Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins: Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.FucoseMembrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.GlucosamineMembrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Galactose Oxidase: An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 1.1.3.9.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.PolysaccharidesSialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Mannosyl-Glycoprotein Endo-beta-N-Acetylglucosaminidase: A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptors, Concanavalin A: Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Blood Platelet Disorders: Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Wheat Germ Agglutinins: Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Acetylgalactosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Glycoside HydrolasesSialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Bunyaviridae: A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tunicamycin: An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Periodic Acid: A strong oxidizing agent.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) Asparagine Amidase: An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Borates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Uukuniemi virus: A species in the genus PHLEBOVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE, infecting vertebrates and vectored by ticks. It has not been associated with human disease though antibodies have been isolated from human sera.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Monensin: An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Hexosaminidases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.Galactosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Dipeptidyl-Peptidases and Tripeptidyl-Peptidases: A subclass of exopeptidases that includes enzymes which cleave either two or three AMINO ACIDS from the end of a peptide chain.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Sialyltransferases: A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIb-IX Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.TritiumSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Ristocetin: An antibiotic mixture of two components, A and B, obtained from Nocardia lurida (or the same substance produced by any other means). It is no longer used clinically because of its toxicity. It causes platelet agglutination and blood coagulation and is used to assay those functions in vitro.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Protein PrecursorsBlood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Receptor, IGF Type 2: A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Platelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Mannosidases: Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Egg Proteins: Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Platelet Activation: A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Swainsonine: An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Cell Membrane Structures: Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Asialoglycoproteins: Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.Calnexin: A lectin found in ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM membranes that binds to specific N-linked OLIGOSACCHARIDES found on newly synthesized proteins. It may play role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.alpha-Mannosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The protein encoded by this gene is a type III glycoprotein that is located primarily in limiting membranes of lysosomes and ... Lysosome membrane protein 2 (LIMP-2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCARB2 gene. LIMP-2 is expressed in brain, ... Lewis V, Green SA, Marsh M, Vihko P, Helenius A, Mellman I (Jun 1985). "Glycoproteins of the lysosomal membrane". The Journal ... Ogata S, Fukuda M (Feb 1994). "Lysosomal targeting of Limp II membrane glycoprotein requires a novel Leu-Ile motif at a ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of membrane glycoproteins. This glycoprotein provides selectins with ... "The genes of major lysosomal membrane glycoproteins, lamp-1 and lamp-2. 5'-flanking sequence of lamp-2 gene and comparison of ... which also house lysosomal membrane glycoproteins. LAMP1 and LAMP2 make up about 50% of lysosomal membrane glycoproteins. (See ... "LAMP2 - Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - LAMP2 gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. ...
"Entrez Gene: POM121 POM121 membrane glycoprotein (homo sapiens)". Kihlmark M, Imreh G, Hallberg E (October 2001). "Sequential ... This gene encodes a member of the FG-repeat-containing nucleoporins. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane ... Nuclear envelope pore membrane protein POM 121 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POM121 gene. Alternatively spliced ... "An integral membrane protein of the pore membrane domain of the nuclear envelope contains a nucleoporin-like region". J Cell ...
In humans it is encoded by the LYVE1 gene. LYVE1 is a type I integral membrane glycoprotein. It acts as a receptor and binds to ... "Entrez Gene: XLKD1 extracellular link domain containing 1". Jackson DG (2003). "The lymphatics revisited: new perspectives from ... 1999). "LYVE-1, a new homologue of the CD44 glycoprotein, is a lymph-specific receptor for hyaluronan". J. Cell Biol. 144 (4): ... 2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ...
"Synaptic membrane glycoproteins gp65 and gp55 are new members of the immunoglobulin superfamily". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (2): 821-7 ... "Entrez Gene: NPTN neuroplastin". Is intelligence written in the genes? Researchers Find Gene that Links Grey Matter with ... Neuroplastin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NPTN gene. Neuroplastin is a type I transmembrane protein belonging ... 2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ...
Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 3 (LAMP3, Lamp3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAMP3 gene. It is one ... "Isolation and characterization of a novel human lung-specific gene homologous to lysosomal membrane glycoproteins 1 and 2: ... "Entrez Gene: LAMP3 lysosomal-associated membrane protein 3". Malaguarnera L, Marsullo A, Zorena K, Musumeci G, Di Rosa M (2017 ... Zhou Z, Xue Q, Wan Y, Yang Y, Wang J, Hung T (2011). "Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 3 is involved in influenza A ...
... the capsid is contained within a host-derived membrane altered by two viral glycoproteins. The prime method of spread of the ... A mutation of the gene CCR5 gives some protection against HIV but leads to more serious complications of WNV infection. ... these genes encode seven nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins. The RNA strand is held within a nucleocapsid ... while the incidence of the gene in the general population is only 1.0%. Preliminary diagnosis is often based on the patient's ...
This gene encodes a receptor for the OX-2 membrane glycoprotein. Both the receptor and substrate are cell surface glycoproteins ... 2003). "Characterization of human cd200 glycoprotein receptor gene located on chromosome 3q12-13". Gene. 311: 99-104. doi: ... Cell surface glycoprotein CD200 receptor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD200R1 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: CD200R1 CD200 receptor 1". Matsue H (2006). "CD 200-mediated regulation of skin immunity". J. Invest. Dermatol. ...
Unique glycoproteins and major outer membrane proteins can be expressed variously using 25 different genes. The glycoproteins ... The great diversity in outer membrane protein genes is thought to originate from gene duplication events, followed by the ... The Ehrlichia genome contains many different variants of genes that encode outer membrane proteins. These genes have gone ... The more outer-membrane protein genes that can be expressed, the higher the chance the organism can avoid being recognized by ...
This gene is a member of the cadherin superfamily, genes encoding calcium-dependent, membrane-associated glycoproteins. The ... CDH17 human gene details in the UCSC Genome Browser. Human CDH16 genome location and CDH16 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... "Entrez Gene: CDH17 cadherin 17, LI cadherin (liver-intestine)". Gessner R, Tauber R (2001). "Intestinal cell adhesion molecules ... Chalmers IJ, Hofler H, Atkinson MJ (Jun 1999). "Mapping of a cadherin gene cluster to a region of chromosome 5 subject to ...
This gene is a member of the cadherin superfamily, genes encoding calcium-dependent, membrane-associated glycoproteins. Mapped ... CDH16 human gene location in the UCSC Genome Browser. CDH16 human gene details in the UCSC Genome Browser.. ... "Entrez Gene: CDH16 cadherin 16, KSP-cadherin". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap ... 2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ...
"Characterization of a tumor-associated gene, a member of a novel family of genes encoding membrane glycoproteins". Gene. 183 (1 ... "Epithelial membrane protein-2 and epithelial membrane protein-3: two novel members of the peripheral myelin protein 22 gene ... Epithelial membrane protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EMP3 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: EMP3 epithelial membrane protein 3". Lobsiger CS, Magyar JP, Taylor V, et al. (1997). "Identification and ...
"Characterization of a tumor-associated gene, a member of a novel family of genes encoding membrane glycoproteins". Gene. 183 (1 ... "Entrez Gene: EMP1 epithelial membrane protein 1". Jain A, Tindell CA, Laux I, et al. (2005). "Epithelial membrane protein-1 is ... Epithelial membrane protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EMP1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 1999). "Regional localization of the human epithelial membrane protein genes 1, 2, and 3 (EMP1, EMP2, EMP3) to 12p12.3, 16p13.2 ...
"Characterization of a tumor-associated gene, a member of a novel family of genes encoding membrane glycoproteins". Gene. 183 (1 ... "Epithelial membrane protein-2 and epithelial membrane protein-3: two novel members of the peripheral myelin protein 22 gene ... Epithelial membrane protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EMP2 gene. Mutations in EMP2 cause Childhood-Onset ... "Entrez Gene: EMP2 epithelial membrane protein 2". Gee, H. Y.; Ashraf, S; Wan, X; Vega-Warner, V; Esteve-Rudd, J; Lovric, S; ...
Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane glycoproteins composed of a distinct alpha chain and a common beta chain. They ... "Lack of association between the platelet glycoprotein Ia C807T gene polymorphism and coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis ... Integrin alpha-2 or CD49b (cluster of differentiation 49b) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CD49b gene. The CD49b ... ITGA2 Info with links in the Cell Migration Gateway Human ITGA2 genome location and ITGA2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ...
Analyses of CDA II erythrocyte membranes showed that the band 3 glycoprotein is underglycosylated. An aberrant glycosylation ... CDA type II is caused by mutations in the SEC23B gene. This gene provides instructions for making a protein that is involved in ... Researchers are working to determine how mutations in the SEC23B gene lead to the signs and symptoms of CDA type II. ... Potential cures include bone marrow transplantation and gene therapy. Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia Thalassemia ...
Buckley MF, Loveland KA, McKinstry WJ, Garson OM, Goding JW (1990). "Plasma cell membrane glycoprotein PC-1. cDNA cloning of ... "Entrez Gene: ENPP1 ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1". Maddux BA, Goldfine ID (January 2000). "Membrane ... Maddux BA, Goldfine ID (2000). "Membrane glycoprotein PC-1 inhibition of insulin receptor function occurs via direct ... of the human glycoprotein PC-1 gene coding region is strongly associated with insulin resistance". Diabetes. 48 (9): 1881-4. ...
This gene is one of seven beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) genes. They encode type II membrane-bound glycoproteins ... The enzyme encoded by this gene synthesizes N-acetyllactosamine in glycolipids and glycoproteins. Its substrate specificity is ... As type II membrane proteins, they have an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence that directs the protein to the Golgi ... "Entrez Gene: B4GALT2 UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4- galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 2". Human B4GALT2 genome location and ...
This gene is one of seven beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) genes. They encode type II membrane-bound glycoproteins ... This gene encodes an enzyme that may be mainly involved in the synthesis of the first N-acetyllactosamine unit of poly-N- ... As type II membrane proteins, they have an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence that directs the protein to the Golgi ... "Entrez Gene: B4GALT3 UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4- galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 3". Human B4GALT3 genome location and ...
This gene is one of seven beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) genes. They encode type II membrane-bound glycoproteins ... The function of the enzyme encoded by this gene is not clear. This gene was previously designated as B4GALT4 but was renamed to ... As type II membrane proteins, they have an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence that directs the protein to the Golgi ... 2002). "Gene expression profile of human bone marrow stromal cells: high-throughput expressed sequence tag sequencing analysis ...
This gene is one of seven beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) genes. They encode type II membrane-bound glycoproteins ... As type II membrane proteins, they have an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence that directs the protein to the Golgi ... "Entrez Gene: B4GALT4 UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4- galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 4". Human B4GALT4 genome location and ... The enzyme encoded by this gene appears to mainly play a role in glycolipid biosynthesis. Two alternatively spliced transcript ...
This gene is one of seven beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) genes. They encode type II membrane-bound glycoproteins ... This gene is unique among the beta4GalT genes because it encodes an enzyme that participates both in glycoconjugate and lactose ... As type II membrane proteins, they have an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence that directs the protein to the Golgi ... "Entrez Gene: B4GALT1 UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4- galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 1". Amado M, Almeida R, Schwientek T, ...
Neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6-a is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPM6A gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: GPM6A glycoprotein M6A". Boks MP, Hoogendoorn M, Jungerius BJ, et al. (2008). "Do mood symptoms subdivide the ... Liang YJ, Wu DF, Stumm R, Hollt V, Koch T (Jul 2008). "Membrane glycoprotein M6A promotes mu-opioid receptor endocytosis and ... 1996). "Isolation and mapping of the human glycoprotein M6 gene (GPM6A) to 4q33→q34". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 74 (1-2): 138-9. ...
"The genes of major lysosomal membrane glycoproteins, lamp-1 and lamp-2. 5'-flanking sequence of lamp-2 gene and comparison of ... "The genes of major lysosomal membrane glycoproteins, lamp-1 and lamp-2. 5'-flanking sequence of lamp-2 gene and comparison of ... Lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 is a glycoprotein from a family of Lysosome-associated membrane glycoproteins. The LAMP ... Lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) also known as lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 1 and CD107a (Cluster ...
The protein encoded by this gene (interleukin 17A receptor; IL17RA) is a ubiquitous type I membrane glycoprotein that binds ... Wang X, Dong Z, Zhu DD, Guan B (2006). "Expression profile of immune-associated genes in nasal polyps". Ann. Otol. Rhinol. ... Interleukin 17 receptor A, also known as IL17RA and CDw217 (cluster of differentiation w217), is a human gene. Interleukin 17A ... 2004). "The Status, Quality, and Expansion of the NIH Full-Length cDNA Project: The Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ...
... from membrane currents, proteins, and chemical coupling to network oscillations, columnar and topographic architecture, and ... aims to construct a biophysically detailed simulation of a cortical column on the Blue Gene supercomputer. ... Voltage sensitive ion channels are glycoprotein molecules which extend through the lipid bilayer, allowing ions to traverse ... "A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve". J. Physiol. 117 (4 ...
Defective Glycoprotein Ib/IX Complex Platelet-Type von Willebrand Disease (Pseudo-von Willibrand Disease) Other Inherited ... Chapter Outline QUALITATIVE DISORDERS Platelet Membrane Glanzmann Thrombasthenia: Defective Platelet Integrin α IIb β 3 Other ... Many of the membrane receptors in these processes have been cloned, and our understanding of the interplay between membrane ... but deletion of the gene in mice increases their risk for thrombosis after arterial injury and polymorphisms in the PGI 2 gene ...
Plasma membrane. *Cell membrane By similarity; Multi-pass membrane protein By similarity ... Neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6-aAdd BLAST. 278. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... Gene expression databases. Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution. More...Bgeei. ENSG00000150625 Expressed in 194 organ(s ... Cell membrane, Cell projection, Membrane. ,p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated ...
Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2Add BLAST. 390. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). Description ... "Characterization and cloning of lgp110, a lysosomal membrane glycoprotein from mouse and rat cells.". Granger B.L., Green S.A. ... "Characterization and cloning of lgp110, a lysosomal membrane glycoprotein from mouse and rat cells.". Granger B.L., Green S.A. ... Cell membrane, Cytoplasmic vesicle, Endosome, Lysosome, Membrane. ,p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and ...
Mutational analysis of the gene encoding the zymogen granule membrane glycoprotein 2 (GP2) in patients with chronic ...
Multidisease gene therapy in mice. A single formulation combining two gene therapies treated an array of age-related disorders ... The central structural feature of the membrane fusion protein subunit from the Ebola virus glycoprotein is a long triple- ... The central structural feature of the membrane fusion protein subunit from the Ebola virus glycoprotein is a long triple- ... The central structural feature of the membrane fusion protein subunit from the Ebola virus glycoprotein is a long triple- ...
... contains a multicopy gene family that encodes the major surface glycoprotein (Msg). Pneumocystis can vary the expressed Msg, ... Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal * Genetic Variation* * Humans * Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics* * Membrane Glycoproteins ... Variation in the major surface glycoprotein genes in Pneumocystis jirovecii J Infect Dis. 2008 Sep 1;198(5):741-9. doi: 10.1086 ... contains a multicopy gene family that encodes the major surface glycoprotein (Msg). Pneumocystis can vary the expressed Msg, ...
POM121 Membrane Glycoprotein (Rat) Pseudogene, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Promoters and enhancers for LOC728575 Gene GeneHancer (GH) Identifier. GH Type. GH. Score. GH Sources. Gene Association Score. ... Genomic Locations for LOC728575 Gene. Genomic Locations for LOC728575 Gene chr5:71,233,384-71,234,073. (GRCh38/hg38). Size:. ... Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for LOC728575 Gene ...
Showing Protein T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e, membrane-associated (HMDBP02412). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene ... T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e, membrane-associated MLLLFLLFEGLCCPGENTAAPQALQSYHLAAEEQLSFRMLQTSSFANHSWAHSEGSGWLG ... T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e, soluble is required for the presentation of glycolipid antigens on the cell surface. The ... Calabi F, Jarvis JM, Martin L, Milstein C: Two classes of CD1 genes. Eur J Immunol. 1989 Feb;19(2):285-92. [PubMed:2467814 ] ...
Membrane Glycoproteins * Mutant Proteins * Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins * gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency ... Using deductive constraints and gene expression analyses, we identify CD317 (also called BST2 or HM1.24), a membrane protein of ...
Eugene, OR). A goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin antibody conjugated with 12-nm-diameter colloidal gold particles was purchased ... Membrane microdomains are defined as regions of a membrane containing a membrane component (e.g., protein or lipid) at a ... Bitopic membrane topology of the stable signal peptide in the tripartite Junín virus GP-C envelope glycoprotein complex. J. ... Role of the stable signal peptide of the Junín arenavirus envelope glycoprotein in pH-dependent membrane fusion. J. Virol. 80: ...
These results suggest that testosterone stimulates ZPC protein production at the gene transcription level. ... Effects of Testosterone on Production of Perivitelline Membrane Glycoprotein ZPC by Granulosa Cells of Japanese Quail (Coturnix ... "Effects of Testosterone on Production of Perivitelline Membrane Glycoprotein ZPC by Granulosa Cells of Japanese Quail (Coturnix ... "Effects of Testosterone on Production of Perivitelline Membrane Glycoprotein ZPC by Granulosa Cells of Japanese Quail (Coturnix ...
GPVI is a receptor protein that is embedded in the outer membrane of blood cells called platelets, which are an essential ... Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... provides instructions for making a protein called glycoprotein ... Glycoprotein VI deficiency. At least five mutations in the GP6 gene have been found to cause glycoprotein VI deficiency, a ... The GP6 gene provides instructions for making a protein called glycoprotein VI (GPVI). GPVI is a receptor protein that is ...
110 kDa cell membrane glycoprotein. glycoprotein 110. rpn13 homolog. NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq) Go to the top of the ... Gene neighbors Overlapping genes and two nearest non-overlapping genes on either side ... Homologs of the Adrm1 gene: The Adrm1 gene is conserved in human, chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, dog, cow, rat, chicken, zebrafish ... Gene Ontology Provided by MGI Function. Evidence Code. Pubs. endopeptidase activator activity IBA Inferred from Biological ...
membrane alanyl aminopeptidase. microsomal aminopeptidase. myeloid plasma membrane glycoprotein CD13. NP_001141.2. *EC 3.4.11.2 ... ANPEP alanyl aminopeptidase, membrane [Homo sapiens] ANPEP alanyl aminopeptidase, membrane [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:290 ... Gene neighbors Overlapping genes and two nearest non-overlapping genes on either side ... ANPEP alanyl aminopeptidase, membrane [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 290, updated on 13-Mar-2020 ...
What does this gene/protein do?. Show (12). MUC17 is implicated in:. - apical plasma membrane - cellular homeostasis - cellular ... MUC17 glycoprotein is a membrane-associated mucin that is mainly expressed in the digestive tract. It has been suggested that ... Thus, these membrane mucins reside together in a gene cluster, but are expressed in different tissues and are likely to have ... The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane-bound mucin that provides protection to gut epithelial cells. The encoded ...
Cancer Gene Expression Regulation. *Base Sequence. *Membrane Glycoproteins. *Lymphoma. *Molecular Sequence Data ... Gene expression analysis of erlotinib-treated HNSCC cells revealed an upregulation of genes involved in MyD88-dependent ... Mutation and expression analysis of the IDH1, IDH2, DNMT3A, and MYD88 genes in colorectal cancer.. Gene. 2014; 546(2):263-70 [ ... FISH analyses for BCL2, BCL6 and MYC gene rearrangements detected only two cases harboring BCL2 gene translocation and in one ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a type III glycoprotein that is located primarily in limiting membranes of lysosomes and ... Lysosome membrane protein 2 (LIMP-2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCARB2 gene. LIMP-2 is expressed in brain, ... Lewis V, Green SA, Marsh M, Vihko P, Helenius A, Mellman I (Jun 1985). "Glycoproteins of the lysosomal membrane". The Journal ... Ogata S, Fukuda M (Feb 1994). "Lysosomal targeting of Limp II membrane glycoprotein requires a novel Leu-Ile motif at a ...
Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... The ITGA2B gene provides instructions for making one part, the ... platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb. Additional Information & Resources. Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry. *Tests of ... The ITGA2B gene provides instructions for making one part, the alphaIIb subunit, of a receptor complex called integrin alphaIIb ... The alphaIIb subunit attaches (binds) to the beta3 subunit, which is produced from the ITGB3 gene, to form integrin αIIbβ3. It ...
Dysadherin, a cancer-associated membrane layer glycoprotein, down-regulates E-cadherin and promotes tumor metastasis. gene can ... Dysadherin, a cancer-associated membrane layer glycoprotein, down-regulates E-cadherin and promotes tumor. By admin on ...
Gene Expression. Humans. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / cytology, drug effects, metabolism. Membrane Glycoproteins / biosynthesis*. ... 0/Antigens, CD95; 0/FASLG protein, human; 0/Fas Ligand Protein; 0/Membrane Glycoproteins; 0/Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0/ ...
Deletion mutants of glycoproteins gE, gI, gM, gK, and the putative membrane protein encoded by the UL20 gene exhibit a decrease ... Pseudorabies Virus Glycoprotein M Inhibits Membrane Fusion. Barbara G. Klupp, Ralf Nixdorf, Thomas C. Mettenleiter ... Pseudorabies Virus Glycoprotein M Inhibits Membrane Fusion Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal ... 1998) Glycoproteins gB, gD, and gHL of herpes simplex virus type 1 are necessary and sufficient to mediate membrane fusion in a ...
By using native membrane vesicles containing high amounts of P-gp, we show here that (i) this basal ATPase activity is tightly ... Finally, this P-gp-mediated cholesterol redistribution in the cell membrane makes it likely that P-gp contributes in ... is a plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette transporter, responsible for multidrug resistance in tumor cells. P-gp catalyzes the ... and they are fully consistent with the possibility that P-gp may actively translocate cholesterol in the membrane. ...
... lines PCC4-F and F9 have played important roles in the isolation and characterization of the two ubiquitous basement membrane ... Next Document: Midkine (MK), the product of a retinoic acid responsive gene, and pleiotrophin constitute a new prot.... ... Basement Membrane / chemistry, metabolism. Laminin / chemistry*, metabolism, physiology. Membrane Glycoproteins / chemistry*, ... 0/Laminin; 0/Membrane Glycoproteins; 0/Neoplasm Proteins; 0/nidogen From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National ...
Membrane and envelope proteins. Rottier, P. J. M. 1995. The coronavirus membrane glycoprotein. In S. G. Siddell, Ed. The ... Nucleocapsid-independent assembly of coronavirus-like particles by co-expression of viral envelope protein genes. EMBO J. 15: ... glycoprotein." In S. G. Siddell, Ed. The Coronaviridae. Plenum, New York.. de Groot, R. J., W. Luytjes, M. C. Horzinek et al. ... Molecular analysis of the S1 subunit of the spike glycoprotein of respiratory and enteric bovine coronavirus isolates. Virus ...
For example, the gene for membrane glycoprotein PC-1 is considered to be a candidate for insulin resistance, since this protein ... The study of candidate genes has proven to be a popular approach. A candidate gene is usually defined as a gene whose protein ... Membrane glycoprotein PC-1 and insulin resistance. Mol Cell Biochem 1998. 182:177-184. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef ... Even granting the existence of such genes, however, the best route toward identifying them - and the related genes that are ...
  • Many of the membrane receptors in these processes have been cloned, and our understanding of the interplay between membrane receptors, intracellular molecules, and the cytoskeleton continues to increase. (oncohemakey.com)
  • This structural organization that places the membrane anchor in close proximity to the hydrophobic fusion peptide, at the same end of a long rod-shaped molecule, was proposed to facilitate the membrane fusion process ( 17 ) and thus viral entry. (pnas.org)
  • Virus-cell fusion events mediated by viral membrane glycoproteins constitute a crucial primary step in the infectious cycle of all enveloped viruses. (asm.org)
  • While it is generally agreed that filovirus entry into the host cytoplasm requires viral internalization into acidic endosomal compartments and proteolytic cleavage of the envelope glycoprotein by endo/lysosomal cysteine proteases, our understanding of the specific endocytic pathways co-opted by filoviruses remains limited. (mdpi.com)
  • These virions contain a single virus‑encoded membrane glycoprotein, GP, which is organized into homotrimeric spikes on the viral surface (see [ 7 , 8 , 9 ] for recent reviews). (mdpi.com)
  • [ 5 ] Although enormous progress has recently been made in defining and characterizing the molecular biology, immunology, and antiviral therapeutic targets for CMV, considerable work remains in devising strategies for prevention of CMV infection and in understanding the role of specific viral genes in pathogenesis. (medscape.com)
  • Synthesis of late genes is highly dependent on viral DNA replication and can be blocked by inhibitors of viral DNA polymerase, such as ganciclovir. (medscape.com)
  • The rationale for these studies was generated by experience with viral fusogenic membrane glycoproteins as cytotoxic genes and the recognition of the potential of replicating viruses in the treatment of human malignancy. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Paramyxoviruses enter host cells by fusing the viral envelope with a host cell membrane. (osu.edu)
  • The latter enzyme was thought to be involved in the metabolism of regulatory peptides by diverse cell types, including small intestinal and renal tubular epithelial cells, macrophages, granulocytes, and synaptic membranes from the CNS. (nih.gov)
  • These observations, together with the above-mentioned effects on cellular metabolism, gene expression, and signaling, indicate that purine analogues may potentiate the effect of cytotoxic drugs via various mechanisms of action. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Novel and/or improved vector systems are constantly being developed to provide a highly effective technology with which to explore the molecular basis of neuronal gene therapy (see Jakobsson et al . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The first lentiviral vectors were derived from human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) but were pseudotyped by using the envelope glycoproteins from other viruses such as the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G), a fusion protein used to improve infection efficiency. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The Ebola gp2 gene sequence encoding residues 552-650 (Zaire subtype) ( 4 ) was amplified with synthetic oligonucleotides, and Cys-556 and Cys-609 were mutated to serines by standard PCR methods. (pnas.org)
  • To investigate the involvement of specific apically-located secretory membrane transporters, CPT transport studies were conducted using MDCKII/PGP cells and MDCKII/MRP2 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aminopeptidase N is located in the small-intestinal and renal microvillar membrane, and also in other plasma membranes. (nih.gov)
  • They are rarely found on the plasma membranes of normal cells, and are found more on highly metastatic tumors than on poorly metastatic ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • NCBI/Uniprot data below describe general gene information for THY1 . (mybiosource.com)
  • This database is built by NCBI, and, provides only a single record for each gene/transcript. (origene.com)