Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Calcium Isotopes: Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Terbium: Terbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Tb, atomic number 65, and atomic weight 158.92.Metals, Rare Earth: A group of elements that include SCANDIUM; YTTRIUM; and the LANTHANOID SERIES ELEMENTS. Historically, the rare earth metals got their name from the fact that they were never found in their pure elemental form, but as an oxide. In addition they were very difficult to purify. They are not truly rare and comprise about 25% of the metals in the earth's crust.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Cobalt: A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Calcium Gluconate: The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.Calcium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.EF Hand Motifs: Calcium-binding motifs composed of two helices (E and F) joined by a loop. Calcium is bound by the loop region. These motifs are found in many proteins that are regulated by calcium.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Catalytic: RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Nickel: A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.Calcium Oxalate: The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Cations, Monovalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Strontium: An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Lanthanum: Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Fura-2: A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.Aequorin: A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.1-Carboxyglutamic Acid: Found in various tissues, particularly in four blood-clotting proteins including prothrombin, in kidney protein, in bone protein, and in the protein present in various ectopic calcifications.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectCalcium Channels, N-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Heavy Ions: Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Barium: An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.Shaker Superfamily of Potassium Channels: Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Calcium Channel Agonists: Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Dialysis: A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Rubidium: An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Intracellular Fluid: The fluid inside CELLS.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Plasma Membrane Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins: A family of neurotransmitter transporter proteins that facilitate NEUROTRANSMITTER reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. They may play a role in regulating the intensity and duration of neurotransmission.Europium: Europium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Eu, atomic number 63, and atomic weight 152. Europium is used in the form of its salts as coatings for cathode ray tubes and in the form of its organic derivatives as shift reagents in NMR spectroscopy.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Tetrahymena: A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Thapsigargin: A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Calcium Hydroxide: A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Diltiazem: A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.Arsenazo III: Metallochrome indicator that changes color when complexed to the calcium ion under physiological conditions. It is used to measure local calcium ion concentrations in vivo.Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate: Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Ionomycin: A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Oxalates: Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors: Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.Calcium Citrate: A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.EthersCytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Receptors, Calcium-Sensing: A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Spermine: A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Metals, Alkaline Earth: Metals that constitute the group 2 (formerly group IIa) of the periodic table.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Calcium Pyrophosphate: An inorganic pyrophosphate which affects calcium metabolism in mammals. Abnormalities in its metabolism occur in some human diseases, notably HYPOPHOSPHATASIA and pseudogout (CHONDROCALCINOSIS).Calcium Metabolism Disorders: Disorders in the processing of calcium in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.

*S100A10

S100 calcium-binding protein A10 (S100A10), also known as p11, is a protein that is encoded by the S100A10 gene in humans and ... also known as the EF-hand-type that recognizes and binds calcium ions. This is common to all known S-100 proteins. The EF-hand ... The S100 gene family includes at least 13 members that are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. In humans, 19 family ... Ion channels are among the several proteins that are transported through the interaction with p11. Some of these proteins ...

*S100A5

S100 calcium-binding protein A5 (S100A5) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the S100A5 gene. The protein encoded by this ... 2000). "Brain S100A5 is a novel calcium-, zinc-, and copper ion-binding protein of the EF-hand superfamily". J. Biol. Chem. 275 ... This protein also binds Zn2+ and Cu2+, and Cu2+ strongly which impairs the binding of Ca2+. This protein is expressed in very ... S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein has a Ca2+ affinity 20- ...

*S100P

S100 calcium-binding protein P (S100P) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the S100P gene. The protein encoded by this ... this gene is located at 4p16. This protein, in addition to binding Ca2+, also binds Zn2+ and Mg2+. This protein may play a role ... Gribenko AV, Makhatadze GI (1998). "Oligomerization and divalent ion binding properties of the S100P protein: a Ca2+/Mg2+- ... S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21; however, ...

*Annexin

Therefore, the N-terminus can interact with other proteins, notably the S-100 protein family, and includes phosphorylation ... However, when calcium binds, the N-terminus is pushed from the annexin core by conformational changes within the protein. ... Each annexin core contains one type II, also known as an annexin type, calcium binding site; these binding sites are the ... endocytosis and also calcium ion channel formation. Annexins have also been found outside the cell in the extracellular space ...

*NMDA receptor

The NMDA receptor is a glutamate and ion channel protein receptor that is activated when glycine and glutamate bind to it. The ... The binding pockets are shown in figure 2. Memantine binds at or near to the Mg2+ site inside the NMDA receptor associated ... Neuroscience portal Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases Laube B, Hirai H, Sturgess M, Betz H, Kuhse J (1997). " ... Disruption of the gene for NR2B in mice causes perinatal lethality, whereas the disruption of NR2A gene produces viable mice, ...
BioAssay record AID 225394 submitted by ChEMBL: Percent increase in intracellular <strong>calciumstrong> <strong>ionstrong> concentrat<strong>ionstrong> ([Ca2+]i) using CHO cells, stably transfected with human muscarinic m3 acetylcholine receptor (AChR); nd=Not determined.
Background: Hypertensive cardiomyopathy or pathophysiological changes in myocardial structure and funct<strong>ionstrong> caused by hypertens<strong>ionstrong> is a growing clinical problem due to the ageing populat<strong>ionstrong> and a lack of curative therapies. The onset of the disease is often clinically silent, progressing over time to therapy-resistant symptomatic forms. Existing therapeutic concepts are, therefore, symptom-oriented and tailored for advanced stages of cardiac remodeling. ...
Purpose.: Previously, retinopetal axons containing histamine and dopaminergic neurons expressing histamine H1-receptor had been localized in mouse retinas using anatomic techniques. The goal of these experiments was to demonstrate that these receptors are funct<strong>ionstrong>al. Methods.: Dopaminergic cells were acutely isolated from retinas of transgenic mice expressing red fluorescent protein under control of the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter and loaded with the ...
Looking for online definit<strong>ionstrong> of Plasma membrane <strong>calciumstrong> pump isoform 4 in the Medical Dict<strong>ionstrong>ary? Plasma membrane <strong>calciumstrong> pump isoform 4 explanat<strong>ionstrong> free. What is Plasma membrane <strong>calciumstrong> pump isoform 4? Meaning of Plasma membrane <strong>calciumstrong> pump isoform 4 medical term. What does Plasma membrane <strong>calciumstrong> pump isoform 4 mean?
Looking for online definit<strong>ionstrong> of plasma membrane <strong>calciumstrong> pump in the Medical Dict<strong>ionstrong>ary? plasma membrane <strong>calciumstrong> pump explanat<strong>ionstrong> free. What is plasma membrane <strong>calciumstrong> pump? Meaning of plasma membrane <strong>calciumstrong> pump medical term. What does plasma membrane <strong>calciumstrong> pump mean?
Shop Store-operated <strong>calciumstrong> entry regulator ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Store-operated <strong>calciumstrong> entry regulator Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
New Delhi: June 18, 2016: <strong>Calciumstrong> is important for maintaining strong bones. It also helps in blood clotting, early developmental growth and muscle contract<strong>ionstrong> and relaxat<strong>ionstrong>. <strong>Calciumstrong> can be easily obtained from natural food sources like leafy vegetables, yoghurt, nuts and cheese. However, the majority of the Indians, specifically in the age group of 14-20 years suffer from <strong>calciumstrong> deficiency due to lack of efficient ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transmembrane Ca2+ gradient-mediated change of fluidity in the inner layer of phospholipids modulates Ca2+-ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum. AU - Tu, Yaping. AU - Xu, H.. AU - Yang, F. Y.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles with (1000 folds) or without transmembrane Ca2+ gradient have been prepared. Different fluorescence probes (DPH, TMA-DPH and n-AS), were used to determine the effect of transmembrane Ca2+ gradient on the lipid fluidity both in outer and inner layer of Ca2+-ATPase-containing SR vesicles. The results showed that ...
Aequorin, which luminesces in the presence of <strong>calciumstrong>, was injected into photoreceptor cells of Limulus ventral eye. A bright light stimulus elicited a large increase in aequorin luminescence, the aequorin response, indicating a rise of intracellular <strong>calciumstrong> <strong>ionstrong> concentrat<strong>ionstrong>, Cai. The aequorin response reached a maximum after the peak of the electrical response of the photoreceptor, decayed during a prolonged stimulus, and returned to an undetectable level in the dark. ...
In endothelial cells, a bolus of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or oxygen metabolites <strong>genestrong>rated by hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (HX-XO) increased the mitochondrial <strong>calciumstrong> concentrat<strong>ionstrong> [Ca2+]m. Both agents caused a biphasic increase in [Ca2+]m which was preceded by a rise in cytosolic free <strong>calciumstrong> concentrat<strong>ionstrong> [Ca2+]c (18 and 6 seconds for H2O2 and HX-XO, respectively). The peak and plateau elevat<strong>ionstrong>s of [Ca2+] were ...
The major growth driver for the global active <strong>calciumstrong> silicate market is the recent recovery in the construct<strong>ionstrong> industry after the economic recess<strong>ionstrong>. Increasing spending on the residential and commercial construct<strong>ionstrong> projects have positively influenced the global active <strong>calciumstrong> silicate market. The increasing demand for the passive fire protect<strong>ionstrong> and acoustic ...
- Easily soluble in water - With a high <strong>calciumstrong> concentrat<strong>ionstrong> - Easily assimilated by the digestive system - Strengthens bones - Improved egg quality
A dysfunct<strong>ionstrong>ing of Ca2+ pump ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum in vascular smooth muscle has been proposed as a contributing factor for the development of <strong>genestrong>tic hypertens<strong>ionstrong>. In this study, we determined whether in vitro inhibit<strong>ionstrong> of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump in vascular smooth muscle tissues and cultured cells isolated from aortas of spontaneously ...
[103 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Transient Receptor Potential Cat<strong>ionstrong> Channel Subfamily V Member 1 (Capsaicin Receptor or Vanilloid Receptor 1 or TRPV1) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 report by Global Markets Direct. Transient Receptor Potential Cat<strong>ionstrong> Channel Subfamily V Member 1 (Capsaicin...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intracellular free <strong>calciumstrong> increases in cultured cortical neurons deprived of oxygen and glucose.. AU - Goldberg, M. P.. AU - Choi, D. W.. PY - 1990/11/1. Y1 - 1990/11/1. N2 - Dissociated neocortical cultures from fetal mice exposed transiently to a medium lacking both glucose and oxygen developed neuronal de<strong>genestrong>rat<strong>ionstrong> without glial de<strong>genestrong>rat<strong>ionstrong>. We have found that this injury depends on extracellular <strong>calciumstrong> and is associated with uptake of ...
In previous efforts to characterize sarcoplasmic reticulum funct<strong>ionstrong> in human muscles, it has not been possible to distinguish the relative contribut<strong>ionstrong>s of fast-twitch and slow-twitch fibers. In this study, we have used light scattering and 45Ca to monitor Ca accumulat<strong>ionstrong> by the sarcoplasmic reticulum of isolated, chemically skinned human muscle fibers in the presence and absence of oxalate. Oxalate (5 mM) ...
Among different pathways coordinating intracellular signaling, the most prominent is intracellular <strong>calciumstrong> signaling (ICS), controlling various cellular processes including proliferat<strong>ionstrong>, motility, apoptosis and differentiat<strong>ionstrong> [1]. ICS is impressively diverse and consists of mechanisms that differ in frequency, amplitude and spatio-temporal patterning depending on an extensive molecular repertoire of signaling components. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitric oxide-dependent activat<strong>ionstrong> of CaMKII increases diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum <strong>calciumstrong> release in cardiac myocytes in response to adrenergic stimulat<strong>ionstrong>. AU - Curran, Jerry. AU - Tang, Lifei. AU - Roof, Steve R.. AU - Velmurugan, Sathya. AU - Millard, Ashley. AU - Shonts, Stephen. AU - Wang, Honglan. AU - Santiago, Demetrio. AU - Ahmad, Usama. AU - Perryman, Matthew. AU - Bers, Donald M. AU - Mohler, Peter J.. AU - Ziolo, Mark T.. AU - Shannon, Thomas R.. PY - 2014/2/3. Y1 - 2014/2/3. ...
To examine the role of Ca2+ in early neuronal death, we studied the impact of free intracellular <strong>calciumstrong> concentrat<strong>ionstrong> ([Ca2+]i) on survivability in populat<strong>ionstrong>s of cultured mouse spinal neurons. We asked whether early neurotoxicity was triggered by Ca2+ influx, whether elevated [Ca2+]i was a predictive indicator of impending neuronal death, and whether factors other than [Ca2+]i increases influenced Ca2+ neurotoxicity. We found that when neurons were lethally challenged with excitatory amino acids or high K+, they experienced a biphasic [Ca2+]i increase characterized by a primary [Ca2+]i ...
<strong>Calciumstrong> is an essential mineral for several important funct<strong>ionstrong>s in the body of an animal. <strong>Calciumstrong> is needed for the development of the fetal skeleton as well as for the secret<strong>ionstrong> of milk in lactating females, making pregnant and nursing guinea pigs more prone to <strong>calciumstrong> deficiency if their increased nutrit<strong>ionstrong>al needs are not being met. This related type of <strong>calciumstrong> deficiency ...
Definit<strong>ionstrong> of receptor-operated channel in the Legal Dict<strong>ionstrong>ary - by Free online English dict<strong>ionstrong>ary and encyclopedia. What is receptor-operated channel? Meaning of receptor-operated channel as a legal term. What does receptor-operated channel mean in law?
Protein kinase C regulates the activity of a diverse group of cellular proteins including membrane <strong>ionstrong> channel proteins. Although protein kinase C and its substrate protein have been identified in both membrane and cytosolic fract<strong>ionstrong>s in the heart, the physiological role of this kinase in the regulat<strong>ionstrong> of cardiac funct<strong>ionstrong> remains unknown. We examined the physiological role of protein kinase C by stimulating its activity with 12-deoxyphorbol 13 isobutyrate 20 acetate (DPBA) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sickle red cell <strong>calciumstrong> metabolism. T2 - Studies on Ca2+‐Mg2+ATPase and ca‐<strong>bindingstrong> properties of sickle red cell membranes. AU - Litosch, Irene. AU - Lee, Kwang Soo. PY - 1980/6. Y1 - 1980/6. N2 - Sickle (Hb SS) red cells, preloaded with 45Ca by reversal of hemolysis, exhibit an incomplete 45Ca extrus<strong>ionstrong>, retaining approximately four times more 45Ca than normal cells. Studies indicated that neither the reduct<strong>ionstrong> in Hb ...
Multiple mechanisms exist for increasing the concentrat<strong>ionstrong> of intracellular <strong>calciumstrong>. This Perspective by Lee is one in a series on intracellular <strong>calciumstrong> release mechanisms and focuses on the <strong>calciumstrong> store operated by nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP). The characterizat<strong>ionstrong> of the NAADP-operated <strong>calciumstrong> store as separate from the inositol ...
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In the human erythroleukemia cell line, HEL, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the stable prostacyclin analogue, iloprost, increase cytosolic Ca2+ concentrat<strong>ionstrong> ([Ca2+]i) via pertussis toxin-sensitive and -insensitive pathways. Unlike iloprost, the stable prostacyclin analogue cicaprost (ZK 96480), is devoid of agonistic properties at prostaglandin E2 receptors. We compared the effects of cicaprost, iloprost and PGE2 on [Ca2+]i in HEL cells. Cicaprost, iloprost and PGE2 were ...
Cellular stress responses often involve elevat<strong>ionstrong> of cytosolic <strong>calciumstrong> levels, and this has been suggested to stimulate autophagy. Here, however, we demonstrated that agents that alter intracellular <strong>calciumstrong> <strong>ionstrong> homeostasis and induce ER stress-the <strong>calciumstrong> <strong>ionstrong>ophore A23187 and the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca ...
Quest<strong>ionstrong> - Bruises on jaw lines and on my back under ribs. Low <strong>calciumstrong> levels. Due to <strong>calciumstrong> deficiency?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medicat<strong>ionstrong> for <strong>Calciumstrong> deficiency, Ask an Internal Medicine Specialist
The secret<strong>ionstrong> of <strong>ionstrong>s and fluid plays a critical role in a variety of physiological activities that are vital to homeostatic mechanisms in animals. Control of such secretory activity is achieved by a range of neurotransmitters and hormones many of which act intracellularly by <strong>genestrong>rating the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) and increasing cytosolic free <strong>calciumstrong> ...
The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is the major intracellular <strong>calciumstrong> storage depot in cardiac muscle. Cycling of <strong>calciumstrong> between the lumen of the SR and the myoplasmic space occurs repetitively during each heart beat. Excitat<strong>ionstrong>-contract<strong>ionstrong> coupling in the heart begins when <strong>calciumstrong> entry through voltage-gated L-type <strong>calciumstrong> channels in the sarcolemma induces the opening of <strong>calciumstrong> release ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Arachidonic acid increases intracellular <strong>calciumstrong> in erythrocytes. AU - Soldati, Laura. AU - Lombardi, Cinzia. AU - Adamo, Donatella. AU - Terranegra, Annalisa. AU - Bianchin, Cristiana. AU - Bianchi, Giuseppe. AU - Vezzoli, Giuseppe. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Recently, we have measured in erythrocytes a voltage-modulated and dihydropyridine-inhibited <strong>calciumstrong> influx. Since arachidonic acid and other polyunsaturated fatty acids influence the activities of most <strong>ionstrong> channels, we studied their effects on the erythrocyte Ca2+ influx. It ...
induct<strong>ionstrong> of synaptic vesicle exocytosis by positive regulat<strong>ionstrong> of presynaptic cytosolic <strong>calciumstrong> <strong>ionstrong> concentrat<strong>ionstrong> - Ontology Report - Chinchilla Research Resource Database
The cytoplasmic free <strong>calciumstrong> concentrat<strong>ionstrong> ([Ca2+]i) was studied in Fura-2/AM loaded granule neurones in acutely prepared cerebellar slices isolated from neonatal (6 days old) and adult (30 days old) mice. Bath applicat<strong>ionstrong> of elevated (10-50 mM) KCl-containing extracellular solut<strong>ionstrong>s evoked [Ca2+]i rise which was dependent on extracellular Ca2+. The K(+)-induced [Ca2+]i elevat<strong>ionstrong> was inhibited to different extends by verapamil, nickel and omega-conotoxin suggesting the ...
In previous studies, we measured a greater intracellular free <strong>calciumstrong> concentrat<strong>ionstrong> and net potassium efflux, possibly <strong>calciumstrong> activated, in lymphocytes from spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP) as compared with Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. In this study, we addressed two related quest<strong>ionstrong>s: 1) Can the greater intralymphocytic ...
An alkaline hydrolysate of Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki HD1 (Btk) parasporal crystals was administered at 25 micrograms ml-1 (f.c.) to isolated, short-circuited, midguts of tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) larvae. The short-circuit current (s.c.c.), a precise measure of K+ active transport, was inhibited by 78% in 10 min in Btk-treated midguts as compared to controls. The elemental concentrat<strong>ionstrong>s of K, together with Na, Mg, P, S, Cl and Ca, as well as the water content, were ...
BioAssay record AID 270304 submitted by ChEMBL: Activity at human recombinant iGluR2 flip expressed in HEK293 cells measured as change in intracellular <strong>calciumstrong> <strong>ionstrong> concentrat<strong>ionstrong> in presence of glutamate by FLIPR assay.
Major signs of <strong>calciumstrong> deficiency are skeletal problems: osteopenia, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and rickets. Osteopenia is the problem wherein there is less than regular quantity of bone. If left untreated, it could lead to weakening of bones. Weakening of bones (from words permeable) is the condit<strong>ionstrong> where our bones lose its thickness, therefore, coming to be porous as well as brittle. Minor accidents like bumps and ...
Serum <strong>calciumstrong>. Routine serum <strong>calciumstrong> assay measures the total serum <strong>calciumstrong> value. Total serum <strong>calciumstrong> contains about 50% bound <strong>calciumstrong> (literature range, 35%-55%) and about 50% nonbound <strong>calciumstrong> (literature range, 35%-65%). (Tradit<strong>ionstrong>ally, nonbound <strong>calciumstrong> was called "<strong>ionstrong>ized" <strong>calciumstrong> and is also known ...
1. Propranolol, a β-blocker, inhibited or stimulated ryanodine <strong>bindingstrong> to both the membrane-bound and purified ryanodine receptor (RyR) depending on the assay condit<strong>ionstrong>s. At high NaCl concentrat<strong>ionstrong>s, propranolol increased the number of ryanodine-<strong>bindingstrong> sites (Bmax) with no effect on the <strong>bindingstrong> affinity. In the presence of 0.2 M NaCl, ryanodine <strong>bindingstrong> was inhibited by propranolol. Half-maximal inhibit<strong>ionstrong> was obtained at 1.2 mM and complete ...
Purpose: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) with chronic arterial occlus<strong>ionstrong> leads to growth of collaterals - a process termed arterio<strong>genestrong>sis. It was previously shown that fluid shear stress (FSS), which is also known to be an initial trigger of collateral growth, activates the transient receptor potential cat<strong>ionstrong> channel, subfamily V, member 4 (Trpv4). The aim of our study was to enhance collateral growth via Trpv4 ...
Quest<strong>ionstrong> - Have muscle cramps, <strong>calciumstrong> deficiency, abnormal ALT rate, depressed, liver damaged, hepatitis. On multivitamins. Help?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medicat<strong>ionstrong> for <strong>Calciumstrong> deficiency, Ask an Orthopaedic Surgeon
The TRPC (transient receptor potential canonical) proteins are activated in response to agonist-stimulated PIP2 (phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate) hydrolysis and have been suggested as candidate components of the elusive SOC (store-operated <strong>calciumstrong> channel). TRPC1 is currently the strongest candidate component of SOC. Endogenous TRPC1 has been shown to contribute to SOCE (store-operated <strong>calciumstrong> entry) in several ...
Protopanaxadiol (PPD) is an organic compound characterizing a group of ginsenosides. It is a dammarane-type tetracyclic terpene sapogenin found in ginseng (Panax ginseng) and in notoginseng (Panax pseudoginseng). Just what protopanaxadiols metabolites do inside the human body is still unclear. One study suggests it has rapid, non-genomic effects on endothelial cells, <strong>bindingstrong> to the glucocorticoid and oestrogen beta receptors. The study also showed an ...
Peter Gillham Natural Vitality - Calm Plus <strong>Calciumstrong> <strong>Calciumstrong> is an important nutrient essential for maintaining total body health. Your body needs it every day-not just to keep your bones and teeth strong, but to ensure proper funct<strong>ionstrong>ing of muscles and nerves. It even helps your blood to clot. But can too much <strong>calciumstrong> be a problem? Yes, it can. Excess <strong>calciumstrong> can deplete its vital sister mineral, magnesium, from the ...
Peter Gillham Natural Vitality - Calm Plus <strong>Calciumstrong> <strong>Calciumstrong> is an important nutrient essential for maintaining total body health. Your body needs it every day-not just to keep your bones and teeth strong, but to ensure proper funct<strong>ionstrong>ing of muscles and nerves. It even helps your blood to clot. But can too much <strong>calciumstrong> be a problem? Yes, it can. Excess <strong>calciumstrong> can deplete its vital sister mineral, magnesium, from the ...
Apical membrane chloride channels control chloride secret<strong>ionstrong> by airway epithelial cells. Defective regulat<strong>ionstrong> of these channels is a prominent characteristic of cystic fibrosis. In normal intact cells, activat<strong>ionstrong> of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol ester either stimulated or inhibited chloride secret<strong>ionstrong>, depending on the physiological status of the cell. In cell-free membrane patches, PKC also had a dual effect: at a high ...
2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) is a chemical that acts to inhibit both IP3 receptors[1] and TRP channels (although it activates TRPV1, TRPV2, & TRPV3 at higher concentrat<strong>ionstrong>s).[2][3] In research it is used to manipulate intracellular release of <strong>calciumstrong> <strong>ionstrong>s (Ca2+) and modify TRP channel activity, although the lack of specific effects make it less than ideal under some circumstances. Addit<strong>ionstrong>ally, there is evidence that 2-APB acts directly to inhibit gap ...
... , Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas <strong>Genestrong>t Cyto<strong>genestrong>t Oncol Haematol.
Biomatik Corporat<strong>ionstrong> Mouse Transient Receptor Potential Cat<strong>ionstrong> Channel Subfamily V, Member 1 (TRPV1) ELISA Kit, 96 tests MOUSE TRANSIENT RE_ELISA 96T
Optimal fetal lung growth requires an<strong>ionstrong>-driven fluid secret<strong>ionstrong> into the lumen of the developing organ. The fetus is hypercalcemic compared to the mother and here we show that in the developing human lung this hypercalcaemia acts on the extracellular <strong>calciumstrong>-sensing receptor, CaSR, to promote fluid-driven lung expans<strong>ionstrong> through activat<strong>ionstrong> of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, CFTR. Several chloride channels including TMEM16, bestrophin, ...
Cytosolic free <strong>calciumstrong> concentrat<strong>ionstrong>s ([Ca2+]i) and amylase secret<strong>ionstrong> were measured in isolated rat pancreatic acini loaded with the intracellularly trapped fluorescent indicator quin2. Both caerulein and carbamoylcholine caused a rapid increase in [Ca2+]i, with a maximal 3-fold increase at 10(-9) M-caerulein and 10(-4) M-carbamoylcholine. However, caerulein (10(-12) M and 10(-11) M) as well as carbamoylcholine (10(-7) M) caused a significant stimulat<strong>ionstrong> of amylase release, while not inducing any detectable ...
Dantrolene and nimodipine dramatically reduce the number of activated microglia in the hippocampus and reduce the express<strong>ionstrong> of various pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is not clear from our data whether the anti-inflammatory effects of dantrolene and nimodipine are due to direct act<strong>ionstrong> on the microglia themselves or an indirect effect via normalizat<strong>ionstrong> of neuronal Ca+2 levels. Neurotoxicity of condit<strong>ionstrong>ed media from activated microglia is reduced when drugs blocking L-VDCCs or RyRs are applied to the microglia cultures [12-14]. However, the in vivo ...
<strong>Calciumstrong> signaling is known to be associated with cytokinesis; however, the detailed spatio-temporal pattern of <strong>calciumstrong> dynamics has remained unclear. We have studied changes of intracellular free <strong>calciumstrong> in cleavage-stage Xenopus embryos using fluorescent <strong>calciumstrong> indicator dyes, mainly <strong>Calciumstrong> Green-1. Cleavage format<strong>ionstrong> was followed by <strong>calciumstrong> ...
In sea urchin eggs, Ca2+ mobilizat<strong>ionstrong> by nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) potently self-inactivates but paradoxically induces long-term Ca2+ oscillat<strong>ionstrong>s. We investigated whether NAADP-induced Ca2+ oscillat<strong>ionstrong>s arise from the recruitment of other Ca2+ release pathways. NAADP, inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) all mobilized Ca2+ from internal stores but only NAADP consistently induced Ca2+ ...
Experiments performed in mice in which express<strong>ionstrong> of the extracellular <strong>calciumstrong>-sensing receptor (CaSR) was completely nullified specifically in parathyroid cells, chondrocytes, or cells of the osteoblast lineage have identified phenotypes that indicate a key role for the CaSR in embryonic development of the skeleton, postnatal bone format<strong>ionstrong>, and osteoblast differentiat<strong>ionstrong> that are independent of the calcitropic hormone axis. These long-awaited ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell wall oligogalacturonides increase cytosolic free <strong>calciumstrong> in carrot protoplasts.. AU - Messiaen, Johan. AU - Read, Nick. AU - Van Cutsem, Pierre. AU - Trewavas, Antony. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. M3 - Article. VL - 104. SP - 365. EP - 371. JO - Journal of Cell Science. JF - Journal of Cell Science. SN - 0021-9533. ER - ...
Intracellular Ca(2+) release is mostly mediated by inositol trisphosphate, but intracellular cyclic-ADP-ribose (cADPR) and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) are important messengers in many systems. Whereas cADPR <strong>genestrong>rally activates type 2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2s), the NAADP-activated Ca(2+) release mechanism is less clear. Using knockouts and antibodies against RyRs and Two-Pore Channels (TPCs), we have compared their relative ...
1b shows that there was a <strong>genestrong>ral decrease also in 495 nm signal as the experiment progressed. This means that there was no change in the 405/495 ratio with time (Fig. 1c), which correctly reflects that there was no change in [Ca2+]i. D. Bruton et al. non-ratiometric indicators can result in completely erroneous conclus<strong>ionstrong>s. It should, however, be noted that not all problems are avoided by using ratiometric indicators. For instance, excessive light exposure ...
One example of such an instability is "alternans", which at the cellular level, is characterized by a beat-to-beat alternat<strong>ionstrong> in membrane potential and intracellular <strong>calciumstrong> dynamics. Alternans, which manifests on the surface electrocardiogram as T-wave alternans, is a putative trigger of some types of reentrant arrhythmias. Two possible mechanisms have been proposed for alternans - either transmembrane <strong>ionstrong>ic currents or intracellular ...
We used the perforated-patch technique to examine the relat<strong>ionstrong>ship between Ca2+ entry and exocytosis of large dense-cored vesicles in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Exocytosis evoked by single-step depolarizat<strong>ionstrong>s was monitored by capacitance detect<strong>ionstrong>. Ca2+ entry was varied by changing external <strong>calciumstrong> concentrat<strong>ionstrong>, stepping to different test potentials, depolarizing for different ...
The demonstrat<strong>ionstrong> that the rare disorder, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH), was caused by inactivating mutat<strong>ionstrong>s in the <strong>genestrong> for the <strong>calciumstrong>-sensing receptor (CaSR, sometimes referred to as CaR) had two major consequences; it explained the
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of ganglioside GM3 in the modulat<strong>ionstrong> of conformat<strong>ionstrong> and activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum CA2+-ATPase. AU - Yang, F. Y.. AU - Wang, L. H.. AU - Yang, X. Y.. AU - Tsui, Z. C.. AU - Tu, Yaping. PY - 1997/10. Y1 - 1997/10. N2 - Rabbit sarcoplasmic reticulum does contain trace amounts of gangliosides, and the main species is GM3. Incorporat<strong>ionstrong> of GM3 into the SR vesicles or addit<strong>ionstrong> of it to the soybean phospholipid used for ...
Shop Junct<strong>ionstrong>al sarcoplasmic reticulum protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Junct<strong>ionstrong>al sarcoplasmic reticulum protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
0017] Also provided herein is a method of identifying an agent that is an inhibitor of a <strong>calciumstrong>-activated chloride channel comprising: (a) contacting a cell and a candidate agent in a test sample, (under condit<strong>ionstrong>s and for a time sufficient) to permit interact<strong>ionstrong> between the candidate agent and the cell, wherein the cell comprises (i) a <strong>calciumstrong>-activated chloride channel and (ii) a cytoplasmic indicator protein that <strong>bindsstrong> halide; (b) adding to the test sample (i) at least one ...
We have used Affymetrix <strong>genestrong> chip technology to look for changes in <strong>genestrong> express<strong>ionstrong> caused by a 24 h exposure of rat primary neonatal cardiac myocytes to the cardioprotective agent urocortin. We observed a 2.5-fold down-regulat<strong>ionstrong> at both the mRNA and protein levels of a specific <strong>calciumstrong>-insensitive phospholipase A2 enzyme. Levels of lysophosphatidylcholine, a toxic metabolite of phospholipase A2, were lowered by 30% in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel Ca2+ influx pathway activated by mechanical stretch in human airway smooth muscle cells. AU - Ito, Satoru. AU - Kume, Hiroaki. AU - Naruse, Keiji. AU - Kondo, Masashi. AU - Takeda, Naoya. AU - Iwata, Susumu. AU - Hasegawa, Yoshinori. AU - Sokabe, Masahiro. PY - 2008/4/1. Y1 - 2008/4/1. N2 - In response to mechanical stretch, airway smooth muscle exhibits various cellular funct<strong>ionstrong>s such as contract<strong>ionstrong>, proliferat<strong>ionstrong>, and ...
The effects of aspirin and ibuprofen on pepsinogen secret<strong>ionstrong> were studied in isolated human peptic cells prepared from endoscopically obtained biopsy specimens after collagenase digest<strong>ionstrong>, mechanical disrupt<strong>ionstrong>, and percoll gradient centrifugat<strong>ionstrong>. Pharmacological concentrat<strong>ionstrong>s of aspirin and ibuprofen (10(-8)-10(-4) M), potentiated histamine (10(-6)-10(-4)M) and forskolin (10(-5)M) stimulated pepsinogen ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutat<strong>ionstrong>al analysis of Ca2+-independent autophosphorylat<strong>ionstrong> of <strong>calciumstrong>/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. AU - Mukherji, Sucheta. AU - Soderling, Thomas. PY - 1995/6/9. Y1 - 1995/6/9. N2 - Previous studies with synthetic peptides indicate that residues 290-309, corresponding to the calmodulin (CaM)-<strong>bindingstrong> domain of Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase II interact with the catalytic core of the enzyme as a pseudosubstrate (Colbran, R. J., ...
Mitochondrial Ca2+ is vital to mitochondrial funct<strong>ionstrong> because it regulates the activities of Ca2+‐sensitive enzymes in the Krebs cycle.31 The regulat<strong>ionstrong> of mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis is complicated, including a pro‐uptake mitochondrial <strong>calciumstrong> uniporter, a prorelease sodium‐<strong>calciumstrong> exchanger, a sodium‐hydrogen exchanger, and a mitochondrial permeability transit<strong>ionstrong> pore.1, 32 In this study, we provide evidence to show that elevated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Exaggerated cyclic AMP response to parathyroid hormone in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. AU - Marx, S. J.. AU - Spiegel, Allen M.. AU - Sharp, M.. PY - 1979. Y1 - 1979. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0018428626&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0018428626&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0018428626. VL - 27. JO - Journal of Investigative Medicine. JF - Journal of Investigative Medicine. SN - 1081-5589. IS - 2. ER - ...
High-dose corticosteroids, used for many medical condit<strong>ionstrong>s, are associated with rapid bone loss from sites such as the vertebrae, and compress<strong>ionstrong> fractures can be observed within months. Recent trials suggest treatment with bisphosphonates or active vitamin D analogs can reduce bone loss and the risk of fracture associated with glucocorticoids, but few ...
The role played by soluble molecules that may participate in acanthamoebal cytopathogenicity has yet to be fully characterized. We demonstrate here that Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites constitutively release ADP in the medium. Cell-free supernatants prepared from A. castellanii, by interact<strong>ionstrong> with specific P2y2 purinoceptors expressed on the Wish cell membrane, caused a biphasic rise in [Ca2+]i, extensive cell membrane blebbing, cytoskeletal disorganizat<strong>ionstrong>, and the breakdown of nuclei. Cell damage induced by amoebic ...
And in order to create T3 your body must use T4 as a substrate and Perimenopause may begin as early as age 35 and end as late as 59. Which Hormone Works Directly In The Intestine To Increase Plasma <strong>Calciumstrong> Levels? Pill After Cycle Plan B if both ovaries are removed you go into an immediate "surgical" menopause Now the pain is pretty much gone and our 10 wedding anivasary is Sunday. Which hormone is likely to be the cause of a continuous eakthrough bleeding in a woman (with a healthy uterus) on an HRT patch ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein kinase C regulates the tonic but not the phasic component of contract<strong>ionstrong> in guinea-pig ileum. AU - Sasaguri, T.. AU - Watson, S. P.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. N2 - We have investigated the effect of phorbol esters and the down-regulat<strong>ionstrong> of protein kinase C on contract<strong>ionstrong> of guinea-pig ileum longitudinal smooth muscle to carbachol and high K+. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) enhanced the phasic component and inhibited or enhanced, respectively, the tonic component of contract<strong>ionstrong> to carbachol and high K+. In ...
Existing literature makes it unclear whether proton pump inhibitor therapy truly decreases intestinal <strong>calciumstrong> absorpt<strong>ionstrong>. Up to 25 postmenopausal women will participate in this study. The primary study outcome is the change in intestinal <strong>calciumstrong> absorpt<strong>ionstrong> following omeprazole therapy 40 mg daily for 30 days. The secondary outcomes <strong>includestrong> the change in urine n-telopeptide.. We will interview women and review their medical records to determine eligibility. ...
muscle cell in human body human coronary artery smooth muscle cells 2 photo, muscle cell in human body human coronary artery smooth muscle cells 2 image, muscle cell in human body human coronary artery smooth muscle cells 2 gallery
The major finding of the present study is that type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with the cleavage of platelet PECAM-1 through a mechanism involving the tyrosine nitrat<strong>ionstrong> of SERCA-2, an increase in [Ca2+]i, and the activat<strong>ionstrong> of the Ca2+-dependent protease μ-calpain. Moreover, treating subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus with the PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone successfully reversed many of these changes and restored platelet [Ca2+]i, calpain activity, and PECAM-1 to ...
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Oral <strong>calciumstrong> supplements (80 mg/kg per 24 h) were given to 23 preterm infants, and the course of serum <strong>calciumstrong>, magnesium, immunoreactive calcitonin, and gastrin was compared with a control group of 23 matched infants. In the supplemented group, serum <strong>calciumstrong> concentrat<strong>ionstrong>s remained at the baseline level (2.31 mmol/l +/- 0.18 SD) while a fall (from 2.27 +/- 0.18 to 1.91 +/- 0.24 mmol/l) was observed at 12-16 hours of age in the control group, with 4 values , 1.75 mmol/l. There was no change ...
One challenge for <strong>genestrong>tic approaches aimed at studying biological processes is the difficulty of identifying specific funct<strong>ionstrong>s for broadly acting cell biological pathways. Here, we complement classical <strong>genestrong>tics with a chemical approach to disrupt polymerized microtubules at a specific time in development. Complete microtubule loss leads to lethality and defects in mitosis, but our experiments took advantage of the fact that late ...
One challenge for <strong>genestrong>tic approaches aimed at studying biological processes is the difficulty of identifying specific funct<strong>ionstrong>s for broadly acting cell biological pathways. Here, we complement classical <strong>genestrong>tics with a chemical approach to disrupt polymerized microtubules at a specific time in development. Complete microtubule loss leads to lethality and defects in mitosis, but our experiments took advantage of the fact that late ...
The properties of single Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels in neonatal rat intracardiac neurons were investigated using the patch-clamp recording technique. In symmetrical 140 mM K+. the single-channel slope conductance was linear in the voltage range -60/+60 mV, and was 207±19 pS. Na+ <strong>ionstrong>s were not measurably permeant through the open channel. Channel activity increased with the cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentrat<strong>ionstrong> ([Ca2+]i) with a Hill plot giving a half-saturating [Ca2+] (K0.5) of 1.35 μM and slope of ≅3. The BK channel was inhibited reversibly by external tetraethylammonium ...
BACKGROUND: The kidney is one of the affected organs involved in the clinical symptoms of parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related disorders, like primary hyperparathyroidism and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. The molecular mechanism(s) underlying alterat<strong>ionstrong>s in renal Ca(2+) handling in these disorders is poorly understood. METHODS: Parathyroidectomized and PTH-supplemented rats and mice infused with the calcimimetic compound NPS R-467 were used to study the in vivo effect of PTH on the express<strong>ionstrong> of renal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glycosylat<strong>ionstrong> of the osmoresponsive transient receptor potential channel TRPV4 on Asn-651 influences membrane trafficking. AU - Xu, Hongshi. AU - Fu, Yi. AU - Tian, Wei. AU - Cohen, David. PY - 2006/5. Y1 - 2006/5. N2 - We identified a consensus N-linked glycosylat<strong>ionstrong> motif within the pore-forming loop between the fifth and sixth transmembrane segments of the osmoresponsive transient receptor potential (TRP) channel TRPV4. Mutat<strong>ionstrong> of this residue from Asn to ...
Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive drug that can cause toxicity and de<strong>genestrong>rat<strong>ionstrong> in the brain. Several pieces of evidence have demonstrated that METH toxicity results in increases in oxidative stress that regulate an intracellular signaling cascade that leads to cell death. Recently, several studies have emphasized that the overload of cytosolic <strong>calciumstrong> levels and mitochondrial fiss<strong>ionstrong> into a small ...
The regulat<strong>ionstrong> of a K(+) current activating during oscillatory electrical activity (I(K,slow)) in an insulin-releasing beta-cell was studied by applying the perforated patch whole-cell technique to intact mouse pancreatic islets. The resting whole-cell conductance in the presence of 10 mM glucose amounted to 1.3 nS, which rose by 50 % during a series of 26 simulated act<strong>ionstrong> potentials. Applicat<strong>ionstrong> of the K(ATP)-channel blocker tolbutamide produced uninterrupted act<strong>ionstrong> potential firing and reduced ...
... may be resulted from either increased <strong>calciumstrong> intake or increased gastrointestinal absorpt<strong>ionstrong>.. Individuals, who ingest large <strong>Calciumstrong> amounts and also use <strong>Calciumstrong> consisting antacids, may progress Hypercalcemia. Vitamin D overdose similarly may affect <strong>Calciumstrong> concentrat<strong>ionstrong> in the blood by significant increase in <strong>calciumstrong> ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterizat<strong>ionstrong> of the inhibitory effect of vascular endothelium on agonist-induced vasoconstrict<strong>ionstrong> in rat mesenteric resistance arteries. AU - Jin, Xin. AU - Satoh-Otonashi, Yukiko. AU - Zamami, Yoshito. AU - Koyama, Toshihiro. AU - Sun, Pengyuan. AU - Kitamura, Yoshihisa. AU - Kawasaki, Hiromu. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Vascular endothelium regulates vascular tone by releasing endothelium-derived vasoactive substances. We performed this study to ...
<strong>Calciumstrong> imaging is a scientific technique usually carried out in research which is designed to show the <strong>calciumstrong> (Ca2+) status of an isolated cell, tissue or medium. <strong>Calciumstrong> imaging techniques take advantage of so-called <strong>calciumstrong> indicators, fluorescent molecules that can respond to the <strong>bindingstrong> of Ca2+ <strong>ionstrong>s by changing their fluorescence properties. Two main ...
<strong>Calciumstrong> encoding (also referred to as Ca2+ encoding or <strong>calciumstrong> informat<strong>ionstrong> processing) is an intracellular signaling pathway used by many cells to transfer, process and encode external informat<strong>ionstrong> detected by the cell. In cell physiology, external informat<strong>ionstrong> is often converted into intracellular <strong>calciumstrong> dynamics. The concept of <strong>calciumstrong> encoding explains how Ca2+ ...
Plant hormones, light receptors, pathogens, and abiotic signals trigger elevat<strong>ionstrong>s in the cytosolic <strong>calciumstrong> concentrat<strong>ionstrong>, which mediate physiological and developmental responses. Recent studies are reviewed here that reveal how specific <strong>genestrong>tic mutat<strong>ionstrong>s impair or modify stimulus-induced <strong>calciumstrong> elevat<strong>ionstrong>s in plant cells. ...
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Serum <strong>calciumstrong> levels are tightly controlled by an integrated hormone-controlled system that involves active vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], which can elicit <strong>calciumstrong> mobilizat<strong>ionstrong> from bone when intestinal <strong>calciumstrong> absorpt<strong>ionstrong> is decreased. The skeletal adaptat<strong>ionstrong>s, however, are still poorly characterized. To gain insight into these issues, we analyzed the consequences of specific ...
WHY WE NEED <strong>CALCIUMstrong>. By Troy Francis. <strong>Calciumstrong> is one nutrient that is sometimes overlooked. However, it is one of the most important nutrients your body needs. <strong>Calciumstrong> plays an important part in body funct<strong>ionstrong>s and some development. Knowing how much <strong>calciumstrong> you need daily and where to get it from can ensure that you will lead a healthier life and live longer. What does <strong>Calciumstrong> do for us! Well, <strong>calciumstrong> ...
<strong>Calciumstrong> has become the latest double-edged swords in the supplement world.. People want to take <strong>calciumstrong> for its osteoporosis prevent<strong>ionstrong> benefit, but then learn about possible associated cardiovascular disease risks. This usually leaves the consumer confused as to whether the risk is worth the benefit.. To answer the quest<strong>ionstrong> about whether or ...
<strong>Calciumstrong> waves are propagated among islands of UMR cells. <strong>Calciumstrong> waves were induced in a subconfluent monolayer of fluo-3-loaded UMR cells. The outline of c
The latest Perspectives in <strong>Genestrong>ral Physiology series introduces the newest technologies in the field of <strong>calciumstrong> signaling, which plays a central role in many cellular processes.
<strong>Calciumstrong> Chelating Agents, Wholesale Various High Quality <strong>Calciumstrong> Chelating Agents Products from Global <strong>Calciumstrong> Chelating Agents Suppliers and <strong>Calciumstrong> Chelating Agents Factory,Importer,Exporter at Alibaba.com.

Protein S100-A13Protein S100-A13

Binds two calcium ions per subunit. Binds one copper ion. Binding of one copper ion does not interfere with calcium binding. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 ... S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein is widely expressed in ... The calcium-free protein binds to lipid vesicles containing phosphatidylserine, but not to vesicles containing ...
more infohttps://pharos.nih.gov/idg/targets/Q99584

anti-S100A5 antibody | Mouse anti-Rat S100 Calcium Binding Protein A5 (S100A5) Monoclonal Antibody-AAH93957.1anti-S100A5 antibody | Mouse anti-Rat S100 Calcium Binding Protein A5 (S100A5) Monoclonal Antibody-AAH93957.1

Mouse anti-Rat S100 Calcium Binding Protein A5 (S100A5) Monoclonal Antibody-AAH93957.1 (MBS2091138) product datasheet at ... Binds calcium, zinc and copper. One subunit can simultaneously bind 2 calcium ions or 2 copper ions plus 1 zinc ion. Calcium ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 ... S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein has a Ca2+ affinity 20- ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/prods/Antibody/Monoclonal/S100-Calcium-Binding-Protein-A5-S100A5/S100A5/datasheet.php?products_id=2091138

Anti-S100 antibody (ab34686) | AbcamAnti-S100 antibody (ab34686) | Abcam

Rabbit polyclonal S100 antibody. Validated in WB, ELISA, IHC and tested in Mouse, Rat, Cow, Human. Cited in 2 publication(s). ... Weakly binds calcium but binds zinc very tightly-distinct binding sites with different affinities exist for both ions on each ... S100 calcium binding protein A1 antibody. *S100 calcium binding protein B antibody ... Physiological concentrations of potassium ion antagonize the binding of both divalent cations, especially affecting high- ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/s100-antibody-ab34686.html

S100A10 - WikipediaS100A10 - Wikipedia

S100 calcium-binding protein A10 (S100A10), also known as p11, is a protein that is encoded by the S100A10 gene in humans and ... also known as the EF-hand-type that recognizes and binds calcium ions. This is common to all known S-100 proteins. The EF-hand ... The S100 gene family includes at least 13 members that are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. In humans, 19 family ... Ion channels are among the several proteins that are transported through the interaction with p11. Some of these proteins ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S100A10

Anti-S100 alpha antibody (ab11428) | AbcamAnti-S100 alpha antibody (ab11428) | Abcam

Rabbit polyclonal S100 alpha antibody. Validated in WB, IP, ELISA, IHC, ICC, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat, Cow, Dog, Human, ... Weakly binds calcium but binds zinc very tightly-distinct binding sites with different affinities exist for both ions on each ... Full length native protein (purified) corresponding to Human S100 alpha. Purified S100-alpha protein from human pectoral muscle ... Physiological concentrations of potassium ion antagonize the binding of both divalent cations, especially affecting high- ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/s100-alpha-antibody-ab11428.html?productwalltab=abreviews

Anti-S100 抗体 [4C4.9] (ab4066) | アブカムAnti-S100 抗体 [4C4.9] (ab4066) | アブカム

Weakly binds calcium but binds zinc very tightly-distinct binding sites with different affinities exist for both ions on each ... S100 calcium binding protein A1 antibody. *S100 calcium binding protein B antibody ... Physiological concentrations of potassium ion antagonize the binding of both divalent cations, especially affecting high- ... The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.co.jp/s100-antibody-4c49-ab4066.html

S100a1 - Protein S100-A1 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - S100a1 gene & proteinS100a1 - Protein S100-A1 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - S100a1 gene & protein

... binds calcium which triggers a conformational change. This conformational change allows interaction of S1001A with specific ... target proteins, such as TPR-containing proteins, and the modulation of their activity. ... calcium ion binding Source: InterPro. *identical protein binding Source: MGI. *protein homodimerization activity Source: MGI ... It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including length and molecular weight.,p>,a href=/help/sequences_ ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P56565

S100抗体|Abcam中国|Anti-S100抗体(ab76729)S100抗体|Abcam中国|Anti-S100抗体(ab76729)

S100 calcium binding protein A1 antibody. *S100 calcium binding protein B antibody ... Weakly binds calcium but binds zinc very tightly-distinct binding sites with different affinities exist for both ions on each ... Physiological concentrations of potassium ion antagonize the binding of both divalent cations, especially affecting high- ... The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.cn/s100-antibody-ab76729.html

S100抗体|Abcam中国|Anti-S100抗体(ab34686)S100抗体|Abcam中国|Anti-S100抗体(ab34686)

S100 calcium binding protein A1 antibody. *S100 calcium binding protein B antibody ... Weakly binds calcium but binds zinc very tightly-distinct binding sites with different affinities exist for both ions on each ... Physiological concentrations of potassium ion antagonize the binding of both divalent cations, especially affecting high- ... The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.cn/s100-antibody-ab34686.html

S100A6 elisa kit | Human S100 Calcium Binding Protein A6 ELISA Kit-CAI14752.1S100A6 elisa kit | Human S100 Calcium Binding Protein A6 ELISA Kit-CAI14752.1

Human S100 Calcium Binding Protein A6 ELISA Kit-CAI14752.1 (MBS725160) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits ... zinc ion binding; ion transmembrane transporter activity; calcium ion binding; tropomyosin binding; calcium-dependent protein ... Binds 2 calcium ions. Calcium binding is cooperative. Belongs to the S-100 family.. Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: ... Product Gene Name S100A6 elisa kit. [Similar Products] Research Use Only For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/prods/ELISA-Kit/Human/S100-Calcium-Binding-Protein-A6/S100A6/datasheet.php?products_id=725160

Anti-S100 Beta AntibodyAnti-S100 Beta Antibody

S100 BETA/S100B information: Molecular Weight: 10713 MW; Subcellular Localization: Cytoplasm . Nucleus ; Tissue Specificity ... Polyclonal antibody for S100 BETA/S100B detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: WB. Reactive species: ... S100 calcium binding protein B or S100B is a protein of the S-100 protein family. S100 genes include at least 13 members which ... Protein Function. Weakly binds calcium but binds zinc very tightly- distinct binding sites with different affinities exist for ...
more infohttps://www.bosterbio.com/anti-s100-beta-antibody-pa1303-boster.html

CALB1 protein (human) - STRING interaction networkCALB1 protein (human) - STRING interaction network

S100 calcium binding protein G; Belongs to the S-100 family (79 aa) ... It binds two calcium ions; EF-hand domain containing. Calbindin; Buffers cytosolic calcium. May stimulate a membrane Ca(2+)- ... Inactivation includes both a rapid Ca(2+)-dependent and a slower Ca(2+)- calmodulin-dependent mechanism; the latter may be ... Important for normal Ca(2+) ion homeostasis in the body, including bone and skin (By similarity). The channel is activated by ...
more infohttps://string-db.org/network/9606.ENSP00000265431

S100P - WikipediaS100P - Wikipedia

S100 calcium-binding protein P (S100P) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the S100P gene. The protein encoded by this ... this gene is located at 4p16. This protein, in addition to binding Ca2+, also binds Zn2+ and Mg2+. This protein may play a role ... Gribenko AV, Makhatadze GI (1998). "Oligomerization and divalent ion binding properties of the S100P protein: a Ca2+/Mg2+- ... S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21; however, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S100P

calcium - How intracellular Calcium signaling,  gradient and its role as a universal intracellular regulator points to designcalcium - How intracellular Calcium signaling, gradient and its role as a universal intracellular regulator points to design

calcium How intracellular Calcium signaling, gradient and its role as a universal intracellular regulator points to design http ... 9. Calcium binding proteins and calcium signaling in prokaryotes. Further readings:. TYPES OF ION CHANNELS KNOWN. Ca2+/ ... Ca 2+ -transporting proteins include ion channels, pumps, and exchangers that drive Ca 2+ ions across the plasma membrane and ... At millimolar concentrations, calcium competes with Mg2+ ( magnesium), binds to DNA and RNA, and clogs it up. Ca2+ binds to ...
more infohttp://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t2448-howintracellular-calcium-signaling-gradient-and-its-role-as-a-universal-intracellular-regulator-points-to-design?highlight=calcium

S100A5 - WikipediaS100A5 - Wikipedia

S100 calcium-binding protein A5 (S100A5) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the S100A5 gene. The protein encoded by this ... 2000). "Brain S100A5 is a novel calcium-, zinc-, and copper ion-binding protein of the EF-hand superfamily". J. Biol. Chem. 275 ... This protein also binds Zn2+ and Cu2+, and Cu2+ strongly which impairs the binding of Ca2+. This protein is expressed in very ... S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein has a Ca2+ affinity 20- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S100A5

http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042955/00001http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042955/00001

... acute phase proteins, and a number of anti defensin, lipocalins, and S100 calcium binding protein (45) It is also involved in ... There is a nonmembrane bound singlechained IL22 binding protein (IL22BP) which binds IL 22 with high affinity and multiple ... no evidence of a mouse hom olog of the IL 26 gene was apparent (56) The IL22 encoding gene exists as a single copy gene within ... of overlapping peptides from the protein sequences of IL22 and IL10R2 to show that IL10R2 binding sites on IL22 likely include ...
more infohttp://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042955/00001

Frontiers | The Effect of Nicotinamide on Gene Expression in a Traumatic Brain Injury Model | NeuroscienceFrontiers | The Effect of Nicotinamide on Gene Expression in a Traumatic Brain Injury Model | Neuroscience

... growth factors and ion channels with little to no effect on inflammatory pathways. At 7 days post-TBI, there were only 5 ... growth factors and ion channels with little to no effect on inflammatory pathways. At 7 days post-TBI, there were only 5 ... Microarray-based transcriptional profiling was used to determine the effect of nicotinamide on gene expression in an ... Microarray-based transcriptional profiling was used to determine the effect of nicotinamide on gene expression in an ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2013.00021/full

Amyloidosis in Alzheimers Disease: The Toxicity of Amyloid Beta (Aβ), Mechanisms of Its Accumulation and Implications of...Amyloidosis in Alzheimer's Disease: The Toxicity of Amyloid Beta (Aβ), Mechanisms of Its Accumulation and Implications of...

S100 protein, macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1), and amyloid protein. The interaction between Aβ and RAGE in brain vessels mediates ... severely affect ATP production and the influx of calcium ions into neurons, resulting in the loss of function of ion pumps, the ... W. Xia, J. P. Zeng, L. B. Chen et al., "Inhibition of β-amyloid precursor protein gene in SK-N-SH cells by piperlonguminine/ ... β include the inhibition of protein transport into mitochondria, the disruption of the electron transport chain leading to ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/413808/

Most Important Points for FCPS Part 1 | Dentistry & MedicineMost Important Points for FCPS Part 1 | Dentistry & Medicine

Calcium - binds to Troponin C and then uncovers tropomyosin sites, thus allowing actin to bind to myosin. ... Mutation in CFTR gene - in CF patients will cause an abnormal folding of a protein and will result in degradation of a protein ... MAP Kinase - signal pathway includes RAS Protein which is a G Protein ... Ion Channel - Nicotinic, Cholinergic.. * Ampicillin - must be added to treat infants with Meningitis. Ceftriaxone covers all ...
more infohttps://www.fcpspart1dentistry.com/most-important-points-for-fcps-part-1/

Plus itPlus it

S100 calcium-binding protein A12; MMP9, matrix metalloproteinase 9. ... especially the IL-1 response element of IL-6 gene), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (CEBP)B and CEBPD, as well as members of the ... acute-phase response factor-binding IL-6 response elements), STAT1 (transcription factor that binds IFN-stimulated response ... These include the induction of genes associated with pattern recognition molecules, intracellular signaling and transcription, ...
more infohttp://physiolgenomics.physiology.org/content/25/2/203

Plus itPlus it

... and six members of the S100 protein family of calcium-binding proteins. Significantly, levels of CRP, S100A8 (calgranulin A), ... On the negative side, only 22 proteins account for 99% of their protein content. These proteins, which include albumin, ... Albumin, for instance, is known to function as a carrier and transporter of proteins within the blood and binds physiologically ... Cerebrospinal fluid protein patterns in neurodegenerative disease revealed by liquid chromatography-Fourier transform ion ...
more infohttps://www.mcponline.org/content/4/4/409

Biomarkers: Mining the Biofluid Proteome | Molecular & Cellular ProteomicsBiomarkers: Mining the Biofluid Proteome | Molecular & Cellular Proteomics

... and six members of the S100 protein family of calcium-binding proteins. Significantly, levels of CRP, S100A8 (calgranulin A), ... On the negative side, only 22 proteins account for 99% of their protein content. These proteins, which include albumin, ... Albumin, for instance, is known to function as a carrier and transporter of proteins within the blood and binds physiologically ... Cerebrospinal fluid protein patterns in neurodegenerative disease revealed by liquid chromatography-Fourier transform ion ...
more infohttps://www.mcponline.org/content/4/4/409?ijkey=ff4571fe5644e7697055772ec47d4332d998f0d8&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Gene Expression Changes in the Course of Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation | Journal of NeuroscienceGene Expression Changes in the Course of Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation | Journal of Neuroscience

Furthermore, four genes encoding calcium-binding proteins of the S100 family increase in expression: S100A1, S100A4, S100A6, ... These include four genes encoding zinc finger proteins related to transcription: the RIKEN cDNA 3110024A21 gene, ... Gene expression changes related to ion channels, transporters, and lipoproteins. In addition, some genes encoding ion channels ... The Sh3 domain protein 4 (vinexin) binds vinculin and localizes to sites of cell-matrix interactions (focal adhesions) and at ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/24/26/5982

Biochemical Journal Page 11Biochemical Journal Page 11

... and Hsp90 activity during client protein folding. Members of the S100 family of dimeric calcium-binding proteins have been ... Its gene is a TATA-less gene, with several transcription initiation sites, which is activated by the binding of Sp1 and ... Probing native metal ion association sites through quenching of fluorophores in the nucleotide-binding domains of the ABC ... Crenarchaeal chromatin protein Cren7 binds double-stranded DNA in the minor groove, introducing a sharp single-step DNA kink. ...
more infohttps://medworm.com/journal/biochemical-journal/11/

Endothelin-Mediated Changes in Gene Expression in Isolated Purified Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells | IOVS | ARVO JournalsEndothelin-Mediated Changes in Gene Expression in Isolated Purified Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells | IOVS | ARVO Journals

Donato R. Functional roles of S100 proteins calcium-binding proteins of the EF-hand type. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999 ; 1450: ... In ontology analysis, there were two gene clusters, including calcium ion homeostasis and cellular calcium ion homeostasis, ... Endothelin-1 and ET-2 bind to the ETA receptor with high affinities, whereas ET-3 binds with 70 to 100 times lower affinity. ... Brn-3b (POU4F2), which belongs to POU domain transcription factor family (that includes Brn-3a, Brn-3b, and Brn-3c), has a ...
more infohttp://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2444313
  • ab4066 at a dilution of 1/200, staining S100 in astrocytes (Alexa 488 secondary at 1/2000) on 30 µ m coronal rat brain tissue sections in free floating IHC (see protocol link for detailed description). (abcam.co.jp)
  • ab76729 staining S100 in mouse brain tissue section by Immunohistochemistry (Frozen sections). (abcam.cn)
  • ab34686 staining S100 in Rat nerve tissue sections by Immunohistochemistry (IHC-P - paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections). (abcam.cn)
  • Appropriate sample types may include undiluted body fluids and/or tissue homogenates, secretions such as Serum, plasma, Cell Culture Supernatants, body fluid and tissue homogenate. (mybiosource.com)
  • For positive and negative control design, consult "Tissue specificity" under Protein Target Info . (bosterbio.com)
  • This protein has a Ca2+ affinity 20- to 100-fold higher than the other S100 proteins studied under identical conditions. (mybiosource.com)
  • A synthetic peptide corresponding to a sequence at the C-terminus of human S100 beta(64-78aa DGDGECDFQEFMAFV), identical to the related rat and mouse sequences. (bosterbio.com)
  • S100A13 promotes the release of FGF-1 protein, but does not affect the transportation of FGF-1 protein in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Effect of human S100A13 gene silencing on FGF-1 transportation in human endothelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Full length native protein (purified) corresponding to Human S100 alpha. (abcam.com)
  • Purified S100-alpha protein from human pectoral muscle cells. (abcam.com)
  • Detects a band of approximately 10 kDa, representing S100-alpha from human muscle. (abcam.com)
  • S100P, a novel Ca(2+)-binding protein from human placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • P11's involvement with the cytoskeleton may aid the transport of other proteins throughout the cell and to the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, Annexin II has been implicated in membrane-cytoskeleton interactions and in regulations of ion currents and substances across the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • May function by interacting with other proteins and indirectly play a role in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and in cell motility. (mybiosource.com)
  • May mediate calcium-dependent regulation on many physiological processes by interacting with other proteins, such as TPR-containing proteins, and modulating their activity. (bosterbio.com)
  • The calcium-free protein binds to lipid vesicles containing phosphatidylserine, but not to vesicles containing phosphatidylcholine (By similarity). (nih.gov)
  • Important for normal Ca(2+) ion homeostasis in the body, including bone and skin (By similarity). (string-db.org)
  • A Ca(2+)-dependent feedback regulation includes fast channel inactivation and slow current decay (By similarity). (string-db.org)
  • p>Manually curated information which has been propagated from a related experimentally characterized protein. (uniprot.org)
  • This protein is widely expressed in various types of tissues with a high expression level in thyroid gland. (nih.gov)
  • Complexed with the annexin II, p11 binds receptor and channel proteins and guides them to the cell surface, resulting in increased membrane localization and consequent magnified functional expression of these proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microarray-based transcriptional profiling was used to determine the effect of nicotinamide on gene expression in an experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) model. (frontiersin.org)
  • The p11 protein can be found as a free monomer, a homodimer, or a heterotetramer composed of a p11 dimer complex with two molecules of annexin II. (wikipedia.org)
  • The origin of life cannot be elucidated, without taking into consideration and explaining how the calcium signaling machinery and cell homeostasis appeared. (heavenforum.org)
  • Although the exact mechanism is unclear, p11 protein has shown to be essential in the regulation of serotonin signaling in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The p11 protein is linked with the transport of neurotransmitters. (wikipedia.org)
  • IPA analysis identified a significant effect of nicotinamide on cell signaling pathways involving neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, growth factors, and ion channels with little to no effect on inflammatory pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cells were 100% methanol fixed (5 min) and then incubated in 1%BSA / 10% normal goat serum / 0.3M glycine in 0.1% PBS-Tween for 1h to permeabilise the cells and block non-specific protein-protein interactions. (abcam.cn)
  • Binds to and initiates the activation of STK38 by releasing autoinhibitory intramolecular interactions within the kinase. (bosterbio.com)
  • P11 has been implicated in the transportation of proteins involved in mood regulation, nociception, and cell polarization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epitope is not determined, but it is expected to react with both alpha and beta subunits of S100. (abcam.cn)
  • Calcium selective cation channel that mediates Ca(2+) uptake in various tissues, including the intestine. (string-db.org)
  • The ability of cells to maintain a large gradient of calcium across their outer membrane is universal. (heavenforum.org)
  • Plays a role in the export of proteins that lack a signal peptide and are secreted by an alternative pathway. (nih.gov)
  • This protein may play a role in the etiology of prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)