Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Hepatitis Antibodies: Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Hepatitis E: Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Hepatitis A Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Hepatitis, Viral, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.Hepatitis A Virus, Human: A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Hepatitis D: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Murine hepatitis virus: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Hepatovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.Hepatitis C Antigens: Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Hepatitis A Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ribavirin: A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Hepatitis B Virus, Duck: A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Hepatitis B Virus, Woodchuck: An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Plague Vaccine: A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Vaccines, Acellular: Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Salmonella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Lamivudine: A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Ebola Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Hepatitis D, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Marmota: A genus of Sciuridae consisting of 14 species. They are shortlegged, burrowing rodents which hibernate in winter.Staphylococcal VaccinesAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cytomegalovirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.Poliovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Escherichia coli Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.West Nile Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Shigella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) caused by species of SHIGELLA.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Tetanus ToxoidTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Herpes Zoster Vaccine: An attenuated vaccine used to prevent and/or treat HERPES ZOSTER, a disease caused by HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 3.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Brucella Vaccine: A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Blood DonorsFlaviviridae: A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Herpesvirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family HERPESVIRIDAE.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Diphtheria Toxoid: The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.SqualeneLeishmaniasis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with LEISHMANIA.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.DucksHerpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with viruses from the genus SIMPLEXVIRUS. This includes vaccines for HSV-1 and HSV-2.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES.Vaccines, Edible: Vaccines or candidate vaccines derived from edible plants. Transgenic plants (PLANTS, TRANSGENIC) are used as recombinant protein production systems and the edible plant tissue functions as an oral vaccine.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Mice, Inbred C57BLCross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Vaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.United StatesAspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Immunotherapy, Active: Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
"New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes and Immunity. 11 (3): 232-8. doi: ... Disruption of KIRREL3 gene function had been associated with abnormal brain function. NEPH1 and NEPH2 are involved in the blood ... Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (Sep 1996). "Normalization and subtraction: two approaches to facilitate gene discovery". ... "Entrez Gene: kin of IRRE like 3 (Drosophila)". Gerke P, Benzing T, Höhne M, Kispert A, Frotscher M, Walz G, Kretz O (Oct 2006 ...
"New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes and Immunity. 11 (3): 232-8. doi: ... genes for several psychiatric disorders by association analysis of regulatory and non-synonymous SNPs of 306 genes involved in ... Gene Therapy. 11 (17): 1312-20. doi:10.1038/sj.gt.3302298. PMID 15269709. Sharff KA, Song WX, Luo X, Tang N, Luo J, Chen J, Bi ... 10.1038/gene.2010.1. PMID 20237496. David L, Mallet C, Keramidas M, Lamandé N, Gasc JM, Dupuis-Girod S, Plauchu H, Feige JJ, ...
"New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes and Immunity. 11 (3): 232-8. doi: ... Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is protein that in humans is encoded by the IL22 gene. IL-22 is an α-helical cytokine. IL-22 binds to a ... syncytial virus bronchiolitis in preterm children is associated with airway remodeling genes and innate immune genes". The ... 10.1038/gene.2010.1. PMID 20237496. Silverberg MS, Cho JH, Rioux JD, McGovern DP, Wu J, Annese V, Achkar JP, Goyette P, Scott R ...
"New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes Immun. 11 (3): 232-238. doi:10.1038/ ... "CCDC78 Gene". The Human Gene Compendium. Retrieved 2 May 2013. "CCDC78". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Biology ... The CCDC78 gene is 10,892 base pairs long, and the protein contains 438 amino acids. The protein weighs approximately 4.852 ... Coiled-coil domain-containing 78 (CCDC78) is a protein in humans encoded by the CCDC78 gene. It has several aliases including ...
2010). "New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes Immun. 11 (3): 232-8. doi: ... The complement component 1, q subcomponent-like 1 (or C1QL1) is encoded by a gene located at chromosome 17q21.31. It is a ... DARNED (DAtabase of RNa EDiting in humans) Human C1QL1 genome location and C1QL1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... 2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ...
2010). "New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes Immun. 11 (3): 232-8. doi: ... 2000). "IL-TIF/IL-22: genomic organization and mapping of the human and mouse genes". Genes Immun. 1 (8): 488-94. doi:10.1038/ ... Genes Immun. 2 (5): 284-6. doi:10.1038/sj.gene.6363772. PMID 11528524. Sheikh F, Baurin VV, Lewis-Antes A, Shah NK, Smirnov SV ... Interleukin-26 (IL-26) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL26 gene. IL-26 is a 171-amino acid protein, which is ...
2010). "New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes Immun. 11 (3): 232-8. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: bone morphogenetic protein 8a". Human BMP8A genome location and BMP8A gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser ... Bone morphogenetic protein 8A (BMP8A) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP8A gene. BMP8A is a polypeptide member ... 10.1038/gene.2010.1. PMID 20237496. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2002). "Generation and initial analysis of ...
2010). "New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes Immun. 11 (3): 232-8. doi: ... 10.1038/gene.2010.1. PMID 20237496. Albrecht M, Domingues FS, Schreiber S, Lengauer T (2003). "Identification of mammalian ...
2010). "New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine.". Genes Immun. 11 (3): 232-8. PMID ... doi:10.1038/gene.2010.1. CS1 održavanje: Eksplicitna upotreba et al. (link). *Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA et al. (2004). ... 2005). "Regulation by glucagon of the rat histidase gene promoter in cultured rat hepatocytes and human hepatoblastoma cells ... 2008). "A role for ultraviolet radiation immunosuppression in non-melanoma skin cancer as evidenced by gene-environment ...
In 2003, the research institute conducted HIV vaccine trials. In 2006, the first human gene therapy trial for muscular ... Christopher Walker led a nationwide project on hepatitis C infection and immunobiology. In 2000, Dr. Robert Castile patented ... In 2009, the institute again conducted trials for an HIV vaccine. History of Research Institute, Nationwide Children's Hospital ...
"New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes Immun. 11 (3): 232-8. doi:10.1038/ ... Guanylate binding protein family member 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GBP6 gene. Guanylate-binding proteins, ... "Entrez Gene: Guanylate binding protein family member 6". Retrieved 2017-07-27. Davila S, Froeling FE, Tan A, Bonnard C, Boland ... gene.2010.1. PMID 20237496. This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the ...
"New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes Immun. 11 (3): 232-8. doi:10.1038/ ... LIM zinc finger domain containing 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LIMS2 gene. This gene encodes a member of a ... A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 4. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found ... gene.2010.1. PMID 20237496. Yuan Y, Dong HP, Nymoen DA, Nesland JM, Wu C, Davidson B (2011). "PINCH-2 expression in cancers ...
"New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes and Immunity. 11 (3): 232-8. doi: ... HOXB and HOXD genes respectively. This information tells us that all these genes have been derived from a single ancestral gene ... It covers 34.93 kB from 26191830 to 26226754 on the direct DNA strand with an exon count of 4. The gene maps near the HOXA gene ... These proteins are specifically encoded in the humans by Nfe2l1 and Nfe2l3 genes respectively. The mapping of Nfe2l3 gene by ...
"New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes and Immunity. 11 (3): 232-8. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: CD86 CD86 molecule". Human CD86 genome location and CD86 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Davila S, ... "Large-scale candidate gene analysis of spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 201 (9 ... Kim SH, Lee JE, Kim SH, Jee YK, Kim YK, Park HS, Min KU, Park HW (December 2009). "Allelic variants of CD40 and CD40L genes ...
2010). "New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes Immun. 11 (3): 232-8. doi: ... Several human alpha defensin genes including HNP4 are clustered on chromosome 8. DEFA4 differs from other defensin genes by an ... 2009). "Gene Expression Profiles of Acute Exacerbations of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis". Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180 ( ... Gene structure and developmental expression". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (8): 4038-45. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.8.4038. PMID 8626737. Bevins ...
2010). "New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes Immun. 11 (3): 232-8. doi: ... Human CLEC5A genome location and CLEC5A gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Joyce-Shaikh B; et al. (2010). "Myeloid ... 2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ... is a C-type lectin that in humans is encoded by the CLEC5A gene. It appears to be a member of a significant myeloid lineage ...
2010). "New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes Immun. 11 (3): 232-8. doi: ... Bone morphogenetic protein 10 (BMP10) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP10 gene. BMP10 is a polypeptide ... 2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ... Human BMP10 genome location and BMP10 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser.. ...
2010). "New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes Immun. 11 (3): 232-8. doi: ... Mutations in the gene for histidase are associated with histidinemia and urocanic aciduria. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Histidine ammonia-lyase (or histidase, or histidinase) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HAL gene. Histidase ... 2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ...
2010). "New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes Immun. 11 (3): 232-8. doi: ... Growth differentiation factor-3 (GDF3), also known as Vg-related gene 2 (Vgr-2) is protein that in humans is encoded by the ... 2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ... 10.1038/gene.2010.1. PMID 20237496. McPherron AC, Lee SJ (1993). "GDF-3 and GDF-9: two new members of the transforming growth ...
2010). "New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes Immun. 11 (3): 232-8. doi: ... Growth differentiation factor 7 (GDF7) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GDF7 gene. GDF7 belongs to the ... 1999). "Isolation of zebrafish gdf7 and comparative genetic mapping of genes belonging to the growth/differentiation factor 5, ... Genes Dev. 12 (21): 3394-407. doi:10.1101/gad.12.21.3394. PMC 317230 . PMID 9808626. Lo L, Dormand E, Anderson D (2005). "Late- ...
2010). "New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes Immun. 11 (3): 232-8. doi: ... 10.1038/gene.2010.1. PMID 20237496. Rajaraman P, Brenner AV, Butler MA, et al. (2009). "Common variation in genes related to ... 2009). "Response gene to complement 32 is required for C5b-9 induced cell cycle activation in endothelial cells". Exp. Mol. ... Complement component 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C6 gene. Complement component 6 is a protein involved in ...
2010). "New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes Immun. 11 (3): 232-8. doi: ... 10.1038/gene.2010.1. PMID 20237496. Ducy P, Karsenty G (2000). "The family of bone morphogenetic proteins". Kidney Int. 57 (6 ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GDF10 gene. GDF10 belongs to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily that ...
2010). "New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes Immun. 11 (3): 232-8. doi: ... Weber H, Weissmann C (1983). "Formation of genes coding for hybrid proteins by recombination between related, cloned genes in E ... Interferon alpha-1/13, also known as IFN-alpha-1/13, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IFNA1 and IFNA13 genes. ... Hussain M, Ni D, Gill D, Liao MJ (2000). "IFN-alpha1a gene is the major variant in the North American population". J. ...
2010). "New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes Immun. 11 (3): 232-8. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: integrin". Lehmann J, Huehn J, de la Rosa M, Maszyna F, Kretschmer U, Krenn V, Brunner M, Scheffold A, Hamann A ( ... 2009). "Gene variants associated with ischemic stroke: the cardiovascular health study". Stroke. 40 (2): 363-8. doi:10.1161/ ... 2008). "Association of gene variants with incident myocardial infarction in the Cardiovascular Health Study". Arterioscler. ...
... dendrimer and dendrosome based genetic immunization against Hepatitis B". Vaccine. 26 (27-28): 3389-3394. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine ... Movassaghian S, Moghimi HR, Shirazi FH, Koshkaryev A, Trivedi MS, Torchilin VP, Efficient down-regulation of PKC-α gene ... Poly (propyleneimine) dendrosome based genetic immunization against Hepatitis B was found to be highly effective as compared to ... Movassaghian, S; Moghimi, HR; Shirazi, FH; Torchilin, VP (Dec 2011). "Dendrosome-dendriplex inside liposomes: as a gene ...
Vaccines. Main article: Ebola vaccine. An Ebola vaccine, rVSV-ZEBOV, was approved in the United States in December 2019.[8] It ... encoded by the L gene, partially uncoats the nucleocapsid and transcribes the genes into positive-strand mRNAs, which are then ... and viral hepatitis among others.[104] ... "First FDA-approved vaccine for the prevention of Ebola virus ... The DRC Ministry of Public Health approved the use of an experimental vaccine.[207][208][209] On 13 May 2018, WHO Director- ...
This Application Note shows how the Dual luciferase assay can help to assess the Replication of the Hepatitis C Virus ... There is no vaccine for HCV and the current therapy is only effective in around 50 % of individuals. Therefore, improved ... Chinese Distributor Bio-Gene wins Sales Award for the sixth year in a row ... Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health problem affecting an estimated 170 million people worldwide. Chronic infection can ...
One study found that 14% of patients who received the vaccine were low responders.{ref30} A greater-than-exp... more ... It is also known that certain patients have different responses to the hepatitis B vaccine. ... Which genes may reduce hepatitis B (HBV) (Hep B) vaccine response?) and Which genes may reduce hepatitis B (HBV) (Hep B) ... Drugs & Diseases , Gastroenterology , Hepatitis B Q&A Which genes may reduce hepatitis B (HBV) (Hep B) vaccine response?. ...
MalaCards based summary : Hepatitis B Vaccine, Response to, also known as hbv vaccine, response to, is related to hepatitis b. ... MalaCards integrated aliases for Hepatitis B Vaccine, Response to:. Name: Hepatitis B Vaccine, Response to 56 ... Diseases related to Hepatitis B Vaccine, Response to via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:. #. ... Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Hepatitis B Vaccine, Response to. ...
Transgene and ChronTech Pharma to Collaborate on Heterologous Prime-Boost Therapeutic Vaccination Against Hepatitis C Phase I ... In this collaboration, ChronTechs ChronVac-C® DNA vaccine consists of a codon-optimized NS3/4A gene. It is delivered using ... ChronTech develops the therapeutic DNA vaccines ChronVac-C® and ChronVac-B for chronic hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus ... Passage Bio slapped with gene therapy clinical hold The FDA has placed a phase 1/2 trial of Passage Bios GM1 gene therapy on ...
Hepatitis B Vaccines/adverse effects , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B e Antigens/blood , Humans , Infant , Korea , ... Emergence of vaccine-induced escape mutant of hepatitis b virus with multiple surface gene mutations in a korean child ... Emergence of vaccine-induced escape mutant of hepatitis b virus with multiple surface gene ... Hepatitis B Vaccines / Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte Country/Region as subject: Asia Language: English Journal: Journal of Korean ...
... at the OHSU Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute in Portland, Oregon. ... Hepatitis C J. Nelson. CMV Disease Program. The CMV disease program encompasses basic science questions concerning mechanisms ... Research at Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute 5 Pillars of Growth - Research Summary. ... One of the most advanced and mature research programs at the Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute is the AIDS pathogenesis and ...
US panel recommends new adult vaccine against hepatitis B. Associated Press. *. WOWtv - Kim Kardashian West makes a profit from ... Researchers studied 177 members of the Berne Amish community in Indiana, and found 43 who had one mutant copy of the gene, ... Amish people with this gene mutation were also significantly less likely to get diabetes, and they had more efficient ... like in Amish people with the mutant gene. ...
... a yeast-derived vaccine prepared with a novel adjuvant, administered as a 2-dose series (0, 1 month){ref97} (FDA approved... ... Vaccine options for adults include the following: Heplisav-B (HepB-CpG), ... New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine. Genes Immun. 2010 Apr. 11(3):232-8. [Medline ... Hep B) vaccine options for adults?) and What are the hepatitis B (HBV) (Hep B) vaccine options for adults? What to Read Next on ...
Gilead axes $445M Precision Biosciences gene therapy hep B pact. Gilead is ditching a new avenue of treating hepatitis B as it ... The first vaccine developed from this technology, PVX-410, is designed to target multiple myeloma cells. Financial terms of the ... OncoPeps lead program is a multi-peptide therapeutic vaccine for use in treating smoldering multiple myeloma. www.oncopep.com ... "We are committed to developing PVX-410, which is a therapeutic cancer vaccine developed to target multiple myeloma cells," said ...
The most promising vaccine candidates that have advanced into pre-clinical models and the clinic to eliminate or provide ... The most promising vaccine candidates that have advanced into pre-clinical models and the clinic to eliminate or provide ... if there is a need develop DNA vaccines for HIV-1 and HCV? Since the initial study from Wolff and colleagues which showed that ... is there a need to develop DNA vaccines against HIV-1 and HCV? Since the initial study from Wolff and colleagues which showed ...
Hepatitis B surface antigen negative. *Hepatitis C antibody negative (unless antigen negative) ... Gene-Modified White Blood Cells Followed By Interleukin-2 and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Melanoma. ... Vaccines may make the body build an immune response to kill tumor cells. Combining gene-modified white blood cell infusions ... MedlinePlus related topics: Genes and Gene Therapy Melanoma Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Carcinoid ...
Complete information for IL4R gene (Protein Coding), Interleukin 4 Receptor, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways ... Hepatitis vaccines. *MalaCards. *Medline Plus. Pharma. 0. pitrakinra. *MalaCards. *Medline Plus. Pharma. 0. ... Evolution for IL4R Gene. ENSEMBL:. Gene Tree for IL4R (if available). TreeFam:. Gene Tree for IL4R (if available). Aminode:. ... Entrez Gene Summary for IL4R Gene. * This gene encodes the alpha chain of the interleukin-4 receptor, a type I transmembrane ...
EU Regulatory Roundup: France to Create Trial Fast Track for Cell and Gene Therapies * 13 December 2018 ... Dynavaxs hepatitis B vaccine gets FDA nod on third try, shares up (Reuters) (Endpoints) ... Regulatory Recon: FDA Approves Dynavaxs Hep B Vaccine BMS Sprycel Approved for Pediatric Ph+ CML (10 November 2017). Posted ... Regulatory Focus™ > News Articles > Regulatory Recon: FDA Approves Dynavaxs Hep B Vaccine; BMS Sprycel Approved for Pediatric ...
Pilot Study: Gene Expression Profiling of Immune Response to HBV Vaccination in Healthy Volunteers. *Hepatitis B ... The Hepatitis B Vaccine Booster Response Among the Youth Who Had Completed Neonatal Hepatitis B Vaccines. *Hepatitis B ... Persistence of Hepatitis B Antibody Levels & Immune Response to a Hepatitis B Vaccine Challenge. *Hepatitis B ... Immune Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine Challenge Dose in Subjects Who Received a Primary Neonatal Hepatitis B Vaccine.. * ...
Copyright © 2015 Global Genes.. Global Genes is a non-profit 501(c)(3) corporation advocating for rare disease globally. ... A Phase Ⅳ Clinical Trial of the Recombinant Hepatitis E Vaccine (Escherichia Coli)(the Chronic Hepatitis B Patients ) ...
Viral Hepatitis Vaccines / Viral Envelope Proteins / Hepatitis C / Hepacivirus / Vaccines, DNA / Allergy and Immunology / ... Construction and evaluation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) DNA vaccine containing E2-gAD fusion gene / 中华实验和临床病毒学杂志 ... Confirm the expression of the DNA vaccines by Western blotting, and then vaccinated by injection of DNA vaccines with gene ... Construction and evaluation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) DNA vaccine containing E2-gAD fusio ...
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes inhibit hepatitis B virus gene expression by a noncytolytic mechanism in transgenic mice. Proc Natl ... Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17(6):1048-1053.. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar ... Global Hepatitis Report 2017. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2017. *Trépo C, Chan HL, Lok A. Hepatitis B virus ... Rehermann B, Nascimbeni M. Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection. Nat Rev Immunol. 2005;5(3):215-229. ...
Previous Alzheimers vaccines wereprotein-based said Dr. Baoxi Qu...,Gene,vaccine,for,Alzheimers,disease,shows,promising, ... Influenza vaccine uses insect cells to speed development. 5. Norovirus, AIDS vaccine and Hepatitis Virus. 6. HIV vaccine trial ... The UT Southwestern researchers vaccinated mice with a "gene gun." The gene gun and gene-vaccination technologies were invented ... Gene vaccine for Alzheimers disease shows promising results. UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallasresearchers have found a ...
Association of polymorphisms in the interleukin-4 gene with response to hepatitis B vaccine and susceptibility to hepatitis B ... Immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccines. Implications for persons at occupational risk of hepatitis B virus infection. ... IL-4 gene mutations may alter its expression and downstream signaling, which may affect vaccine responses.21IL-12 is an ... Cytokine gene analysis. Three SNP sites for the IL-4 gene (rs2243250, rs2070874, and rs2227284) and 2 SNP sites for the IL-12B ...
Lymphomagenesis-related gene expression in B cells from sustained virological responders with occult hepatitis C virus ... Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012 Feb;19(2):223-7. doi: 10.1128/CVI.05305-11. Epub 2011 Dec 21. ... HAVCR1 gene haplotypes and infection by different viral hepatitis C virus genotypes. ... Genes Immun. 2011 Dec;12(8):635-42. doi: 10.1038/gene.2011.41. Epub 2011 Jun 30. ...
Product Profiler for HEPLISAV-B Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant), Adjuvanted Click to download ... The CYP450 Gene Family. Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) proteins constitute the products of a large multigene family. The CYP450 genes ... It must be noted that the star nomenclature is not consistent from CYP gene to CYP gene. For instance, CYP2C19*2 refers to an ... In PK, a drug-gene interaction occurs when an individual carrying one or more variant forms of a gene that codes for a drug- ...
Product Profiler for HEPLISAV-B Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant), Adjuvanted Click to download ... The Companys programs and research focus span several therapeutic modalities, including RNA, gene therapy and gene editing. ... gene therapy program and Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) programs, as well as plasmid source material for future gene ... gene therapy program, as well as plasmid capacity for future gene therapy programs --. ...
Vaccines and Antiviral Agents. Changes in Gene Expression during Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin Therapy of Chronic ... Changes in Gene Expression during Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin Therapy of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Distinguish ... Changes in Gene Expression during Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin Therapy of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Distinguish ... Changes in Gene Expression during Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin Therapy of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Distinguish ...
... vaccine system is a complex collaboration among government i...Walter A. Orenstein director of the Emory Program for Vaccine ... Policy ...,Fragile,US,vaccine,system,needs,improvement,despite,dramatic,gains,in,health,over,past,century,biological,biology ... A comprehensive system of vaccine development in the U.S. resulted in ...The U.S. ... Influenza vaccine uses insect cells to speed development. 6. Norovirus, AIDS vaccine and Hepatitis Virus. 7. HIV vaccine trial ...
... vaccine,and,Hepatitis,Virus,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news, ... Gene vaccine for Alzheimers disease shows promising results. 5. Influenza vaccine uses insect cells to speed development. 6. ... Norovirus, AIDS vaccine and Hepatitis Virus. Norovirus Prevalent in Those Suffering from Travelers Diarrhea ...Norovirus may ... DNA Vaccine Protects Against AIDS, Not HIV. While a new DNA vaccine may not be able to prevent HIV infection, it could protect ...
  • Our microplate readers answer your questions on nucleic acids: concentration, interaction with other nucleic acids or proteins, single nucleotide polymorphisms and expression of genes. (bmglabtech.com)
  • Recently a subgenomic replicon has been generated from the efficiently replicating genotype 2a strain of HCV (JFH1), incorporating the firefly luciferase gene under the control of the HCV internal ribosome entry site element. (bmglabtech.com)
  • New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine. (malacards.org)
  • We wanted to try a DNA-based genetic vaccine instead to see if we could enhance the immune response. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Behçet's disease and genetic interactions between HLA-B*51 and variants in genes of autoinflammatory syndromes. (nih.gov)
  • 1 Certainly, the relationship between drug concentration and effect-pharmacodynamics (PD)-is under genetic influence, as drug receptors are the products of genes that exhibit polymorphisms. (ptcommunity.com)
  • CAMBRIDGE, Mass., Jan. 02, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Sarepta Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ:SRPT), the leader in precision genetic medicine for rare diseases and Aldevron, the leading producer of custom nucleic acids, proteins, and antibodies for the biotechnology industry, announced today that they have entered into a long-term strategic relationship for the supply of plasmid DNA to fulfill Sarepta's needs for its gene therapy clinical trials and commercial supply. (ptcommunity.com)
  • Sarepta is at the forefront of precision genetic medicine, having built an impressive and competitive position in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and more recently in gene therapies for 5 Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy diseases (LGMD), Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT), MPS IIIA, Pompe and other CNS-related disorders, totaling over 20 therapies in various stages of development. (ptcommunity.com)
  • The results suggest that genetic variations within particular MHC genes can influence immune response to common childhood vaccinations, which in turn may influence vaccine efficacy. (cdc.gov)
  • The international team's analysis showed that 15 percent of study participants who failed to become infected with HCV had either or both of two genetic variants, one near the gene for interleukin-28B and the other near the genes for HLA class II. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This is an improvement over another method of getting cells to take up gene editing tools, called electroporation, which involves lightly shocking the cells to get them to open and allow the genetic instructions to enter. (nanowerk.com)
  • The additional tRNA gene findings were verified using phylogenetic analysis and genetic distance analysis. (medworm.com)
  • Genetic Engineering Biotechnology (GE, GM, GMOs ) evades Evolution's safeguards by injecting genes of one species into a totally unrelated species, something impossible in Nature. (indymedia.org)
  • In general, DNA-based vaccines are considered very safe due, in part, to the lack of genetic integration, and to the absence of specific immune response to the plasmid itself ( Robinson, 2000 ), making its property very attractive. (intechopen.com)
  • and, (2) to help students see how genes may be manipulated for genetic research, namely, gene cloning/genetic engineering. (accessexcellence.org)
  • The fundamental idea behind DNA vaccines (also known as genetic vaccines) is to induce immune responses against recombinant antigens encoded by genetically engineered DNA plasmids expressed in vivo . (frontiersin.org)
  • The improvement of methods for efficient delivery and regulated expression of genetic material in mammalian cells has been a major objective of molecular and cellular biology, gene therapy and vaccine development over the last 25 years and it is still an area of intensive research. (bioline.org.br)
  • High genetic heterogeneity in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major challenge of the development of an effective vaccine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In case anyone had any lingering doubts about the virtual absence of autism among the Amish, they were effectively put to rest on Friday night's Larry King segment when Dr. Max Wiznitzer -- defending the vaccine program, arguing autism has not increased and insisting it is a genetic disorder preset from birth, said the rate of autism in northeastern Ohio, the nation's largest Amish community, was 1 in 10,000. (whale.to)
  • Theresa Phillips, 2008)Today, we can incorporate new genes from one species into a completely unrelated species through genetic engineering, optimizing agricultural performance or facilitating the production of valuable pharmaceutical substances. (avroarrow.org)
  • 767 words - 4 pages Gene Technology Nelly Solorzano Strayer University SCI115008VA016-1158-001 Intro to Biology Kerry Lee November 29, 2015 Gene Technology Biological basis - Genetic engineering is a laboratory process by which an individual genome is purposely modified. (avroarrow.org)
  • General Information The ABCs of Hepatitis (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) What Are the Symptoms and Signs of Hepatitis C? (aac.org)
  • Inovio's electroporation-based DNA delivery systems dramatically increase cellular uptake of a DNA vaccine and resulting gene expression (i.e. production of the coded protein) and increase immune responses by 100 times or more compared to plasmid DNA delivered without other delivery enhancements. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The S protein of hepatitis B virus is the principal component of virus envelope and the primary target of anti-HBs response. (bvsalud.org)
  • This gene encodes the alpha chain of the interleukin-4 receptor, a type I transmembrane protein that can bind interleukin 4 and interleukin 13 to regulate IgE production. (genecards.org)
  • IL4R (Interleukin 4 Receptor) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • For years scientists have examined the possibility of using a protein-based vaccine to slow the progression of the disease in its early stages. (bio-medicine.org)
  • UT Southwestern researchers have created a gene-based vaccine aimed at stimulating the immune systems of mice to potentially fight off plaque-causing amyloid protein in the brain. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Previous Alzheimer's vaccines were protein-based," said Dr. Baoxi Qu, the study's lead author and assistant professor in the Center for Biomedical Inventions and internal medicine. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In the study the DNA of a simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) was made noninfectious by removing the gene that makes reverse transciptase (a protein the virus requires to replicate). (bio-medicine.org)
  • This gene encodes a protein belonging to the GTP-binding superfamily and to the immuno-associated nucleotide (IAN) subfamily of nucleotide-binding proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Human ortholog to mouse gene imap38 encoding an ER-localizable G-protein belongs to a gene family clustered on chromosome 7q32-36. (nih.gov)
  • We can put the gene now into the chromosome of the plant, so that every cell in the plant that comes back out of this has the capacity to manufacture a new protein. (pbs.org)
  • DNA vaccines have distinct advantages: They can be manufactured far more easily than vaccines composed of an inactivated pathogen, subcellular fraction, or recombinant protein. (cdc.gov)
  • This gene encodes a type II transmembrane, C-type lectin-like protein that is highly expressed on dendritic and B cells. (genecards.org)
  • CLECL1 (C-Type Lectin Like 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Kin of IRRE-like protein 3 (KIRREL3) also known as kin of irregular chiasm-like protein 3 or NEPH2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIRREL3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth differentiation factor 2 (GDF2) also known as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GDF2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans have fewer protein-coding genes than expected, and most of these are highly conserved among animals. (mja.com.au)
  • Aside from classical monogenic diseases and other differences caused by mutations and polymorphisms in protein-coding genes, much of the variation between individuals, including that which may affect our predispositions to common diseases, is probably due to differences in the non-coding regions of the genome (ie, the control architecture of the system). (mja.com.au)
  • The first is that the number of protein-coding genes in humans is much lower than expected - it had been predicted that humans would have at least 100 000 genes (encoding different proteins), but this is not so. (mja.com.au)
  • Purcell and his colleagues later created an experimental vaccine by inserting a gene for a viral coat protein into cultured insect cells, which then mass-produce the protein. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers have shown over the past decade that the purified viral protein, administered as an experimental vaccine, can protect nonhuman primates from hepatitis E. A small clinical trial later found the vaccine to be safe and able to trigger an immune response in humans. (nih.gov)
  • Inoculation of plasmid DNA, encoding an immunogenic protein gene of an infectious agent, stands out as a novel approach for developing new generation vaccines for prevention of infectious diseases of animals. (springer.com)
  • Also, the induction of immune responses by DNA vaccines is inconclusive due to the lack of knowledge regarding the concentration of the protein expressed in vivo . (springer.com)
  • Here, the gene encoding the antigenic protein is inserted into plant genome by a vector (example: Ti plasmid) and made to express in plants. (avroarrow.org)
  • The purified protein is treated in phosphate buffer with formaldehyde and then coprecipitated with alum (potassium aluminum sulfate) to form bulk vaccine adjuvanted with amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate. (rxlist.com)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 10 ( BMP10 ) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP10 gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • Growth differentiation factor-3 (GDF3), also known as Vg-related gene 2 (Vgr-2) is protein that in humans is encoded by the GDF3 gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • Under the terms of the agreement, Aldevron will provide GMP-grade plasmid for Sarepta's micro-dystrophin Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene therapy program and Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) programs, as well as plasmid source material for future gene therapy programs, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth, MPS IIIA, Pompe and other CNS diseases. (ptcommunity.com)
  • A comprehensive system of vaccine development in the U.S. resulted in a reduction of 87 to more than 99 percent in illness from ten vaccine-preventable diseases during the twentieth century. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The U.S. vaccine system is a complex collaboration among government, industry, providers, academia, professional societies and third-party payers that has resulted in record low levels of vaccine-preventable diseases and record high levels of immunizations among children. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Since 2000, vaccines against nine of the twelve vaccine-preventable diseases of childhood have been in short supply. (bio-medicine.org)
  • As of 2004 only four commercial companies produce vaccines for young children, and vaccines for seven of the preventable diseases of childhood are manufactured by only one company. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Safety concerns, such as the problem with the rotavirus vaccine in 1998 as well as unfounded and unproven concerns about other vaccines threaten to lead to decreased vaccine coverage and outbreaks of vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This has been possible because vaccines for the six uip diseases are cheap. (org.in)
  • Rising prevalence of diseases, increasing government and non government funding for vaccine development, and increasing investments by companies are driving the growth of the vaccines market. (reportsnreports.com)
  • DNA Vaccines for Emerging Infectious Diseases: What If? (cdc.gov)
  • In this review, a brief survey is undertaken of the experimental models and preclinical work on DNA vaccines to contribute to a greater awareness of the possibilities for emerging infectious diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Viral hepatitis is a term commonly used for several diseases that are clinically similar but etiologically and epidemiologically distinct. (cdc.gov)
  • While vaccines are currently available to help prevent a large number of diseases, vaccines for many deadly diseases, including malaria, do not yet exist. (elifesciences.org)
  • These promising results, coupled with recent clinical trials that have shown enhanced immune responses in humans, highlight the bright prospects for DNA vaccines to address many human diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Becoming infected with hepatitis A or B is much more dangerous to your health than receiving the vaccine to protect against these diseases. (rxlist.com)
  • The genetically engineered vaccine was originally created and tested over the past two decades by scientists at NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, deaths due to vaccine-preventable diseases are almost entirely due to lack of access to vaccines, not vaccine resistance. (pnas.org)
  • jesse bloom, 2009)Some organisms that are made through this technology are foods, vaccines, animal food, cures to diseases. (avroarrow.org)
  • Bananas are currently being tested to produce human vaccines to help against diseases, such as Hepatitis B. (avroarrow.org)
  • Arcturus' diverse pipeline of RNA therapeutics includes programs pursuing rare diseases, Hepatitis B, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cystic fibrosis, and vaccines. (cnbc.com)
  • McMahon BJ, Holck P, Bulkow L, Snowball M. Serologic and clinical outcomes of 1536 Alaska Natives chronically infected with hepatitis B virus. (medscape.com)
  • In this collaboration, the strategy is to use different prime and boost vaccines with the goal of obtaining a clinical effect by inducing different immune responses. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • DNA based vaccines delivered using electroporation and MVA based vaccines have been separately shown to be safe and immunogenic in clinical studies. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • These results have received world-wide attention and the Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute has been able to secure extensive funding from private foundations and the NIH to further the clinical development of this platform. (ohsu.edu)
  • The most recent estimates (2000) of the cost to develop a new vaccine range from $110 million to $802 million, and five vaccines recently reviewed by the National Vaccine Advisory Committee took from two to twenty-one years from Phase I clinical trials to licensing. (bio-medicine.org)
  • LaForce says that clinical-trial subjects who received the vaccine more than three years ago are still protected, and that it is also approved for children aged one year and over. (thaindian.com)
  • Clinical trial of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (nih.gov)
  • As gene therapies make their way through clinical trials and become available to patients, we need a more practical approach, said senior author Dr. Jennifer Adair, an assistant member of the Clinical Research Division at Fred Hutch, adding that current methods of performing gene therapy are inaccessible to millions of people around the world. (nanowerk.com)
  • These findings support the clinical development of a PfΔ b9 Δ slarp SPZ vaccine. (elifesciences.org)
  • Clinical testing and further development are now needed to see if a successful malaria vaccine can be made from these sporozoites. (elifesciences.org)
  • and the H5N1 influenza DNA vaccine currently undergoing phase I clinical trials ( Phue, 2008 ). (intechopen.com)
  • However, despite promising studies in small animal models and improved efficacy in large animal models, the clinical ability of DNA vaccines still remains unproven. (frontiersin.org)
  • These encouraging results prompted scientists to conduct a larger clinical trial involving nearly 2,000 healthy adults in Nepal, where hepatitis E is widespread. (nih.gov)
  • This "phase II" trial received primary support from the U.S. Army and GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, whose scientists are collaborating to develop the vaccine for clinical use. (nih.gov)
  • and foot and mouth disease, Aujesky's disease, swine fever, rabies, canine distemper and brucellosis in animals, DNA vaccine clinical trials are underway. (springer.com)
  • Since the initial study from Wolff and colleagues which showed that DNA represents a vector that can be used to express transgenes durably in vivo , DNA has been regularly evaluated as a vaccine vector albeit with limited success in large animal models and humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • In humans, the IAN subfamily genes are located in a cluster at 7q36.1. (nih.gov)
  • These localized effects most likely help to insure that the strength and duration of the responses are maintained when the vaccine is tested in larger animals, including rabbits and humans. (jimmunol.org)
  • This review will focus on specific combined DNA vaccine approaches to improving immunogenicity in humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • The vaccine was safe and effective but was not well accepted, possibly because of unsubstantiated fears of transmission of live HBV and other blood-borne pathogens. (cdc.gov)
  • Nevertheless, there are still a variety of pathogens for which vaccines are urgently needed. (omicsonline.org)
  • This difference in timing means that, relative to drugs, vaccines tend to keep pathogens from ever achieving large population sizes within hosts. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, drugs tend to target pathogens in a single way ( 9 ) whereas vaccines tend to target pathogens in multiple ways by inducing host-specific antibody and/or T cell responses ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Ultimately, public-health officials would like to deploy several conjugate vaccines that protect against not just meningococcal type A but also the other subgroups in the region that can cause smaller meningitis epidemics. (thaindian.com)
  • Conjugate vaccines are expected to dominate the market during the forecast period. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Now, under the routine immunisation programme in Delhi every child has to get the combined vaccine for MMR, which is double the price, at a conservative estimate. (org.in)
  • Worldwide programmes are being expanded to include combination vaccines or new ones, increasing per capita expenditure on immunisation. (org.in)
  • Till now, gavi has delivered underused vaccines, usually expensive vaccines for which supply far outstrips demand, to 27 countries and transferred funds to support immunisation in 24. (org.in)
  • The projected figures for 2005 show that gavi spent us $109 million on new vaccines and us $27 million on auto-disable syringes, while it spent only us $48 million -- roughly 26 per cent -- on support for immunisation services. (org.in)
  • With expensive, new vaccines making their way into national immunisation programmes spending on vaccines is bound to increase. (org.in)
  • The hepatitis B vaccine is now part of the immunisation programmes of 153 countries - up from 12 in 1990. (org.in)
  • Current understanding of the residual virus remaining in HIV+ subjects on optimally effective cART suggests that HIV cure, either complete or functional, will likely require the combination of 2 mechanistically distinct interventions: 1) induction of viral gene expression in the transcriptionally "quiescent", latent HIV reservoir (required for immune targeting of these cells) and 2) targeted immune destruction of all cells expressing HIV gene products. (ohsu.edu)
  • Confirm the expression of the DNA vaccines by Western blotting, and then vaccinated by injection of DNA vaccines with gene electrotransfer (GET) in BALB/c mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • Anicteric hepatitis is the predominant form of expression for this disease. (medscape.com)
  • PMID 18332247 ] Interferon gamma allelic variants: sex-biased multiple sclerosis susceptibility and gene expression. (snpedia.com)
  • One of our highest priorities is building a robust supply chain and scalable manufacturing that can accelerate and ensure robust patient access to our pipeline of promising gene therapies on an accelerated timeline," said Doug Ingram, Sarepta's president and chief executive officer. (ptcommunity.com)
  • Other therapies are under study, including gene therapy. (rochester.edu)
  • The molecular vaccines are really safe. (pbs.org)
  • By virtue of the developments made recently in biotechnology and molecular medicine, the speculation of 20 years ago that gene technology would become a powerful tool to cure disease directly, has become reality ( Schleef, 1999 ) and the market of one of these products would exceed US$45 billion. (intechopen.com)
  • 2005). "Molecular characterization of histidinemia: identification of four missense mutations in the histidase gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the combined effects mediated by in vivo EP serves as a potent adjuvant for the NS3/4A-based DNA vaccine. (jimmunol.org)