter the embryonic genes of the twin girls born this month. (
  • What vectors are available for standard gene synthesis orders? (
  • Method Development for the Determination of particulate Glyphosate in Retroviral vectors are attractive candidates for such in vivo gene therapy applications. (
  • Genetically modified viruses and specially designed nanoparticles are both in development as gene therapy vectors. (
  • My name is Sophia Chen, I go to Lakeside High School in Seattle, Washington, and I am one of the 2017 Genes in Space winners. (
  • It wasn't until recently in 2017 that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a gene-therapy-based cancer treatment for the first time. (
  • These findings shed new lights into how H1 placement dynamics correlates with nucleosome positioning and gene transcription during early Drosophila embryonic development. (
  • We observed a significant 3.2-fold enrichment of the proportion of X-linked genes specific for testicular somatic cells, while the proportions of X-linked genes specific for total testis and for other tissues were comparable. (
  • We found that FCROS is well suited for DE gene identification from noisy datasets when compared with existing FC based methods. (
  • Advances in molecular genetics and structural biology indicate strongly that modifications of tRNA's anticodon domain control gene expression. (
  • The reasons for the maintenance of gene order are still not well understood, as the organization of the prokaryote genome into operons and lateral gene transfer cannot possibly account for all the instances of conservation found. (
  • Lateral gene transfer has been identified as an important mode of genome evolution within prokaryotes. (
  • Overall, we did not find an association between any single BER gene single nucleotide polymorphism and bladder cancer risk. (
  • The public largely supports direct-to-consumer sales of gene screening tests , which for as little as $99 can reveal information such as ancestry and the presence of hereditary diseases and conditions. (
  • One important conclusion of this study, which appears in the latest online edition of the journal Current Biology, is that lamin filaments help arrange silent genes at the nuclear periphery and - during normal tissue-specific activation -- allow release of the activated normal gene. (
  • Gene organization is extensively conserved in some genomic regions, and further studies are needed to elucidate the reason for this conservation. (
  • We found a high level of conservation of gene content among 137 B. pertussis strains with different geographical, temporal, and epidemiological associations, using comparative genomic hybridization. (
  • To organize and catalog all the data pertaining the over 200 genes selected, the first curated database of genes related to human aging was developed: GenAge, part of the Human Ageing Genomic Resources also led by Dr. de Magalhaes. (
  • Eugene Alfred Forsey PC CC FRSC (May 29, 1904 - February 20, 1991) served in the Senate of Canada from 1970 to 1979. (
  • The genes preferentially and specifically expressed in total testis and testicular somatic cells were identified by comparing the testis SAGE transcriptomes to the available transcriptomes of seven non-testis tissues. (
  • Unless the purpose is to produce a cloned individual, the Act does not apply to cloning of genes, cells and tissues. (
  • Beyond the identification of the cell division genes, Glass told BioWorld Science , "our work shows the utility of this simple system as a way of solving complicated biological problems. (
  • Ataxia genes and biomarkers in persons with early onset ataxias, i E. Ataxias Ditional morphological characters for identification. (
  • For the identification of genes and pathways that participate in the. (
  • By the example of bacteria of the genus Rickettsia, we have shown that phylogenetic reconstructions based on quantitative estimates of the similarity and cladistic analysis of gene order data, may, in some cases, amend and fill up classical phylogenetic trees. (
  • A simplified method for establishing the three-point order of genes from Fa data J. Amer. Soc 15 Columbiformes avian order 33, 74 Common somatic blastema of gonads 162165. (
  • Our experiments show that jackknife is indeed necessary and useful for gene order data, yet some caution should be taken when the results are interpreted. (
  • Other new and improved features are detailed, such as reporting of the evolutionarily best conserved isoforms of alternatively spliced genes, the inferred local order of ancestral genes, phylogenetic profiling, better cross-references, fast genome mapping, semantic data sharing via RDF, as well as a special coronavirus OMA with 119 viruses from the Nidovirales order, including SARS-CoV-2, the agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. (
  • Evolution of gene order conservation in prokaryotes. (
  • Conservation of gene order in relation to common gene content within and between prokaryotic domains. (
  • Results from Gadau's study reveal that, compared to other insects, the red harvester ant genome has significantly more genes associated with the sense of smell, as well as detection and metabolism of chemical signals. (
  • Scientists at Johns Hopkins have discovered one way the p53 gene does what it s known for-stopping the colon cancer cells. (
  • Doing this killed cells that contained p53, but fewer were killed in cells lacking p53, further suggesting that this microRNA gets its kill orders from p53. (
  • Make the determination of whether to accept the recommendation or change it Cells expressing the marker gene are selected based upon the selectable phenotype e G.. Order 3 or more products and get free Regular Airmail shipping Hotspot in Biodiversity Science Crossover events that will. (
  • It contains events related to the event August 6, 1986: Monsanto Files Patent Application in Canada for Glyphosate-Resistant Plant Genes and Cells . (
  • Canada grants Monsanto patent no. 1313830 for glyphosate-resistant plant genes and cells. (
  • Though Canada's Plant Breeders' Rights Act protects the intellectual property rights of seed developers, Monsanto felt a patent would provide more protection since it would deny farmers the right to save and re-use seeds containing the company's patented genes and cells. (
  • It asserts that the mere action of planting seeds containing Monsanto's patented genes and cells-their presence intentional or not-infringed on the company's patent. (
  • The company further alleges that in doing so Schmeiser illegally used, reproduced, and created genes, cells, plants, and seeds containing the patent-protected genes and cells. (
  • The artificial suicide gene causes cancer cells to produce an enzyme that converts an otherwise harmless drug into a lethal toxin, so the drug kills cancer cells while leaving healthy cells unharmed. (
  • CONCLUSIONS- Our GWAS of type 2 diabetes identified several gene variants associated with type 2 diabetes, some of which are worthy of further study. (
  • P53 is one of the most commonly mutated genes in human cancers, says Mendell. (
  • SHANGHAI (Reuters) - The Chinese government on Thursday ordered a temporary halt to research activities for people involved in the editing of human genes, after a Chinese scientist said he had edited the genes of twin babies. (
  • Analysis of the gene start and gene end signals of human respiratory syncytial virus: quasi-templated initiation at position 1 of the encoded mRNA. (
  • WASHINGTON - In a 2-1 decision, a federal appeals court once again today partially reversed a lower court's ruling in a case challenging patents on two human genes associated with hereditary breast cancer and ovarian cancer. (
  • The lawsuit against Myriad Genetics and the University of Utah Research Foundation, which hold the patents on the genes, charged that the challenged patents are illegal and restrict both scientific research and patients' access to medical care, and that patents on human genes violate the First Amendment and patent law because genes are "products of nature. (
  • It is absurd to think that a company CAN own naturally-occurring human genes simply because they removed them from the body. (
  • Several major organizations, including the American Medical Association, the March of Dimes and the American Society for Human Genetics, filed friend-of-the-court briefs in support of the challenge to the patents on the BRCA genes. (
  • Our existing gene libraries, containing several dozen pre-synthesized, human wild type genes drive down costs and make our processes more efficient. (
  • By using a combination of bibliographic information and modern high-throughput genomics, employing software developed by the team, each gene was placed in the context of human biology. (
  • Most extensive coverage- Pre-cloned genome-wide arrayed libraries contain 50,000+ clone LentiORF library spanning 14,000+ human genes. (
  • Comprehensive - Trusted TRC3 (The RNAi Consortium) content with ORF gene expression spanning 14,000+ human genes. (
  • This first demonstration of the feasibility of human gene therapy for Tay-Sachs disease is a tribute to the tremendous collaborative effort between the research teams at UMass Medical School and Auburn University, and provides a strong foundation for the transition of this program to the team at Axovant. (
  • Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection. (
  • We found significant synteny and conserved gene order between B. mori and a nymphalid butterfly, Heliconius melpomene , in four linkage groups (LGs), strongly suggesting that using B. mori as a reference for comparative genomics in Lepidotera is highly feasible. (
  • Using Jackknife to Assess the Quality of Gene Order Phylogenies" by Jian Shi, Yiwei Zhang et al. (