TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational: A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 188.8.131.52.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Transcription Factor TFIIA: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.TATA Box Binding Protein-Like Proteins: A class of proteins related in structure and function to TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN that can take the place of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN in the transcription initiation complex. They are found in most multicellular organisms and may be involved in tissue-specific promoter regulation. They bind to DNA and interact with TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS, however they may lack specificity for the TATA-BOX.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 184.108.40.206.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Transcription Factor TFIIB: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2: Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.Codon, Initiator: A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Single-Strand Specific DNA and RNA Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Nucleotide Mapping: Two-dimensional separation and analysis of nucleotides.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-3: A multisubunit eukaryotic initiation factor that contains at least 8 distinct polypeptides. It plays a role in recycling of ribosomal subunits to the site of transcription initiation by promoting the dissociation of non-translating ribosomal subunits. It also is involved in promoting the binding of a ternary complex of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2; GTP; and INITIATOR TRNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit.5' Flanking Region: The region of DNA which borders the 5' end of a transcription unit and where a variety of regulatory sequences are located.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Eukaryotic Initiation Factors: Peptide initiation factors from eukaryotic organisms. Over twelve factors are involved in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL in eukaryotic cells. Many of these factors play a role in controlling the rate of MRNA TRANSLATION.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Transcription Initiation, Genetic: The process that starts the transcription of an RNA molecule. It includes the assembly of the initiation complex and establishment of the start site.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Transcription Factors, TFII: The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.RNA, Small Nuclear: Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Globins: A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-2: The largest of the three prokaryotic initiation factors with a molecular size of approximately 80 kD. It functions in the transcription initiation process by promoting the binding of formylmethionine-tRNA to the P-site of the 30S ribosome and by preventing the incorrect binding of elongator tRNA to the translation initiation site.Transcription Factor TFIIIB: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.Immediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Adenovirus Early Proteins: Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4A: A component of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F that as an RNA helicase involved in unwinding the secondary structure of the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGION of MRNA. The unwinding facilitates the binding of the 40S ribosomal subunit.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 220.127.116.11.Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-3: A prokaryotic initiation factor that plays a role in recycling of ribosomal subunits for a new round of translational initiation. It binds to 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and stimulates the dissociation of vacant 70S ribosomes. It may also be involved in the preferential binding of initiator tRNA to the 30S initiation complex.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-1: A eukaryotic initiation factor that binds to 40S ribosomal subunits. Although initially considered a "non-essential" factor for eukaryotic transcription initiation, eukaryotic initiation factor-1 is now thought to play an important role in localizing RIBOSOMES at the initiation codon of MRNA.TATA-Binding Protein Associated Factors: Factors that associate with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. Many of them are components of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIIDBlotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Nucleosomes: The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Upstream Stimulatory Factors: Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.HIV Long Terminal Repeat: Regulatory sequences important for viral replication that are located on each end of the HIV genome. The LTR includes the HIV ENHANCER, promoter, and other sequences. Specific regions in the LTR include the negative regulatory element (NRE), NF-kappa B binding sites , Sp1 binding sites, TATA BOX, and trans-acting responsive element (TAR). The binding of both cellular and viral proteins to these regions regulates HIV transcription.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Cell Extracts: Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Replication Origin: A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.RNA, Transfer, Met: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying methionine to sites on the ribosomes. During initiation of protein synthesis, tRNA(f)Met in prokaryotic cells and tRNA(i)Met in eukaryotic cells binds to the start codon (CODON, INITIATOR).Erythroid-Specific DNA-Binding Factors: A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2B: A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that acts to restore EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2 to its GTP bound form.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-5: A eukaryotic initiation factor that interacts with the 40S initiation complex and promotes the hydrolysis of the bound GTP. The hydrolysis of GTP causes the release of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2 and EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-3 from the 40S subunit and the subsequent joining of the 60S ribosomal subunit to the 40S complex to form the functional 80S initiation complexOrgan Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.HMGB1 Protein: A 24-kDa HMGB protein that binds to and distorts the minor grove of DNA.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Herpes Simplex Virus Protein Vmw65: Trans-acting protein that combines with host factors to induce immediate early gene transcription in herpes simplex virus.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
TATA-binding protein-associated factor 172 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BTAF1 gene. Initiation of ... "Role of flanking E box motifs in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 TATA element function". J. Virol. 68 (11): 7188-99. PMC ... Van Der Knaap JA, Van Den Boom V, Kuipers J, Van Eijk MJ, Van Der Vliet PC, Timmers HT (2000). "The gene for human TATA-binding ... "Entrez Gene: BTAF1 BTAF1 RNA polymerase II, B-TFIID transcription factor-associated, 170kDa (Mot1 homolog, S. cerevisiae)". ...
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) alpha 1
The DNA sequence in the transcription initiation site is very GC-rich. There is a "TATA box"-like sequence and a "CAAT present ... followed by molecular genetic analysis of the PDHA1 gene. Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective ... The PDHA1 gene has about 17 kilobase pairs; it contains 11 exons, which range from 61 to 174 base pairs, and introns, whose ... Ito M, Huq AH, Naito E, Saijo T, Takeda E, Kuroda Y (1993). "Mutation of E1 alpha gene in a female patient with pyruvate ...
TATA box-binding protein-like protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TBPL1 gene. Initiation of transcription ... Rabenstein MD, Zhou S, Lis JT, Tjian R (Apr 1999). "TATA box-binding protein (TBP)-related factor 2 (TRF2), a third member of ... to facilitate complex assembly and transcription initiation. This gene encodes a protein that serves the same function as TBP ... "Entrez Gene: TBPL1 TBP-like 1". Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, ...
Upstream activating sequence
A TATA-binding protein subunit of a transcription factor then binds to the TATA box, recruiting additional transcription ... The property of the GAL1-GAL10 to bind the GAL4 protein is utilised in the GAL4/UAS technique for controlled gene mis- ... The mediator then recruits RNA polymerase II to the pre-initiation complex. Once initiated, RNA polymerase II is released from ... The upstream activation sequence is found adjacently upstream to a minimal promoter (TATA box) and serves as a binding site for ...
The GC box is upstream of the TATA box and approximately 110 bases upstream from the transcription initiation site. It has a ... also known as a GSG box, is a distinct pattern of nucleotides found in the promoter region of some eukaryotic genes. ... Some known GC box-binding proteins include Sp1, Krox/Egr, Wilms' tumor, MIGI, and CREA. The GC box is commonly the binding site ... If residue 18 is a histidine, it will bind to a G, and if residue 18 is a glutamic acid, it will bind to a C. GC box-binding ...
... possesses a single initiation site located 26 bp downstream of the TATA-like box. This gene encodes a 433-residue dimeric ... 6GG box, a M-CAT-box CAATCCT, and two myocyte-specific enhancer-binding factor 1 boxes. Upstream of the first exon lies a TATA- ... TFG-TEC binds to the proximal promoter region of the ENO3 gene. Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to ... Unlike the other enolase genes, which possess multiple transcription initiation sites, ...
5' flanking region
This silences the gene and therefore the gene will not be expressed in the cell. The TATA box is present in all genes that are ... to form an initiation complex. It is typically 10 nucleotides long, and is present -30 to -20 nucleotides upstream from the ... transcribed by RNA polymerase II, which is most eukaryotic genes. The binding of the TATA box with TATA binding protein ... CAAT box, and the GC box. Enhancers are DNA sequences found in 5' flanking regions of eukaryotic genes that affect ...
Complement receptor 1
The promoter region lacks a distinct TATA box sequence. The gene is expressed principally on erythrocytes, monocytes, ... The transcription start site has been mapped to 111 bp upstream of the translation initiation codon ATG and there is another ... In mice, CR1 is an alternatively spliced variant of the complement receptor 2 (CR2) gene. Certain alleles of this gene have ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CR1 gene. This gene is a member of the regulators of complement activation (RCA) ...
... or triplication occurs at the promoter of the RNAse MRP gene between the TATA box and the transcription initiation site. This ... Gene sequences of people with OS reveal three novel mutations in the RMRP gene, suggesting a link to the RMRP gene, but ... Responsible for this disease is a mutation in the RNase MRP RNA gene (RMRP), a non-coding RNA gene. RMRP was the first non- ... Some of the same genes involved in the mutations in CHH are the same genes that are mutated in MDWH. These two diseases do ...
"Entrez Gene: TAF9 TAF9 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 32kDa". Evans SC, Foster CJ, El- ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAF9 gene. Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the ... TAF9 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 32kDa, also known as TAF9, ... "Role of flanking E box motifs in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 TATA element function". J. Virol. 68 (11): 7188-99. PMC ...
DNA TATA box Pribnow box SOS box CAAT box CCAAT box Operator (biology) Upstream activation sequence RNA List of cis-regulatory ... For example, a transcription factor that regulates a gene on chromosome 6 might itself have been transcribed from a gene on ... include the site where transcription is initiated and the region approximately 35 bp upstream or downstream from the initiation ... CREs are found in the vicinity of the genes that they regulate. CREs typically regulate gene transcription by binding to ...
"Prevalence of the Initiator over the TATA box in human and yeast genes and identification of DNA motifs enriched in human TATA- ... or the TATA box (in eukaryotes). The Inr is the simplest functional promoter that is able to direct transcription initiation ... Similarly to the TATA box, the Inr element facilitates the binding of transcription Factor II D (TAF). TATA box and Inr are ... contain the TATA box. Out of those sequences with the TATA box, 62% contained the Inr element as well. Though the Inr element ...
"Entrez Gene: TAF11 TAF11 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 28kDa". Birck C, Poch O, Romier C ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAF11 gene. Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the ... In molecular biology, TAFII28 refers to the TATA box binding protein associated factor. Together with the TATA-binding protein ... to facilitate complex assembly and transcription initiation. This gene encodes a small subunit of TFIID that is present in all ...
TATA box-binding protein-associated factor RNA polymerase I subunit B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TAF1B gene ... Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase I requires the formation of a complex composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) ... Check date values in: ,year= / ,date= mismatch (help) "Entrez Gene: TAF1B TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, RNA ... This gene encodes one of the SL1-specific TAFs. TAF1B has been shown to interact with RRN3. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
TATA box-binding protein-associated factor RNA polymerase I subunit A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TAF1A gene ... Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase I requires the formation of a complex composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) ... Check date values in: ,year= / ,date= mismatch (help) "Entrez Gene: TAF1A TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, RNA ... This gene encodes the smallest SL1-specific TAF. Two transcripts encoding different isoforms have been identified. TAF1A has ...
RNA polymerase III
U6 snRNA gene has an upstream TATA box as seen in Pol II Promoters). Typical stages in 5S rRNA (also termed class I) gene ... Typical stages in a tRNA (also termed class II) gene initiation: TFIIIC (Transcription Factor for polymerase III C) binds to ... It is the presence of a TATA box that specifies that the snRNA gene is transcribed by Pol III rather than Pol II. The TFIIB for ... SNAPc acts to assemble TFIIB at a TATA box centered 26 base pairs upstream of the start site of transcription. ...
Transcription factor II D
... complex binds to the TATA box in the core promoter of the gene. Coordinates the activities of more than 70 polypeptides ... "Structure of promoter-bound TFIID and model of human pre-initiation complex assembly". Nature. 531: 604-609. doi:10.1038/ ... TAFs, however, add promoter selectivity, especially if there is no TATA box sequence for TBP to bind to. TAFs are included in ... only TBP is necessary for transcription at promoters that contain a TATA box. ...
... initiation site of the CD36 gene has been mapped to 289 nucleotides upstream from the translational start codon and a TATA box ... Gene diversity studies suggest there has been positive selection on this gene presumably due to malarial selection pressure. ... In humans, The gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 7 at band 11.2 (7q11.2) and is encoded by 15 exons that extend ... The gene is the transcriptional control of the nuclear receptor PPAR/RXR heterodimer (Peroxisome proliferator-activated ...
Transcription factor IIIB 50 kDa subunit
The product of this gene, a TFIIB-like factor, is directly recruited to the TATA box of polymerase III small nuclear RNA gene ... "Entrez Gene: BRF2 BRF2, subunit of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor, BRF1-like". Sutcliffe JE, Cairns CA, ... 2003). "The small nuclear RNA-activating protein 190 Myb DNA binding domain stimulates TATA box-binding protein-TATA box ... is directly recruited to the TATA-box of polymerase III small nuclear RNA gene promoters through its interaction with TATA- ...
List of MeSH codes (G14)
TATA box MeSH G14.080.689.687 --- regulatory sequences, ribonucleic acid MeSH G14.080.689.687.249 --- rna 3' polyadenylation ... genes, nef MeSH G14.340.400.500.667 --- genes, pol MeSH G14.340.400.500.735 --- genes, px MeSH G14.340.400.500.775 --- genes, ... transcription initiation site MeSH G14.340.024.340.137.775 --- rna 3' polyadenylation signals MeSH G14.340.024.340.137.780 --- ... genes, viral MeSH G14.340.400.500.172 --- genes, env MeSH G14.340.400.500.258 --- genes, gag MeSH G14.340.400.500.345 --- genes ...
... for transcription initiation. Thus, there is a resulting change in phenotype based on the gene that is not being expressed ( ... Transcription is initiated at the TATA box in TATA-containing genes. The TATA box is the binding site of the TATA-binding ... Similarly, in humans only 24% of genes have promoter regions containing the TATA box. Genes containing the TATA-box tend to be ... and viral genes. The TATA box was found in protein coding genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II. Most research on the TATA box ...
The formation of this complex requires the help of an upstream activating factor or UAF that associates with TATA-box binding ... The ribosomal proteins are encoded by ribosomal genes or rDNA. There are 52 genes that encode the ribosomal proteins, and they ... Transcription of polymerase I starts with a Pol I initiation complex that binds to the rDNA promoter. ... The rRNA is transcribed, at a high speed, in the nucleolus, which contains all 45S rRNA genes. The only exception is the 5S ...
The TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is required for the initiation of transcription by RNA polymerases I, II and III, from ... "Entrez Gene: TBP TATA box binding protein". Vannini A, Cramer P (February 2012). "Conservation between the RNA polymerase I, II ... "c-Fos-induced activation of a TATA-box-containing promoter involves direct contact with TATA-box-binding protein". Mol. Cell. ... The TATA-binding protein (TBP) is a general transcription factor that binds specifically to a DNA sequence called the TATA box ...
Helitrons drive the expression and provides de novo regulatory elements such as CAAT-box, GCbox, octamer motif, and TATA box ... Helitron gene capture was proposed to occur in a stepwise or sequential manner, i.e., gene capture occurs during one ... In some cases it has been seen that a Helitron insertion has provided regulatory motifs necessary for transcription initiation ... 2. It would be kept as a gene related to the original host gene if its capture is beneficial for the transposon, which is ...
... region of the ECHS1 gene is GC-rich and contains several copies of the SP1 binding motive but no typical TATA or CAAT boxes are ... Transcript variants utilizing alternative transcription initiation sites have been described in the literature. The ECHS1 gene ... The gene product is a member of the hydratase/isomerase superfamily. It localizes to the mitochondrial matrix. ... Enoyl Coenzyme A hydratase, short chain, 1, mitochondrial, also known as ECHS1, is a human gene. The protein encoded by this ...
RNA polymerase I
Pol I requires no TATA box in the promoter, instead relying on an upstream control element (UCE) located between −200 and −107 ... each active rDNA gene can be transcribed multiple times simultaneously, as opposed to Pol II-transcribed genes, which associate ... In the process of transcription (by any polymerase), there are three main stages: Initiation: the construction of the RNA ... The 45S pre-rRNA is then post-transcriptionally cleaved by C/D box and H/ACA box snoRNAs, removing the two spacers and ...
"Entrez Gene: TAF7 TAF7 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 55kDa". Munz C, Psichari E, ... Transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 7 also known as TAFII55 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAF7 gene. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the TFIID protein complex, a complex which binds to the TATA box in class II ... Zhou T, Chiang CM (July 2001). "The intronless and TATA-less human TAF(II)55 gene contains a functional initiator and a ...
"Entrez Gene: TAF12 TAF12 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 20kDa". Martinez E, Palhan VB, ... Transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 12 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAF12 gene. Control of ... "Role of flanking E box motifs in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 TATA element function". J. Virol. 68 (11): 7188-99. PMC ... Different TAFs are predicted to mediate the function of distinct transcriptional activators for a variety of gene promoters and ...
... such as a TATA or CCATT box, has been found within it. Although no core promoter element has been found, consensus binding ... There are three genes that are present within intron 27b of NF1. These genes are EVI2B, EVI2A and OMG, which are encoded on the ... The open reading frame is 8,520-bp long and begins at the translation initiation site. NF1 exon 1 is 544-bp long, contains the ... Mutations tend to be distributed within the gene, although exons 3, 5, and 27 are common sites for mutations. The Human Gene ...
In yeast, the most important are: UAF (upstream activating factor), TBP (TATA-box binding protein), and CF (core factor), which ... The genes encoding these r-proteins are transcribed by pol II in the nucleoplasm by a "conventional" pathway of protein ... transcription initiation factors, and UBF (upstream binding factor). RNA polymerase I transcribes most rRNA transcripts 28S, ... In an initial stage, the rRNA genes are transcribed as a single unit within the nucleolus by RNA polymerase I. In order for ...
The serotonylation potentiates the binding of the general transcription factor TFIID to the TATA box. ... This affects their function of gene regulation. In general, genes that are active have less bound histone, while inactive genes ... During the 1980s, Yahli Lorch and Roger Kornberg showed that a nucleosome on a core promoter prevents the initiation of ... Repressed genes. Three histone modifications are particularly associated with repressed genes: Trimethylation of H3 ...
Lüscher B (2001). "Function and regulation of the transcription factors of the Myc/Max/Mad network". Gene 277 (1-2): 1-14. PMID ... 1988). "A non-AUG translational initiation in c-myc exon 1 generates an N-terminally distinct protein whose synthesis is ... 3.2) Paired box. PAX (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) ... 4.6) TATA vezujući proteini. TBP • TBPL1. (4.7) Grupa visoke ... 1991). "Mapping of the MYC gene to band 8q24.12----q24.13 by R-banding and distal to fra(8)(q24.11), FRA8E, by fluorescence in ...
Glossary of gene expression terms. References. *^ a b c d e f Slonczewski, Joan, and John Watkins. Foster. Microbiology: ... The Met box has the sequence AGACGTCT which is a palindrome (it shows dyad symmetry) allowing the same sequence to be ... lacZYA transcribes the proteins needed for lactose breakdown. lacI synthesizes the repressor of the lacZYA gene. The gene ... Top: The gene is essentially turned off. There is no lactose to inhibit the repressor, so the repressor binds to the operator, ...
Gene knockdownEdit. The RNA interference pathway is often exploited in experimental biology to study the function of genes in ... "MicroRNAs control translation initiation by inhibiting eukaryotic initiation factor 4E/cap and poly(A) tail function". ... including transcription factors as well as F-box proteins. In many organisms, including humans, miRNAs are linked to the ... TATA-binding protein-associated factor 11 (TAF11) assembles the RLC by facilitating Dcr-2-R2D2 tetramerization, which increases ...
doi:10.1016/j.gene.2005.09.010. PMID 16289629.. *^ Liu X, Wang L, Zhao K, Thompson PR, Hwang Y, Marmorstein R, Cole PA ( ... Pribnow box. *TATA box. *BRE. *CAAT box. *Response element. *Enhancer *E-box ... Initiation (bacterial,. eukaryotic. *Transcription start site. Elongation. *bacterial RNA polymerase: rpoB. *eukaryotic RNA ... Tropp, Burton E. (2008). Molecular biology : genes to proteins (3rd ed.). Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. ISBN ...
Farnesoid X receptor
"Entrez Gene: NR1H4 nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4".. *^ a b Forman BM, Goode E, Chen J, Oro AE, Bradley DJ, ... transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter. • inflammatory response. • innate immune response. • signal ... 4.4) MADS box. *Mef2 *A. *B. *C. *D. *SRF. (4.6) TATA-binding proteins. *TBP ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding. • sequence-specific DNA ...
Transkripcioni faktor - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
Nikolov DB, Burley SK (1997). „RNA polymerase II transcription initiation: a structural view". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 ... Lee TI, Young RA (2000). „Transcription of eukaryotic protein-coding genes". Annu. Rev. Genet. 34: 77-137. PMID 11092823. doi: ... 3.2) Paired box. PAX (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) ... 4.6) TATA vezujući proteini. TBP • TBPL1. (4.7) Grupa visoke ... Gill G (2001). „Regulation of the initiation of eukaryotic transcription". Essays Biochem. 37: 33-43. PMID 11758455.. ...
"Gene Symbol Report. HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee. Retrieved 2012-09-27.. *^ "DNMT3A". Gene Symbol Report. HUGO Gene ... Pribnow box. *TATA box. *BRE. *CAAT box. *Response element. *Enhancer *E-box ... "Gene Symbol Report. HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee. Retrieved 2012-09-27.. *^ "DNMT3L". Gene Symbol Report. HUGO Gene ... in type I system the A-Mtase is the product of the hsdM gene, and in type III it is the product of the mod gene). These enzymes ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors. This gene product is ... E-box binding. • protein binding. • protein heterodimerization activity. • transcription regulatory region DNA binding. ... "Downregulation of Dlx5 and Dlx6 expression by Hand2 is essential for initiation of tongue morphogenesis". Development. 138 (11 ... "Entrez Gene: HAND2 heart and neural crest derivatives expressed 2".. *^ a b Lu CX, Gong HR, Liu XY, Wang J, Zhao CM, Huang RT, ...
Recombining binding protein suppressor of hairless is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBPJ gene. ... transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter. • sebaceous gland development. • positive regulation of canonical Wnt ... 4.4) MADS box. *Mef2 *A. *B. *C. *D. *SRF. (4.6) TATA-binding proteins. *TBP ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • protein N-terminus binding. • RNA polymerase II repressing transcription factor binding. • ...
General transcription factor binding sites, e.g. TATA box. *Proximal promoter - the proximal sequence upstream of the gene that ... The initiation of the transcription is a multistep sequential process that involves several mechanisms: promoter location, ... The absence of TATA boxes in bidirectional promoters suggests that TATA boxes play a role in determining the directionality of ... ends of the genes in a bidirectional gene pair. A "bidirectional gene pair" refers to two adjacent genes coded on opposite ...
The TFIID binds to the TATA box in order to begin the assembly of the TFIIA, recruiting other transcription factors and ... This states that only one working allele of a tumour suppressor gene is necessary for its function (the mutated gene is ... pRb recruitment to a promoter blocks the assembly of pre-initiation complexesEdit. The preinitiation complex (PIC) assembles in ... "The retinoblastoma-susceptibility gene product binds directly to the human TATA-binding protein-associated factor TAFII250". ...
Repression of the TATA box. Eukaryotic genes contain an upstream promoter and a core promoter also referred to as a basal ... TATA box, a common basal promoter in eukaryotes. The TATA box is grouped with the TFIIB and the transcription initiator site ... A common basal promoter is the TATAAAAAA sequence known as the TATA box. The TATA box is a complex with several different ... that binds to the TATA box along with 13 other proteins that bind to TBP. The TATA box binding proteins also include the ...
Zinc finger transcription factor
... allowing the medical intervention and control of expression of multiple genes and the initiation of an elaborate cascade of ... 4.4) MADS box. *Mef2 *A. *B. *C. *D. *SRF. (4.6) TATA-binding proteins. *TBP ... Zinc finger protein transcription factors can be encoded by genes small enough to fit a number of such genes into a single ... genes in order to control the transcription of all these genes with a single transcription factor. Also, it is possible to ...
The absence of TATA boxes in bidirectional promoters suggests that TATA boxes play a role in determining the directionality of ... ends of the genes in a bidirectional gene pair. A "bidirectional gene pair" refers to two adjacent genes coded on opposite ... The initiation of the transcription is a multistep sequential process that involves several mechanisms: promoter location, ... CCAAT boxes are common, as they are in many promoters that lack TATA boxes. In addition, the motifs NRF-1, GABPA, YY1, and ...
Regulation of gene expression
Virtually any step of gene expression can be modulated, from transcriptional initiation, to RNA processing, and to the post- ... Pribnow box. *TATA box. *Operon *gal operon. *lac operon. *trp operon. *Intron ... "Gene modulation" redirects here. For information on therapeutic regulation of gene expression, see therapeutic gene modulation. ... Regulated stages of gene expression. Any step of gene expression may be modulated, from the DNA-RNA transcription step to ...
It is a bacterial transcription initiation factor that enables specific binding of RNA polymerase to gene promoters. It is ... Region 2.4 recognizes and binds to the promoter −10 element (called the "Pribnow box"). ... depending on the gene and on the environmental signals needed to initiate transcription of that gene. Selection of promoters by ... Every cell has a "housekeeping" sigma factor that keeps essential genes and pathways operating. In the case of E. coli and ...
Methylation of the gene body of highly transcribed genes. A function that appears even more conserved than transposon ... Pribnow box. *TATA box. *BRE. *CAAT box. *Response element. *Enhancer *E-box ... When located in a gene promoter, DNA methylation typically acts to repress gene transcription. DNA methylation is essential for ... Generally, in progression to cancer, hundreds of genes are silenced or activated. Although silencing of some genes in cancers ...
4.6 Class: TATA binding proteins *4.6.1 Family: TBP. *4.7 Class: HMG-box *4.7.1 Family: SOX genes, SRY ... Gill G (2001). "Regulation of the initiation of eukaryotic transcription". Essays in Biochemistry. 37: 33-43. doi:10.1042/ ... gene expression - the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product such as a ... Libermann TA, Zerbini LF (February 2006). "Targeting transcription factors for cancer gene therapy". Current Gene Therapy. 6 (1 ...
Transcription is divided into initiation, promoter escape, elongation, and termination.. Initiation. Transcription ... The stretch of DNA transcribed into an RNA molecule is called a transcription unit and encodes at least one gene. If the gene ... Pribnow box. *TATA box. *BRE. *CAAT box. *Response element. *Enhancer *E-box ... In vertebrates, the majority of gene promoters contain a CpG island with numerous CpG sites. When many of a gene's promoter ...
... protein is a transcription factor that activates expression of many genes through binding enhancer box sequences (E-boxes) ... Hann SR, King MW, Bentley DL, Anderson CW, Eisenman RN (January 1988). "A non-AUG translational initiation in c-myc exon 1 ... Except for early response genes, Myc universally upregulates gene expression. Furthermore, the upregulation is nonlinear. Genes ... Myc (c-Myc) is a regulator gene that codes for a transcription factor. The protein encoded by this gene is a multifunctional, ...
MEF2C - Вікіпедія
HUGO Gene Nomenclature Commitee, HGNC:6996 (англ.). Процитовано 31 серпня 2017. *↑ UniProt, Q06413 (англ.). Процитовано 31 ... HMG box domain binding. • activating transcription factor binding. • RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence- ... RNA polymerase II general transcription initiation factor activity. Клітинна компонента. • клітинне ядро. • nuclear speck. • ... negative regulation of gene expression. • transcription, DNA-templated. • cellular response to trichostatin A. • positive ...
RNA polymerase II holoenzyme
... or TBPL2 can bind the promoter or TATA box. Most genes lack a TATA box and use an initiator element (Inr) or downstream core ... Initiation regulation. Due to the range of genes that Pol II transcribes, this is the polymerase that experiences the ... The TATA box is one well-studied example of a promoter element that occurs in approximately 10% of genes. It is conserved in ... The gene CTDP1 encodes a phosphatase that interacts with the carboxy-terminus of transcription initiation factor TFIIF, a ...
The POLD1 promoter is G/C-rich and has no TATA box. The transcription of this GC box-containing promoter is regulated by Sp1 ... "Gene. 590 (1): 128-141. doi:10.1016/J.GENE.2016.06.031. PMC 4969162. PMID 27320729.. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) . ... After initiation of DNA synthesis by Polα, Polδ or Polε execute lagging and leading strand synthesis, respectively. These ... Gene. Polymerase (DNA) delta 1, catalytic subunit and POLD1 are the name and gene symbol approved by the Human Genome ...
"Gene. 611: 27-37. doi:10.1016/J.GENE.2017.02.025. PMC 5391259. PMID 28237823.. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link). .mw- ... "KLF4 and PCNA identify stages of tumor initiation in a conditional model of cutaneous squamous epithelial neoplasia". Cancer ... 4.4) MADS box. *Mef2 *A. *B. *C. *D. *SRF. (4.6) TATA-binding proteins. *TBP ... and is encoded by the KLF4 gene. The KLF4 gene is conserved in chimpanzee, rhesus monkey, dog, cow, mouse, rat, chicken, ...
Index of biochemistry articles
TATA box - tax gene product - taxonomy - telophase - Tertiary structure - tetrodotoxin - Thermochemistry - thermometer - ... peptide initiation factor - peptide receptor - peptide termination factor - peripheral membrane protein - pesticide - pH - ... gene - gene expression - gene pool - gene regulatory network - genetic carrier - genetic code - genetic drift - Genetic ... erbA gene - erbB gene - erbB-2 gene - erbB-2 receptor - erythropoietin - erythropoietin receptor - Essential amino acid - Ester ...
Transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 4B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAF4B gene. TATA-binding protein ... "Entrez Gene: TAF4B TAF4b RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 105kDa". Yamit-Hezi A, Dikstein R ... which is involved in the initiation of gene transcription by RNA polymerase II (see MIM 180660).[supplied by OMIM] TAF4B has ... Yamit-Hezi A, Dikstein R (1998). "TAFII105 mediates activation of anti-apoptotic genes by NF-kappaB". EMBO J. 17 (17): 5161-9. ...
Transcription factor II B
The first transcription factor to bind the DNA is TFIID, which binds via the TBP subunit to the TATA box. TFIIB then binds to ... Heng HH, Xiao H, Shi XM, Greenblatt J, Tsui LC (January 1994). "Genes encoding general initiation factors for RNA polymerase II ... it has been recently suggested that it has a role in gene looping which links the promoter to the terminator of the gene. Gene ... The binding of TFIIB up and downstream of the TATA box strengthens this complex but this binding is not sequence specific as ...
Developmental specificity of recruitment of TBP to the TATA box of the human γ-globin gene | PNAS
The initiation site of the mRNA transcribed from the TATA box-mutated γ-globin gene is shown in lane 2 (d10 yolk sac) and lane ... γ TATA box, 5′GGATGAAGAATAAAAGGAAGCACCCT3′; γ mut TATA box, 5′GGATGAAGAGCTAGCGGAAGCACCCT3′. (B) The TATA box mutation abolishes ... Transcription initiation site of the TATA box-mutated γ-globin gene. Total RNA from yolk sac or adult blood was hybridized with ... The mutated TATA box fails to bind TBP (lane 8) and to compete away the TBP binding on the wild-type TATA box (lane 4 and 5). ...
Tbpl2 - TATA box-binding protein-like protein 2 - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Tbpl2 gene & protein
... help/gene_ontology target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>GO - Biological processi. *DNA-templated transcription, initiation Source: ... TATA box-binding protein-like protein 2Add BLAST. 344. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages ... sp,A6H909,TBPL2_RAT TATA box-binding protein-like protein 2 OS=Rattus norvegicus OX=10116 GN=Tbpl2 PE=2 SV=1 ... p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source ...
TATA box - Wikipedia
... for transcription initiation. Thus, there is a resulting change in phenotype based on the gene that is not being expressed ( ... Transcription is initiated at the TATA box in TATA-containing genes. The TATA box is the binding site of the TATA-binding ... of genes have promoter regions containing the TATA box. Genes containing the TATA-box tend to be involved in stress- ... The TATA box is usually located 25-35 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site. Genes containing the TATA box ...
TATA-binding protein - Wikipedia
The TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is required for the initiation of transcription by RNA polymerases I, II and III, from ... "Entrez Gene: TBP TATA box binding protein". Vannini A, Cramer P (February 2012). "Conservation between the RNA polymerase I, II ... "c-Fos-induced activation of a TATA-box-containing promoter involves direct contact with TATA-box-binding protein". Mol. Cell. ... The TATA-binding protein (TBP) is a general transcription factor that binds specifically to a DNA sequence called the TATA box ...
ncRNA | Free Full-Text | Mechanisms of Antisense Transcription Initiation with Implications in Gene Expression, Genomic...
Antisense transcripts and/or the act of antisense transcription regulate gene expression and genome integrity by interfering ... The recent studies on antisense transcription initiation and its epigenetic regulation, which are limited, are discussed here. ... Furthermore, we concisely describe how antisense transcription/transcripts regulate gene expression and genome integrity with ... TATA-box binding proteins) and TBP-associated factors (TAFs). This forms the pre-initiation complex (PIC) in recruiting RNA ...
BTAF1 - Wikipedia
TATA-binding protein-associated factor 172 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BTAF1 gene. Initiation of ... "Role of flanking E box motifs in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 TATA element function". J. Virol. 68 (11): 7188-99. PMC ... Van Der Knaap JA, Van Den Boom V, Kuipers J, Van Eijk MJ, Van Der Vliet PC, Timmers HT (2000). "The gene for human TATA-binding ... "Entrez Gene: BTAF1 BTAF1 RNA polymerase II, B-TFIID transcription factor-associated, 170kDa (Mot1 homolog, S. cerevisiae)". ...
TAF3 - Transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 3 - Homo sapiens (Human) - TAF3 gene & protein
Transcription factor TFIID is one of the general factors required for accurate and regulated initiation by RNA polymerase II. ... TATA-box binding protein associated factor 3. CALJA. 1099. UniRef90_Q5VWG9. TATA-box binding protein associated factor 3. MACFA ... Gene expression databases. Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution. More...Bgeei. ENSG00000165632 Expressed in 210 organ(s ... R-HSA-75953 RNA Polymerase II Transcription Initiation. R-HSA-76042 RNA Polymerase II Transcription Initiation And Promoter ...
PA20293 gene transcription and DNA Flashcards by Olivia Watkins | Brainscape
Study PA20293 gene transcription and DNA flashcards from Olivia Watkins ... this is the initiation transcription complex that assembles at the TATA box and then proceeds to move along the gene ... To the TATA box. Eg in preinitiation complex involved RNA Pol II, TF11D first binds to the TATA box with its TBP (TATA binding ... TATA box, GC box, CAAT box, which ones are basal elements and which upstream? ...
Chapter 17: Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes Flashcards by Jessica Mahan | Brainscape
Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes flashcards from Jessica Mahan ... TATA, CAAT, and GC boxes. Always located upstream of the gene within 100 bases of the transcription initiation site ... When mutations occur in consensus sequences (modular elements such as GC box, CAAT box, TATA box), does transcription usually ... Generally, mutations in the TATA box of a promoter reduce transcription of the relevant gene. ...
RCSB PDB - 1AIS: TATA-BINDING PROTEIN/TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (II)B/TATA-BOX COMPLEX FROM PYROCOCCUS WOESEI
TATA-BINDING PROTEIN/TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (II)B/TATA-BOX COMPLEX FROM PYROCOCCUS WOESEI ... PROTEIN (TRANSCRIPTION INITIATION FACTOR IIB). B. 200. Pyrococcus woesei. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: tfb. ... TATA-box-binding protein/transcription factor (II)B core/TATA-box.. Kosa, P.F., Ghosh, G., DeDecker, B.S., Sigler, P.B.. (1997 ... TATA-BINDING PROTEIN/TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (II)B/TATA-BOX COMPLEX FROM PYROCOCCUS WOESEI. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1AIS/pdb ...
Isolation and characterization of the human Gs alpha gene | PNAS
... boxes, but no typical "TATA" or "CAAT" box sequence. In the 5 flanking region, there are several blocks of sequences that are ... S1 nuclease mapping analysis of human Gs alpha mRNA identified multiple transcriptional initiation sites. The promoter region ... Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the human gene with that of the rat cDNA revealed that the human Gs alpha gene spans ... The gene for Gs alpha (the alpha subunit of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs) was isolated from human genomic ...
TBP Gene - GeneCards | TBP Protein | TBP Antibody
TATA-Box Binding Protein, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human ... Summaries for TBP Gene Entrez Gene Summary for TBP Gene. * Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the ... Aliases for TBP Gene Aliases for TBP Gene. * TATA-Box Binding Protein 2 3 5 ... No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TBP Gene Domains & Families for TBP Gene Gene Families for TBP Gene. HGNC:. * ...
The Central Dogma by Alan Allmen on Prezi
TATA Box. in eukaryotes). 2. Elongation. mRNA production occurs in a 5 to 3 direction, antiparallel to the DNA strand. The ... 1. Initiation. RNA polymerase attaches to a promoter. region of DNA, slightly in front of the gene. eukaryotes: RNA polymerase ... Not all genes are for enzymes.. Not all genes are for protein.. Not all genes are for polypeptides.. Still, its a good place ... Having multiple exons in a gene allows eukaryotes to make multiple functional proteins from one gene (. alternative splicing. ...
TATA-box binding protein, conserved site (IPR030491) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
TFIID binds specifically to the TATA box promoter element which lies close to the position of transcription initiation. ... is a general factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II. ... TATA-box binding protein, conserved site (IPR030491). Short name: TBP_CS Description. Transcription factor TFIID (or TATA- ... This region is necessary and sufficient for TATA box binding. The most significant structural feature of this domain is the ...
Facilitated binding of TATA-binding protein to nucleosomal DNA
... to the TATA box is required for transcription from many eukaryotic promoters in gene expression. Regulation of this binding is ... Incorporation of the TATA sequence into nucleosomes dramatica … ... into nucleosomes dramatically reduces transcription initiation ... BINDING of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) to the TATA box is required for transcription from many eukaryotic promoters in gene ... Facilitated binding of TATA-binding protein to nucleosomal DNA Nature. 1994 Aug 11;370(6489):481-5. doi: 10.1038/370481a0. ...
AP Bio- Information 2: The Central Dogma by Amy Fansler on Prezi
TATA Box. in eukaryotes). 2. Elongation. Similar to DNA replication, RNA production occurs in a 5 to 3 direction.. The . ... 1. Initiation. RNA polymerase attaches to a . promoter. region in front (. upstream. ) of a gene. prokaryotes: RNA ... One gene-One enzyme: too simplistic.. Not all genes are for enzymes.. Not all genes are for protein.. Not all genes are for ... What is a gene?. The relationship between genes and proteins has been well established since the early 1900s.. George Beadle ...
Identification of a Novel Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1-Responsive Gene, RTP801, Involved in Apoptosis | Molecular and Cellular...
The initiation ATG codon is in boldface, and the position of T is counted as +1. The TATA box is shaded gray. White letters in ... as judged by the position of the TATA box) to the initiation sites of both human and mouse mRNAs. Moreover, when the ... Its response to hypoxia was much more prominent than that of the VEGF gene, a well-known hypoxia-induced gene (Fig. 1A and B). ... Here, we report the identification and cloning of a novel HIF-1-dependent gene, RTP801. This gene is ubiquitously expressed in ...
Arabidopsis and Brassica Comparative Genomics: Sequence, Structure and Gene Content in the ABI1-Rps2-Ck1 Chromosomal Segment...
A putative TATA box (TATTAAA) is located in AtRps2 at nucleotide 91 from the initiation signal. ... The promoter of these genes seems to be ∼70 bases upstream of the ATG translation initiation signal, where TATA-like sequences ... described as a DEAD box RNA helicase, another name given to this gene. The ORFs of these genes are 1524 and 1494 bases, ... oleracea sequence contains putative promoter domains including CAAT and GC boxes and a TATA box (TATAT) at position 112. The ...
TAF12 TATA-box binding protein associated factor 12 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 12. Names. TAF12 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated ... TAF12 TATA-box binding protein associated factor 12 [Homo sapiens] TAF12 TATA-box binding protein associated factor 12 [Homo ... TAF12 TATA-box binding protein associated factor 12 [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 6883, updated on 6-Jan-2019 ... TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, RNA polymerase II, J, 20kD. transcription initiation factor TFIID 20/15 kDa ...
A Novel LPS-Inducible C-Type Lectin Is a Transcriptional Target of NF-IL6 in Macrophages | The Journal of Immunology
A canonical TATA box is located 29-24 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site. ... Determination of transcription initiation site. To determine the transcription initiation site of the mMincle gene, we ... The TATA box is boxed and the translation start codon (ATG) is denoted by Met. The potential binding sites for several ... The shaded boxes represent the presence of a C57BL/6J allele, and white boxes represent the presence of a M. spretus allele. ...
TAF1 Gene - GeneCards | TAF1 Protein | TAF1 Antibody
TATA-Box Binding Protein Associated Factor 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Summaries for TAF1 Gene Entrez Gene Summary for TAF1 Gene. * Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the ... Gene Families for TAF1 Gene. HGNC:. *486 : Lysine acetyltransferases. IUPHAR :. *TAF1 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding ... Aliases for TAF1 Gene Aliases for TAF1 Gene. * TATA-Box Binding Protein Associated Factor 1 2 3 5 ...
CD69 | SpringerLink
The transcription initiation site of the human CD69 gene is located 30 bp downstream of the TATA box (Fig. 3). The region ... CD69 also belongs to the family of NK cell receptors because the CD69 gene locus is located within the NK cell receptor gene ... CD69 is a product of a single nonpolymorphic gene in contrast to the other genes present in the NK cell cluster, which are ... upstream of the TATA box contains a consensus binding site for Erg-1 (location -50−-42 bp), three binding sites for NFkB ( ...
The Arabidopsis CBF Gene Family Is Composed of Three Genes Encoding AP2 Domain-Containing Proteins Whose Expression Is...
The initiation ATGs and putative TATA boxes (TATAAA) are double underlined. CANNTG motifs and related sequences CACGTC and ... Genomic organization of the CBF1,CBF2, and CBF3 genes. A, Physical map ofCBF genes on chromosome IV of Arabidopsis. The ORFs ... The Arabidopsis CBF Gene Family Is Composed of Three Genes Encoding AP2 Domain-Containing Proteins Whose Expression Is ... Black box corresponds to the potential nuclear localization signals. Gray boxes highlight the AP2 domains. Underlined amino ...
Taf4b gene cDNA ORF clone, Rattus norvegicus(Norway rat) - GenScript
Next-day shipping cDNA ORF clones derived from Taf4b TATA-box binding protein associated factor 4b available at GenScript, ... TATA-box binding protein associated factor 4b. Names. similar to Transcription initiation factor TFIID 105 kDa subunit (TAFII- ... transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 4B. TAF4b RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, ... Rattus norvegicus TATA-box binding protein associated factor 4b (Taf4b), transcript variant X1, mRNA.. pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK or ...
Activation of the Mouse TATA-less and Human TATA-Containing UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 Promoters by Hepatocyte Nuclear...
The putative human TATA box is indicated. The transcription-initiation site of the human promoter (open arrow) has been ... Its promoter was then compared with that of the human gene, which revealed the lack of a TATA box in the mouse promoter. ... The Mouse UGT1A1 Promoter Lacks a TATA Box.. Two major new features occur only in the mouse UGT1A1 promoter in comparison to ... A, sequence of the 5′-UTR of the UGT1A1 gene with the transcription initiation sites (T1, T2, ∗) and the position of the 5′-end ...
Human Mucin 1 Oncoprotein Represses Transcription of the p53 Tumor Suppressor Gene | Cancer Research
... the PE21 element within the p53 proximal promoter directs bidirectional initiation activity as found with TATA and GC boxes ( ... Xu LC, Thali M, Schaffner W. Upstream box/TATA box order is the major determinant of the direction of transcription. Nucleic ... MUC1-C also occupies the Bax proximal promoter that includes the TATA box and, in contrast to p21, represses Bax gene ... MUC1 occupies the p53 gene proximal promoter with KLF4. A, schema depicting the structure of p53 gene promoter. B, soluble ...
Sp1 activates transcription without enhancing DNA-binding activity of the TATA box factor. | Molecular and Cellular Biology
Thus the Sp1 factor activates transcription of the E1B gene by a mechanism that does not enhance the DNA-binding activity of ... Thus Sp1 cannot activate transcription by increasing the rate of initiation events per complex. Instead it appears that Sp1 ... The adenovirus E1B core promoter consists essentially of a GC box and a TATA box, binding sites for the Sp1 and IID ... Sp1 activates transcription without enhancing DNA-binding activity of the TATA box factor.. M C Schmidt, Q Zhou, A J Berk ...
Recombinant Human Upstream Binding Protein 1 (ab159769) | Abcam
Binds strongly to sequences around the HIV-1 initiation site and weakly over the TATA-box. Represses HIV-1 transcription by ... Involved in regulation of the alpha-globin gene in erythroid cells. Activation of the alpha-globin promoter in erythroid cells ... If incorrect, please enter your location into the box below, to view site information related to your location. ... is via synergistic interaction with TFCP2 (By similarity). Involved in regulation of the alpha-globin gene in erythroid cells. ...
Intron DNA Sequences Can Be More Important Than the Proximal Promoter in Determining the Site of Transcript Initiation | Plant...
Prevalence of the initiator over the TATA box in human and yeast genes and identification of DNA motifs enriched in human TATA- ... 2004). Identification and distinct regulation of yeast TATA box-containing genes. Cell 116: 699-709. ... This process starts when the TATA binding protein subunit of the general transcription factor TFIID binds TATA box sequences 30 ... and even the TATA box is found in a minority of genes in plants (Morton et al., 2014), yeast (Basehoar et al., 2004), and ...
A discrete transcriptional silencer in the bam gene determines asymmetric division of the Drosophila germline stem cell |...
Similar mechanisms for transcription initiation mediated through a TATA box or an initiator element. J. Biol. Chem. 267,2823 - ... Smale, S. T. (1997). Transcription initiation from TATA-less promoters within eukaryotic protein-coding genes. Biochim. Biophys ... TATA-less promoters that lack the `TATAA box and bind core RNA polymerase proteins with Initiator (Inr) cis-acting sites have ... Kutach, A. K. and Kadonaga, J. T. (2000). The downstream promoter element DPE appears to be as widely used as the TATA box in ...
MutationsBinds to the TATA boxMammalianCore promoterGenomicOrganismEukaryotesNucleotideEukaryotic genesIntronsMutationRegulatoryTarget genesMotifsActivated gene expressionTranslation initiationCharacterizationNucleotidesSequence called the TATA boxSaccharomycesLack a TATA-boxSpeciesHomologousHumansENCODEInducibleRegulate gene expressionMultiple transcription initiation sitesProximalIntronPolymerase II requiresElongationHighly conservedExpression Is Regulated
- Based on the sequence and mechanism of TATA box initiation, mutations such as insertions , deletions , and point mutations to this consensus sequence can result in phenotypic changes. (wikipedia.org)
- Some diseases associated with mutations in the TATA box include gastric cancer , spinocerebellar ataxia , Huntington's disease , blindness , β-thalassemia , immunosuppression , Gilbert's syndrome , and HIV-1 . (wikipedia.org)
- Genetics is the study of inheritance of genes, mutations and inherited diseases. (brainscape.com)
- Mutations in this gene result in Dystonia 3, torsion, X-linked, a dystonia-parkinsonism disorder. (genecards.org)
- [ 2 ] The genetic defect in cartilage-hair hypoplasia has been confirmed to be mutations in the RMRP gene. (medscape.com)
- [ 10 ] These mutations interfere with the transcription of the RMRP gene and are considered null mutations. (medscape.com)
- [ 11 ] The second consists of single nucleotide substitutions and other changes that involve at most 2 nucleotides in highly conserved regions of the gene.These are considered leaky mutations and result in variable expression of the gene, which may explain the variable phenotype seen in cartilage-hair hypoplasia. (medscape.com)
- These latter mutations result in variable expression of the gene, which may explain the variable phenotype seen in cartilage-hair hypoplasia. (medscape.com)
- The putative tumour modifier gene ATP5A1 is not mutated in human colorectal cancer cell lines but expression levels correlate with TP53 mutations and chromosomal instability. (genes2cognition.org)
- Differentiating among these HD-like syndromes is necessary when a patient with a combination of movement disorders, cognitive decline, behavioural abnormalities and progressive disease course proves negative to the genetic testing for HD causative mutations, that is, IT15 gene trinucleotide-repeat expansion. (bmj.com)
- Since haploinsufficiency has been proposed as a causal mechanism of obesity associated with these mutations, reduction in gene transcription caused by mutations in the transcriptionally essential regions of the MC4R promoter may also be a cause of severe obesity in humans. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Heterozygous mutations in the coding region of the melanocortin 4 receptor ( MC4R ) gene are the cause of 1-6% of severe early-onset obesity cases ( 3 - 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Under this assumption, reduced gene transcription caused by mutations in essential regions of the MC4R promoter could also be a cause of obesity in humans. (diabetesjournals.org)
- [ ERCC2_HUMAN ] Trichothiodystrophy;COFS syndrome;Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D. The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. (proteopedia.org)
- The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. (proteopedia.org)
Binds to the TATA box1
- Orthologues of the mammalian CD69 gene are described in birds and reptiles, but not in Drosophila , Caenorhabditis , and Zebrafish indicating an evolutionary conserved structure. (springer.com)
- The chimeric promoter/enhancers are particularly suitable for directing gene expression in mammalian cells. (google.co.uk)
- Our research is aimed at understanding how mammalian transcriptional regulators communicate with RNA polymerase to turn genes on. (searlescholars.net)
- CONCLUSIONS We thus show how high coverage DNA sequencing experiments can reveal as-yet unnoticed bimodal spatial features of PolII accumulation that are frequent at individual mammalian genes and reminiscent of transcription initiation and pausing. (uzh.ch)
- In molecular biology , the TATA box (also called the Goldberg-Hogness box ) is a sequence of DNA found in the core promoter region of genes in archaea and eukaryotes . (wikipedia.org)
- The TATA box was the first eukaryotic core promoter motif to be identified in 1978 by American biochemist David Hogness while he and his graduate student, Michael Goldberg were on sabbatical at the University of Basel in Switzerland. (wikipedia.org)
- The adenovirus E1B core promoter consists essentially of a GC box and a TATA box, binding sites for the Sp1 and IID transcription factors, respectively. (asm.org)
- Luciferase reporter gene assays with promoter regions and a series of deletion mutants have mapped the core-promoter 1A and 1B within two short fragments. (nih.gov)
- The core promoter is the minimal portion of the promoter required to properly initiate gene transcription. (wikiversity.org)
- A vast network of regulatory factors that contribute to the initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase ultimately target any specific gene's core promoter. (wikiversity.org)
- Genes were divided into four groups according to their core promoter type and their characteristics analyzed statistically. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our results suggest that interplay between core promoter type and gene size can generate significant diversity in gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
- A common element important to the overall expression level of the gene is the core promoter. (biomedcentral.com)
- The core promoter is located around the transcription start point and serves as the site of pre-initiation complex formation by RNA polymerase II and general transcription factors [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Thus the core promoter is associated with features that are far beyond transcription initiation per se. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the present study we investigated possible connections between the core promoter, structural features of genes and levels of gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
- Human genomic DNA was amplified by using a pair of primers covering the TATA box of the γ-globin promoter. (pnas.org)
- Genomic Southern blot analysis suggests that the human haploid genome contains a single Gs alpha gene. (pnas.org)
- We report the genomic structure and functional activities of the promoter regions of the human opioid-receptor-like gene ORL1 and its 5'-adjacent gene GAIP (G alpha interacting protein). (nih.gov)
- 1. Genomic clones encompassing the entire gene for human PDHalpha has been isolated from a leukocyte genomic library. (nii.ac.jp)
- 2. Genomic clones encompassing the entire gene for human PDHbeta has been isolated from a leukocyte genomic library constructed into lambdaEMBL3. (nii.ac.jp)
- Using rice cDNA pTS1 encoding a 16.9 kDa heat shock protein (HSP) as a probe for Southern hybridization analysis, we observed five prominent bands of 9.5, 5.9, 3.4, 2.5, and 1.7 kb in the Eco RI digests of rice genomic DNA and found them to contain six individual genes. (sinica.edu.tw)
- However, the sequence conservation of genomic and cDNA clones of plant LMM HSP genes isolated and characterized from a number of species suggests that they may play an important role in plants coping with HS. (sinica.edu.tw)
- In this report, we first analyzed cIRK1 genomic DNA to identify transcriptional initiation sites and distinct motifs that are important for the expression of this potassium channel gene. (biomedcentral.com)
- Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5′-RACE) was used to isolate the CDT6 promoter from an adaptor-ligated genomic DNA fragment library and to identify the transcription initiation site of the CDT6 gene. (arvojournals.org)
- Addition of human GH to the transfected cells led to an increased expression of the reporter gene, indicating that the cloned genomic fragment possessed promoter activity. (garvan.org.au)
- We have cloned genomic KL gene and 10kb upstream from the transcription initiation site was analyzed by CAT assay using hematopoiesis supporting stromal cell line ST2. (nii.ac.jp)
- The gene encoding the mouse EphA8 receptor tyrosine kinase has been isolated from a mouse genomic library, and its complete genomic structure has been determined. (ebscohost.com)
- By deleting the genomic region containing the five GC boxes, it was shown that the minimal promoter region is primarily comprised of five copies of the Sp1-binding site located upstream from the transcription initiation site. (ebscohost.com)
- p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
- A computing biology technique that attempts to identify genes without any knowledge of their function nor of the genetics of the organism. (tripod.com)
- By influencing gene expression in specific tissues of the organism, nutritional factors help to adapt the organism to changes in the environment. (nap.edu)
- Adding complexity to ambiguity, one should realize that the mechanisms may differ among the many genes in an organism. (psu.edu)
- Most research on the TATA box has been conducted on yeast, human, and Drosophila genomes, however, similar elements have been found in archaea and ancient eukaryotes . (wikipedia.org)
- In eukaryotes, the TATA box is located 25 base pairs upstream of the start site that Rpb4 /Rbp7 use to initiate transcription . (wikipedia.org)
- In eukaryotes the initiation of transcription of protein encoding genes by polymerase II (Pol II) is modulated by general and specific transcription factors. (embl.de)
- Recall from Part One of the course that most genes in eukaryotes are not expressed in any given tissue. (psu.edu)
- Publications] Kichiko Koike: 'Characterization and nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the human pyruvate dehydrogenase αーsubunit' Gene. (nii.ac.jp)
- We cloned the 5'-flanking region of the human growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRH-R) gene and determined the nucleotide sequence of 2.7 kb upstream from the translation start site. (nii.ac.jp)
- The nucleotide sequence of this gene was highly homologous to the coding regions of two rice class I LMM HSP genes, Oshsp 16.9A and Oshsp16.9B , sharing 93.1% and 94.3% sequence identity, respectively, as published previously in our laboratory. (sinica.edu.tw)
- Although the catalysis may have more than one beginning nucleotide (a start site) and more than one ending nucleotide (a stop site) along the DNA, each nucleotide sequence catalyzed that ultimately produces approximately the same RNA is part of a gene. (wikiversity.org)
- The DRE of the PCNA gene is found at nucleotide positions -93 to -100 with respect to the transcription initiation site. (sdbonline.org)
- The human AGT gene, a member of the serpin gene superfamily, stretches over only &12 kb on chromosome 1 (1q42-q43) and contains 5 exons (starting at nucleotide 227 156 602 on chromosome 1 of the University of California Santa Cruz Human Genome Browser May 2004 Assembly). (ahajournals.org)
- The site for transcription initiation has been mapped to the 19th nucleotide upstream from the translation start codon ATG. (ebscohost.com)
- Certain introns that stimulate gene expression exhibit properties that suggest they must operate by a different and poorly understood mechanism. (plantcell.org)
- These results suggest that the chicken J-chain gene consists of four exons and three introns and that the transcriptional regulatory elements may be present within 3.8 kb upstream of exon 1. (ebscohost.com)
- The PDHalpha gene spans 17,082 base pairs and is composed of 11 exons and 10 introns. (nii.ac.jp)
- The PDHbeta gene spans 18 kilobase pairs and is composed of 10 exons and 9 introns. (nii.ac.jp)
- The common carp gene is the smallest IGF-I gene known so far, spanning approximately 13 kb, and is consisted of five exons and four introns. (garvan.org.au)
- The primary transcripts do not contain introns and are cleaved at their 3′ end in a reaction that is specific for the histone gene family and distinct from cleavage/polyadenylation, resulting in mRNAs without a poly(A) tail. (embopress.org)
- Exons and introns of RRM2 gene. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- B. oleae dsx gene (Bodsx) expands in a chromosomal region of more than 50 kb, with 6 exons-5 introns, producing different sex-specific mRNAs, according to the Drosophila model. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- These differences in gene length are primarily determined by the size and number of introns. (biomedcentral.com)
- B ) The TATA box mutation abolishes transcription of the γ-globin gene. (pnas.org)
- An example of a disease that isn't polygenic ie is caused by a single gene mutation: cystic fibrosis. (brainscape.com)
- The genetic defect in cartilage-hair hypoplasia has been identified as a mutation in the gene for RNAase RMRP, mapped to 9p12. (medscape.com)
- In this case, should a cell sustain only one mutation in the other RB gene, all Rb in that cell would be ineffective at inhibiting cell cycle progression, allowing cells to divide uncontrollably and eventually become cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
- In genetic crossing experiments of transgenic flies with those carrying mutation in homeobox genes, no significant change in the lacZ expression pattern was observed. (sdbonline.org)
- Each gene was screened for mutation using high resolution melting analysis and sequencing. (genes2cognition.org)
- The causative mutation is a prolongation (above 35 repeats) of a trinucleotide (CAG) stretch within the IT15 gene, associated with full penetrance when this exceeds 40 and incomplete penetrance between 36 and 39. (bmj.com)
- The TATA box is considered a non-coding DNA sequence (also known as a cis-regulatory element ). (wikipedia.org)
- Thus far, the UGT1A1*28 polymorphism is the only genetic variation reported in a regulatory region of the gene. (aspetjournals.org)
- Transcriptional mapping of the varicella-zoster virus regulatory genes encoding open reading frames 4 and 63. (asm.org)
- These results extend the transcriptional knowledge for VZV and suggest that ORFs 4 and 63 contain regulatory signals different from those of the ORF 62 and HSV-1 IE genes. (asm.org)
- Pro-inflammatory genes are maintained in a silent, yet poised, state that can be rapidly induced in response to different stimuli, and this characteristic pattern is achieved through the action of two elements: the activation of inducible transcription factors and the modulation of the chromatin environment at gene regulatory elements. (frontiersin.org)
- The transcription factors induced upon stimulation must interact with cis -regulatory elements of target genes to facilitate recruitment of the general transcriptional machinery. (frontiersin.org)
- This review will focus on the interplay of the archetypal inducible transcription factor NF-κB with the chromatin environment, and discuss how the chromatin presents a selective regulatory barrier to NF-κB activity and how NF-κB alters the chromatin environment to induce transcription of inflammatory genes. (frontiersin.org)
- There were no typical TATA homologies but several putative regulatory elements including Pit-i binding site-like element. (nii.ac.jp)
- We set out to explore regulatory domains of the cIRK1 promoter that enhance or inhibit expression of the gene in different cell types. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, while the chicken and mouse promoter regions share many regulatory motifs, cIRK1 possesses a GC-richer promoter and a putative TATA box, which appears to positively regulate gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
- The fli-1 promoter contains a potential TATA box element, and multiple regulatory elements. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Further sequential deletion of the 5' region suggests two potential regulatory regions for transcription of the mIL-3R alpha gene. (stanford.edu)
- These results indicates that KL-expression in hematopoietic microenvironment is mediated by yet unknown cis-regulatory elements of KL-gene. (nii.ac.jp)
- Transgenic flies were established carrying the PCNA gene regulatory region (-607 to +137 or -168 to +137) fused with lacZ. (sdbonline.org)
- The regulatory region of Drosophila proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene consists of a promoter region (-168 to +24 with respect to the transcription initiation site) and an upstream region containing three homeodomain protein binding sites (HDB) (-357 to -165). (sdbonline.org)
- The PCNA gene regulatory regions with HDB (-607 to +137) or without HDB (-168 to +137) were fused with the lacZ and transgenic flies were established by P-element-mediated transformation. (sdbonline.org)
- The gene shares a high degree of similarity in sequence and expression to its Ceratitis capitata orthologous and does not appear to play a key regulatory role in the sex-determining cascade. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- Major contributors to gene expression rates are DNA regulatory elements that vary between individual genes. (biomedcentral.com)
- The two beta-lactamase genes of Streptomyces cacaoi, blaL and blaU, are under the control of the same regulatory system. (ac.be)
- A plasmid bearing the blaU structural gene and the blaA-blaB regulatory region was constructed and shown to confer on an S. lividans host the capacity to produce inducible beta-lactamase. (ac.be)
- It can thus be concluded that the S. cacaoi blaL and blaU genes are controlled by the same regulatory system. (ac.be)
- One group of HIF-1 target genes involved in the adaptive response facilitates O 2 delivery to oxygen-deprived tissues. (asm.org)
- MUC1-C binds directly to and stabilizes β-catenin, and thereby contributes to the activation of Wnt target genes ( 11 , 19 - 21 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Ubiquitous CREB target genes are induced following recruitment of CREB and its coactivators to promoter proximal binding sites. (salk.edu)
Activated gene expression1
- Publications] Iguchi G.: 'Clining and characterization of the 5'-flanking region of the human growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor gene. (nii.ac.jp)
- Publications] Kaji H.: 'Cloning and characterization of the 5'-flanking region of the human growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene. (nii.ac.jp)
- Characterization of this gene may provide insight into the factors regulating corneal avascularity and vascularization. (arvojournals.org)
- Several genes activated by TNF have been identified but many more require characterization. (google.com)
- In this study, we report the characterization of the minimal promoter of the MC4R gene and the search for sequence variants in the MC4R promoter associated with human obesity. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Isolation and characterization of the Bactrocera oleae genes orthologous to the sex determining Sex-lethal and doublesex genes of Drosophila melanogaster. (embl-heidelberg.de)
Sequence called the TATA box2
- Some of these segments conserving gene repertoire and order may represent orthologous segments between these species. (genetics.org)
- Each species' promoter contains a cAMP/response element (CRE) 1 consensus sequence ( ) upstream of a TATA box. (wikiversity.org)
- To initiate the investigations into the mechanisms by which AT 1 R expression is regulated, the AT 1 R gene has been cloned from a variety of species. (ahajournals.org)
- The control of transcription initiation is a very important topic in biochemistry and molecular biology and the events in E. coli are the model for transcription initiation in all other species. (blogspot.com)
- The two genes have been cloned independently in S. lividans TK24, a beta-lactamase-negative species. (ac.be)
- The initiation-pausing hypothesis is corroborated by evidence from run-on sequencing and immunoprecipitation in other cell types and species. (uzh.ch)
- Of the approximately 30,000 genes in humans, any particular tissue will express a few at high abundance (these are frequently tissue specific, e.g. globin genes in red cells) and up to a few thousand at low abundance (these frequently encode functions needed in all cells, i.e. 'housekeeping genes. (psu.edu)
- The mfa-1 gene was expressed as an approximately 1.2-kb transcript predicted to encode a 24-residue peptide, followed by a long 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR). (asm.org)
- A number of transcripts that encode for enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of nitrogen-containing organic osmolytes have gene expression patterns that indicate a possible role for these `chemical chaperones' during acclimation to chronic high temperatures and daily temperature cycling. (biologists.org)
- The homeobox genes ATHB12 and ATHB7 encode potential regulators of growth in response to water deficit in Arabidopsis," Plant Mol. (patentgenius.com)
- B. oleae Sxl gene (BoSxl) expresses the same pattern of transcripts which encode for a single common polypeptide in both male and female flies. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- The initiation points and the 3' ends of both inducible RNAs were mapped by S1 nuclease analysis. (asm.org)
- The structure of these two inducible EBV genes is discussed, and an evolutionary model is proposed for the generation of gene duplication in the M-ABA strain of EBV. (asm.org)
- Within this family, the salt-inducible kinases (SIKs) modulate gene expression in part via the inhibitory phosphorylation of the CRTCs, coactivators for CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein). (salk.edu)
- Constitutive expression of the water deficit-inducible homeobox gene ATHB7 in transgenic Arabidopsis causes a suppression of stem elongation growth," Plant Cell Environ. (patentgenius.com)
- The production of beta-lactamase in Streptomyces cacaoi, which contains two beta-lactamase-encoding genes, blaL and blaU, is inducible by beta-lactam compounds. (ac.be)
Regulate gene expression1
Multiple transcription initiation sites1
- While this implies that the intron must be transcribed to increase expression, the TSS changed when the intron was located in the 5′-untranslated region (UTR), suggesting that the intron affects transcription initiation. (plantcell.org)
- In some instances, the mechanism through which an intron increases gene expression is well understood. (plantcell.org)
- The first intron of the 1.0-kb murine mdm2 and adenovirus major late TATA box/TdT initiation signal were cloned into pGL2 vector to generate mdm2luc . (nih.gov)
- The gene consisted of four exons separated by a 2.6-kb intron 1, a 0.9-kb intron 2, and a 0.5-kb intron 3. (ebscohost.com)
- G change at the -18 position in intron 4 of ATP5a1 was significantly associated with increased gene expression (p = 0.0391). (genes2cognition.org)
- This gene structure is similar to the structure of the chick EphB2(Cek5) gene, except for one intron present between the first two exons encoding the EphA8 kinase domain. (ebscohost.com)
- However significant reduction in gene expression levels were linked with long TATA-containing genes (canonical and non-canonical) whereas intron length hardly affected the expression of TATA-less genes. (biomedcentral.com)
Polymerase II requires1
- On the basis of this structure they were able to deduce how the initiation of transcription occurs, how the TSS is selected and the first segment of RNA is synthesized and, finally, how the polymerase "shifts gear" from the initiation to the elongation mode, as it leaves the region of the promoter and proceeds on through the gene. (innovations-report.com)