Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Libraries, MedicalMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Libraries: Collections of systematically acquired and organized information resources, and usually providing assistance to users. (ERIC Thesaurus, http://www.eric.ed.gov/ accessed 2/1/2008)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Methanobrevibacter: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, cocci to short rod-shaped ARCHAEA, in the family METHANOBACTERIACEAE, order METHANOBACTERIALES. They are found in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or other anoxic environments.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Library Services: Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Libraries, Hospital: Information centers primarily serving the needs of hospital medical staff and sometimes also providing patient education and other services.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Directed Molecular Evolution: The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Library Surveys: Collection and analysis of data pertaining to operations of a particular library, library system, or group of independent libraries, with recommendations for improvement and/or ordered plans for further development.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Library Administration: Planning, organizing, staffing, direction, and control of libraries.RNA, Archaeal: Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.DNA, Archaeal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.Small Molecule Libraries: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Library Science: Study of the principles and practices of library administration and services.Libraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.Libraries, NursingGenetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Library AssociationsRNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Catalogs, LibraryDNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Library Collection Development: Development of a library collection, including the determination and coordination of selection policy, assessment of needs of users and potential users, collection use studies, collection evaluation, identification of collection needs, selection of materials, planning for resource sharing, collection maintenance and weeding, and budgeting.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Library Technical Services: Acquisition, organization, and preparation of library materials for use, including selection, weeding, cataloging, classification, and preservation.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Library Automation: The use of automatic machines or processing devices in libraries. The automation may be applied to library administrative activities, office procedures, and delivery of library services to users.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Library Materials: Print and non-print materials collected, processed, and stored by libraries. They comprise books, periodicals, pamphlets, reports, microforms, maps, manuscripts, motion pictures, and all other forms of audiovisual records. (Harrod, The Librarians' Glossary, 4th ed, p497)Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Interlibrary LoansLibraries, DentalLibrary Schools: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of library science or information.Facility Design and Construction: Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.Librarians: Specialists in the management of a library or the services rendered by a library, bringing professional skills to administration, organization of material and personnel, interpretation of bibliothecal rules, the development and maintenance of the library's collection, and the provision of information services.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.MEDLARS: A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cataloging: Activities performed in the preparation of bibliographic records for CATALOGS. It is carried out according to a set of rules and contains information enabling the user to know what is available and where items can be found.High-Throughput Screening Assays: Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.BooksArchitecture as Topic: The art and science of designing buildings and structures. More generally, it is the design of the total built environment, including town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture.Bacteriophage M13: Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Book CollectingBook SelectionProtein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Interior Design and Furnishings: The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.Bibliography as Topic: Discussion of lists of works, documents or other publications, usually with some relationship between them, e.g., by a given author, on a given subject, or published in a given place, and differing from a catalog in that its contents are restricted to holdings of a single collection, library, or group of libraries. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Organization and Administration: The planning and managing of programs, services, and resources.Minicomputers: Small computers that lack the speed, memory capacity, and instructional capability of the full-size computer but usually retain its programmable flexibility. They are larger, faster, and more flexible, powerful, and expensive than microcomputers.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Reference Books, Medical: Books in the field of medicine intended primarily for consultation.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Cell Surface Display Techniques: Techniques utilizing cells that express RECOMBINANT FUSION PROTEINS engineered to translocate through the CELL MEMBRANE and remain attached to the outside of the cell.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Societies: Organizations composed of members with common interests and whose professions may be similar.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.DNA Shuffling: The use of DNA recombination (RECOMBINATION, GENETIC) to prepare a large gene library of novel, chimeric genes from a population of randomly fragmented DNA from related gene sequences.CD-ROM: An optical disk storage system for computers on which data can be read or from which data can be retrieved but not entered or modified. A CD-ROM unit is almost identical to the compact disk playback device for home use.Planning Techniques: Procedures, strategies, and theories of planning.Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.MicrofilmingSubstrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.

The Genexpress IMAGE knowledge base of the human brain transcriptome: a prototype integrated resource for functional and computational genomics. (1/9359)

Expression profiles of 5058 human gene transcripts represented by an array of 7451 clones from the first IMAGE Consortium cDNA library from infant brain have been collected by semiquantitative hybridization of the array with complex probes derived by reverse transcription of mRNA from brain and five other human tissues. Twenty-one percent of the clones corresponded to transcripts that could be classified in general categories of low, moderate, or high abundance. These expression profiles were integrated with cDNA clone and sequence clustering and gene mapping information from an upgraded version of the Genexpress Index. For seven gene transcripts found to be transcribed preferentially or specifically in brain, the expression profiles were confirmed by Northern blot analyses of mRNA from eight adult and four fetal tissues, and 15 distinct regions of brain. In four instances, further documentation of the sites of expression was obtained by in situ hybridization of rat-brain tissue sections. A systematic effort was undertaken to further integrate available cytogenetic, genetic, physical, and genic map informations through radiation-hybrid mapping to provide a unique validated map location for each of these genes in relation to the disease map. The resulting Genexpress IMAGE Knowledge Base is illustrated by five examples presented in the printed article with additional data available on a dedicated Web site at the address http://idefix.upr420.vjf.cnrs.fr/EXPR++ +/ welcome.html.  (+info)

Cloning of the peroxiredoxin gene family in rats and characterization of the fourth member. (2/9359)

Peroxiredoxin (PRx) exhibits thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase activity and constitutes a family of proteins. Four members of genes from rat tissues were isolated by PCR using degenerated primers based on the sequences which encode a pair of highly conserved Cys-containing domains, and were then cloned to full-length cDNAs. These included two genes which have previously been isolated in rats, PRx I and PRx II, and two rat homologues of PRx III and PRx IV. We showed, for the first time, the simultaneous expression of all four genes in various rat tissues by Northern blotting. Since a discrepancy exists regarding cellular distribution, we further characterized PRx IV by expressing it in COS-1 cells. This clearly demonstrates that PRx IV is a secretory form and functions within the extracellular space.  (+info)

Cloning of a bovine orphan transporter and its short splicing variant. (3/9359)

We have isolated a cDNA (bv7-3) encoding a member of the Na+,Cl(-)-dependent transporter family and its short splicing variant (bv7-3s) by screening a bovine retina cDNA library. Sequence analysis revealed that bv7-3 encodes a protein of 729 amino acids and is a bovine homologue of the rat orphan transporter v7-3-2. bv7-3s contains 265 amino acids, sharing 252 N-terminal amino acids with bv7-3. Both mRNAs for bv7-3 and bv7-3s were detected in nervous system by Northern blot analysis. In immunofluorescence analysis in transfected HEK 293T cells, myc-tagged bv7-3 was mainly detected on the plasma membrane, whereas myc-tagged bv7-3s showed a pattern of intracellular membrane staining.  (+info)

The latrophilin family: multiply spliced G protein-coupled receptors with differential tissue distribution. (4/9359)

Latrophilin is a brain-specific Ca2+-independent receptor of alpha-latrotoxin, a potent presynaptic neurotoxin. We now report the finding of two novel latrophilin homologues. All three latrophilins are unusual G protein-coupled receptors. They exhibit strong similarities within their lectin, olfactomedin and transmembrane domains but possess variable C-termini. Latrophilins have up to seven sites of alternative splicing; some splice variants contain an altered third cytoplasmic loop or a truncated cytoplasmic tail. Only latrophilin-1 binds alpha-latrotoxin; it is abundant in brain and is present in endocrine cells. Latrophilin-3 is also brain-specific, whereas latrophilin-2 is ubiquitous. Together, latrophilins form a novel family of heterogeneous G protein-coupled receptors with distinct tissue distribution and functions.  (+info)

Identification of the human melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan antigen epitope recognized by the antitumor monoclonal antibody 763.74 from a peptide phage library. (5/9359)

To identify the epitope of the melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) recognized by the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 763.74, we first expressed random DNA fragments obtained from the complete coding sequence of the MCSP core glycoproteins in phages and selected without success for binders to the murine mAb 763.74. We then used a library of random heptapeptides displayed at the surface of the filamentous M13 phage as fusion protein to the NH2-terminal portion of the minor coat protein III. After three rounds of selection on the bound mAb, several phages displaying related binding peptides were identified, yielding the consensus sequence Val-His-Leu-Asn-Tyr-Glu-His. Competitive ELISA experiments showed that this peptide can be specifically prevented from binding to mAb 763.74 by an anti-idiotypic MK2-23 mouse:human chimeric mAb and by A375 melanoma cells expressing the antigen MCSP. We screened the amino acid sequence of the MCSP molecule for a region of homology to the consensus sequence and found that the amino acid sequence Val-His-Ile-Asn-Ala-His spanning positions 289 and 294 has high homology. Synthetic linear peptides corresponding to the consensus sequence as well as to the MCSP-derived epitope inhibit the binding of mAb 763.74 to the phages displaying the consensus amino acid sequence. Finally, the biotinylated consensus peptide absorbed to streptavidin-microtiter plates can be used for the detection of mAb 763.74 in human serum. These results show clearly that the MCSP epitope defined by mAb 763.74 has been identified.  (+info)

Syntaxin 11 is associated with SNAP-23 on late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. (6/9359)

SNARE proteins are known to play a role in regulating intracellular protein transport between donor and target membranes. This docking and fusion process involves the interaction of specific vesicle-SNAREs (e.g. VAMP) with specific cognate target-SNAREs (e.g. syntaxin and SNAP-23). Using human SNAP-23 as the bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human B-lymphocyte cDNA library, we have identified the 287-amino-acid SNARE protein syntaxin 11. Like other syntaxin family members, syntaxin 11 binds to the SNARE proteins VAMP and SNAP-23 in vitro and also exists in a complex with SNAP-23 in transfected HeLa cells and in native human B lymphocytes. Unlike other syntaxin family members, no obvious transmembrane domain is present in syntaxin 11. Nevertheless, syntaxin 11 is predominantly membrane-associated and colocalizes with the mannose 6-phosphate receptor on late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. These data suggest that syntaxin 11 is a SNARE that acts to regulate protein transport between late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network in mammalian cells.  (+info)

Caffeine can override the S-M checkpoint in fission yeast. (7/9359)

The replication checkpoint (or 'S-M checkpoint') control prevents progression into mitosis when DNA replication is incomplete. Caffeine has been known for some time to have the capacity to override the S-M checkpoint in animal cells. We show here that caffeine also disrupts the S-M checkpoint in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. By contrast, no comparable effects of caffeine on the S. pombe DNA damage checkpoint were seen. S. pombe cells arrested in early S phase and then exposed to caffeine lost viability rapidly as they attempted to enter mitosis, which was accompanied by tyrosine dephosphorylation of Cdc2. Despite this, the caffeine-induced loss of viability was not blocked in a temperature-sensitive cdc2 mutant incubated at the restrictive temperature, although catastrophic mitosis was prevented under these conditions. This suggests that, in addition to S-M checkpoint control, a caffeine-sensitive function may be important for maintenance of cell viability during S phase arrest. The lethality of a combination of caffeine with the DNA replication inhibitor hydroxyurea was suppressed by overexpression of Cds1 or Chk1, protein kinases previously implicated in S-M checkpoint control and recovery from S phase arrest. In addition, the same combination of drugs was specifically tolerated in cells overexpressing either of two novel S. pombe genes isolated in a cDNA library screen. These findings should allow further molecular investigation of the regulation of S phase arrest, and may provide a useful system with which to identify novel drugs that specifically abrogate the checkpoint control.  (+info)

Expression of atrC - encoding a novel member of the ATP binding cassette transporter family in Aspergillus nidulans - is sensitive to cycloheximide. (8/9359)

A new member of the ABC superfamily of transmembrane proteins in Aspergillus nidulans has been cloned and characterized. The topology of conserved motifs subgroups AtrC in the P-glycoprotein cluster of ABC permeases, the members of this subfamily, are known to participate in multidrug resistance (MDR) in diverse organisms. Alignment results display significant amino acid similarity to AfuMDR1 and AflMDR1 from Aspergillus fumigatus and flavus, respectively. Northern analysis reveals that atrC mRNA levels are 10-fold increased in response to cycloheximide. Evidence for the existence of eight additional hitherto unpublished ABC transporter proteins in A. nidulans is provided.  (+info)

  • Through the expansion, which includes an updated and refined library preparation workflow, as well as a new, ready-to-use hybridization and wash buffer, OGT has made its MGS coverage and expertise more accessible. (pharmtech.com)
  • If you request a full lane of sequence, you will be charged for a full lane of sequence unless something has gone wrong with the instrument or entire flow cell (i.e. the problem is instrument related and not library related). (utexas.edu)
  • OGT has announced the expansion of its SureSeq portfolio with a complete library preparation solution for hybridization-based target capture in NGS. (pharmtech.com)
  • A genome-wide transgenic RNAi library for conditional gene inactivation in Drosophila. (nih.gov)
  • With the availability of complete genome sequences and the introduction of RNA-mediated gene interference (RNAi), systematic reverse genetic screens are now also possible. (nih.gov)
  • Until now, such genome-wide RNAi screens have mostly been restricted to cultured cells and ubiquitous gene inactivation in Caenorhabditis elegans. (nih.gov)
  • Here we report the generation and validation of a genome-wide library of Drosophila melanogaster RNAi transgenes, enabling the conditional inactivation of gene function in specific tissues of the intact organism. (nih.gov)
  • We generated 22,270 transgenic lines, covering 88% of the predicted protein-coding genes in the Drosophila genome. (nih.gov)
  • They can now take a genome sequence (or many of them) and make a protein library for screening with unprecedented speed, cost-effectiveness and precision, allowing rapid discovery of potentially beneficial biomolecules from a genome. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using a specially adapted tool called P[acman], a collaboration of researchers led by Baylor College of Medicine has established a library of clones that cover most of the genome of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) and should speed the pace of genetic research. (innovations-report.com)
  • Threadgill developed the idea for the CC in order to harness the power of so-called whole genome studies that examine all genes at once instead of subsets of genes. (healthcanal.com)
  • refs) Vector-based siRNA delivery strategies for high-throughput screening of novel target genes Meihong Chen †, Quan Du ‡, Hong-Yan Zhang ‡, Claes Wahlestedt ‡§, and Zicai Liang ‡* † Chinese Human Genome Center North, Beijing, 100176, China and Institute. (libpubmedia.co.uk)
  • The research team created a new genome-wide CRISPR library of 88,000 guide RNAs that enabled them to switch off each of the 20,000 genes from mouse Th2 cells. (b-s-h.org.uk)
  • They mimicked an infection in cultured Th2 cells and looked at how switching off each single gene in the genome affected the activation or differentiation. (b-s-h.org.uk)
  • Human COBLL1 genome location and COBLL1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our transgenic RNAi library thus opens up the prospect of systematically analysing gene functions in any tissue and at any stage of the Drosophila lifespan. (nih.gov)
  • a split of the Hox cluster in a non- Drosophila insect," Development Genes and Evolution , vol. 214, no. 12, pp. 606-614, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • The following is a list of libraries from ProgrammableWeb's Library Directory that matched your search term. (programmableweb.com)
  • Although there many different interpretations of the word "library" among software developers, ProgrammableWeb adheres to a specific definition so as to clearly distinguish libraries from SDKs and frameworks in a way that will facilitate clean search results. (programmableweb.com)
  • We will discuss how to avoid doing a BLAST search and still obtain the relevant information and Blast Variations for structure/function search The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) is a public repository that archives and freely distributes microarray, next-generation sequencing, and other forms of high-throughput functional genomic data. (harvard.edu)
  • It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences. (nih.gov)
  • Lists of duplicated genes can be used to analyze the expression of genes from microarray profiling experiments, to characterize the genomic content of a specific chromosomal region, or to study the duplication status of a specific gene or group of genes. (programmableweb.com)
  • Venken adapted the P[acman] vector to create genomic libraries, so that a researcher can choose a gene and find the corresponding clones in the library that cover that gene. (innovations-report.com)
  • A genomic BAC library and a new BAC-GFP vector to study the holocentric pest Spodoptera frugiperda ," Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology , vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 331-341, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • Highly conserved gene order and numerous novel repetitive elements in genomic regions linked to wing pattern variation in Heliconius butterflies," BMC Genomics , vol. 9, article 345, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Efficient Retrieval Technique for Microarray Gene Expression. (igi-global.com)
  • Microarray techniques have been successfully used to investigate useful information for cancer diagnosis at the gene expression level, the true integration of existing methods into day-to-day clinical practice is very challenging. (igi-global.com)
  • Mammalian expression cloning methods that permit multiple rounds of selection and enrichment have been extremely successful in identifying cDNA clones from plasmid libraries that correspond to unknown receptors or ligands ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Unfortunately, the requirement for large T antigen-driven replication of plasmid libraries in mammalian cells has severely limited adaptation of expression cloning methods to functional screens with only highly transfectable cell lines. (pnas.org)
  • The regulation of P450 gene expression has been well documented in experimental animals, but at present there is very little information available about the regulation of human P450 genes, particularly in extra-hepatic tissues. (bl.uk)
  • Regulation of P450 expression by a range of xenobiotics, known to have profound effects on the expression of rodent P450 genes, has been studied in a mouse model and in cultured cells. (bl.uk)
  • TCPOBOP was shown to be equally effective at influencing human P450 gene expression and, in most cases, the patterns of gene regulation observed in experimental animals were also seen in the human tumours. (bl.uk)
  • Why do you need gene expression library by the way? (helico.com)
  • Construction of the SPL was performed in a vector (pSIP409) previously developed for high-level, inducible gene expression in L. plantarum and Lactobacillus sakei. (nofima.no)
  • The SPIL enables fine-tuning of stable gene expression for various applications in L. plantarum. (nofima.no)
  • Regulation of aldose reductase gene expression in renal cortex and medulla of rats. (bl.uk)
  • Non-parallelism of islet amyloid polypeptide (amylin) and insulin gene expression in rats islets following dexamethasone treatment. (bl.uk)
  • refs) PCR-based expression analysis and identification of microRNAs David P Lu †, Rebecca L Read †, David T Humphreys ‡, Fiona M Battah †, David I K Martin ‡ and John E J Rasko †§* † Gene. (libpubmedia.co.uk)
  • Second, deregulation of the expression of septin family genes in hematological cancers can be observed either with or without the concomitant presence of MLL gene fusions. (begellhouse.com)
  • Three of the genes, RelA, cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), and a dominant-negative mutant of TNF receptor 1 arising through CPR afforded strong protection against apoptosis. (pnas.org)
  • Two of the genes identified, Dbs and Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD), previously identified as a proapoptotic molecule, afforded partial protection against TNFα-induced apoptosis. (pnas.org)
  • The proposed trial combines recent advances in cancer therapy -- spearheaded by Steven A. Rosenberg at the National Cancer Institute -- with work by National Heart, Blood and Lung Institute researcher W. French Anderson, a pioneer in the art of inserting foreign genes into mammalian cells. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Genes regulating responses in mammalian cells are often difficult to identify by functional cloning strategies limited to a single round of selection. (pnas.org)
  • Retroviral cDNA libraries have been used in a number of functional screens to identify unique mammalian genes that regulate cellular responses ( 1 - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • To ensure that positive cDNA clones are successfully isolated from complex libraries in a single round of selection, functional screens using mammalian cells have been restricted to cellular assays in which the background of false-positive cells meeting a selection criterion is low, typically 1 in 10 5 false-positive cells. (pnas.org)
  • Here we describe an alternative method called cyclical packaging rescue (CPR) that uses direct repackaging of retroviral RNAs into new infectious virions to identify genes regulating functional responses in mammalian cells (Fig. 1 A ). In CPR, stably integrated helper-free retroviral libraries are recovered rapidly from mammalian cells as infectious helper-free retroviral supernatants 24 h after infection with adenoviruses expressing retroviral gag-pol and env genes. (pnas.org)
  • These results suggest that CPR is a rapid and versatile approach that should facilitate functional analysis of gene function in mammalian cells. (pnas.org)
  • Sry is believed to act as a switch in the complex gene mechanism that diverts mammalian development from its usual course - the female - to the male. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Moreover, the initial 30-day culture period will give scientists a chance to test the gene-altered cells for unusual changes or vira contaminants -- concerns that have been unresolved in previous gene therapy proposals -- before injecting them into patients. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Researchers working in fields such as protein engineering, discovery biology, structural biology, synthetic biology, antibody engineering, and enzyme engineering choose GENEWIZ's Synthetic DNA Libraries because of our wide range of library types, reliable service, and best-in-class consultation from our Ph.D.-level customer support scientists. (genewiz.com)
  • With competitive pricing and project completion in as little as 11 days, discover why hundreds of scientists from leading research facilities choose GENEWIZ for their partially (NNK) or completely randomized (NNN) nucleotide libraries. (genewiz.com)
  • Moving beyond some of the alarming sci-fi scenarios of gene editing, groundbreaking scientists are harnessing the power of these biological breakthroughs to save lives. (lfla.org)
  • With methods developed by Anderson, researchers can use a retrovirus to insert into TIL cells a gene that confers resistance to the antibiotic neomycin. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The researchers reported in the Jan. 15 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES that this inheritance pattern suggests that the ATHS gene lies on chromosome 19, near the gene for the LDL receptor. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In 15 papers published Feb. 16 in the Genetics Society of America journals Genetics and G3:Genes/Genomes/Genetics , researchers from North Carolina State University, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, The Jackson Laboratory and other universities and labs across the globe highlight a new genetic resource that could aid development of more effective treatments for any number of human diseases. (healthcanal.com)
  • Learning more about these interactions could help researchers tease out links between certain genes and certain diseases, for example. (healthcanal.com)
  • And yet, researchers don't know exactly how these genes work. (brightsurf.com)
  • Now a team led by Princeton University researchers has constructed a public "library" to help researchers to find out what each gene does. (brightsurf.com)
  • Unlocking the role of each gene could allow researchers to engineer plants to grow more quickly, potentially meeting future world food needs. (brightsurf.com)
  • The ability to observe a Chlamy cell with just one defective gene among all the other functioning genes allows researchers to figure out what that gene does. (brightsurf.com)
  • The library enables researchers to test multiple mutant Chlamy strains at once because each mutation is labeled with a unique "DNA barcode. (brightsurf.com)
  • We have partnered with the TRC to make the shRNA libraries, which are available to researchers worldwide, and to compile shRNA libraries for popular gene families and pathways. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • We developed a prototype functional alerting system for researchers based on the GeneRIFs, and a strategy to find all of the literature related to genes. (nih.gov)
  • Our RNAi transgenes consist of short gene fragments cloned as inverted repeats and expressed using the binary GAL4/UAS system. (nih.gov)
  • RNAi2011: Gene Regulation by Small RNAs, the 6 th international Oxford RNAi conference, was held at St Hilda's College, University of Oxford (UK), between 29 and 31 March, 2011. (libpubmedia.co.uk)
  • A Lentiviral RNAi Library for Human and Mouse Genes Applied to an Arrayed Viral High-Content Screen. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Lentivirus-delivered stable gene silencing by RNAi in primary cells. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • For this study, we attempted to produce dsRNA of the chitin deacetylase (CDA) region of the lgx-1 gene in vitro to be used for RNAi experiments by soaking. (tufts.edu)
  • The Avatar's adventures continue right where the TV series left off, in this beautiful oversized hardcover of The Promise, from Airbender creators Michael Dante DiMartino and Bryan Konietzko and Eisner and Harvey Award winner Gene Luen Yang! (bookdepository.com)
  • You and other family members can then be tested for that specific gene change. (wellspan.org)
  • Sets of siRNAs focused on a specific gene class, also called siRNA libraries, have the capacity to greatly increase the pace of pathway analysis and functional genomics. (thermofisher.com)
  • In a report in the current online issue of the journal Nature Methods, Dr. Hugo Bellen (http://flypush.imgen.bcm.tmc.edu/lab/), a professor of molecular and human genetics at BCM and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator, and his colleagues describe the new libraries. (innovations-report.com)
  • Molecular model of catabolite gene activator protein (CAP, pink and green) bound to a molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, across top). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Isogenica is currently commercialising the Colibra™ technology for ratio controlled protein and antibody libraries based on a partly automated process. (businesswire.com)
  • Isogenica's CIS display technology is an in vitro display technology that allows the rapid generation of polypeptide and antibody libraries from which it is possible to select lead molecules with high affinity and specificity for most targets. (businesswire.com)
  • Complex interactions between large numbers of genes frequently govern traits and behavior. (healthcanal.com)
  • Published online in the journal Cell , the work focuses on the complex control mechanism, describing how different genes are involved in both activation and development of T helper cells. (b-s-h.org.uk)
  • To investigate the interaction factors of C35 in its high expressed breast cancer cell lines, we constructed bait recombinant plasmids of C35 gene and T47D cell cDNA library for yeast two-hybrid screening. (go.jp)
  • The three kinds of C35 genes were successfully amplified and inserted into pGBKT7 to construct bait recombinant plasmids pGBKT7-C351-348bp, pGBKT7-C351-153bp and pGBKT7-C35154-348bp, then transformed into Y187 yeast cells by the lithium acetate method. (go.jp)
  • This remained the main library building until it was moved to its current location at West 10th Avenue and Charnelton Street in 2002. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human gene-splice test considered. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Experiments in animals suggest such "gene therapy" may prove useful against thousands of hereditary diseases, but a variety of medical and ethical concerns have stalled the start of human experiments. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Dr. Kathy Niakan, the researcher who will be performing the experiments, said, "We would really like to understand the genes needed for a human embryo to develop successfully into a healthy baby. (georgetown.edu)
  • Take the official statemen t that concluded the International Summit on Human Gene Editing in Washington, D.C. (aka #GeneEditSummit). (georgetown.edu)
  • Science News reported that human gene editing was given "a green light. (georgetown.edu)
  • In scientific publications, the libraries should be referred to as TRC-Hs1.0 (Human) and TRC-Mm1.0 (Mouse). (horizondiscovery.com)
  • 60% of these were associated with human genes and 27% with mouse genes. (nih.gov)
  • This highly validated library includes nearly 1800 individual siRNAs targeting 597 human kinases. (thermofisher.com)
  • The leaps and advances of science and technology to revolutionize human DNA have sparked fierce public debate about what the future of gene editing holds for humanity. (lfla.org)
  • The lgx-1 gene in C. elegans codes for a putative chitin deacetylase and has been shown to be expressed in the pharynx of the organism by in situ hybridization experiments (Kohara, 2010). (tufts.edu)
  • Here is an example of the power of Ambion's Silencer™ Kinase siRNA Library, as demonstrated through preliminary screening experiments carried out by Cenix BioScience GmbH. (thermofisher.com)
  • Kostas Kostarelos (University of London, UK) described how carbon nanotubes, which are internalised by the cell without apparent damage to cellular structure, could be chemically functionalised and combined with siRNAs to form gene-silencing complexes that are effectively delivered to target cells. (libpubmedia.co.uk)
  • mRNA Silencing by 178 Kinase siRNAs from the Silencer ™ Kinase siRNA Library. (thermofisher.com)
  • The exhibition, which includes manuscripts, correspondence, limited editions and other materials from the private collection of Frank J. Piehl (Ph.D., 1952) and the holdings of the University of Chicago Library, focuses on Field as author, collector and promoter of books and the book arts. (uchicago.edu)
  • In one of the 15 papers, Threadgill and corresponding author Dr. Francis S. Collins, director of the National Institutes of Health, identify key genes involved in red and white blood cell counts and red blood cell volume. (healthcanal.com)
  • Xiaobo Li, the study's first author, was a postdoctoral researcher at Princeton when the team completed the library. (brightsurf.com)
  • Contributors: Gene H. Bell-Villada - Author. (questia.com)
  • The SOAP-based DGD API can only use Ensembl gene IDs as input data and does not allow the retrieval of cross-references in the output file. (programmableweb.com)
  • Finally, a custom, modular mechanism is proposed, for the inference of gene interactions, targeting the identi cation of some of the most common substructures in genetic networks, that we believe will help improve accuracy and predictability scores. (bl.uk)
  • Baltimore deserves praise him for orchestrating an important three-day conversation that was truly international on a morally, culturally divisive issue - determining appropriate use of emergent technology capable of altering genes in a way that might cure diseases such as HIV, hepatitis-B and sickle cell anemia. (georgetown.edu)
  • Although the current proposal simply calls for inserting a marker gene, later proposals may seek approval for the insertion into TIL cells of genes that code for the production of potentially therapeutic factors such as interleukin-2 or tumor necrosis factor, Blaese says. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • T. Yamamoto, Y. Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Prospects for the therapeutic application of lentivirus-based gene therapy to HIV-1 infection. (horizondiscovery.com)