A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
'Medical Libraries' are repositories or digital platforms that accumulate, organize, and provide access to a wide range of biomedical information resources including but not limited to books, journals, electronic databases, multimedia materials, and other evidence-based health data for the purpose of supporting and advancing clinical practice, education, research, and administration in healthcare.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Collections of systematically acquired and organized information resources, and usually providing assistance to users. (ERIC Thesaurus, http://www.eric.ed.gov/ accessed 2/1/2008)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, cocci to short rod-shaped ARCHAEA, in the family METHANOBACTERIACEAE, order METHANOBACTERIALES. They are found in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or other anoxic environments.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Information centers primarily serving the needs of hospital medical staff and sometimes also providing patient education and other services.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Collection and analysis of data pertaining to operations of a particular library, library system, or group of independent libraries, with recommendations for improvement and/or ordered plans for further development.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Planning, organizing, staffing, direction, and control of libraries.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.
Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Study of the principles and practices of library administration and services.
Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.
'Nursing libraries' are specialized collections of resources, including books, journals, databases, and electronic media, that provide evidence-based information to support nursing education, research, and practice, and promote the ongoing professional development of nurses.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
My apologies, there seems to be a misunderstanding - "Library Associations" is not a medical term; it refers to organizations that promote the interests of libraries and library professionals, often advocating for issues such as funding, intellectual freedom, and professional development, which can include medical or health science librarians.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
'Catalogs, Library' are systematic listings or databases of an organized collection of library resources, such as books, periodicals, multimedia materials, and digital assets, that provide comprehensive descriptions, locations, and access information to facilitate efficient retrieval and usage.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Development of a library collection, including the determination and coordination of selection policy, assessment of needs of users and potential users, collection use studies, collection evaluation, identification of collection needs, selection of materials, planning for resource sharing, collection maintenance and weeding, and budgeting.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Acquisition, organization, and preparation of library materials for use, including selection, weeding, cataloging, classification, and preservation.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The use of automatic machines or processing devices in libraries. The automation may be applied to library administrative activities, office procedures, and delivery of library services to users.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Print and non-print materials collected, processed, and stored by libraries. They comprise books, periodicals, pamphlets, reports, microforms, maps, manuscripts, motion pictures, and all other forms of audiovisual records. (Harrod, The Librarians' Glossary, 4th ed, p497)
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Interlibrary Loans is a service that facilitates the borrowing and lending of library materials between different libraries to provide their patrons access to resources that may not be available in their own library's collection.
'Dental libraries' are collections of resources, including books, journals, databases, and multimedia materials, that provide information and knowledge to support dental education, research, and practice.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of library science or information.
Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.
Specialists in the management of a library or the services rendered by a library, bringing professional skills to administration, organization of material and personnel, interpretation of bibliothecal rules, the development and maintenance of the library's collection, and the provision of information services.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Activities performed in the preparation of bibliographic records for CATALOGS. It is carried out according to a set of rules and contains information enabling the user to know what is available and where items can be found.
Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.
A book is not a medical term, but generally refers to a set of printed or written sheets of paper bound together that can contain a wide range of information including literature, research, educational content, and more, which may be utilized in the medical field for various purposes such as learning, reference, or patient education.
The art and science of designing buildings and structures. More generally, it is the design of the total built environment, including town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture.
Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
'Book collecting' is not a term with a recognized medical definition. However, it generally refers to the hobby or pursuit of gathering, preserving, and appreciating books, often focusing on specific authors, titles, subjects, or editions, for personal enjoyment, study, or investment.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Book Selection" is not a term with a recognized medical definition in the field of healthcare or medicine. It might be related to literature or library science, where it refers to the process of choosing books for a collection based on various criteria such as relevance, quality, and diversity.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.
Discussion of lists of works, documents or other publications, usually with some relationship between them, e.g., by a given author, on a given subject, or published in a given place, and differing from a catalog in that its contents are restricted to holdings of a single collection, library, or group of libraries. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
The planning and managing of programs, services, and resources.
Small computers that lack the speed, memory capacity, and instructional capability of the full-size computer but usually retain its programmable flexibility. They are larger, faster, and more flexible, powerful, and expensive than microcomputers.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Books in the field of medicine intended primarily for consultation.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Techniques utilizing cells that express RECOMBINANT FUSION PROTEINS engineered to translocate through the CELL MEMBRANE and remain attached to the outside of the cell.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Organizations composed of members with common interests and whose professions may be similar.
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The use of DNA recombination (RECOMBINATION, GENETIC) to prepare a large gene library of novel, chimeric genes from a population of randomly fragmented DNA from related gene sequences.
An optical disk storage system for computers on which data can be read or from which data can be retrieved but not entered or modified. A CD-ROM unit is almost identical to the compact disk playback device for home use.
Procedures, strategies, and theories of planning.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.
"Microfilming" in a medical context refers to the process of preserving and archiving documents, including medical records, by reducing them to a microfilm format for space-saving storage and easy retrieval.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.

The Genexpress IMAGE knowledge base of the human brain transcriptome: a prototype integrated resource for functional and computational genomics. (1/9359)

Expression profiles of 5058 human gene transcripts represented by an array of 7451 clones from the first IMAGE Consortium cDNA library from infant brain have been collected by semiquantitative hybridization of the array with complex probes derived by reverse transcription of mRNA from brain and five other human tissues. Twenty-one percent of the clones corresponded to transcripts that could be classified in general categories of low, moderate, or high abundance. These expression profiles were integrated with cDNA clone and sequence clustering and gene mapping information from an upgraded version of the Genexpress Index. For seven gene transcripts found to be transcribed preferentially or specifically in brain, the expression profiles were confirmed by Northern blot analyses of mRNA from eight adult and four fetal tissues, and 15 distinct regions of brain. In four instances, further documentation of the sites of expression was obtained by in situ hybridization of rat-brain tissue sections. A systematic effort was undertaken to further integrate available cytogenetic, genetic, physical, and genic map informations through radiation-hybrid mapping to provide a unique validated map location for each of these genes in relation to the disease map. The resulting Genexpress IMAGE Knowledge Base is illustrated by five examples presented in the printed article with additional data available on a dedicated Web site at the address http://idefix.upr420.vjf.cnrs.fr/EXPR++ +/ welcome.html.  (+info)

Cloning of the peroxiredoxin gene family in rats and characterization of the fourth member. (2/9359)

Peroxiredoxin (PRx) exhibits thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase activity and constitutes a family of proteins. Four members of genes from rat tissues were isolated by PCR using degenerated primers based on the sequences which encode a pair of highly conserved Cys-containing domains, and were then cloned to full-length cDNAs. These included two genes which have previously been isolated in rats, PRx I and PRx II, and two rat homologues of PRx III and PRx IV. We showed, for the first time, the simultaneous expression of all four genes in various rat tissues by Northern blotting. Since a discrepancy exists regarding cellular distribution, we further characterized PRx IV by expressing it in COS-1 cells. This clearly demonstrates that PRx IV is a secretory form and functions within the extracellular space.  (+info)

Cloning of a bovine orphan transporter and its short splicing variant. (3/9359)

We have isolated a cDNA (bv7-3) encoding a member of the Na+,Cl(-)-dependent transporter family and its short splicing variant (bv7-3s) by screening a bovine retina cDNA library. Sequence analysis revealed that bv7-3 encodes a protein of 729 amino acids and is a bovine homologue of the rat orphan transporter v7-3-2. bv7-3s contains 265 amino acids, sharing 252 N-terminal amino acids with bv7-3. Both mRNAs for bv7-3 and bv7-3s were detected in nervous system by Northern blot analysis. In immunofluorescence analysis in transfected HEK 293T cells, myc-tagged bv7-3 was mainly detected on the plasma membrane, whereas myc-tagged bv7-3s showed a pattern of intracellular membrane staining.  (+info)

The latrophilin family: multiply spliced G protein-coupled receptors with differential tissue distribution. (4/9359)

Latrophilin is a brain-specific Ca2+-independent receptor of alpha-latrotoxin, a potent presynaptic neurotoxin. We now report the finding of two novel latrophilin homologues. All three latrophilins are unusual G protein-coupled receptors. They exhibit strong similarities within their lectin, olfactomedin and transmembrane domains but possess variable C-termini. Latrophilins have up to seven sites of alternative splicing; some splice variants contain an altered third cytoplasmic loop or a truncated cytoplasmic tail. Only latrophilin-1 binds alpha-latrotoxin; it is abundant in brain and is present in endocrine cells. Latrophilin-3 is also brain-specific, whereas latrophilin-2 is ubiquitous. Together, latrophilins form a novel family of heterogeneous G protein-coupled receptors with distinct tissue distribution and functions.  (+info)

Identification of the human melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan antigen epitope recognized by the antitumor monoclonal antibody 763.74 from a peptide phage library. (5/9359)

To identify the epitope of the melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) recognized by the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 763.74, we first expressed random DNA fragments obtained from the complete coding sequence of the MCSP core glycoproteins in phages and selected without success for binders to the murine mAb 763.74. We then used a library of random heptapeptides displayed at the surface of the filamentous M13 phage as fusion protein to the NH2-terminal portion of the minor coat protein III. After three rounds of selection on the bound mAb, several phages displaying related binding peptides were identified, yielding the consensus sequence Val-His-Leu-Asn-Tyr-Glu-His. Competitive ELISA experiments showed that this peptide can be specifically prevented from binding to mAb 763.74 by an anti-idiotypic MK2-23 mouse:human chimeric mAb and by A375 melanoma cells expressing the antigen MCSP. We screened the amino acid sequence of the MCSP molecule for a region of homology to the consensus sequence and found that the amino acid sequence Val-His-Ile-Asn-Ala-His spanning positions 289 and 294 has high homology. Synthetic linear peptides corresponding to the consensus sequence as well as to the MCSP-derived epitope inhibit the binding of mAb 763.74 to the phages displaying the consensus amino acid sequence. Finally, the biotinylated consensus peptide absorbed to streptavidin-microtiter plates can be used for the detection of mAb 763.74 in human serum. These results show clearly that the MCSP epitope defined by mAb 763.74 has been identified.  (+info)

Syntaxin 11 is associated with SNAP-23 on late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. (6/9359)

SNARE proteins are known to play a role in regulating intracellular protein transport between donor and target membranes. This docking and fusion process involves the interaction of specific vesicle-SNAREs (e.g. VAMP) with specific cognate target-SNAREs (e.g. syntaxin and SNAP-23). Using human SNAP-23 as the bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human B-lymphocyte cDNA library, we have identified the 287-amino-acid SNARE protein syntaxin 11. Like other syntaxin family members, syntaxin 11 binds to the SNARE proteins VAMP and SNAP-23 in vitro and also exists in a complex with SNAP-23 in transfected HeLa cells and in native human B lymphocytes. Unlike other syntaxin family members, no obvious transmembrane domain is present in syntaxin 11. Nevertheless, syntaxin 11 is predominantly membrane-associated and colocalizes with the mannose 6-phosphate receptor on late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. These data suggest that syntaxin 11 is a SNARE that acts to regulate protein transport between late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network in mammalian cells.  (+info)

Caffeine can override the S-M checkpoint in fission yeast. (7/9359)

The replication checkpoint (or 'S-M checkpoint') control prevents progression into mitosis when DNA replication is incomplete. Caffeine has been known for some time to have the capacity to override the S-M checkpoint in animal cells. We show here that caffeine also disrupts the S-M checkpoint in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. By contrast, no comparable effects of caffeine on the S. pombe DNA damage checkpoint were seen. S. pombe cells arrested in early S phase and then exposed to caffeine lost viability rapidly as they attempted to enter mitosis, which was accompanied by tyrosine dephosphorylation of Cdc2. Despite this, the caffeine-induced loss of viability was not blocked in a temperature-sensitive cdc2 mutant incubated at the restrictive temperature, although catastrophic mitosis was prevented under these conditions. This suggests that, in addition to S-M checkpoint control, a caffeine-sensitive function may be important for maintenance of cell viability during S phase arrest. The lethality of a combination of caffeine with the DNA replication inhibitor hydroxyurea was suppressed by overexpression of Cds1 or Chk1, protein kinases previously implicated in S-M checkpoint control and recovery from S phase arrest. In addition, the same combination of drugs was specifically tolerated in cells overexpressing either of two novel S. pombe genes isolated in a cDNA library screen. These findings should allow further molecular investigation of the regulation of S phase arrest, and may provide a useful system with which to identify novel drugs that specifically abrogate the checkpoint control.  (+info)

Expression of atrC - encoding a novel member of the ATP binding cassette transporter family in Aspergillus nidulans - is sensitive to cycloheximide. (8/9359)

A new member of the ABC superfamily of transmembrane proteins in Aspergillus nidulans has been cloned and characterized. The topology of conserved motifs subgroups AtrC in the P-glycoprotein cluster of ABC permeases, the members of this subfamily, are known to participate in multidrug resistance (MDR) in diverse organisms. Alignment results display significant amino acid similarity to AfuMDR1 and AflMDR1 from Aspergillus fumigatus and flavus, respectively. Northern analysis reveals that atrC mRNA levels are 10-fold increased in response to cycloheximide. Evidence for the existence of eight additional hitherto unpublished ABC transporter proteins in A. nidulans is provided.  (+info)

A "gene library" is not a recognized term in medical genetics or molecular biology. However, the closest concept that might be referred to by this term is a "genomic library," which is a collection of DNA clones that represent the entire genetic material of an organism. These libraries are used for various research purposes, such as identifying and studying specific genes or gene functions.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Medical libraries are collections of resources that provide access to information related to the medical and healthcare fields. They serve as a vital tool for medical professionals, students, researchers, and patients seeking reliable and accurate health information. Medical libraries can be physical buildings or digital platforms that contain various types of materials, including:

1. Books: Medical textbooks, reference books, and monographs that cover various topics related to medicine, anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, pathology, and clinical specialties.
2. Journals: Print and electronic peer-reviewed journals that publish the latest research findings, clinical trials, and evidence-based practices in medicine.
3. Databases: Online resources that allow users to search for and access information on specific topics, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library.
4. Multimedia resources: Audio and video materials, such as lectures, webinars, podcasts, and instructional videos, that provide visual and auditory learning experiences.
5. Electronic resources: E-books, databases, and other digital materials that can be accessed remotely through computers, tablets, or smartphones.
6. Patient education materials: Brochures, pamphlets, and other resources that help patients understand their health conditions, treatments, and self-care strategies.
7. Archives and special collections: Rare books, historical documents, manuscripts, and artifacts related to the history of medicine and healthcare.

Medical libraries may be found in hospitals, medical schools, research institutions, and other healthcare settings. They are staffed by trained librarians and information specialists who provide assistance with locating, accessing, and evaluating information resources. Medical libraries play a critical role in supporting evidence-based medicine, continuing education, and patient care.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Libraries" is not a term that has a medical definition. A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a community for reference or borrowing. This can include books, magazines, audio visual materials, and digital resources. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Methanobrevibacter is a genus of archaea (single-celled microorganisms) that are methanogens, meaning they produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. These organisms are commonly found in the digestive tracts of animals, including humans, where they help break down organic matter and recycle nutrients. They are strict anaerobes, requiring an environment free of oxygen to survive and grow. Some species within this genus have been associated with dental diseases such as periodontitis. However, more research is needed to fully understand their role in human health and disease.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Combinatorial chemistry techniques are a group of methods used in the field of chemistry to synthesize and optimize large libraries of chemical compounds in a rapid and efficient manner. These techniques involve the systematic combination of different building blocks, or reagents, in various arrangements to generate a diverse array of molecules. This approach allows chemists to quickly explore a wide chemical space and identify potential lead compounds for drug discovery, materials science, and other applications.

There are several common combinatorial chemistry techniques, including:

1. **Split-Pool Synthesis:** In this method, a large collection of starting materials is divided into smaller groups, and each group undergoes a series of chemical reactions with different reagents. The resulting products from each group are then pooled together and redistributed for additional rounds of reactions. This process creates a vast number of unique compounds through the iterative combination of building blocks.
2. **Parallel Synthesis:** In parallel synthesis, multiple reactions are carried out simultaneously in separate reaction vessels. Each vessel contains a distinct set of starting materials and reagents, allowing for the efficient generation of a series of related compounds. This method is particularly useful when exploring structure-activity relationships (SAR) or optimizing lead compounds.
3. **Encoded Libraries:** To facilitate the rapid identification of active compounds within large libraries, encoded library techniques incorporate unique tags or barcodes into each molecule. These tags allow for the simultaneous synthesis and screening of compounds, as the identity of an active compound can be determined by decoding its corresponding tag.
4. **DNA-Encoded Libraries (DELs):** DELs are a specific type of encoded library that uses DNA molecules to encode and track chemical compounds. In this approach, each unique compound is linked to a distinct DNA sequence, enabling the rapid identification of active compounds through DNA sequencing techniques.
5. **Solid-Phase Synthesis:** This technique involves the attachment of starting materials to a solid support, such as beads or resins, allowing for the stepwise addition of reagents and building blocks. The solid support facilitates easy separation, purification, and screening of compounds, making it an ideal method for combinatorial chemistry applications.

Combinatorial chemistry techniques have revolutionized drug discovery and development by enabling the rapid synthesis, screening, and optimization of large libraries of chemical compounds. These methods continue to play a crucial role in modern medicinal chemistry and materials science research.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Library Services" is not a medical term. It generally refers to the various resources, services, and assistance provided by libraries to help individuals access, use, and manage information. This can include book lending, research assistance, database access, interlibrary loan, literacy programs, and more.

If you're looking for a medical term or concept, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate response.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

A hospital library, also known as a health sciences library or medical library, is a type of specialized library that serves the information needs of healthcare professionals, patients, students, and researchers in a hospital or healthcare facility. These libraries typically contain a wide range of resources related to medicine, nursing, allied health professions, and healthcare administration.

The resources available in a hospital library may include:

1. Print materials such as medical textbooks, journals, reference books, and patient education materials.
2. Electronic resources such as e-books, electronic journals, databases, and multimedia resources.
3. Audiovisual materials such as DVDs, CDs, and streaming media related to medical education and patient care.
4. Clinical decision support tools that help healthcare professionals make informed clinical decisions at the point of care.
5. Access to online learning platforms and continuing education resources for healthcare professionals.
6. Services such as literature searching, document delivery, interlibrary loan, and reference assistance.

Hospital libraries play a critical role in supporting patient care, medical education, research, and evidence-based practice in healthcare facilities. They provide access to high-quality, reliable information that helps healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care, stay up-to-date with the latest research and best practices, and improve their knowledge and skills. Hospital libraries also provide resources and services that help patients and their families make informed decisions about their health and treatment options.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Biodiversity is the variety of different species of plants, animals, and microorganisms that live in an ecosystem. It also includes the variety of genes within a species and the variety of ecosystems (such as forests, grasslands, deserts, and oceans) that exist in a region or on Earth as a whole. Biodiversity is important for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, providing resources and services such as food, clean water, and pollination, and contributing to the discovery of new medicines and other useful products. The loss of biodiversity can have negative impacts on the functioning of ecosystems and the services they provide, and can threaten the survival of species and the livelihoods of people who depend on them.

A genomic library is a collection of cloned DNA fragments that represent the entire genetic material of an organism. It serves as a valuable resource for studying the function, organization, and regulation of genes within a given genome. Genomic libraries can be created using different types of vectors, such as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), or plasmids, to accommodate various sizes of DNA inserts. These libraries facilitate the isolation and manipulation of specific genes or genomic regions for further analysis, including sequencing, gene expression studies, and functional genomics research.

Directed molecular evolution is a laboratory technique used to generate proteins or other molecules with desired properties through an iterative process that mimics natural evolution. This process typically involves the following steps:

1. Generation of a diverse library of variants: A population of molecules is created, usually by introducing random mutations into a parent sequence using techniques such as error-prone PCR or DNA shuffling. The resulting library contains a large number of different sequences, each with potentially unique properties.
2. Screening or selection for desired activity: The library is subjected to a screening or selection process that identifies molecules with the desired activity or property. This could involve an in vitro assay, high-throughput screening, or directed cell sorting.
3. Amplification and reiteration: Molecules that exhibit the desired activity are amplified, either by PCR or through cell growth, and then used as templates for another round of mutagenesis and selection. This process is repeated until the desired level of optimization is achieved.

Directed molecular evolution has been successfully applied to a wide range of molecules, including enzymes, antibodies, and aptamers, enabling the development of improved catalysts, biosensors, and therapeutics.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

'Biota' is a term that refers to the total collection of living organisms in a particular habitat, ecosystem, or region. It includes all forms of life such as plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and other microorganisms. Biota can be used to describe the communities of living things in a specific area, like a forest biota or marine biota, and it can also refer to the study of these organisms and their interactions with each other and their environment. In medical contexts, 'biota' may specifically refer to the microorganisms that inhabit the human body, such as the gut microbiota.

Proteobacteria is a major class of Gram-negative bacteria that includes a wide variety of pathogens and free-living organisms. This class is divided into six subclasses: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, and Zeta proteobacteria. Proteobacteria are characterized by their single circular chromosome and the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in their outer membrane. They can be found in a wide range of environments, including soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals. Some notable examples of Proteobacteria include Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Yersinia pestis.

Restriction mapping is a technique used in molecular biology to identify the location and arrangement of specific restriction endonuclease recognition sites within a DNA molecule. Restriction endonucleases are enzymes that cut double-stranded DNA at specific sequences, producing fragments of various lengths. By digesting the DNA with different combinations of these enzymes and analyzing the resulting fragment sizes through techniques such as agarose gel electrophoresis, researchers can generate a restriction map - a visual representation of the locations and distances between recognition sites on the DNA molecule. This information is crucial for various applications, including cloning, genome analysis, and genetic engineering.

Cosmids are a type of cloning vector, which are self-replicating DNA molecules that can be used to introduce foreign DNA fragments into a host organism. Cosmids are plasmids that contain the cos site from bacteriophage λ, allowing them to be packaged into bacteriophage heads during an in vitro packaging reaction. This enables the transfer of large DNA fragments (up to 45 kb) into a host cell through transduction. Cosmids are widely used in molecular biology for the construction and analysis of genomic libraries, physical mapping, and DNA sequencing.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

A gene is a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA that carries genetic information. Genes are the fundamental units of heredity and are responsible for the development and function of all living organisms. They code for proteins or RNA molecules, which carry out various functions within cells and are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs.

Each gene has a specific location on a chromosome, and each person inherits two copies of every gene, one from each parent. Variations in the sequence of nucleotides in a gene can lead to differences in traits between individuals, including physical characteristics, susceptibility to disease, and responses to environmental factors.

Medical genetics is the study of genes and their role in health and disease. It involves understanding how genes contribute to the development and progression of various medical conditions, as well as identifying genetic risk factors and developing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

Nucleic acid hybridization is a process in molecular biology where two single-stranded nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) with complementary sequences pair together to form a double-stranded molecule through hydrogen bonding. The strands can be from the same type of nucleic acid or different types (i.e., DNA-RNA or DNA-cDNA). This process is commonly used in various laboratory techniques, such as Southern blotting, Northern blotting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and microarray analysis, to detect, isolate, and analyze specific nucleic acid sequences. The hybridization temperature and conditions are critical to ensure the specificity of the interaction between the two strands.

DNA restriction enzymes, also known as restriction endonucleases, are a type of enzyme that cut double-stranded DNA at specific recognition sites. These enzymes are produced by bacteria and archaea as a defense mechanism against foreign DNA, such as that found in bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria).

Restriction enzymes recognize specific sequences of nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA) and cleave the phosphodiester bonds between them. The recognition sites for these enzymes are usually palindromic, meaning that the sequence reads the same in both directions when facing the opposite strands of DNA.

Restriction enzymes are widely used in molecular biology research for various applications such as genetic engineering, genome mapping, and DNA fingerprinting. They allow scientists to cut DNA at specific sites, creating precise fragments that can be manipulated and analyzed. The use of restriction enzymes has been instrumental in the development of recombinant DNA technology and the Human Genome Project.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Library Surveys" is not a recognized medical term or concept. It seems that there might be a misunderstanding, as "library surveys" typically refers to the process of gathering information or data from library users or communities about their needs, experiences, and satisfaction with library resources, services, and facilities.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or healthcare concepts, please let me know and I would be happy to help.

Sequence homology in nucleic acids refers to the similarity or identity between the nucleotide sequences of two or more DNA or RNA molecules. It is often used as a measure of biological relationship between genes, organisms, or populations. High sequence homology suggests a recent common ancestry or functional constraint, while low sequence homology may indicate a more distant relationship or different functions.

Nucleic acid sequence homology can be determined by various methods such as pairwise alignment, multiple sequence alignment, and statistical analysis. The degree of homology is typically expressed as a percentage of identical or similar nucleotides in a given window of comparison.

It's important to note that the interpretation of sequence homology depends on the biological context and the evolutionary distance between the sequences compared. Therefore, functional and experimental validation is often necessary to confirm the significance of sequence homology.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Library Administration" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to the management and oversight of libraries, including planning and policy-making, resource allocation, staff management, and service delivery. If you have a question about a medical topic, please provide more details so I can try to help you.

Archaeal RNA refers to the Ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules that are present in archaea, which are a domain of single-celled microorganisms. RNA is a nucleic acid that plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as protein synthesis, gene expression, and regulation of cellular activities.

Archaeal RNAs can be categorized into different types based on their functions, including:

1. Messenger RNA (mRNA): It carries genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where it is translated into proteins.
2. Transfer RNA (tRNA): It helps in translating the genetic code present in mRNA into specific amino acids during protein synthesis.
3. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): It is a structural and functional component of ribosomes, where protein synthesis occurs.
4. Non-coding RNA: These are RNAs that do not code for proteins but have regulatory functions in gene expression and other cellular processes.

Archaeal RNAs share similarities with both bacterial and eukaryotic RNAs, but they also possess unique features that distinguish them from the other two domains of life. For example, archaeal rRNAs contain unique sequence motifs and secondary structures that are not found in bacteria or eukaryotes. These differences suggest that archaeal RNAs have evolved to adapt to the extreme environments where many archaea live.

Overall, understanding the structure, function, and evolution of archaeal RNA is essential for gaining insights into the biology of these unique microorganisms and their roles in various cellular processes.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

I apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. "Soil microbiology" is not a medical term; rather, it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms in soil. It involves understanding the diversity, ecology, and biochemistry of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and other microscopic life forms found in soil. This field has applications in agriculture, environmental science, and waste management but is not directly related to medical definitions or human health.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Archaea are a domain of single-celled microorganisms that lack membrane-bound nuclei and other organelles. They are characterized by the unique structure of their cell walls, membranes, and ribosomes. Archaea were originally classified as bacteria, but they differ from bacteria in several key ways, including their genetic material and metabolic processes.

Archaea can be found in a wide range of environments, including some of the most extreme habitats on Earth, such as hot springs, deep-sea vents, and highly saline lakes. Some species of Archaea are able to survive in the absence of oxygen, while others require oxygen to live.

Archaea play important roles in global nutrient cycles, including the nitrogen cycle and the carbon cycle. They are also being studied for their potential role in industrial processes, such as the production of biofuels and the treatment of wastewater.

Archaeal DNA refers to the genetic material present in archaea, a domain of single-celled microorganisms lacking a nucleus. Like bacteria, archaea have a single circular chromosome that contains their genetic information. However, archaeal DNA is significantly different from bacterial and eukaryotic DNA in terms of its structure and composition.

Archaeal DNA is characterized by the presence of unique modifications such as methylation patterns, which help distinguish it from other types of DNA. Additionally, archaea have a distinct set of genes involved in DNA replication, repair, and recombination, many of which are more similar to those found in eukaryotes than bacteria.

One notable feature of archaeal DNA is its resistance to environmental stressors such as extreme temperatures, pH levels, and salt concentrations. This allows archaea to thrive in some of the most inhospitable environments on Earth, including hydrothermal vents, acidic hot springs, and highly saline lakes.

Overall, the study of archaeal DNA has provided valuable insights into the evolutionary history of life on Earth and the unique adaptations that allow these organisms to survive in extreme conditions.

A Small Molecule Library is a collection of a large number of chemically synthesized, low molecular weight (typically under 900 daltons) compounds, which are used in drug discovery and development research. These libraries contain diverse structures and chemical properties, allowing researchers to screen them against specific targets, such as proteins or genes, to identify potential lead compounds that can be further optimized for therapeutic use. The use of small molecule libraries enables high-throughput screening, which is a rapid and efficient method to identify potential drug candidates.

rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is not a type of gene itself, but rather a crucial component that is transcribed from genes known as ribosomal DNA (rDNA). In cells, rRNA plays an essential role in protein synthesis by assembling with ribosomal proteins to form ribosomes. Ribosomes are complex structures where the translation of mRNA into proteins occurs. There are multiple types of rRNA molecules, including 5S, 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNAs in eukaryotic cells, each with specific functions during protein synthesis.

In summary, 'Genes, rRNA' would refer to the genetic regions (genes) that code for ribosomal RNA molecules, which are vital components of the protein synthesis machinery within cells.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Library Science" is not a term that has a medical definition. Library Science is a field of study that deals with the acquisition, organization, preservation, and dissemination of information resources. It includes the design of library spaces, the development of information policies, the use of technology in libraries, and the practice of cataloging and classification. If you have any questions about a specific medical term or concept, I'd be happy to help with that!

A digital library is a collection of digital objects, including text, images, audio, and video, that are stored, managed, and accessed electronically. These libraries can include a variety of resources such as e-books, journal articles, databases, multimedia materials, and other digital assets. They often provide features such as search and retrieval capabilities, as well as tools for organizing, preserving, and protecting the digital content. Digital libraries may be standalone institutions or part of larger organizations, such as universities, hospitals, or research centers. They can serve a variety of purposes, including education, research, and cultural preservation. Access to digital libraries may be open to the public or restricted to authorized users.

"Nursing libraries" refer to collections of resources specifically curated to support the education, research, and practice of nursing professionals. These libraries can include various formats of materials such as books, journals, electronic databases, multimedia resources, and more. They may be physical spaces within nursing schools or healthcare institutions, or they may exist virtually as online repositories. The primary goal of nursing libraries is to facilitate evidence-based practice, lifelong learning, and knowledge translation for nurses and other members of the interprofessional healthcare team.

A genetic complementation test is a laboratory procedure used in molecular genetics to determine whether two mutated genes can complement each other's function, indicating that they are located at different loci and represent separate alleles. This test involves introducing a normal or wild-type copy of one gene into a cell containing a mutant version of the same gene, and then observing whether the presence of the normal gene restores the normal function of the mutated gene. If the introduction of the normal gene results in the restoration of the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at different loci and can complement each other's function. However, if the introduction of the normal gene does not restore the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at the same locus and represent different alleles of the same gene. This test is commonly used to map genes and identify genetic interactions in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and animals.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Library Associations" is not a medical term, but rather a general term that refers to organizations that bring together individuals who work in or have an interest in libraries and library services. These associations often aim to promote the development, promotion, and improvement of library and information services, as well as to provide a platform for networking, professional development, and advocacy.

If you meant to ask about a medical term, could you please clarify? I'd be happy to help you with that!

Bacterial RNA refers to the genetic material present in bacteria that is composed of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Unlike higher organisms, bacteria contain a single circular chromosome made up of DNA, along with smaller circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. These bacterial genetic materials contain the information necessary for the growth and reproduction of the organism.

Bacterial RNA can be divided into three main categories: messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). mRNA carries genetic information copied from DNA, which is then translated into proteins by the rRNA and tRNA molecules. rRNA is a structural component of the ribosome, where protein synthesis occurs, while tRNA acts as an adapter that brings amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis.

Bacterial RNA plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and regulation of metabolic pathways. Understanding the structure and function of bacterial RNA is essential for developing new antibiotics and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

A library catalog is a comprehensive listing of all the resources and materials available in a library. It provides detailed information about each item, such as title, author, publication date, subject headings, and location in the library. The purpose of a library catalog is to help users locate specific items within the library's collection quickly and efficiently.

Traditionally, library catalogs were available in printed form, but with the advent of technology, most libraries now use online public access catalogs (OPACs) that allow users to search the catalog from anywhere with an internet connection. These digital catalogs often include additional features such as the ability to place holds on items, renew checked-out materials, and create personal lists of favorite titles or authors.

In addition to books, library catalogs may also include other types of materials such as audiovisual items (e.g., DVDs, CDs), periodicals (e.g., newspapers, magazines), electronic resources (e.g., e-books, databases), and special collections (e.g., rare books, manuscripts). By providing a detailed and accessible catalog of its holdings, a library can better serve the needs of its users and promote the discovery and use of its resources.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

Southern blotting is a type of membrane-based blotting technique that is used in molecular biology to detect and locate specific DNA sequences within a DNA sample. This technique is named after its inventor, Edward M. Southern.

In Southern blotting, the DNA sample is first digested with one or more restriction enzymes, which cut the DNA at specific recognition sites. The resulting DNA fragments are then separated based on their size by gel electrophoresis. After separation, the DNA fragments are denatured to convert them into single-stranded DNA and transferred onto a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane.

Once the DNA has been transferred to the membrane, it is hybridized with a labeled probe that is complementary to the sequence of interest. The probe can be labeled with radioactive isotopes, fluorescent dyes, or chemiluminescent compounds. After hybridization, the membrane is washed to remove any unbound probe and then exposed to X-ray film (in the case of radioactive probes) or scanned (in the case of non-radioactive probes) to detect the location of the labeled probe on the membrane.

The position of the labeled probe on the membrane corresponds to the location of the specific DNA sequence within the original DNA sample. Southern blotting is a powerful tool for identifying and characterizing specific DNA sequences, such as those associated with genetic diseases or gene regulation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Library Collection Development" is not a medical term. It is a term commonly used in the field of library science to refer to the process of building and maintaining a collection of materials (such as books, periodicals, electronic resources, etc.) in a library or information center. This involves selecting, acquiring, organizing, preserving, and making accessible appropriate resources that meet the needs and interests of the library's users.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geologic sediments" is not a term used in medical definitions. Geological sediments are deposits of material that accumulate over time, usually in layers, as a result of natural geological processes such as weathering, erosion, and deposition. These sediments can eventually become rock formations and provide important clues about the Earth's history, including information about past climates, environments, and life on Earth.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or genetic markers on a chromosome. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques to identify landmarks along the chromosome, such as restriction enzyme cutting sites or patterns of DNA sequence repeats. The resulting map provides important information about the organization and structure of the genome, and can be used for a variety of purposes, including identifying the location of genes associated with genetic diseases, studying evolutionary relationships between organisms, and developing genetic markers for use in breeding or forensic applications.

An "ecosystem" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of ecology and environmental science. However, I can provide you with the general ecological definition of an ecosystem:

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their non-living environment, including both biotic factors (plants, animals, microorganisms) and abiotic factors (climate, soil, water, and air). These interactions create a complex network of relationships that form the foundation of ecological processes, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, and population dynamics.

While there is no direct medical definition for an ecosystem, understanding the principles of ecosystems can have important implications for human health. For example, healthy ecosystems can provide clean air and water, regulate climate, support food production, and offer opportunities for recreation and relaxation, all of which contribute to overall well-being. Conversely, degraded ecosystems can lead to increased exposure to environmental hazards, reduced access to natural resources, and heightened risks of infectious diseases. Therefore, maintaining the health and integrity of ecosystems is crucial for promoting human health and preventing disease.

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) is a term used in molecular biology and genetics. It refers to the presence of variations in DNA sequences among individuals, which can be detected by restriction enzymes. These enzymes cut DNA at specific sites, creating fragments of different lengths.

In RFLP analysis, DNA is isolated from an individual and treated with a specific restriction enzyme that cuts the DNA at particular recognition sites. The resulting fragments are then separated by size using gel electrophoresis, creating a pattern unique to that individual's DNA. If there are variations in the DNA sequence between individuals, the restriction enzyme may cut the DNA at different sites, leading to differences in the length of the fragments and thus, a different pattern on the gel.

These variations can be used for various purposes, such as identifying individuals, diagnosing genetic diseases, or studying evolutionary relationships between species. However, RFLP analysis has largely been replaced by more modern techniques like polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods and DNA sequencing, which offer higher resolution and throughput.

Repetitive sequences in nucleic acid refer to repeated stretches of DNA or RNA nucleotide bases that are present in a genome. These sequences can vary in length and can be arranged in different patterns such as direct repeats, inverted repeats, or tandem repeats. In some cases, these repetitive sequences do not code for proteins and are often found in non-coding regions of the genome. They can play a role in genetic instability, regulation of gene expression, and evolutionary processes. However, certain types of repeat expansions have been associated with various neurodegenerative disorders and other human diseases.

Recombinant DNA is a term used in molecular biology to describe DNA that has been created by combining genetic material from more than one source. This is typically done through the use of laboratory techniques such as molecular cloning, in which fragments of DNA are inserted into vectors (such as plasmids or viruses) and then introduced into a host organism where they can replicate and produce many copies of the recombinant DNA molecule.

Recombinant DNA technology has numerous applications in research, medicine, and industry, including the production of recombinant proteins for use as therapeutics, the creation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural or industrial purposes, and the development of new tools for genetic analysis and manipulation.

It's important to note that while recombinant DNA technology has many potential benefits, it also raises ethical and safety concerns, and its use is subject to regulation and oversight in many countries.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Library Technical Services" is not a medical term or concept. It is a term used in the library and information science field to refer to the department or unit within a library responsible for acquiring, cataloging, classifying, and processing library materials. This can include books, journals, electronic resources, and other materials that are part of a library's collection.

The goal of technical services is to make these materials accessible and discoverable for library users through the creation of accurate and consistent records in the library catalog. The specific tasks involved may vary depending on the type and format of the material being processed, but can include activities such as selecting and purchasing materials, creating or applying subject headings and call numbers, adding records to the online catalog, and maintaining the physical condition of the materials.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Cluster analysis is a statistical method used to group similar objects or data points together based on their characteristics or features. In medical and healthcare research, cluster analysis can be used to identify patterns or relationships within complex datasets, such as patient records or genetic information. This technique can help researchers to classify patients into distinct subgroups based on their symptoms, diagnoses, or other variables, which can inform more personalized treatment plans or public health interventions.

Cluster analysis involves several steps, including:

1. Data preparation: The researcher must first collect and clean the data, ensuring that it is complete and free from errors. This may involve removing outlier values or missing data points.
2. Distance measurement: Next, the researcher must determine how to measure the distance between each pair of data points. Common methods include Euclidean distance (the straight-line distance between two points) or Manhattan distance (the distance between two points along a grid).
3. Clustering algorithm: The researcher then applies a clustering algorithm, which groups similar data points together based on their distances from one another. Common algorithms include hierarchical clustering (which creates a tree-like structure of clusters) or k-means clustering (which assigns each data point to the nearest centroid).
4. Validation: Finally, the researcher must validate the results of the cluster analysis by evaluating the stability and robustness of the clusters. This may involve re-running the analysis with different distance measures or clustering algorithms, or comparing the results to external criteria.

Cluster analysis is a powerful tool for identifying patterns and relationships within complex datasets, but it requires careful consideration of the data preparation, distance measurement, and validation steps to ensure accurate and meaningful results.

Seawater is not a medical term, but it is a type of water that covers more than 70% of the Earth's surface. Medically, seawater can be relevant in certain contexts, such as in discussions of marine biology, environmental health, or water safety. Seawater has a high salt content, with an average salinity of around 3.5%, which is much higher than that of freshwater. This makes it unsuitable for drinking or irrigation without desalination.

Exposure to seawater can also have medical implications, such as in cases of immersion injuries, marine envenomations, or waterborne illnesses. However, there is no single medical definition of seawater.

To the best of my knowledge, there isn't a specific medical definition for "Library Automation" as it is not a term used in medical contexts. However, I can provide a general definition.

Library automation refers to the use of technology to streamline, manage, and improve various functions within a library, such as cataloging, circulation, acquisitions, and online public access. This can include the use of integrated library systems (ILS), online databases, digital collections, self-checkout machines, and other automated tools to increase efficiency, accuracy, and accessibility of library resources. It is widely used in various types of libraries including medical or healthcare libraries to manage their collections and services effectively.

A multigene family is a group of genetically related genes that share a common ancestry and have similar sequences or structures. These genes are arranged in clusters on a chromosome and often encode proteins with similar functions. They can arise through various mechanisms, including gene duplication, recombination, and transposition. Multigene families play crucial roles in many biological processes, such as development, immunity, and metabolism. Examples of multigene families include the globin genes involved in oxygen transport, the immune system's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, and the cytochrome P450 genes associated with drug metabolism.

Fungal DNA refers to the genetic material present in fungi, which are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as larger organisms like mushrooms. The DNA of fungi, like that of all living organisms, is made up of nucleotides that are arranged in a double helix structure.

Fungal DNA contains the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of fungi. This includes the instructions for making proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of cells, as well as other important molecules such as enzymes and nucleic acids.

Studying fungal DNA can provide valuable insights into the biology and evolution of fungi, as well as their potential uses in medicine, agriculture, and industry. For example, researchers have used genetic engineering techniques to modify the DNA of fungi to produce drugs, biofuels, and other useful products. Additionally, understanding the genetic makeup of pathogenic fungi can help scientists develop new strategies for preventing and treating fungal infections.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Library Materials" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Generally, library materials refer to the various types of resources and media that are kept in a library for research, learning, or entertainment purposes. This can include books, magazines, newspapers, journals, manuscripts, maps, charts, prints, documents, microforms, electronic resources, films, videos, sound recordings, digital records, and other materials.

However, if you're looking for a definition related to medical libraries or healthcare, library materials might refer to resources specifically related to medicine, nursing, dentistry, public health, allied health professions, and related fields. These can include textbooks, reference books, journals, clinical guidelines, evidence reports, systematic reviews, patient education materials, and multimedia resources.

A codon is a sequence of three adjacent nucleotides in DNA or RNA that specifies the insertion of a particular amino acid during protein synthesis, or signals the beginning or end of translation. In DNA, these triplets are read during transcription to produce a complementary mRNA molecule, which is then translated into a polypeptide chain during translation. There are 64 possible codons in the standard genetic code, with 61 encoding for specific amino acids and three serving as stop codons that signal the termination of protein synthesis.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a type of DNA that is synthesized from a single-stranded RNA molecule through the process of reverse transcription. In this process, the enzyme reverse transcriptase uses an RNA molecule as a template to synthesize a complementary DNA strand. The resulting cDNA is therefore complementary to the original RNA molecule and is a copy of its coding sequence, but it does not contain non-coding regions such as introns that are present in genomic DNA.

Complementary DNA is often used in molecular biology research to study gene expression, protein function, and other genetic phenomena. For example, cDNA can be used to create cDNA libraries, which are collections of cloned cDNA fragments that represent the expressed genes in a particular cell type or tissue. These libraries can then be screened for specific genes or gene products of interest. Additionally, cDNA can be used to produce recombinant proteins in heterologous expression systems, allowing researchers to study the structure and function of proteins that may be difficult to express or purify from their native sources.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Interlibrary loan (ILL) is not a medical term, but a term used in the field of libraries and information science. It refers to the process of borrowing materials, such as books or journal articles, from one library by another library on behalf of a patron, who may be a researcher, student, or member of the public. The purpose is to provide access to materials that are not available in the requesting library's collection.

In the context of medical libraries, interlibrary loan services can be essential for healthcare professionals, researchers, and students to access specialized medical literature, such as journal articles, books, and other resources, that may not be available in their institution's library or local libraries. This helps support evidence-based practice, research, and continuing education in the medical field.

I'm not a medical professional, but I can provide some information on this topic. "Dental libraries" generally refer to collections of resources related to dental medicine and oral health. These libraries may contain various materials such as books, journals, articles, multimedia resources, and electronic databases. They serve as a valuable source of knowledge and information for dental professionals, students, researchers, and educators in the field of dentistry. Dental libraries play an essential role in supporting evidence-based practice, continuing education, and research advancements in oral health care.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Library schools" are not a medical term or concept. Instead, they refer to institutions that offer degree programs and courses related to library science, information studies, or related fields. These programs typically train students to become librarians, archivists, or information specialists who work in various types of libraries, museums, archives, and other information-intensive organizations.

If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

Facility design and construction in a medical context refers to the process of planning, designing, and building healthcare facilities such as hospitals, clinics, medical offices, and other healthcare-related structures. This encompasses all aspects of creating a functional and efficient healthcare environment, including architectural design, interior layout, engineering systems, equipment planning, and construction management. The goal is to create a safe, comfortable, and healing space that meets the needs of patients, staff, and visitors while also complying with relevant building codes, regulations, and standards.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Librarians" is not a term related to medical definition. It refers to a professional who works in a library and are responsible for managing and maintaining collections of books and other media, as well as providing assistance and guidance to people who use the library. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those instead.

Artificial bacterial chromosomes (ABCs) are synthetic replicons that are designed to function like natural bacterial chromosomes. They are created through the use of molecular biology techniques, such as recombination and cloning, to construct large DNA molecules that can stably replicate and segregate within a host bacterium.

ABCs are typically much larger than traditional plasmids, which are smaller circular DNA molecules that can also replicate in bacteria but have a limited capacity for carrying genetic information. ABCs can accommodate large DNA inserts, making them useful tools for cloning and studying large genes, gene clusters, or even entire genomes of other organisms.

There are several types of ABCs, including bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), P1-derived artificial chromosomes (PACs), and yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). BACs are the most commonly used type of ABC and can accommodate inserts up to 300 kilobases (kb) in size. They have been widely used in genome sequencing projects, functional genomics studies, and protein production.

Overall, artificial bacterial chromosomes provide a powerful tool for manipulating and studying large DNA molecules in a controlled and stable manner within bacterial hosts.

MEDLARS (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System) is a computerized system for searching, retrieving, and disseminating biomedical literature. It was developed by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) in the 1960s as a tool to help medical professionals quickly and efficiently search through large volumes of medical literature.

The MEDLARS system includes several databases, including MEDLINE, which contains citations and abstracts from biomedical journals published worldwide. The system uses a controlled vocabulary thesaurus called Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) to help users find relevant articles by searching for specific medical concepts and keywords.

MEDLARS was eventually replaced by the more advanced online database system known as PubMed, which is now widely used by healthcare professionals, researchers, and students to search for biomedical literature. However, the term "MEDLARS" is still sometimes used to refer to the older system or to describe the process of searching medical databases using controlled vocabulary terms.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

In the context of medical libraries and healthcare information management, "cataloging" refers to the process of creating a detailed and structured description of a medical resource or item, such as a book, journal article, video, or digital object. This description includes various elements, such as the title, author, publisher, publication date, subject headings, and other relevant metadata. The purpose of cataloging is to provide accurate and consistent descriptions of resources to facilitate their discovery, organization, management, and retrieval by users.

The American Library Association's (ALA) Committee on Cataloging: Description & Access (CC:DA) has established guidelines for cataloging medical resources using the Resource Description and Access (RDA) standard, which is a comprehensive and flexible framework for describing all types of library resources. The RDA standard provides a set of instructions and rules for creating catalog records that are consistent, interoperable, and accessible to users with different needs and preferences.

Medical cataloging involves several steps, including:

1. Analyzing the resource: This step involves examining the physical or digital object and identifying its essential components, such as the title, author, publisher, publication date, and format.
2. Assigning access points: Access points are the elements that users can search for in a catalog to find relevant resources. These include headings for authors, titles, subjects, and other characteristics of the resource. Medical catalogers use controlled vocabularies, such as the National Library of Medicine's MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) thesaurus, to ensure consistent and accurate subject headings.
3. Creating a bibliographic record: A bibliographic record is a structured description of the resource that includes all the relevant metadata elements. The format and content of the record depend on the cataloging standard used, such as RDA or MARC (Machine-Readable Cataloging).
4. Quality control and review: Before adding the record to the catalog, medical catalogers may perform various quality control checks to ensure accuracy and completeness. This step may involve comparing the record with other sources, checking for consistency with established policies and guidelines, and seeking input from subject matter experts or colleagues.
5. Contributing to shared catalogs: Medical libraries and institutions often contribute their catalog records to shared databases, such as the National Library of Medicine's PubMed Central or WorldCat, to increase visibility and accessibility. This step requires adherence to standardized formats and metadata schemes to ensure compatibility and interoperability with other systems.

In summary, medical cataloging is a complex process that involves various steps and standards to create accurate, consistent, and accessible descriptions of resources. By following established best practices and guidelines, medical catalogers can help users find and use the information they need for research, education, and patient care.

High-throughput screening (HTS) assays are a type of biochemical or cell-based assay that are designed to quickly and efficiently identify potential hits or active compounds from large libraries of chemicals or biological molecules. In HTS, automated equipment is used to perform the assay in a parallel or high-throughput format, allowing for the screening of thousands to millions of compounds in a relatively short period of time.

HTS assays typically involve the use of robotics, liquid handling systems, and detection technologies such as microplate readers, imagers, or flow cytometers. These assays are often used in drug discovery and development to identify lead compounds that modulate specific biological targets, such as enzymes, receptors, or ion channels.

HTS assays can be used to measure a variety of endpoints, including enzyme activity, binding affinity, cell viability, gene expression, and protein-protein interactions. The data generated from HTS assays are typically analyzed using statistical methods and bioinformatics tools to prioritize and optimize hit compounds for further development.

Overall, high-throughput screening assays are a powerful tool in modern drug discovery and development, enabling researchers to rapidly identify and characterize potential therapeutic agents with improved efficiency and accuracy.

I apologize for any confusion, but "books" is a general term that refers to bound sets of pages that are printed or written with text, illustrations, or signs, and are meant to be read, studied, or consulted. It does not have a specific medical definition. If you're looking for information about a specific medical term or concept, please let me know and I'd be happy to help!

The term "architecture" in the context of medicine typically refers to the design and organization of complex systems, such as those found in healthcare. This can include the layout and design of physical spaces, such as hospitals and clinics, as well as the structure and function of information systems used to manage patient data and support clinical decision-making.

In healthcare architecture, there is a focus on creating safe, efficient, and patient-centered environments that promote healing and well-being. This may involve considerations such as natural light, air quality, noise levels, and access to nature, as well as the use of evidence-based design principles to support best practices in care.

Healthcare architecture also encompasses the design of medical equipment and devices, as well as the development of new technologies to support diagnosis, treatment, and research. In all cases, the goal is to create systems and solutions that are safe, effective, and responsive to the needs of patients and healthcare providers.

Bacteriophage M13 is a type of bacterial virus that infects and replicates within the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is a filamentous phage, meaning it has a long, thin, and flexible structure. The M13 phage specifically infects only the F pili of E. coli bacteria, which are hair-like appendages found on the surface of certain strains of E. coli.

Once inside the host cell, the M13 phage uses the bacterial machinery to produce new viral particles, or progeny phages, without killing the host cell. The phage genome is made up of a single-stranded circular DNA molecule that encodes for about 10 genes. These genes are involved in various functions such as replication, packaging, and assembly of the phage particles.

Bacteriophage M13 is widely used in molecular biology research due to its ability to efficiently incorporate foreign DNA sequences into its genome. This property has been exploited for a variety of applications, including DNA sequencing, gene cloning, and protein expression. The M13 phage can display foreign peptides or proteins on the surface of its coat protein, making it useful for screening antibodies or identifying ligands in phage display technology.

Northern blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and analyze specific RNA molecules (such as mRNA) in a mixture of total RNA extracted from cells or tissues. This technique is called "Northern" blotting because it is analogous to the Southern blotting method, which is used for DNA detection.

The Northern blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Electrophoresis: The total RNA mixture is first separated based on size by running it through an agarose gel using electrical current. This separates the RNA molecules according to their length, with smaller RNA fragments migrating faster than larger ones.

2. Transfer: After electrophoresis, the RNA bands are denatured (made single-stranded) and transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane using a technique called capillary transfer or vacuum blotting. This step ensures that the order and relative positions of the RNA fragments are preserved on the membrane, similar to how they appear in the gel.

3. Cross-linking: The RNA is then chemically cross-linked to the membrane using UV light or heat treatment, which helps to immobilize the RNA onto the membrane and prevent it from washing off during subsequent steps.

4. Prehybridization: Before adding the labeled probe, the membrane is prehybridized in a solution containing blocking agents (such as salmon sperm DNA or yeast tRNA) to minimize non-specific binding of the probe to the membrane.

5. Hybridization: A labeled nucleic acid probe, specific to the RNA of interest, is added to the prehybridization solution and allowed to hybridize (form base pairs) with its complementary RNA sequence on the membrane. The probe can be either a DNA or an RNA molecule, and it is typically labeled with a radioactive isotope (such as ³²P) or a non-radioactive label (such as digoxigenin).

6. Washing: After hybridization, the membrane is washed to remove unbound probe and reduce background noise. The washing conditions (temperature, salt concentration, and detergent concentration) are optimized based on the stringency required for specific hybridization.

7. Detection: The presence of the labeled probe is then detected using an appropriate method, depending on the type of label used. For radioactive probes, this typically involves exposing the membrane to X-ray film or a phosphorimager screen and analyzing the resulting image. For non-radioactive probes, detection can be performed using colorimetric, chemiluminescent, or fluorescent methods.

8. Data analysis: The intensity of the signal is quantified and compared to controls (such as housekeeping genes) to determine the relative expression level of the RNA of interest. This information can be used for various purposes, such as identifying differentially expressed genes in response to a specific treatment or comparing gene expression levels across different samples or conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Online Systems" is not a medical term. It generally refers to computer systems or networks that are connected to the internet and can be accessed remotely. In a medical context, it could refer to various online tools and platforms used in healthcare, such as electronic health records, telemedicine systems, or medical research databases. However, without more specific context, it's difficult to provide an accurate medical definition.

In the context of healthcare, "Information Services" typically refers to the department or system within a healthcare organization that is responsible for managing and providing various forms of information to support clinical, administrative, and research functions. This can include:

1. Clinical Information Systems: These are electronic systems that help clinicians manage and access patient health information, such as electronic health records (EHRs), computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems, and clinical decision support systems.

2. Administrative Information Systems: These are electronic systems used to manage administrative tasks, such as scheduling appointments, billing, and maintaining patient registries.

3. Research Information Services: These provide support for research activities, including data management, analysis, and reporting. They may also include bioinformatics services that deal with the collection, storage, analysis, and dissemination of genomic and proteomic data.

4. Health Information Exchange (HIE): This is a system or service that enables the sharing of clinical information between different healthcare organizations and providers.

5. Telemedicine Services: These allow remote diagnosis and treatment of patients using telecommunications technology.

6. Patient Portals: Secure online websites that give patients convenient, 24-hour access to their personal health information.

7. Data Analytics: The process of examining data sets to draw conclusions about the information they contain, often with the intention of predicting future trends or behaviors.

8. Knowledge Management: The process of identifying, capturing, organizing, storing, and sharing information and expertise within an organization.

The primary goal of healthcare Information Services is to improve the quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness of patient care by providing timely, accurate, and relevant information to the right people in the right format.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

I am not a medical professional, but I can tell you that "book collecting" is not a medical term or condition. It is a hobby or interest in which an individual collects books, often due to their value, historical significance, rarity, or personal interest in the subject matter. Some people may also collect books as an investment. If you have any specific questions about book collecting or its potential impact on health, such as the effects of heavy books on physical health, I would be happy to try and help answer those!

I'm not aware of a specific medical definition for "book selection." The term "book selection" generally refers to the process or activity of choosing books, often for reading or using as resources. In a medical context, book selection might refer to the process of selecting appropriate texts or references for study, research, or professional development in the field of medicine. It could also refer to the task of choosing books for a library or collection related to medicine or healthcare.

Protein engineering is a branch of molecular biology that involves the modification of proteins to achieve desired changes in their structure and function. This can be accomplished through various techniques, including site-directed mutagenesis, gene shuffling, directed evolution, and rational design. The goal of protein engineering may be to improve the stability, activity, specificity, or other properties of a protein for therapeutic, diagnostic, industrial, or research purposes. It is an interdisciplinary field that combines knowledge from genetics, biochemistry, structural biology, and computational modeling.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Interior Design and Furnishings" is not a term that has a medical definition. Interior design refers to the planning, designing, and coordinating of spaces in residential, commercial, or industrial buildings to create functional and aesthetically pleasing environments. This can include selecting colors, furniture, lighting, flooring, and other decorative materials. Furnishings generally refer to the items such as furniture, curtains, rugs, and other decorative elements that are used to make a space comfortable and attractive.

If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

A bibliography, when used as a medical topic, typically refers to a list of sources or references that have been cited in a research paper, article, or other scholarly work. It is an organized compilation of the titles, authors, publication dates, and other relevant information about the sources that have been consulted during the course of researching a particular topic.

In medical literature, a bibliography may include sources such as:

* Original research articles published in peer-reviewed journals
* Review articles summarizing current knowledge on a specific topic
* Books or book chapters written by experts in the field
* Conference proceedings or abstracts
* Government reports or guidelines
* Dissertations or theses

The purpose of a bibliography is to provide readers with a comprehensive list of sources that have been used in the research, allowing them to follow up on any references that may be of interest. It also helps to ensure transparency and accountability by providing evidence of the sources that have informed the work.

In addition to being included at the end of scholarly works, bibliographies can also be standalone resources that provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on a particular topic. These may be compiled by experts in the field or created through systematic reviews of the literature.

A two-hybrid system technique is a type of genetic screening method used in molecular biology to identify protein-protein interactions within an organism, most commonly baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or Escherichia coli. The name "two-hybrid" refers to the fact that two separate proteins are being examined for their ability to interact with each other.

The technique is based on the modular nature of transcription factors, which typically consist of two distinct domains: a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and an activation domain (AD). In a two-hybrid system, one protein of interest is fused to the DBD, while the second protein of interest is fused to the AD. If the two proteins interact, the DBD and AD are brought in close proximity, allowing for transcriptional activation of a reporter gene that is linked to a specific promoter sequence recognized by the DBD.

The main components of a two-hybrid system include:

1. Bait protein (fused to the DNA-binding domain)
2. Prey protein (fused to the activation domain)
3. Reporter gene (transcribed upon interaction between bait and prey proteins)
4. Promoter sequence (recognized by the DBD when brought in proximity due to interaction)

The two-hybrid system technique has several advantages, including:

1. Ability to screen large libraries of potential interacting partners
2. High sensitivity for detecting weak or transient interactions
3. Applicability to various organisms and protein types
4. Potential for high-throughput analysis

However, there are also limitations to the technique, such as false positives (interactions that do not occur in vivo) and false negatives (lack of detection of true interactions). Additionally, the fusion proteins may not always fold or localize correctly, leading to potential artifacts. Despite these limitations, two-hybrid system techniques remain a valuable tool for studying protein-protein interactions and have contributed significantly to our understanding of various cellular processes.

I am not aware of a widely accepted medical definition for the term "software," as it is more commonly used in the context of computer science and technology. Software refers to programs, data, and instructions that are used by computers to perform various tasks. It does not have direct relevance to medical fields such as anatomy, physiology, or clinical practice. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help with those instead!

Bacteriophages, often simply called phages, are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria. They consist of a protein coat, called the capsid, that encases the genetic material, which can be either DNA or RNA. Bacteriophages are highly specific, meaning they only infect certain types of bacteria, and they reproduce by hijacking the bacterial cell's machinery to produce more viruses.

Once a phage infects a bacterium, it can either replicate its genetic material and create new phages (lytic cycle), or integrate its genetic material into the bacterial chromosome and replicate along with the bacterium (lysogenic cycle). In the lytic cycle, the newly formed phages are released by lysing, or breaking open, the bacterial cell.

Bacteriophages play a crucial role in shaping microbial communities and have been studied as potential alternatives to antibiotics for treating bacterial infections.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

Contig mapping, short for contiguous mapping, is a process used in genetics and genomics to construct a detailed map of a particular region or regions of a genome. It involves the use of molecular biology techniques to physically join together, or "clone," overlapping DNA fragments from a specific region of interest in a genome. These joined fragments are called "contigs" because they are continuous and contiguous stretches of DNA that represent a contiguous map of the region.

Contig mapping is often used to study large-scale genetic variations, such as deletions, duplications, or rearrangements, in specific genomic regions associated with diseases or other traits. It can also be used to identify and characterize genes within those regions, which can help researchers understand their function and potential role in disease processes.

The process of contig mapping typically involves several steps, including:

1. DNA fragmentation: The genomic region of interest is broken down into smaller fragments using physical or enzymatic methods.
2. Cloning: The fragments are inserted into a vector, such as a plasmid or bacteriophage, which can be replicated in bacteria to produce multiple copies of each fragment.
3. Library construction: The cloned fragments are pooled together to create a genomic library, which contains all the DNA fragments from the region of interest.
4. Screening and selection: The library is screened using various methods, such as hybridization or PCR, to identify clones that contain overlapping fragments from the region of interest.
5. Contig assembly: The selected clones are ordered based on their overlapping regions to create a contiguous map of the genomic region.
6. Sequencing and analysis: The DNA sequence of the contigs is determined and analyzed to identify genes, regulatory elements, and other features of the genomic region.

Overall, contig mapping is an important tool for studying the structure and function of genomes, and has contributed significantly to our understanding of genetic variation and disease mechanisms.

In the context of healthcare, an Information System (IS) is a set of components that work together to collect, process, store, and distribute health information. This can include hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that are used to create, process, and communicate information.

Healthcare IS support various functions within a healthcare organization, such as:

1. Clinical information systems: These systems support clinical workflows and decision-making by providing access to patient records, order entry, results reporting, and medication administration records.
2. Financial information systems: These systems manage financial transactions, including billing, claims processing, and revenue cycle management.
3. Administrative information systems: These systems support administrative functions, such as scheduling appointments, managing patient registration, and tracking patient flow.
4. Public health information systems: These systems collect, analyze, and disseminate public health data to support disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, and population health management.

Healthcare IS must comply with various regulations, including the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), which governs the privacy and security of protected health information (PHI). Effective implementation and use of healthcare IS can improve patient care, reduce errors, and increase efficiency within healthcare organizations.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Preclinical drug evaluation refers to a series of laboratory tests and studies conducted to determine the safety and effectiveness of a new drug before it is tested in humans. These studies typically involve experiments on cells and animals to evaluate the pharmacological properties, toxicity, and potential interactions with other substances. The goal of preclinical evaluation is to establish a reasonable level of safety and understanding of how the drug works, which helps inform the design and conduct of subsequent clinical trials in humans. It's important to note that while preclinical studies provide valuable information, they may not always predict how a drug will behave in human subjects.

A "periodical" in the context of medicine typically refers to a type of publication that is issued regularly, such as on a monthly or quarterly basis. These publications include peer-reviewed journals, magazines, and newsletters that focus on medical research, education, and practice. They may contain original research articles, review articles, case reports, editorials, letters to the editor, and other types of content related to medical science and clinical practice.

As a "Topic," periodicals in medicine encompass various aspects such as their role in disseminating new knowledge, their impact on clinical decision-making, their quality control measures, and their ethical considerations. Medical periodicals serve as a crucial resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and other stakeholders to stay updated on the latest developments in their field and to share their findings with others.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Single-chain antibodies (scFvs) are small, artificial protein molecules that contain the antigen-binding sites of immunoglobulins. They are formed by linking the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of an antibody via a flexible peptide linker, creating a single polypeptide chain. This design allows scFvs to maintain the specificity of traditional antibodies while being significantly smaller in size, more stable, and easier to produce. They have various applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics, including targeted drug delivery, tumor imaging, and the development of novel therapies for cancer and other diseases.

I cannot provide a "medical definition" of "Organization and Administration" as it is not a medical term. However, I can give you an explanation of how these concepts are applied in the context of healthcare and medical organizations.

Organization and administration in healthcare refer to the planning, coordination, and management of resources, processes, and structures within a medical institution or system. This includes:

1. Organizing: The process of designing, structuring, and implementing systems, departments, and workflows that facilitate efficient and effective patient care, staff performance, and resource management. Examples include creating clinical pathways for specific conditions, establishing quality improvement committees, and defining roles and responsibilities within the organization.
2. Administration: The process of overseeing, directing, and controlling the operations and resources of a medical institution or system. This includes managing finances, human resources, information technology, and facilities to ensure high-quality patient care, regulatory compliance, and strategic goals are met. Examples include developing budgets, hiring staff, implementing policies and procedures, and monitoring performance metrics.

In summary, organization and administration in healthcare involve the design, implementation, and management of systems, processes, and structures that promote efficient, effective, and high-quality patient care within medical institutions or systems.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "minicomputers" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "minicomputer" comes from the field of computer engineering and refers to a class of computers that are smaller and less expensive than mainframe computers, but more powerful and capable than microcomputers or personal computers. They were widely used in the 1960s and 1970s in various industries for tasks such as process control, data acquisition, and small-scale scientific calculations.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health sciences, I'd be happy to help!

An open reading frame (ORF) is a continuous stretch of DNA or RNA sequence that has the potential to be translated into a protein. It begins with a start codon (usually "ATG" in DNA, which corresponds to "AUG" in RNA) and ends with a stop codon ("TAA", "TAG", or "TGA" in DNA; "UAA", "UAG", or "UGA" in RNA). The sequence between these two points is called a coding sequence (CDS), which, when transcribed into mRNA and translated into amino acids, forms a polypeptide chain.

In eukaryotic cells, ORFs can be located in either protein-coding genes or non-coding regions of the genome. In prokaryotic cells, multiple ORFs may be present on a single strand of DNA, often organized into operons that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that not all ORFs necessarily represent functional proteins; some may be pseudogenes or result from errors in genome annotation. Therefore, additional experimental evidence is typically required to confirm the expression and functionality of a given ORF.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

Medical reference books are comprehensive and authoritative resources that provide detailed information about various aspects of medical science, diagnosis, treatment, and patient care. These books serve as a crucial source of knowledge for healthcare professionals, students, researchers, and educators in the medical field. They cover a wide range of topics including anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, clinical procedures, medical ethics, and public health issues.

Some common types of medical reference books are:

1. Textbooks: These are extensive resources that offer in-depth knowledge on specific medical subjects or general medical principles. They often contain illustrations, diagrams, and case studies to facilitate learning and understanding. Examples include Gray's Anatomy for detailed human anatomy or Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine for internal medicine.

2. Handbooks: These are compact and concise guides that focus on practical applications of medical knowledge. They are designed to be easily accessible and quickly referenced during patient care. Examples include the Merck Manual, which provides information on various diseases and their management, or the Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine for quick reference during clinical practice.

3. Formularies: These books contain detailed information about medications, including dosages, side effects, drug interactions, and contraindications. They help healthcare professionals make informed decisions when prescribing medications to patients. Examples include the British National Formulary (BNF) or the American Hospital Formulary Service (AHFS).

4. Atlases: These are visual resources that provide detailed illustrations or photographs of human anatomy, pathology, or medical procedures. They serve as valuable tools for learning and teaching medical concepts. Examples include Netter's Atlas of Human Anatomy or Sabiston Textbook of Surgery.

5. Dictionaries: These reference books provide definitions and explanations of medical terms, abbreviations, and jargon. They help healthcare professionals and students understand complex medical language. Examples include Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary or Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

6. Directories: These resources list contact information for healthcare facilities, organizations, and professionals. They are useful for locating specific services or individuals within the medical community. Examples include the American Medical Association (AMA) Directory of Physicians or the National Provider Identifier (NPI) Registry.

7. Guidelines: These books provide evidence-based recommendations for clinical practice in various medical specialties. They help healthcare professionals make informed decisions when managing patient care. Examples include the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines or the American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines.

8. Research compendiums: These resources compile research articles, reviews, and meta-analyses on specific medical topics. They help healthcare professionals stay up-to-date with the latest scientific findings and advancements in their field. Examples include the Cochrane Library or the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).

9. Case reports: These books present detailed accounts of individual patient cases, including symptoms, diagnoses, treatments, and outcomes. They serve as valuable learning tools for healthcare professionals and students. Examples include the Archives of Internal Medicine or the New England Journal of Medicine.

10. Ethics manuals: These resources provide guidance on ethical issues in medicine, such as informed consent, patient autonomy, and confidentiality. They help healthcare professionals navigate complex moral dilemmas in their practice. Examples include the American Medical Association (AMA) Code of Medical Ethics or the World Medical Association (WMA) Declaration of Geneva.

Sequence Tagged Sites (STSs) are specific, defined DNA sequences that are mapped to a unique location in the human genome. They were developed as part of a physical mapping strategy for the Human Genome Project and serve as landmarks for identifying and locating genetic markers, genes, and other features within the genome. STSs are typically short (around 200-500 base pairs) and contain unique sequences that can be amplified by PCR, allowing for their detection and identification in DNA samples. The use of STSs enables researchers to construct physical maps of large genomes with high resolution and accuracy, facilitating the study of genome organization, variation, and function.

Cell surface display techniques refer to a group of molecular biology methods that involve the presentation of recombinant proteins or peptides on the outer surface of a cell, typically a bacterial or yeast cell. This is achieved by fusing the protein or peptide of interest to a cell surface anchor protein, which helps tether the fusion protein to the cell membrane.

The displayed protein can then be used for various applications such as antigen presentation for vaccine development, enzyme immobilization, bioremediation, and biosensing. The most commonly used cell surface anchor proteins include ice nucleation protein (INP) in Gram-negative bacteria, autotransporter proteins in Gram-negative bacteria, and the alpha-agglutinin protein in yeast.

Cell surface display techniques offer several advantages, including high expression levels, ease of genetic manipulation, and the ability to screen large libraries of displayed proteins for specific functions or interactions. However, they also have some limitations, such as potential interference from the anchor protein with the function of the displayed protein and the difficulty of recovering the displayed protein from the cell surface.

RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) is a single-stranded, linear polymer of ribonucleotides. It is a nucleic acid present in the cells of all living organisms and some viruses. RNAs play crucial roles in various biological processes such as protein synthesis, gene regulation, and cellular signaling. There are several types of RNA including messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). These RNAs differ in their structure, function, and location within the cell.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Societies" is a broad term that generally refers to organized groups of individuals who share common interests, goals, or characteristics. It does not have a specific medical definition. However, if you're referring to "society" in the context of social determinants of health, it relates to the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age, including the systems put in place to deal with illness. These factors can greatly influence health outcomes. If you could provide more context or clarify your question, I would be happy to help further.

High-throughput nucleotide sequencing, also known as next-generation sequencing (NGS), refers to a group of technologies that allow for the rapid and parallel determination of nucleotide sequences of DNA or RNA molecules. These techniques enable the sequencing of large numbers of DNA or RNA fragments simultaneously, resulting in the generation of vast amounts of sequence data in a single run.

High-throughput sequencing has revolutionized genomics research by allowing for the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes, transcriptomes, and epigenomes. It has numerous applications in basic research, including genome assembly, gene expression analysis, variant detection, and methylation profiling, as well as in clinical settings, such as diagnosis of genetic diseases, identification of pathogens, and monitoring of cancer progression and treatment response.

Some common high-throughput sequencing platforms include Illumina (sequencing by synthesis), Ion Torrent (semiconductor sequencing), Pacific Biosciences (single molecule real-time sequencing), and Oxford Nanopore Technologies (nanopore sequencing). Each platform has its strengths and limitations, and the choice of technology depends on the specific research question and experimental design.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

"Drug design" is the process of creating and developing a new medication or therapeutic agent to treat or prevent a specific disease or condition. It involves identifying potential targets within the body, such as proteins or enzymes that are involved in the disease process, and then designing small molecules or biologics that can interact with these targets to produce a desired effect.

The drug design process typically involves several stages, including:

1. Target identification: Researchers identify a specific molecular target that is involved in the disease process.
2. Lead identification: Using computational methods and high-throughput screening techniques, researchers identify small molecules or biologics that can interact with the target.
3. Lead optimization: Researchers modify the chemical structure of the lead compound to improve its ability to interact with the target, as well as its safety and pharmacokinetic properties.
4. Preclinical testing: The optimized lead compound is tested in vitro (in a test tube or petri dish) and in vivo (in animals) to evaluate its safety and efficacy.
5. Clinical trials: If the preclinical testing is successful, the drug moves on to clinical trials in humans to further evaluate its safety and efficacy.

The ultimate goal of drug design is to create a new medication that is safe, effective, and can be used to improve the lives of patients with a specific disease or condition.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

Insertional mutagenesis is a process of introducing new genetic material into an organism's genome at a specific location, which can result in a change or disruption of the function of the gene at that site. This technique is often used in molecular biology research to study gene function and regulation. The introduction of the foreign DNA is typically accomplished through the use of mobile genetic elements, such as transposons or viruses, which are capable of inserting themselves into the genome.

The insertion of the new genetic material can lead to a loss or gain of function in the affected gene, resulting in a mutation. This type of mutagenesis is called "insertional" because the mutation is caused by the insertion of foreign DNA into the genome. The effects of insertional mutagenesis can range from subtle changes in gene expression to the complete inactivation of a gene.

This technique has been widely used in genetic research, including the study of developmental biology, cancer, and genetic diseases. It is also used in the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural and industrial applications.

Immunoglobulin fragments refer to the smaller protein units that are formed by the digestion or break-down of an intact immunoglobulin, also known as an antibody. Immunoglobulins are large Y-shaped proteins produced by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign substances such as pathogens or toxins. They consist of two heavy chains and two light chains, held together by disulfide bonds.

The digestion or break-down of an immunoglobulin can occur through enzymatic cleavage, which results in the formation of distinct fragments. The most common immunoglobulin fragments are:

1. Fab (Fragment, antigen binding) fragments: These are formed by the digestion of an intact immunoglobulin using the enzyme papain. Each Fab fragment contains a single antigen-binding site, consisting of a portion of one heavy chain and one light chain. The Fab fragments retain their ability to bind to specific antigens.
2. Fc (Fragment, crystallizable) fragments: These are formed by the digestion of an intact immunoglobulin using the enzyme pepsin or through the natural breakdown process in the body. The Fc fragment contains the constant region of both heavy chains and is responsible for effector functions such as complement activation, binding to Fc receptors on immune cells, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC).

These immunoglobulin fragments play crucial roles in various immune responses and diagnostic applications. For example, Fab fragments can be used in immunoassays for the detection of specific antigens, while Fc fragments can mediate effector functions that help eliminate pathogens or damaged cells from the body.

DNA shuffling, also known as homologous recombination or genetic recombination, is a process that occurs naturally in nature and involves the exchange of genetic material between two similar or identical strands of DNA. This process can also be performed artificially in a laboratory setting to create new combinations of genes or to improve existing ones through a technique called molecular breeding or directed evolution.

In DNA shuffling, the DNA molecules are cut into smaller pieces using enzymes called restriction endonucleases. The resulting fragments are then mixed together and allowed to reassemble randomly through the action of enzymes such as ligase, which seals the broken ends of the DNA strands together. This process can result in the creation of new combinations of genes that did not exist before, or the improvement of existing ones through the selection of advantageous mutations.

DNA shuffling is a powerful tool in biotechnology and has been used to create new enzymes with improved properties, such as increased stability, specificity, and activity. It has also been used to develop new vaccines, diagnostic tests, and other medical applications.

A CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read-Only Memory) is not a medical term, but a technology term. It refers to a type of optical storage disc that contains digital information and can be read by a computer's CD-ROM drive. The data on a CD-ROM is permanent and cannot be modified or erased, unlike other types of writable discs such as CD-R or CD-RW.

CD-ROMs were commonly used in the past to distribute software, multimedia presentations, reference materials, and educational content. In medical field, CD-ROMs have been used to distribute large databases of medical information, such as clinical guidelines, drug references, and anatomical atlases. However, with the advent of internet and cloud storage technologies, the use of CD-ROMs has become less common in recent years.

I'm happy to help, but I must clarify that "planning techniques" is not a medical term per se. However, in the context of healthcare and medicine, planning techniques can refer to various methods and approaches used to organize, coordinate, and implement care plans for patients. These techniques are often utilized by healthcare professionals, such as doctors, nurses, and social workers, to ensure that patients receive high-quality, evidence-based care that meets their individual needs and goals.

Here are some examples of planning techniques commonly used in healthcare:

1. Advance Care Planning (ACP): A process that helps individuals plan for future medical care in the event they become unable to make decisions for themselves. This can include creating an advance directive, such as a living will or healthcare power of attorney.
2. Goal-Setting: A collaborative process between patients and healthcare providers to establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) goals for treatment and care.
3. Care Mapping: A visual tool used to map out a patient's care plan, including their medical history, diagnoses, treatments, and support needs. This can help healthcare providers coordinate care and ensure that all team members are on the same page.
4. Root Cause Analysis (RCA): A problem-solving technique used to identify the underlying causes of medical errors or adverse events, with the goal of preventing similar incidents from occurring in the future.
5. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA): A proactive risk assessment tool used to identify potential failures in a system or process, and to develop strategies to mitigate those risks.
6. Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) Cycle: A continuous quality improvement technique that involves planning a change, implementing the change, studying its effects, and then acting on the results to make further improvements.

These are just a few examples of the many planning techniques used in healthcare. The specific methods and approaches used will depend on the individual patient's needs, as well as the context and resources available within the healthcare system.

A bibliographic database is a type of database that contains records of publications, such as books, articles, and conference proceedings. These records typically include bibliographic information, such as the title, author, publication date, and source of the publication. Some bibliographic databases also include abstracts or summaries of the publications, and many provide links to the full text of the publications if they are available online.

Bibliographic databases are used in a variety of fields, including academia, medicine, and industry, to locate relevant publications on a particular topic. They can be searched using keywords, author names, and other criteria. Some bibliographic databases are general, covering a wide range of topics, while others are specialized and focus on a specific subject area.

In the medical field, bibliographic databases such as MEDLINE and PubMed are widely used to search for articles related to biomedical research, clinical practice, and public health. These databases contain records of articles from thousands of biomedical journals and can be searched using keywords, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms, and other criteria.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Microfilming" is not a commonly used medical term. It is, however, a process used in various fields including library science and archiving to preserve documents by reducing them to microfilm. This process involves photographing documents or images at a reduced scale onto microfilm, which can then be stored and preserved more compactly and efficiently than the original documents.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

... Archived from the original (PDF) on April 1, 2010. "About the library." Eugene Public Library. Retrieved ... The Eugene Public Library is a municipal public library in Eugene, Oregon, United States. It has been in four different ... Education in Eugene, Oregon, Library buildings completed in 1959, Library buildings completed in 2002, Public libraries in ... Eugene Public Library was established as a tax-supported entity in 1904. In 1906, Oregon's first Carnegie Library was ...
"DigiGuide Library: Gene Honda". Digi Guide.com. Retrieved 2010-05-14. Donahue, Kit (July 15, 2008). "2008 Hall of Fame class ... "P.A announcer Gene Honda the busiest man in Chicago sports". 22 June 2014. "City of Chicago: Gene Honda". City of Chicago.org. ... Eugene "Gene" Honda is a public address announcer for the Chicago White Sox (starting in 1985, full-time since 1991), Chicago ... "P.A announcer Gene Honda the busiest man in Chicago sports". 22 June 2014. "Honda in, Wittenberg out as Hawks' announcer," ...
There is a Eugene F. Whelan fonds at Library and Archives Canada. "Former Liberal cabinet minister Eugene Whelan dead at 88". ... "Eugene F. Whelan fonds, Library and Archives Canada". Eugene Whelan; Rick Archbold (1986). Whelan: The Man in the Green Stetson ... Eugene Whelan - Parliament of Canada biography "Eugene WHELAN: Obituary". Windsor Star. Retrieved 22 February 2013. "Eugene ... ISBN 0-7725-1621-9. "Eugene F. Whelan fonds". Library and Archives Canada. Archived from the original on 7 April 2013. ...
"Levine, Harry Gene". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2018-02-14. "Harry Levine". QC Sociology. Retrieved 2018-02-14. Dwyer, Jim ... Harry Gene Levine (born April 1, 1945) is an American sociologist known for his research on alcohol and illicit drugs in ...
Tipica polka / W. Eugene Page ; D. F. Ramseyer". DAHR Discography of American Historical Recordings). Library of Congress ... Mobile prance (Roy Butin harp guitar ; W. Eugene Page mandolin) Polka scherzo (Roy Butin harp guitar ; W. Eugene Page mandolin ... Eugene Page mandolin ; D. F. Ramseyer harp guitar) Tipica polka (W. Eugene Page mandolin ; D. F. Ramseyer harp guitar. Composed ... W. Eugene Page was an early 20th-century performing artist who made records with Victor. He was considered a virtuoso on the ...
Detroit: Detroit Library Commission. Scott, Gene (2001). Detroit Beginnings: Early Villages and Old Neighborhoods. Detroit: ... Chicago: American Library Association. ISBN 0838906435. Ewen, Lynda Ann (1978). Corporate Power and Urban Crisis in Detroit. ... Bentley Historical Library. Retrieved on January 8, 2014. McGrail, Lucas. The Carlton. Historic Detroit. Retrieved April 1, ...
Open Library. Amdahl, Gene Myron (1951). The Logical Design of an Intermediate Speed Digital Computer (PDF). University of ... Tomash, Erwin (2008). "The Erwin Tomash Library on the History of Computing: An Annotated and Illustrated Catalog". www.cbi.umn ...
New American Library. Gene Edward Veith, Jr; Stamper, Christopher L. (2000). Christians in a .Com World: Getting Connected ... By the late 1980s, many BBS systems had significant file libraries, and this gave rise to leeching - users calling BBSes solely ... In the early days, the file download library consisted of files that the system operators obtained themselves from other BBSes ... Many BBSes inspected every file uploaded to their public file download library to ensure that the material did not violate ...
... may have evolved by gene duplication GRDB - Gene Relational DataBase Application and implementation of probabilistic profile- ... BioInfoBank Library Acta. 11 (1): 2659. Pas, Jakub (2013). "Application and implementation of probabilistic profile-profile ... Pas, Jakub; Stępniak, Piotr; Wyrwicz, Lucjan; Ginalski, Krzysztof; Rychlewski, Leszek (2011). "GRDB - Gene Relational DataBase ... Gene. 302 (1-2): 129-138. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(02)01097-1. PMID 12527203. Grotthuss, Marcin v; Koczyk, Grzegorz; Pas, Jakub; ...
"TMEM251 transmembrane protein 251 [Homo sapiens (human)]". NCBI Gene. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 9 May 2015 ... which is a set of similar genes that are formed by duplication of an original gene, is around 120 genes. Gene duplication, ... The TMEM251 gene is located on human chromosome 14, at 14q32.12, on the plus strand. The gene size is 1,277 base pairs. It ... The TMEM251 gene first appeared on the planet around 400 million years ago (MYA), since the most distant orthologs are found in ...
"DNASE1L1 deoxyribonuclease I-like 1". Entrez Gene. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Coy JF, Velhagen I, Himmele R, Delius H, ... Just like the DNase I enzyme produced by the DNase I gene, the DNase1L1 (DNaseX) enzyme produced by the DNase1L1 (DNaseX) gene ... National Library of Medicine. "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library ... The DNase1L1/DNaseX gene was discovered in the early 1990s by Johannes F. Coy as a member of the Molecular Genome Analysis ...
Entrez Gene. United States National Library of Medicine. Rousseau-Merck MF, Pizon V, Tavitian A, Berger R (1990). "Chromosome ... Genes on human chromosome 12, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the United States National Library of Medicine, EC 3.6 ... Human genes that encode Ras-related proteins include: RAP1A, RAP1B RAP2A, RAP2B, RAP2C RAB5C "RAP1A RAP1A, member of RAS ... rap+GTP-Binding+Proteins at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates ...
U.S. National Library of Medicine. "C22orf15 NCBI GEO Profile". NCBI Gene. U.S National Library of Medicine. "C22orf15 in ... U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Uncharacterized protein C22orf15". PhosphoSitePlus. Cell Signaling Technology. "IL2RG gene ... "C22orf15 chromosome 22 open reading frame 15 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". NCBI gene. U.S. National Library of Medicine. "C22orf15 ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. "C22orf15 Gene - ...
"Entrez Gene: IYD Iodotyrosine deiodinase". Entrez Gene. United States National Library of Medicine. Rosenberg IN, Goswami A ( ... Moreno JC (2003). "Identification of novel genes involved in congenital hypothyroidism using serial analysis of gene expression ... National Library of Medicine. "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library ... The gene encoding this enzyme has been recently identified. The sequence of amino acids of iodotyrosine deiodinase is highly ...
"PHEX phosphate regulating endopeptidase X-linked". Entrez Gene. U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Phosphorus in diet". ... "PHEX phosphate regulating endopeptidase X-linked [Homo sapiens (human)]". Gene - NCBI. U.S. National Library of Medicine. ... Phosphate diabetes that results from mutations in the PHEX gene is an X-linked dominant disorder, where the mutated gene is ... phosphate diabetes is caused by a genetic mutation in the PHEX gene located on the X chromosome. The PHEX gene encodes for an ...
"Gene libraries". Archived from the original on 2013-03-31. Retrieved 2013-06-05. Blaber, Michael. "Genomic Libraries". ... After a library is created, the genome of an organism can be sequenced to elucidate how genes affect an organism or to compare ... Genes can be isolated through genomic libraries and used on human cell lines or animal models to further research. Furthermore ... After a genomic library is constructed with a viral vector, such as lambda phage, the titer of the library can be determined. ...
"Town Topics". The Oregon Daily Journal., February 18, 1905, Image 5; Image provided by: University of Oregon Libraries; Eugene ... University of Oregon Libraries; Eugene, OR. "Henry Heppner Died Thursday". East Oregonian : E.O., February 17, 1905, Daily ... Eugene, OR". December 9, 1903. Library, University of Oregon, Knight. "East Oregonian : E.O. (Pendleton, OR) 1888-current, ... University of Oregon Libraries; Eugene, OR. Morning Oregonian., February 18, 1905, Page 11, Image 11. February 18, 1905. French ...
"Library and Archives Canada, Finding aid to Eugene Forsey fonds, part 2" (PDF). Retrieved 2020-06-18. Eugene Forsey - ... There is a Eugene Forsey fonds at Library and Archives Canada. List of University of Waterloo people Milligan 2004, p. 19. ... Eugene Forsey, Canada's Maverick Sage. Toronto: Dundurn, 2012. Hodgetts, J.E. The Sound of One Voice: Eugene Forsey and His ... Appendix 3: Two Constitutional Scholars: Sir Kenneth Wheare and Dr Eugene Forsey. Milligan, Frank (2004). Eugene A. Forsey: An ...
... , Milner Library - Illinois State Gene A. Budig Presidential Papers, 1969-2002 , Dr. JoAnn Rayfield Archives at ... "Gene Budig , Kenneth Spencer Research Library Archival Collections". archives.lib.ku.edu. Retrieved September 17, 2020. Adler, ... Gene Budig, has passed away". MiLB.com. Retrieved September 8, 2020. Gene A. Budig (1994-2000) Archived April 7, 2008, at the ... Gene Arthur Budig was born on May 25, 1939, and was placed in an orphanage and adopted shortly thereafter. He was raised in ...
"PSMB8 proteasome 20S subunit beta 8 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". NCBI Gene. National Library of Medicine (US), National Center ... This gene is called PSMB8 and is located on chromosome 6 at 6p21.32. This gene codes for a subunit called immunoproteasomes ... This means the defective gene responsible for the disorder is located on an autosome, and two copies of the defective gene (one ... The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive disorder both carry one copy of the defective gene, but usually do not ...
"Eugene B. Sledge Collection in the Auburn University Digital Library". Retrieved March 18, 2010. "Finding aid to the Eugene B. ... "Eugene B. Sledge receiving his Ph.D. at the University of Florida". Auburn University Digital Library. Retrieved 2010-04-13. " ... "Eugene Sledge". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2015-02-26. Ullrich, Dieter C. (August 2003). "Guide to the Eugene B. Sledge Papers, RG ... ISBN 0-8173-1161-0. USMC discharge certificate "Eugene B. Sledge, Auburn University Student". Auburn University Digital Library ...
"BTBD9 gene". U.S. National Library of Medicine. November 26, 2019. Archived from the original on 2015-03-13. Retrieved December ... The BTBD9 gene has also been linked to blood anemia in a study. The study linked a genetic marker in the BTBD9 gene with anemia ... Drosophila CG18126 gene loss was found to be correlated to sleep lost behavior within fruit fly experiments. The BTBD9 gene ... "Gene: BTBD9 - ENSG00000183826". bgee.org. Retrieved 2020-04-14. "BTBD9 BTB domain containing 9 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - ...
"OPN1LW gene". U.S National Library of Medicine. Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved November 29, 2017. Imamoto Y, Shichida Y ( ... Protanomaly occurs when a partially functional hybrid OPN1LW gene replaces the normal gene. Opsins made from these hybrid genes ... They are in a tandem array, composed of a single OPN1LW gene which is followed by one or more OPN1MW genes. The locus control ... Recombination events usually begin with misalignment of an OPN1LW gene with an OPN1MW gene and are followed by a certain type ...
Gene Expression Omnibus) and pathway libraries. Data fusion: components for fusing different data sets, collective matrix ... marker genes discovery, scoring of cells and genes, and cell type prediction. Spectroscopy: components for analyzing and ... From version 3.0 onwards, Orange uses common Python open-source libraries for scientific computing, such as numpy, scipy and ... Bioinformatics: components for gene expression analysis, enrichment, and access to expression databases (e.g., ...
Bundy, Gene. "Jack Williamson Science Fiction Library". ENMU. Retrieved August 31, 2012. "The Dr. Antonio Gennaro Natural ... Golden Library The Golden Library features General Collections, Special Collections and Government Information. Special ... Jack Williamson Science Fiction Library The Jack Williamson Science Fiction Library is part of the Special Collections and has ... The building now houses the Golden Library, the Runnels Gallery and the offices of Tutoring and Supplemental Instruction and ...
1, 12 - via Bentley Historical Library. Eugene Register-Guard. 1986 Oct 26. Retrieved 2022-Oct-04. v t e (Articles with short ...
"Gerald Eugene Stano". Crime Library. Retrieved March 21, 2022. 1998: Gerald Eugene Stano, misogynist psychopath Retrieved on ... Odyssey of Murder April 23, 2023 by the Crime Library. "Gerald Eugene Stano" (PDF). maamodt.asp.radford.edu. p. 1. Retrieved ... Gerald Eugene Stano (born Paul Zeininger; September 12, 1951 - March 23, 1998) was an American convicted serial killer. Stano ... "Gerald Eugene Stano" (PDF). maamodt.asp.radford.edu. p. 2. Retrieved April 23, 2023. "#UP724". NamUs. Retrieved October 19, ...
"Lines From The Library". The Eugene Guard. Eugene, Oregon. August 18, 1940. p. 11. Retrieved July 7, 2017 - via Newspapers.com ... A voracious reader his entire life, at age seven he read a book he borrowed from the library, One Thousand Ways to Make $1000, ...
Libraries Unlimited. Eugene V. Gallagher; W. Michael Ashcraft (2006). Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America ... Many of these publications are also available from their website in the Watchtower Online Library. In addition to Jehovah's ... Others, such as the organizational manual Organized to Do Jehovah's Will and Watchtower Library (containing the Watch Tower ... but may be supplied to other interested individuals on request or made available in public libraries. These include the Bible ...
"University of Omaha Library To Bear Name of Donor, 'Gene Eppley Library'". The Gateway. University of Nebraska Omaha. December ... and in 1976 the original Eugene Eppley Library became the current Eppley Administration building. Eppley's gift and the ... Libraries in Omaha, Nebraska, Library buildings completed in 1956, University of Nebraska Omaha, University and college ... Milo told him that a library was in order for their new campus, to which Eppley wrote a check for $850,000, the entire cost of ...
Guide to the Eugene Lyons Papers, Knight Library, University of Oregon, Eugene. Retrieved July 19, 2010. "Stalin Laughs!", Time ... Eugene Lyons Американский комитет освобождения от большевизма и советская эмиграция в Европе Moscow Carrousel in libraries ( ... Eugene Lyons, "Who's Hysterical?" American Legion Magazine, vol. 48 (March 1950), p. 20. Eugene Lyons, "The Men the Commies ... Eugene Lyons, "Mrs. Roosevelt's Youth Congress," The American Mercury, vol. 49 (April 1940), pp. 481-484. Eugene Lyons, " ...
Eugene Public Library. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 1, 2010. "About the library." Eugene Public Library. Retrieved ... The Eugene Public Library is a municipal public library in Eugene, Oregon, United States. It has been in four different ... Education in Eugene, Oregon, Library buildings completed in 1959, Library buildings completed in 2002, Public libraries in ... Eugene Public Library was established as a tax-supported entity in 1904. In 1906, Oregons first Carnegie Library was ...
Gene Carney Collection (AFC/2001/001/55695), Veterans History Project, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress ... Weinsaft, Nick, Branson Veterans Task Force, and Gene Carney. Gene Carney Collection. . 1943. ... Weinsaft, Nick, Branson Veterans Task Force, and Gene Carney. Gene Carney Collection. . 1943. ... As a publicly supported institution, the Library generally does not own rights to material in its collections. Therefore, it ...
Doughty, Richard E, Julie Maruskin, Clark County Public Library, and Eugene M Brody. Eugene M. Brody Collection. . 1943. ... Eugene M. Brody Collection (AFC/2001/001/32088), Veterans History Project, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress ... Doughty, R. E., Maruskin, J., Clark County Public Library & Brody, E. M. (1943) Eugene M. Brody Collection. . ... An AccessAble Book, published in cooperation with University Libraries, University of South Carolina. * Contributor: Dubose, ...
Eugene ONeill by D. V. K. Raghavacharyulu, unknown edition, ... An edition of Eugene ONeill (1965) Eugene ONeill. a study by ... Open Library is an initiative of the Internet Archive, a 501(c)(3) non-profit, building a digital library of Internet sites and ...
Ann Arbor District Library, 2023. All content CC-by-NC unless otherwise specified.. Terms of Use , Privacy Policy ...
The MicroSEQ ID Fungal Gene Library v2022 is for use with MicroSEQ ID Microbial Identification Software v4.0. It contains over ...
Gene therapy of melanoma : therapeutic and pharmaceutical investigations Author: Thomas, Beverley Jayne ISNI: 0000 0001 3518 ...
Library Use Up Despite Crime Hype. BlogNews by Alan PitmanPosted on 03/13/2009. *Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new ... Eugene resident and longtime art jeweler Hannah Goldrich examines her Jewish heritage through Stolpersteine. Culture 12 hours ... Library visits were up 21 percent last year, the largest increase in five years, according to the library’s recent annual ... The scary library hype was part of a successful campaign to pass an exclusion ordinance by exaggerating crime downtown, which ...
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Cook, Eugene, 1904- Biography: Georgia attorney general from 1945 to 1965. Associated Subjects: Cook, Eugene, 1904- Archival ... The Digital Library of Georgia is part of the GALILEO Initiative and located at The University of Georgia Libraries. © 2023 ... Talmadge, Herman E. (Herman Eugene), 1913-2002 Date of Original: 1986-04-28 Collection: Georgia Political Papers and Oral ... WSB-TV newsfilm clip of Georgia attorney general Eugene Cook speaking about a U.S. Department of Justice case against Prince ...
Identification of interferon stimulated genes that control Toxoplasma in pig macrophages. Objective ... including which interferon-stimulated gene (ISGs) directly inhibit Toxoplasma in pig cells. In preliminary experiments, we have ... Identification of interferon stimulated genes that control Toxoplasma in pig macrophages ...
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New: 4J Student Library Cards In partnership with Eugene School District 4J, were delivering library cards to all students. ... New Mural at Bethel Branch Library The Eugene Public Librarys Bethel Branch got a facelift in late summer 2023 when artist ... Eugene Public Library. The Library provides free access to information, education, and entertainment for community members of ... Come explore at the Librarys three locations - Downtown, Bethel, and Sheldon - or 24/7 at the Eugene Public Library website. ...
Eugene Onegin, an aristocrat, much like Pushkin and his peers in his attitude and habits, is bored. He visits the countryside ... Search for a digital library with this title. Search by city, ZIP code, or library name. Learn more about precise location ... Sign up to save your library. With an OverDrive account, you can save your favorite libraries for at-a-glance information about ... Eugene Onegin, an aristocrat, much like Pushkin and his peers in his attitude and habits, is bored. He visits the countryside ...
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Westover Library Has Sunday Hours.. Westover Library began Sunday hours, 10 a.m. - 5 … ... about Westover Library Has Sunday ... 27 and Gene Luen Yang, May 4 at Central Library, 6-8 p.m.. Families with middle school/high school students and adults are in ... 27), creator of "New Kid," and the Library of Congress fifth National Ambassador for Young Peoples Literature, Gene Luen Yang ... "Get Graphic" with Gene Luen Yang. On May 4, join us for a conversation between New York Times bestselling author Gene Luen Yang ...
Scientific Video Article | В то время как дсРНК кормления в С. Элеганс является мощным инструментом для оценки функции гена, настоящие протоколы для...
Eugene Garfield talks about Growing up across the street from the New York Public Library ... And, my first experience with title scanning was in the library where I used to go in, in the forbidden section which was the ... 5. Growing up across the street from the New York Public Library 1 179 02:12 ... Eugene Garfield (1925-2017) was an American scientist and publisher. In 1960 Garfield set up the Institute for Scientific ...
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Eugene, Mo.) 1945-1954 Place of publication:. Eugene, Mo.. Geographic coverage:. * Eugene, Cole, Missouri , View more titles ... The Library of Congress , Chronicling America , Cole County enterprise. Announcement: In 2024, Chronicling America will ... About , Libraries that Have It , MARC Record. Title: Cole County enterprise. : ( ... Chronicling America is sponsored jointly by the National Endowment for the Humanities external link and the Library of Congress ...
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Google health Health Reference Center Academic history In Context K12 large print LGBTQ libraries library Michigan My Library ... genes in embryos of twin girls. He claims he edited their genes to make them resistant to HIV, which their father contracted. ... The peril and promise of gene editing, and Scientists claim of gene-edited babies creates uproar. ... academic academic libraries Academic OneFile Analytics On Demand Cengage Learning ChiltonLibrary digital humanities eBooks ...
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Library preparation can be a source of bias in RNA-sequencing studies, leading to false positives in genes identified as ... Dang, Trang Le Thao (2023) Effect of Library Preparation on Differential Gene Expression in RNA Sequencing. Masters Thesis, ... These results indicate that library. preparation influences differential gene expression analysis and subsequently affects the ... Differential gene expression analysis was performed with DESeq2, EdgeR, and Limma-Voom, and differentially expressed genes were ...
QH 445.2 92GE Gene mapping : QH 445.2 95HI Le dépistage génétique des nouveau-nés : QH 447 91FR GENATLAS : QH 450 83GE Gene ... Tags from this library: No tags from this library for this title. Log in to add tags. ... Other Libraries (WorldCat) Other Databases (Google Scholar) Online Stores (Bookfinder.com) Open Library (openlibrary.org) ... Gene mapping : using law and ethics as guides / edited by George J. Annas, Sherman Elias. Contributor(s): Annas, George J , ...
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  • Differential gene expression analysis was performed with DESeq2, EdgeR, and Limma-Voom, and differentially expressed genes were annotated using BiomaRt. (pitt.edu)
  • All bioinformatics were conducted in R. There were 13827 differentially expressed genes, including ACTB and GADPH (housekeeping genes), identified in this study. (pitt.edu)
  • Among various differentially expressed genes identified, ASAP1, a gene not previously associated with prostate cancer, was upregulated in the metastatic subline as confirmed by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining. (ubc.ca)
  • Synaptic, transcriptional and chromatin genes disrupted in autism. (nature.com)
  • These results indicate that library preparation influences differential gene expression analysis and subsequently affects the downstream analyses that investigate the biological pathways impacted by gene expression level. (pitt.edu)
  • To identify metastasis-associated genes, differential gene expression analysis of metastatic PCa1-met and non-metastatic PCa2 prostate cancer sublines was carried out. (ubc.ca)
  • It is a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) resulting from loss-of-function mutations involving the CYP17 gene. (medscape.com)
  • Gene-disruptive mutations contribute to the biology of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), but most of the related pathogenic genes are not known. (nature.com)
  • We identified 91 genes, including 38 new NDD genes, with an excess of de novo mutations or private disruptive mutations in 5.7% of cases. (nature.com)
  • Figure 2: Targeted sequencing highlights genes reaching significance for de novo mutations and private disruptive variant burden. (nature.com)
  • Recurrent de novo mutations implicate novel genes underlying simplex autism risk. (nature.com)
  • Changes in your genes are also called mutations or variants . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Furthermore, the presence of H3F3A/ATRX-DAXX/TP53 mutations was strongly associated with alternative lengthening of telomeres and specific gene expression profiles. (mtak.hu)
  • [ 6 ] Ibrutinib has demonstrated efficacy as monotherapy for rituximab-resistant cases, especially those with mutations in the MYD88 gene. (medscape.com)
  • Ann Arbor District Library , 2023. (aadl.org)
  • Thank you to community members for passing the 2023 Eugene Parks and Rec Operations and Maintenance Levy 20-343. (flyeug.com)
  • The City of Eugene Parks and Open Space is proud to announce that the Downtown Riverfront Park project has been honored with Oregon Recreation and Park Association's 2023 Design and Construction Award. (eugene-or.gov)
  • mGene is a computational tool for the genome-wide prediction of protein coding genes from eukaryotic DNA sequences. (plob.org)
  • 27 and Gene Luen Yang, May 4 at Central Library, 6-8 p.m. (arlingtonva.us)
  • 27), creator of " New Kid ," and the Library of Congress' fifth National Ambassador for Young People's Literature, Gene Luen Yang (May 4), author of " Dragon Hoops . (arlingtonva.us)
  • On May 4, join us for a conversation between New York Times bestselling author Gene Luen Yang and Librarian Jennifer Santure about Yang's graphic novel career, from " American Born Chinese " to his latest graphic novel, " Dragon Hoops . (arlingtonva.us)
  • Read this article to learn about the gene libraries, genomic libraries and cDNA libraries. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • However, if the goal is the production of new or modified proteins, or the determination of tissue-specific expression of timing patterns, cDNA libraries are more appropriate. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • The main consideration in the construction of genomic or cDNA libraries is, therefore, the nucleic acid starting material. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • In contrast, however, cDNA libraries represent only mRNA being produced from a specific cell type at a particular time in the cell's development. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • Thus, it is important to consider carefully the cell or tissue type from which the mRNA is to be deriver in the construction of cDNA libraries. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • Efficient isolation of undegraded mRNA from total RNA was obtained which is a critical step for the construction of representative cDNA libraries. (bvsalud.org)
  • If the ultimate aim understands the control of protein production for a particular gene or its architecture, then genomic libraries must be used. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • the number of genes required per protein rises exponentially. (aston.ac.uk)
  • Figure 3: Protein locations of private disruptive variants in new candidate NDD risk genes. (nature.com)
  • But the abnormal BCR-ABL1 gene has instructions for an abnormal protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some medicines target the protein made by the BCR-ABL1 gene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The ab-initio version was best on nucleotide, exon and transcript level, and only slightly worse than Augustus on the gene level. (plob.org)
  • Of these mediators, cytokines play a single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and asthma phenotypes (Che et al. (cdc.gov)
  • These genes were selected based on their role in asthmatic inflammatory processes and History previously reported associations with asthma phenotypes. (cdc.gov)
  • With the Human Accell Phosphatases siRNA library, researchers receive siRNAs targeting enzymes with known or predicted phosphatase activity. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • the number of different genes equals the number of encoded proteins, regardless of codon number. (aston.ac.uk)
  • Your genes carry special instructions for making proteins that help your cells do their work. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The gene mutation created problems with proteins in her respiratory tract. (medlineplus.gov)
  • While the genetic mutation was rare, they found multiple variations in the IFIH1 gene that could lead to these dysfunctional proteins in the respiratory tract. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The use of expression levels of transcription factor-encoding genes according to hierarchical anatomical classifications covering different tissues and cell types makes it possible to filter out irrelevant binding site predictions and to identify candidates of potential functional importance for further experimental testing. (lu.se)
  • For practical application of the promoter library, we fine-tuned the expressions of cadA and cadB genes, required for cadaverine synthesis and export, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In metabolic engineering, the overexpression of enzyme genes may fail to increase the production yield because cellular resources are excessively consumed for enzyme synthesis, resulting in decreased cell growth and thereby a decreased yield. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Veterans History Project (VHP) at the Library of Congress collects, preserves and makes accessible the firsthand recollections of U.S. military veterans who served from World War I through more recent conflicts and peacekeeping missions, so that future generations may hear directly from veterans and better understand what they saw, did and felt during their service. (loc.gov)
  • John P. Snodgrass (AFC 2001/001/[VHP collection]), Veterans History Project Collection, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress. (loc.gov)
  • Chronicling America is sponsored jointly by the National Endowment for the Humanities external link and the Library of Congress. (loc.gov)
  • Names are selected from controlled lists used by the Library of Congress. (loc.gov)
  • It was big news this week when scientist He Jiankui announced at the Second International Summit on Human Genome Editing that he'd "CRISPR'd" genes in embryos of twin girls. (gale.com)
  • By digesting complex genomic DNA from an organism it is possible to reproducibly divide its genome into a large number of small fragments, each approximately the size of a single gene. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • The evaluated developmental version of mGene exhibited the best prediction performance (in terms of the average between sensitivity and specificity) for the multiple-genome prediction tasks on all four evaluation levels (considering, nucleotides, exons, transcripts and genes). (plob.org)
  • DH-1 genome also contains a group of genes related to conventional type II methanotrophic metabolic pathways, such as tetrahydromethanopterin and tetrahydrofolate pathways [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We recommend taking a plurality consensus sequence for each gene segment, genome, and/or lineage/subtype. (cdc.gov)
  • did not significantly alter the sustained, elevated FVIII levels, and multiplex gene expression analysis revealed the upregulation of biomarkers associated with immune tolerance signaling, post-dosing. (wfu.edu)
  • Multiplex targeted sequencing identifies recurrently mutated genes in autism spectrum disorders. (nature.com)
  • A gene-specific T2A-GAL4 library for Drosophila . (bvsalud.org)
  • In cell engineering fields, such as synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, gene expression is fine-tuned for the robust operation of artificially designed genetic systems and enhanced production of a desired substance via manmade metabolic pathways [ 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • namely, metabolic pathways, regulatory pathways, and molecular assemblies, and maintains gene catalogs for all the organisms that have be. (bvsalud.org)
  • Find this title in Libby, the library reading app by OverDrive. (overdrive.com)
  • And, my first experience with title scanning was in the library where I used to go in, in the forbidden section which was the adult part of the library, not the children's section which I rarely visited, I didn't read too many children's books when I was a child, and I scanned the title of every book in the library. (webofstories.com)
  • No tags from this library for this title. (who.int)
  • Gene R. Dahl currently has 1 title listed in the Library. (shadolibrary.org)
  • Title : Nitroreductase-Activatable Morpholino Oligonucleotides for in Vivo Gene Silencing Personal Author(s) : Yamazoe, Sayumi;McQuade, Lindsey E.;Chen, James K. (cdc.gov)
  • Eugene Public Library was established as a tax-supported entity in 1904. (wikipedia.org)
  • This remained the main library building until it was moved to its current location at West 10th Avenue and Charnelton Street in 2002. (wikipedia.org)
  • A BCR-ABL1 genetic test uses a sample of blood or bone marrow to look for an abnormal gene called BCR-ABL1 . (medlineplus.gov)
  • An abnormal BCR-ABL1 gene is an acquired genetic change. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If your health care provider thinks you may have a type of leukemia that involves the BCR-ABL1 gene , you may need a BCR-ABL1 genetic test to make a diagnosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As of December 14, The National Library of Medicine's Genetic Testing Registry lists 76,546 genetic tests for 22,570 conditions involving 18,736 genes and 518 laboratories. (cdc.gov)
  • Immune Response Is Key to Genetic Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 Infection With Psychiatric Disorders Based on Differential Gene Expression Pattern Analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • The genetic analysis of the child found a mutation in the IFIH1 gene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These results suggest that genetic variations in TNF, TGFB1, PTGS1 and PTGS2 genes contribute to DA susceptibility. (cdc.gov)
  • Library, Recreation & Cultural Services Annual Report 2010" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Library, Recreation and Cultural Services Department (LRCS) takes quality of life seriously. (flyeug.com)
  • With our three pools and seven community centers, it's Eugene Rec's mission to provide recreation opportunities to all Eugene residents for sharp minds and strong bodies. (flyeug.com)
  • Join us on a tour of the newly renovated and expanded Campbell Community Center, thanks to funding from the 2018 Parks and Recreation Bond that was passed by Eugene voters. (flyeug.com)
  • Despite a global pandemic and historic wildfires, the Eugene Parks and Recreation bond and levy work continued. (flyeug.com)
  • However, when applying this concept to genomes of multicellular organisms such as mammals, one has to deal with a large number of false positive predictions since many transcription factor genes are only expressed in specific tissues or cell types. (lu.se)
  • TS-REX was applied to predict regulators of Polycomb group genes in six human tumor tissues and in human embryonic stem cells. (lu.se)
  • At this time, the library already had two branches-Bethel (West Eugene) and Sheldon (Cal Young neighborhood)-that had opened in 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • Come explore at the Library's three locations - Downtown, Bethel, and Sheldon - or 24/7 at the Eugene Public Library website . (flyeug.com)
  • With spa jets revving and current channel circulating, Sheldon Pool & Fitness Center reopened its doors on September 26, 2022, to the Eugene community. (flyeug.com)
  • According to information from Egan, "Egan Warming Center's official season starts Nov 15, but with temperatures tonight expected to drop to 24 degrees tonight, St. Vincent de Paul is working with the city of Eugene and Lane County to open one warming center at Wheeler. (eugeneweekly.com)
  • A press release from the city of Eugene and Lane County adds that the Wheeler Pavilion can only accommodate adults age 18 and older. (eugeneweekly.com)
  • Employment in Lane County (Eugene metropolitan statistical area). (or.us)
  • Particular genes can be isolated from DNA libraries, much as books can be obtained from conventional libraries. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • Researchers around the world are achieving targeted gene silencing in cells that had previously been beyond the reach of conventional RNAi products due to toxicity caused by transfection reagents or undesirable viral responses. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • and a cDNA library, which represents the mRNA from a cell or tissue at a specific point of time. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • As a publicly supported institution, the Library generally does not own rights to material in its collections. (loc.gov)
  • The Digital Library strives to provide access to its collections and resources to the Villanova University community and the global community of scholars, subject to any intellectual property or other restrictions on use. (villanova.edu)
  • The Genetics Virtual Library provides links to Internet resources covering genetics in the biosciences. (bvsalud.org)
  • CRISPR - the gene-editing technique - makes the news nearly every week, and the issues and debate surrounding its use will only intensify. (gale.com)
  • While you're in Science In Context , you can listen to NPR's reporting from just days ago, Chinese Scientist Says He's Created First Genetically Modified Babies , and read all about this subject in articles in The Washington Post , The peril and promise of gene editing , and Scientist's claim of gene-edited babies creates uproar . (gale.com)
  • Library preparation can be a source of bias in RNA-sequencing studies, leading to false positives in genes identified as differentially expressed between conditions. (pitt.edu)
  • The condition is caused by a mutation in the factor VIII (FVIII)-encoding gene. (wfu.edu)
  • The fully developed version shows the best overall performance compared to the submitted gene finders' predictions, including the ones of Fgenesh and Augustus. (plob.org)
  • The heterogeneity of primary prostate cancer specimens from patients, consisting of non-metastatic and metastatic subpopulations, hampers identification of metastasis-associated genes by direct comparison of primary and secondary cancers. (ubc.ca)
  • Its genomic and transcriptomic analyses have revealed that it possesses many genes that are involved in methane metabolism and secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways, including the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) cycle, the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway, the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway, the Entener-Doudoroff (EDD) pathway, and the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway [ 10 , 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • to enable sorting into primary and secondary data for competing lineages of the same gene. (cdc.gov)
  • Organización molecular del complejo II y su rol en la anaerobiosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • It offers pre-trained models for the recognition of gene structures including untranslated regions in an increasing number of organisms. (plob.org)
  • We developed TS-REX, a database/software system that supports the analysis of tissue and cell type-specific transcription factor-gene networks based on expressed sequence tag abundance of transcription factor-encoding genes in UniGene EST libraries. (lu.se)
  • Usage of reporter genes need to be specified in iLab before project start and the exact sequence information and gene co-ordinates need to be submitted to be included during sequencing read alignment. (lu.se)
  • The choice of the particular type of gene library depends on a number of factors, the most important being the final application of any DNA fragment derived from the library. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • Library visits were up 21 percent last year, the largest increase in five years, according to the library’s recent annual report . (eugeneweekly.com)
  • The Eugene Public Library is a municipal public library in Eugene, Oregon, United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2003 the new library building won first place in the American Institute of Architects of Southwest Oregon's public architecture awards. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eugene Public Library 25 years old Thursday. (wikipedia.org)
  • Remember all the hype last fall in The Register-Guard and local TV news that crime downtown was frightening people away from the Eugene public library? (eugeneweekly.com)
  • Arlington Reads is made possible thanks to the generous support of the Friends of the Arlington Public Library . (arlingtonva.us)
  • I think my interest in information was, sort of like, inbred in the sense that I was fortunate when I was a child to live across the street from a branch of the New York Public Library. (webofstories.com)
  • The person Hackman, Gene represents an individual (alive, dead, undead, or fictional associated with resources found in Portland Public Library . (portlandlibrary.com)
  • Structured data from the Bibframe namespace is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License by Portland Public Library. (portlandlibrary.com)
  • Those who wish to become Egan volunteers, the center asks you to note that upcoming training sessions are noon Wednesday, Nov. 13, at the Eugene Public Library, Bascom-Tykeson room and 7 pm Wednesday, Nov. 13, 7 pm at Temple Beth Israel, 1175 E 29th Avenue in Eugene. (eugeneweekly.com)
  • Find education and entertainment for all ages - free at Eugene Public Library! (eugene-or.gov)
  • The Dora Public Library, a member of the Coos County Library Service District, is located in an unincorporated area of the County. (culturaltrust.org)
  • Created in 1984, the Eugene Public Library Foundation supports the Eugene Public Library in its efforts to inspire lifelong learning and enrich the entire community. (culturaltrust.org)
  • Open Library is an initiative of the Internet Archive , a 501(c)(3) non-profit, building a digital library of Internet sites and other cultural artifacts in digital form. (openlibrary.org)
  • If you are experiencing difficulties in accessing, viewing, or navigating the Digital Library, please contact us at [email protected] or 610.519.5271. (villanova.edu)
  • In addition, cell growth and lysine (a precursor of cadaverine) production assays suggested that gene expression optimization through transcription tuning can afford a balance between the growth and precursor supply. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The software allows users to interactively visualize transcription factor-gene networks, as well as to export data for further processing. (lu.se)