Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that includes two distinctive targeting motifs; an N-terminal motif specific for the INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal motif specific for the SH3 domain containing proteins. This subtype includes a hydrophobic domain which localizes it to the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 2: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain multiple extracellular immunoglobulin G-like domains and fibronectin type III-like domains. An additional memprin-A5-mu domain is found on some members of this subclass.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 2: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase that is closely-related to PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, NON-RECEPTOR TYPE 1. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for this phosphatase results in the production at two gene products, one of which includes a C-terminal nuclear localization domain that may be involved in the transport of the protein to the CELL NUCLEUS. Although initially referred to as T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase the expression of this subtype occurs widely.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6: A Src-homology domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase found in the CYTOSOL of hematopoietic cells. It plays a role in signal transduction by dephosphorylating signaling proteins that are activated or inactivated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 3: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain and multiple extracellular fibronectin III-like domains.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 4: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain short highly glycosylated extracellular domains and two active cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase domains.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Non-Receptor: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that occur in the CYTOPLASM. Many of the proteins in this category play a role in intracellular signal transduction.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 5: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular fibronectin III-like domain along with a carbonic anhydrase-like domain.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that are bound to the cell membrane. They contain cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase domains and extracellular protein domains that may play a role in cell-cell interactions by interacting with EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components. They are considered receptor-like proteins in that they appear to lack specific ligands.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 12: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of a N-terminal catalytic domain and a large C-terminal domain that is enriched in PROLINE, GLUTAMIC ACID, SERINE, and THREONINE residues (PEST sequences). The phosphatase subtype is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in the regulation of a variety of biological processes such as CELL MOVEMENT; CYTOKINESIS; focal adhesion disassembly; and LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.SH2 Domain-Containing Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain SH2 type SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many of the proteins in this class are recruited to specific cellular targets such as a cell surface receptor complexes via their SH2 domain.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 13: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing five different PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. In addition to playing a role as a regulator of the FAS RECEPTOR activity this subtype interacts via its PDZ and FERM domains with a variety of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PROTEINS and CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Vanadates: Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 7: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain a short extracellular domain, a cytosolic kinase-interaction domain, and single protein tyrosine kinase domain.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 22: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal PROLINE-rich domain. The phosphatase subtype is predominantly expressed in LYMPHOCYTES and plays a key role in the inhibition of downstream T-LYMPHOCYTE activation. Polymorphisms in the gene that encodes this phosphatase subtype are associated with a variety of AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 8: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular RDGS-adhesion recognition motif and a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 3: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing one or more PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. Expression of this phosphatase subtype has been observed in BONE MARROW; fetal LIVER; LYMPH NODES; and T LYMPHOCYTES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Protein Phosphatase 1: A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 4: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing one or more PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. The subtype was originally identified in a cell line derived from MEGAKARYOCYTES.Lymphocyte Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56(lck): This enzyme is a lymphoid-specific src family tyrosine kinase that is critical for T-cell development and activation. Lck is associated with the cytoplasmic domains of CD4, CD8 and the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and is thought to be involved in the earliest steps of TCR-mediated T-cell activation.Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.PhosphoproteinsGenistein: An isoflavonoid derived from soy products. It inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE and topoisomerase-II (DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE II); activity and is used as an antineoplastic and antitumor agent. Experimentally, it has been shown to induce G2 PHASE arrest in human and murine cell lines and inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src): Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Dual-Specificity Phosphatases: A sub-class of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain an additional phosphatase activity which cleaves phosphate ester bonds on SERINE or THREONINE residues that are located on the same protein.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn: Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Okadaic Acid: A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Tyrphostins: A family of synthetic protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. They selectively inhibit receptor autophosphorylation and are used to study receptor function.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Mice, Inbred C57BLReceptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.GRB2 Adaptor Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.PhosphopeptidesCatalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Nerve Tissue ProteinsGene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Noonan Syndrome: A genetically heterogeneous, multifaceted disorder characterized by short stature, webbed neck, ptosis, skeletal malformations, hypertelorism, hormonal imbalance, CRYPTORCHIDISM, multiple cardiac abnormalities (most commonly including PULMONARY VALVE STENOSIS), and some degree of INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. The phenotype bears similarities to that of TURNER SYNDROME that occurs only in females and has its basis in a 45, X karyotype abnormality. Noonan syndrome occurs in both males and females with a normal karyotype (46,XX and 46,XY). Mutations in a several genes (PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1, NF1 and RAF1) have been associated the the NS phenotype. Mutations in PTPN11 are the most common. LEOPARD SYNDROME, a disorder that has clinical features overlapping those of Noonan Syndrome, is also due to mutations in PTPN11. In addition, there is overlap with the syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome due to mutations in NF1.Arsenicals: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Phospholipase C gamma: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.Contactin 1: A contactin subtype that is predominantly expressed in the CEREBELLUM; HIPPOCAMPUS; NEOCORTEX; and HYPOTHALAMUS.Crk-Associated Substrate Protein: Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Janus Kinase 1: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 1: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain heavily glycosylated and cysteine-rich extracellular regions that include fibronectin type III-like domains.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 3: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Fenthion: Potent cholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide and acaricide.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Benzoquinones: Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Lactams, Macrocyclic: LACTAMS forming compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-3 dozen atoms.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Focal Adhesion Kinase 2: A non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that is expressed primarily in the BRAIN; OSTEOBLASTS; and LYMPHOID CELLS. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM focal adhesion kinase 2 modulates ION CHANNEL function and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES activity.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Protein Array Analysis: Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.LEOPARD Syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder with an acronym of its seven features (LENTIGO; ELECTROCARDIOGRAM abnormalities; ocular HYPERTELORISM; PULMONARY STENOSIS; abnormal genitalia; retardation of growth; and DEAFNESS or SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS). This syndrome is caused by mutations of PTPN11 gene encoding the non-receptor PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, type 11, and is an allelic to NOONAN SYNDROME. Features of LEOPARD syndrome overlap with those of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 which is caused by mutations in the NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 GENES.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Vanadium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain vanadium as an integral part of the molecule.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1: A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. Mutations in the L1 gene result in L1 disease. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is predominantly expressed during development in neurons and Schwann cells; involved in cell adhesion, neuronal migration, axonal growth and pathfinding, and myelination.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Yersinia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod- to coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that occurs in a broad spectrum of habitats.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Antibodies, Phospho-Specific: Antibodies directed against immunogen-coupled phosphorylated PEPTIDES corresponding to amino acids surrounding the PHOSPHORYLATION site. They are used to study proteins involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways. (From Methods Mol Biol 2000; 99:177-89)Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Isoflavones: 3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase: A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
"Entrez Gene: PTPRB protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, B". Fachinger G, Deutsch U, Risau W (Oct 1999). "Functional ... Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase beta or VE-PTP is an enzyme specifically expressed in endothelial cells that in ... Harder KW, Anderson LL, Duncan AM, Jirik FR (1993). "The gene for receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPRB) is ... VE-PTP is a member of the classical protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. The deletion of the gene in mouse models was ...
"Entrez Gene: PTPRU protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, U". Crossland S, Smith PD, Crompton MR (1996). "Molecular ... 2002). "Physical and functional interaction between receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase PCP-2 and beta-catenin". ... Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase PCP-2 (also known as PTP-pi, PTP lambda, hPTP-J, PTPRO and PTP psi), is an enzyme ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling ...
"Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of Kv2.1 Channel activity at tyrosine 124 by Src and by protein-tyrosine phosphatase ... "Cloning and characterization of a human delayed rectifier potassium channel gene". Receptors & Channels. 1 (2): 99-110. PMID ... The type of pore domain (number of subunits) determines if the channel has the typical 6 transmembrane (protein) spanning ... Zhu XR, Netzer R, Böhlke K, Liu Q, Pongs O (1999). "Structural and functional characterization of Kv6.2 a new gamma-subunit of ...
Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase F is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTPRF gene. The protein encoded by ... functional roles of the two intracellular phosphatase like domains of the receptor-linked protein tyrosine phosphatases LCA and ... "Entrez Gene: PTPRF protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, F". Bonvini P, An WG, Rosolen A, Nguyen P, Trepel J, Garcia de ... "Modulation of insulin signal transduction by eutopic overexpression of the receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase LAR". Mol ...
... into 38 classical PTPs 21 receptor tyrosine phosphatase 17 nonreceptor-type PTPs 61 VH-1-like or dual-specific phosphatases ( ... "Structural and functional characterization of a novel phosphatase from the Arabidopsis thaliana gene locus At1g05000". Proteins ... "The crystal structure of human receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa phosphatase domain 1". Protein Sci. 15 (6): 1500- ... "The nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase corkscrew functions in multiple receptor tyrosine kinase pathways in Drosophila". ...
"Intracellular substrates of brain-enriched receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase rho (RPTPrho/PTPRT)". Brain Res. 1116 (1): 50- ... These desmoglein gene family members are located in a cluster on chromosome 18. The protein encoded by this gene has been ... Chen X, Bonne S, Hatzfeld M, van Roy F, Green KJ (March 2002). "Protein binding and functional characterization of plakophilin ... Marcozzi C, Burdett ID, Buxton RS, Magee AI (1998). "Coexpression of both types of desmosomal cadherin and plakoglobin confers ...
This gene is a member of the receptor tyrosine phosphatase family and encodes a single-pass type I membrane protein with two ... "A critical role for the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z in functional recovery from demyelinating lesions". Nat. ... "Entrez Gene: PTPRZ1 protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor-type, Z polypeptide 1". Krueger NX, Saito H (1992). "A human ... "Assignment of the human protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor-type, zeta (PTPRZ) gene to chromosome band 7q31.3". Cytogenet ...
... the bradykinin receptor B2 has been shown to interact directly with a protein tyrosine phosphatase. The presence of a tyrosine- ... to further affect intracellular signaling proteins or target functional proteins directly depending on the α subunit type (Gαs ... including receptor type and magnitude of the signal. GPCR regulation is additionally mediated by gene transcription factors. ... 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein-linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein ...
Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C also known as PTPRC is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the PTPRC gene. ... "The human cytomegalovirus UL11 protein interacts with the receptor tyrosine phosphatase CD45, resulting in functional paralysis ... "Entrez Gene: PTPRC protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C". Leong, Anthony S-Y; Cooper, Kumarason; Leong, F Joel W-M ( ... "Cloning of three human tyrosine phosphatases reveals a multigene family of receptor-linked protein-tyrosine-phosphatases ...
"Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha participates in the m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent regulation of ... "Mutations in the KCNA1 gene associated with episodic ataxia type-1 syndrome impair heteromeric voltage-gated K(+) channel ... Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural ... "Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha participates in the m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent regulation of ...
... a transmembrane protein whose intracellular tail functions as a tyrosine phosphatase that activates Src family kinases Zap70 - ... Kieke MC, Shusta EV, Boder ET, Teyton L, Wittrup KD, Kranz DM (May 1999). "Selection of functional T cell receptor mutants from ... Other downstream pathways are triggered as well (MAPK, NF-κB, NFAT) which results in gene transcription in the nucleus. ImmTAC ... or any other cell type (MHC class I) High on-rate and off-rate is characteristic for TCR and peptide/MHC interaction at ...
"Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase micro regulates the paracellular pathway in human lung microvascular endothelia". Am J ... "Entrez Gene: CDH5 cadherin 5, type 2, VE-cadherin (vascular epithelium)". Corada M, Liao F, Lindgren M, Lampugnani MG, ... "Functional properties of human vascular endothelial cadherin (7B4/cadherin-5), an endothelium-specific cadherin". Arterioscler ... "Intracellular substrates of brain-enriched receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase rho (RPTPrho/PTPRT)". Brain Res. 1116 (1): 50- ...
Sadoshima J, Izumo S (1996). "The heterotrimeric G q protein-coupled angiotensin II receptor activates p21 ras via the tyrosine ... "A mutation in the SOS1 gene causes hereditary gingival fibromatosis type 1". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 70 (4): 943-54. doi:10.1086/ ... encoding the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, cause Noonan syndrome". Nat. Genet. 29 (4): 465-8. doi:10.1038/ng772. PMID ... "A proteomics strategy to elucidate functional protein-protein interactions applied to EGF signaling". Nat. Biotechnol. 21 (3): ...
Protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 (lymphoid), also known as PTPN22, is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... The proteins are located in the cytoplasm.[citation needed] This gene encodes a protein tyrosine phosphatase which is expressed ... "A functional variant of lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase is associated with type I diabetes". Nat. Genet. 36 (4): 337-8. doi: ... "Association of inhibitory tyrosine protein kinase p50csk with protein tyrosine phosphatase PEP in T cells and other hemopoietic ...
"Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPmu associates with cadherins and catenins in vivo". J. Cell Biol. 130 (4): 977-86. doi ... "Entrez Gene: CDH2 cadherin 2, type 1, N-cadherin (neuronal)". Ramis-Conde I, Chaplain MA, Anderson AR, Drasdo D (2009). "Multi- ... I. Functional role of N-cadherin and impairment of cell-cell contact by a truncated N-cadherin mutant". Journal of Cell Science ... "Intracellular substrates of brain-enriched receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase rho (RPTPrho/PTPRT)". Brain Res. 1116 (1): 50- ...
"Protein tyrosine phosphatases: from genes, to function, to disease". Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 7 (11): 833-846. doi:10.1038/ ... Protein Ser/Thr phosphatases were originally classified using biochemical assays as either, type 1 (PP1) or type 2 (PP2), and ... They contain the well-known classical receptor (a) and non-receptor PTPs (b), which are strictly tyrosine-specific, and the ... and that several enzymes have separate phosphorylation sites for activating or inhibiting functional regulation. CDK, for ...
"Entrez Gene: PPFIA1 protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 ... functional, and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation and cellular ... Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 has been shown to ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. ...
CD45 - a transmembrane protein whose intracellular tail functions as a tyrosine phosphatase that activates Src family kinases ... "Selection of functional T cell receptor mutants from a yeast surface-display library". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Other downstream pathways are triggered as well (MAPK, NF-κB, NFAT) which results in gene transcription in the nucleus.[18] ... or any other cell type (MHC class I) [11] High on-rate and off-rate is characteristic for TCR and peptide/MHC interaction at ...
Smad target gene protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type kappa is required for TGF-{beta} function". Molecular and Cellular ... "A proteomics strategy to elucidate functional protein-protein interactions applied to EGF signaling". Nature Biotechnology. 21 ... Tiganis T (January 2002). "Protein tyrosine phosphatases: dephosphorylating the epidermal growth factor receptor". IUBMB Life. ... mediates binding of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 to the epidermal growth factor receptor and attenuation of receptor ...
Tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 13 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTPN13 gene. The protein ... 1999). "Functional interaction of Fas-associated phosphatase-1 (FAP-1) with p75(NTR) and their effect on NF-kappaB activation ... "Entrez Gene: PTPN13 protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 13 (APO-1/CD95 (Fas)-associated phosphatase)". Gross, C; ... "The zyxin-related protein TRIP6 interacts with PDZ motifs in the adaptor protein RIL and the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP- ...
"Specific dephosphorylation of the Lck tyrosine protein kinase at Tyr-394 by the SHP-1 protein-tyrosine phosphatase". The ... "The functional significance of Shc in insulin signaling as a substrate of the insulin receptor". Endocrine Journal. 47 (4): 373 ... "Human homologue of the Drosophila discs large tumor suppressor binds to p56lck tyrosine kinase and Shaker type Kv1.3 potassium ... "Evidence that the transforming gene of avian sarcoma virus encodes a protein kinase associated with a phosphoprotein". Cell. 15 ...
Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase mu is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTPRM gene. The protein encoded by ... Crystallographic studies demonstrated that the MAM and Ig domains are tightly associated into one functional entity. Additional ... this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. Protein tyrosine phosphatases are protein enzymes that ... "Entrez Gene: PTPRM protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, M". Tonks NK, Yang Q, Flint AJ, Gebbink MF, Franza BR, Hill DE ...
... genes. NKG2 receptors are transmembrane proteins type II which dimerize with CD94 molecule. CD94 contains a short cytoplasmic ... and this allows recruitment of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, SHP-2 or SHIP. It leads to dephosphorylation of tyrosine ... However, ITIM-like motif seems to be non-functional, thus NKG2F was considered as an activating receptor. Receptors of CD94/ ... Ligand binding enables interaction between receptor and ITAM-bearing adaptor protein DAP12 (ITAM, Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based ...
"Entrez Gene: YWHAE tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, epsilon polypeptide".. ... "Conserved role for 14-3-3epsilon downstream of type I TGFbeta receptors". FEBS Lett. 490 (1-2): 65-9. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01 ... and this protein is 100% identical to the mouse ortholog. It interacts with CDC25 phosphatases, RAF1 and IRS1 proteins, ... "alpha-Synuclein shares physical and functional homology with 14-3-3 proteins". J. Neurosci. 19 (14): 5782-91. doi:10.1523/ ...
Similarly, both dual-specificity MAP kinase phosphatases and MAP-specific tyrosine phosphatases bind to MAP kinases through the ... Mice that were genetically engineered to lack a functional JNK3 gene - the major isoform in brain - display enhanced ischemic ... A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine ... receptor tyrosine kinases, Ras or Raf proteins. Although no MKK1/2 or ERK1/2 inhibitors were developed for clinical use, kinase ...
protein binding. • heme binding. • electron carrier activity. Cellular component. • cytosol. • protein phosphatase type 2A ... "Construction of a human cytochrome c gene and its functional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Journal of Biochemistry. ... The release of small amounts of cyt c leads to an interaction with the IP3 receptor (IP3R) on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), ... or nitrogen dioxide NO2 in the mitochondria can be lethal since they nitrate tyrosine residues of cytochrome c which leads to ...
Receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPRs) are a subgroup of PTPs that share a transmembrane domain with resulting ... and promoter methylation of PTPRs in cancer and consider the consequences of PTPR alterations in different types of cancers. We ... play an important role in regulating cell signaling events in coordination with tyrosine kinases to control cell proliferation ... Functional analysis of a cell cycle-associated, tumor-suppressive gene, protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type G, in ...
... and partial characterization of genes in humans and other vertebrates homologous to a fish membrane progestin receptor. Proc. ... Twelve hours later, oocyte extracts were prepared and the expression of the two constructs was detected using HA antibodies. (C ... In the functional studies we report here, we found that progesterone-induced oocyte maturation is significantly accelerated by ... Protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 13 (PTPN13) is a tyrosine phosphatase with multiple interacting domains that has ...
Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1); EC (Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 3). ... and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) have been implicated in inflammation. However, little is known about their functional effects ... T cnicas de Inativa o de Genes. Seres Humanos. Inflama o/metabolismo. Inflama o/patologia. Lipoprote nas LDL/gen tica. ... Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 3); EC (Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 4). ...
"Entrez Gene: PTPRB protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, B". Fachinger G, Deutsch U, Risau W (Oct 1999). "Functional ... Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase beta or VE-PTP is an enzyme specifically expressed in endothelial cells that in ... Harder KW, Anderson LL, Duncan AM, Jirik FR (1993). "The gene for receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPRB) is ... VE-PTP is a member of the classical protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. The deletion of the gene in mouse models was ...
... synonym protein-tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 9 (Ptpn9)-mice. Interestingly, via global microarray and quantitative ... Tonks NK (2006) Protein tyrosine phosphatases: from genes, to function, to disease. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 7(11):833-846. https ... In order to investigate the potential functional relevance of the PTP megakaryocyte 2 (Meg2) in retinal neurodegeneration, we ... Paul S, Lombroso PJ (2003) Receptor and nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatases in the nervous system. Cell Mol Life Sci 60( ...
R620W functional polymorphism of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 is not associated with pulmonary ... The protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene encodes an intracellular lymphoid protein tyrosine ... Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 gene polymorphism C1858T is not associated with leprosy in Azerbaijan, ... Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 gene polymorphism C1858T is not associated with leprosy in Azerbaijan, ...
Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase gamma (PTPRG) is a cell surface receptor expressed primarily on neurons. It combines ... Structural and functional studies of type three secretion virulence factors from gram-negative pathogenic bacteria  Barta, ... Dendrograms establish the evolutionary relationships and homology of species, proteins, or genes. Homology modeling, ligand ... Identification of a Novel Link between the Motor Proteins Dynein and Kinesin-1  El Mellouki, Tarik (University of Missouri- ...
In the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes the underlying mechanism of the PTPN22 C1858T polymorphism appears to involve regulation ... Association of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 gene functional variant C1858T, HLA-DQ/DR genotypes and ... Association of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 gene functional variant C1858T, HLA-DQ/DR genotypes and ... The putative role of the C1858T polymorphism of protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN22 gene in autoimmunity. Gianchecchi E, ...
"Entrez Gene: PTPRU protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, U". Crossland S, Smith PD, Crompton MR (1996). "Molecular ... 2002). "Physical and functional interaction between receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase PCP-2 and beta-catenin". ... Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase PCP-2 (also known as PTP-pi, PTP lambda, hPTP-J, PTPRO and PTP psi), is an enzyme ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... striking homology to that of the alpha class carbonic anhydrases is also found in receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase ... Functional diversity, conservation, and convergence in the evolution of the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-carbonic anhydrase gene ...
Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type O Inhibits Trigeminal Axon Growth and Branching by Repressing TrkB and Ret Signaling ... Altered Neocortical Gene Expression, Brain Overgrowth and Functional Over-Connectivity in Chd8 Haploinsufficient Mice. ... 12, p. 5399-5410 12 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
R620W functional polymorphism of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 is not associated with pulmonary ... They belong to a receptor superfamily with Interleukin-1 receptors recognized as Interleukin-1 Receptor / Toll-Like Receptor ... Toll-like receptor 8 is encoded by the TLR8 gene also known as CD288. It is located on the Xp22.2 chromosome close to another ... Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a transmembrane protein playing key role in the innate immune system. TLRs are the first line of ...
... phosphatase and tensin homolog and protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11. In addition, administration of miR-130 ... In silico genome-wide analyses have shown that over 60% of all mammalian protein-coding genes are regulated by miRNAs [5,6]. ... Functional inhibition of PTPN11 either by using a dominant-negative mutant [28] or pharmacological inhibitor [29] leads to the ... Tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 11; UTR: untranslated region. Introduction. Bladder carcinoma is the most common ...
Transcripts for GH, MHC Class I and II genes, and heavy- and light-chain myosins, as well as many others genes, were ... Genes that had fold changes of ≥ 1.4 and P -values ≤ 0.05 were considered significantly regulated and were used for subsequent ... Many other gene transcripts were also differentially regulated, including heavy and light chain myosin transcripts, both of ... Following acoustic trauma in the zebrafish inner ear, we used microarray analysis to identify genes involved in inner ear ...
... partial recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli. (P3444) - Products - Abnova ... Gene Alias:. *PTP1B. *Gene Description:. *protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 1 ... OTTHUMP00000031266,non-receptor tyrosine phosphatase 1,protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B,protein tyrosine phosphatase, placental ... Gene Summary:. *The protein encoded by this gene is the founding member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family, which ...
... and protein-tyrosine phosphatase receptor-type C (PTPRC/CD45) genes in HIV-seropositive versus HIVseronegative individuals. ... Both case-control association studies and genotype-phenotype correlations were performed to determine the potential functional ... Although mutations of the chemokine and chemokine co-receptor genes and allelic variation of the major histocompatibility ... All of SUNScholarCommunities & CollectionsBy TitleBy AuthorBy AdvisorBy DateBy SubjectBy TypeThis CollectionBy TitleBy AuthorBy ...
... or receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated and GEF-dependent RAS activation (such as by targeting the scaffolding phosphatase SHP2). ... Wild-type (WT) RAS proteins are guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-hydrolyzing proteins [guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases)] that ... Despite the similar functional consequences of these mutations, they are found at disparate frequencies among cancer types and ... The three human RAS genes encode four highly identical proteins (83 to 85% identity): HRAS, NRAS, and KRAS4A and KRAS4B, with ...
Dabrowska J, Hazra R, Guo JD, Li C, DeWitt S, Xu J, Lombroso PJ, Rainnie DG. Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase - ... Hazra R, Guo JD, Ryan SJ, Jasnow AM, Dabrowska J, Rainnie DG. A transcriptomic analysis of type I-III neurons in the bed ... Rainnie DG, Hazra R, Dabrowska J, Guo JD, Li C, and Muly EC. Distribution and Functional Expression of Kv4 Family α Subunits ... Martin EI, Ressler KJ, Jasnow AM, Dabrowska J, Hazra R, Rainnie DG, Nemeroff CB, Owens MJ. A novel transgenic mouse for gene- ...
... activating its GTPase activity and probably coupling the EGF receptor signaling to the G protein-coupled receptor signaling. ... The phosphorylated receptor recruits adapter proteins like GRB2 which in turn activates complex downstream signaling cascades. ... Ligand binding triggers receptor homo- and/or heterodimerization and autophosphorylation on key cytoplasmic residues. ... Receptor tyrosine kinase binding ligands of the EGF family and activating several signaling cascades to convert extracellular ...
The term RASopathies designates a group of developmental syndromes caused by germline mutations in genes that encode proteins ... of the Ras/mitogen‐activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway ... Ferreira LV, Souza SA, Arnhold IJ, Mendonca BB and Jorge AA (2005) PTPN11 (protein tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor type 11) ... there is an autophosphorylation of tyrosine sites within receptor and recruitment of adaptor proteins, such as GRB2 and SOS1, ...
... functional roles of the two intracellular phosphatase like domains of the receptor-linked protein tyrosine phosphatases LCA and ... As shown in Table 5, the extrachromosomal array of the wild-type daf-9 gene strongly suppressed the Daf-c phenotypes of sdf-9( ... Here we present genetic and molecular analyses of a new syn-Daf gene, sdf-9. It encodes a protein tyrosine phosphatase-like ... sdf-9 encodes a protein tyrosine phosphatase-like molecule. We found that the sdf-9 gene corresponds to the predicted ORF ...
... is a large family of enzymes that account for the majority of brain Ser/Thr phosphatase activity. While PP2A enzymes ... is a large family of enzymes that account for the majority of brain Ser/Thr phosphatase activity. While PP2A enzymes ... Chen, J., Martin, B. L., and Brautigan, D. L. (1992). Regulation of protein serine-threonine phosphatase type-2A by tyrosine ... including protein kinases, receptors, cytoskeletal proteins and transcription factors, as well as viral proteins (Reviewed in ...
... protein expression, two markers highly specific of glioma stem cells, on a cohort of human paired glioblastoma samples ... Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z1 (PTPRZ1)-MET proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase (MET) (ZM) fusion has been ... Whole-transcriptome sequencing profiling identifies functional and prognostic signatures in patients with PTPRZ1-MET fusion- ... In conclusion, TMEM45A is an oncogenic gene in glioma. The proliferation, migration, and invasion of gliomas could be ...
1419899 - Protein tyrosine phosphatase activation during nerve growth factor-induced neuronal dif.... 20075049 - Nerve growth ... Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism. Sulfhydryl Reagents / pharmacology*. Thimerosal / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured. ... 12843659 - Effect of neuronal pc12 cells on the functional properties of intestinal epithelial cac.... 16144659 - Differential ... 11273639 - Prb2/p130 gene overexpression induces astrocyte differentiation.. 16608289 - Microfluidic system for planar patch ...
FukazawaN, YokoyamaS, EirakuM, KengakuM, MaedaN (2008) Receptor type protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta-pleiotrophin signaling ... 2011) Genome-wide gene-environment study identifies glutamate receptor gene GRIN2A as a Parkinsons disease modifier gene via ... Approaching the Functional Annotation of Fungal Virulence Factors Using Cross-Species Genetic Interaction Profiling ... Gene annotation was performed using the gene prediction tracks "UCSC Genes" and "RefSeq Genes" in the UCSC browser (http:// ...
  • Therefore, therapeutic targets for bladder cancer should include genes that regulate broad cancer-related signaling pathways. (
  • Invasion by extracellular and intracellular pathogens is sensed by various signaling pathways converging to activate NF-κB, a member of the Rel family of transcription factors involved in the activation of a large number of genes in response to pathogens, stress signals and proinflammatory cytokines ( 2 ). (
  • G protein-coupled receptors ( GPCRs ), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors , 7TM receptors , heptahelical receptors , serpentine receptor , and G protein-linked receptors ( GPLR ), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses. (
  • These genes regulate pathways known to be induced in invasion and metastases and play an important role in the regulation of cancer stem cells. (
  • Thus, in the absence of a functional complex glycogen accumulates in LBs. In addition, it has been suggested that the laforin-malin complex participates in alternative physiological pathways, such as intracellular protein degradation, oxidative stress, and the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. (
  • Studies of Endogenous G-Protein-Mediated Pathways in Neurons by Whole-Cell Electrophysiology. (
  • The current consensus is that, whereas both βarr isoforms can desensitize and internalize cardiac GPCRs, they play quite different (even opposing in certain instances) roles in the G protein-independent signaling pathways they initiate in the cardiovascular system, including in the myocardium. (
  • An understanding of the contributions of different neuronal and non-neuronal cell types to hypothalamic inflammatory processes, and delineation of the differences and similarities between acute and chronic activation of these inflammatory pathways, will be critical for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. (
  • For example, an AT 1 /AT 2 chimeric receptor-study showed that substitution of IC3 in the AT 1 receptor failed to induce AT 1 receptor function via Gq protein coupling, 11 and also revealed that IC3 is a critical determinant of the mutually antagonistic AT 1 and AT 2 receptor signaling pathways. (
  • Many of the functional effects of EETs occur through activation of signal transduction pathways and modulation of gene expression, events probably initiated by binding to a putative cell surface EET receptor. (
  • Signal transduction pathways and transcriptional mechanisms involved in EET function have been identified ( 11 , 56 , 89 , 150 ), and attempts are being made to isolate an EET membrane receptor that mediates these effects ( 144 , 164 ). (
  • Indeed, they are a family of pattern-recognition receptors (PRR) and recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoproteins and peptidoglycans ( 5 ). (
  • We use a variety of research techniques to investigate the circuit at the molecular (protein assays, PCR), cellular (neuronal tract tracing, immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy), neurochemical (microdialysis in freely-moving rats), physiological (in vitro patch-clamp electrophysiology), as well as behavioral level (animal models of depression and anxiety combined with adenoviral manipulations: DREADDs, optogenetics). (
  • Similar molecular mechanisms disturbing the Ras/MAPK pathway were described in the RASopathies, including Noonan syndrome, Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines, Noonan syndrome‐like disorder with loose anagen hair, CBL mutation‐associated syndrome, Costello syndrome, cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1 and Legius syndrome. (
  • We are currently pursuing new mass spectrometry approaches to identify peptides arrayed on individual types of antigen-presenting cells, and defining at a molecular level the extent of T cell recognition of individual immunodominant epitopes as well as non-immunodominant epitopes.In the next year, we expect to apply these tools and approaches for characterizing human immune recognition to the area of tumor immunology. (
  • My group aims to combine biophysical and functional experiments with analysis of molecular parameters. (
  • Immunological and molecular polymorphisms of OspC, an immunodominant major outer surface protein of Borrelia burgdorferi. (
  • I will also discuss the challenges in simultaneously harnessing two types of molecular addictions for therapeutic benefit, and the importance of understanding not only the effects of oncogenic signal transduction on metabolism, but also the impact of metabolic states on signal transduction. (
  • Association of LAR-like Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases with an Enabled Homolog in Hirudo Medicinalis Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences. (
  • We are using a multidisciplinary approach combining gene discovery approach for complex human diseases, vascular cell biology (endothelial and smooth muscle cells) cell cultures in 2-D and 3-D, biochemistry, molecular biology, various imaging approaches (confocal analyses, videomicroscopy), gene expression analyses, protein production, and preclinical models of human diseases. (
  • The aim of this study was to identify critical genes involved in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) pathogenesis that may lead to a more complete understanding of this disease and identify novel molecular targets for use in the development of more effective therapies. (
  • As has been the case for other tumour types, molecular profiling techniques have the potential to provide benefit through improved understanding of disease pathogenesis, identification of subgroups in whom current therapies are most likely to be effective and in the development of novel therapies. (
  • A key challenge for high-throughput molecular profiling techniques is to distinguish between genes whose expression is altered directly by heritable changes in gene function and those where changes are an inevitable down-stream consequence of primary changes to genes directly involved in disease pathogenesis. (
  • ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The risk of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection and rate of progression towards development of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is determined by a combination of viral characteristics, immune function and host genetic variation. (
  • Authors: Chen BS, Wang KY, Yu SQ, Zhang CB, Li GZ, Wang ZL, Bao ZS Abstract Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor in adults with a high mortality rate. (
  • Accurate translation of genetic message is an essential step in gene expression and is carried out by the ribosome. (
  • Among these subtypes, although both urobasal B and squamous cell carcinoma-like have the same poor clinical outcomes, their gene expression profile are quite different. (
  • MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression through post-translational repression or mRNA degradation. (
  • Since zebrafish share inner ear developmental and differentiation genes with mammals, examination of gene expression in the zebrafish during hair cell regeneration may uncover new targets for genetic manipulation leading to hair cell regeneration in mammals. (
  • We investigated by immunohistochemistry the clinical significance and the evolution of Oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) and cyclin D2 (CCND2) protein expression, two markers highly specific of glioma stem cells, on a cohort of human paired glioblastoma samples comparing initial resections with recurrent tumors after radiation therapy alone or radio ‐chemotherapy with temozolomide according to the Stupp regimen. (
  • The purpose of this work was to investigate t he clinical significance and the evolution of OLIG2 and CCND2 protein expression in GBM.Methods and resultsImmunohistochemical expression analysis of Olig2 and Ccnd2 was carried out on. (
  • Expression of the inducible form of the nitric oxide synthase gene in the livers of mice with chronic hepatitis. (
  • Many studies on SHP-1 revealed that the expression of this protein was diminished or abolished in several of the cancer cell lines and tissues examined. (
  • Consistent with the observation that half of MPNSTs develop in neurofibromatosis type 1 patients, subsequent to NF1 mutation, we found that exogenous expression of the NF1-GAP related domain (GRD) normalized DACH1 expression. (
  • We have demonstrated that CR1 has the ability to direct reporter gene expression in a cell-specific manner. (
  • Site directed mutagenesis of the NF-κB and AP-1 binding sites diminished the ability of CR1 to direct reporter gene expression in breast cancer cells . (
  • Here, we address whether altered IL-2 responsiveness impacts persistence of FOXP3 expression in Tregs of type 1 diabetic subjects. (
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Persistence of Tregs was assessed by culturing sorted CD4 + CD25 hi natural Tregs with IL-2 and measuring FOXP3 expression over time by flow cytometry for control and type 1 diabetic populations. (
  • Cytokine receptor expression and signaling upon exposure to IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15 were determined by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. (
  • RESULTS Maintenance of FOXP3 expression in CD4 + CD25 + Tregs of type 1 diabetic subjects was diminished in the presence of IL-2, but not IL-7. (
  • CONCLUSIONS Aberrant IL-2R signaling in CD4 + T-cells of type 1 diabetic subjects contributes to decreased persistence of FOXP3 expression that may impact establishment of tolerance. (
  • Activated Akt detaches from the plasma membrane and moves to the cytoplasm and the nucleus, where it phosphorylates a battery of targets to prevent the expression of death genes, and induces cell survival ( 5 ). (
  • These observations suggest that MKP-1 participates in a negative-feedback loop which regulates p38 function and that dexamethasone may inhibit proinflammatory gene expression in part by inducing MKP-1 expression. (
  • Glucocorticoids are widely used in the treatment of inflammation because of their ability to inhibit proinflammatory gene expression. (
  • The synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone was demonstrated to inhibit p38 activity in a manner requiring ongoing, glucocorticoid receptor-mediated gene expression ( 40 ). (
  • Here the link between dexamethasone, p38 activity, and proinflammatory gene expression is investigated in further detail. (
  • These phosphatases differ in their target specificities, subcellular localizations, and patterns of expression. (
  • Genetic and epigenetic alterations such as copy number changes, mutation, and promoter methylation contribute to the expression level and/or function of PTPR proteins. (
  • Functional studies showed that rs7234029 GG genotype carriers had a higher PNPT2 mRNA expression level than those which carrying the AA or AG genotype, and a decreased secretion of IL-17 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha was seen by PBMCs from GG carriers. (
  • STATs translocate to the nucleus and induce expression of other genes, including negative regulators, such as the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 ( 18 ) and the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B ( 19 ). (
  • To further confirm that ZEB2 is the direct target of miR-215 in NSCLC, miR-215 mimics were transfected into A549 cells, which significantly reduced ZEB2 protein expression levels in these cells (Fig. 3B). (
  • Migratory gene expression signature predicts poor patient outcome: Are cancer stem cells to blame? (
  • In the previous issue of Breast Cancer Research , Patsialou and colleagues used a novel in vivo invasion assay to capture migrating breast cancer cells and demonstrate that the gene expression signature of these cells predicts breast cancer metastasis in a large cohort of patients. (
  • Patsialou and colleagues [ 1 ] recently reported that the expression of genes related to these programs predicted the development of metastases in patients with breast cancer. (
  • They used gene expression analysis of these migrated cells to define a 'human invasion signature' (HIS). (
  • The resultant gene expression profile delineated distinct "tumor profile signatures" for PTCL-NOS and DLBCL. (
  • The chemoresistance of PTCL-NOS compared with DLBCL has been attributed to increased expression of multidrug resistance proteins and p53 ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • A second approach analyzed patterns of expression of chemokines and their receptors. (
  • Gene expression profiling using cDNA ( 12 - 14 ) and oligonucleotide microarrays ( 15 ) have classified DLBCL into three subgroups: germinal center B-like, activated B-like, and type III. (
  • Such an approach applied to PTCL-NOS would also yield a gene expression-based diagnostic classification, prognostic subgroups, and novel targets that may be amenable to therapeutic intervention. (
  • The Pdx-1 homeodomain protein (formerly known as IPF-1, STF-1, and IDX-1) is the regulator of A3 element-activated expression ( 46 , 48 , 49 , 50 ), whereas the E1 activator is a heterodimer composed of proteins in the basic helix-loop-helix family that are enriched in islets (i.e. (
  • Expression and Characterization of Rat Brain Phospholipase D. G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Regulation of Phospholipase D. Analysis and Quantitation of Ceramide. (
  • We hypothesized that IQGAP1 could regulate TJ formation by modulating the expression and/or localization of junctional proteins, and we systematically tested this hypothesis in the model Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line. (
  • We report here the cloning and embryonic expression of Lena, the leech homolog of Enabled, a cytosolic protein implicated in actin-based cell motility. (
  • To find genes involved in the del20q induced proliferation advantage, we analyzed changes in the gene expression pattern induced by del20q. (
  • c-myc is one of the genes regulated by -catenin, whose expression is directly activated by β -catenin/TCF in colon cancers [ 14 ]. (
  • As a protooncogene, c-myc stimulates the expression of target genes, which plays important roles in uncontrolled cell proliferation by binding to consensus 5′-CACGTG-3′ nucleotide sequences in the region of these genes and behaving as a transcriptional activator [ 15 ]. (
  • Upon infection of B‑lymphoid and epithelial cells, the virus adopts distinct gene expression patterns which depend on the cellular epigenetic machinery. (
  • We applied cDNA microarrays with 13,627 clones to measure dynamic gene expression changes during the in vitro differentiation of neural progenitor cells that were isolated from the subventricular zone of postnatal day 7 mice and grown in vitro as neurospheres. (
  • Expression changes of selected genes were confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. (
  • Ten different groups of gene expression dynamics obtained by cluster analysis are described. (
  • To correlate selected gene expression changes to the localization of respective proteins, we performed immunostainings of cultured neurospheres and of brain sections from adult mice. (
  • To learn more about the early and probably decisive mechanisms of this process, we have studied dynamic gene expression changes during the first 4 d of in vitro neurosphere differentiation with cDNA microarrays. (
  • We identified genes with relevant expression changes during this process and classified the results according to functional categories. (
  • These recent advances are summarized in this review, with emphasis on the cellular mechanism of EET action, effects of sEH inhibition on these processes, and the potential role of EETs and their metabolites on PPAR-mediated gene expression. (
  • In 6-month-old Igf1 −/− retinas, increased mRNA levels of the autophagy mediators Becn1 , Atg9 , Atg5 and Atg4 , decreased p62 (also known as SQSTM1) protein expression together with an increased LC3-II:LC3-I ratio reflected active autophagic flux. (
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors such as gefitinib show antitumor activity in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients having mutated EGFR. (
  • Strikingly, phosphatidic acid signaling was found to stimulate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) through a transactivation process. (
  • Healing of wounds in sheets of corneal epithelial cells is absolutely dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, and the present data suggest that its activation is a result of wound-induced phospholipase D activation. (
  • We analysed the contribution of the lymphoid protein tyrosine phosphatase (LYP) Arg620Trp variant (which corresponds to the PTPN22 C1858T polymorphism) to the emergence of beta-cell-specific humoral autoimmunity and progression to type 1 diabetes in man. (
  • B and T cells, type 2 dendritic cells, and natural killer (NK) cells share a common ancestor, ie, common lymphoid progenitor (CLP). (
  • TGFβ has been shown to regulate the self-renewal of CSCs in several tumor types, and, most recently, this cytokine was shown to specifically regulate BCSCs in claudin lo breast cancers [ 7 ], the subtype that is represented by MDA-MB-231 cells. (
  • Receptors to which JAKs are bound are often referred to as cytokine receptors. (
  • Indeed, despite the tremendous functional significance of the "PP2A" family, isoform-specific substrates remain in large part to be characterized in vivo , including in the central nervous system (CNS). (
  • In this report, we assessed the steady-state enzymatic activity of lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) against the substrates 1,5-diaminopentane (DAP), spermine, and fibrillar type I collagen. (
  • The repertoire of S. flexneri effectors includes ≈20 proteins identified as substrates of the TTS apparatus ( 9 ). (
  • MAPKs bind stably to substrates, MAPKKs and scaffold proteins through multiple docking domains (e.g. (
  • Oncogenic RAS proteins, which are mutated in approximately 24% of all human cancers, have earned a well-deserved reputation as being "undruggable. (
  • They defined a minimally deleted region spanning ∼0.9 Mb, distinct from the p53 locus, containing the NF1 gene. (
  • DNA homology studies with the f gene region revealed a mosaic-like DNA structure, indicating that this locus might be the result of genetic exchanges between different Agrobacterium strains during evolution. (
  • Analysis of 13,023 genes in 11 breast and 11 colorectal cancers revealed that individual tumors accumulate an average of ∼90 mutant genes but that only a subset of these contribute to the neoplastic process. (
  • The vast majority of these genes were not known to be genetically altered in tumors and are predicted to affect a wide range of cellular functions, including transcription, adhesion, and invasion. (
  • In the past, the selection of genes chosen for mutational analyses in cancer has been guided by information from linkage studies in cancer-prone families, identification of chromosomal abnormalities in tumors, or known functional attributes of individual genes or gene families ( 2 - 4 ). (
  • The presence of these receptors, encoded by the KIT or PDGFRA oncogenes, respectively, is an indication that these tumors share a common origin of the interstitial cells of Cajal, the pacemaker cells of the gut. (
  • Elson A. Protein tyrosine phosphatase epsilon increases the risk of mammary hyperplasia and mammary tumors in transgenic mice. (
  • Furthermore, specific genes identified play a functional role in the invasion of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and in patient-derived breast tumors. (
  • Regardless of the differences in outcome, both types of lymphoma are largely treated the same, as there are no biological insights to differentiate these tumors. (
  • Both tumors exhibit a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) and a very high load of hypermethylated tumor suppressor genes, EBVaGC more so than the EBV-negative GC subtypes. (
  • Enhancement of protein tyrosine phosphatase activity in the proliferation of cloned rat hepatoma H4-II-E cells: suppressive role of endogenous regucalcin. (
  • and (2) Hippo signaling activity in one cell type influences proliferation of other cell types, thus ensuring appropriate proportions of different ovarian cell types. (
  • This approach is useful for the sorting and expansion of NSCs and facilitates the discovery of genes involved in cell proliferation, communication, fate control, and differentiation. (
  • Binding of IL-2 to the high-affinity IL-2R results in a wide range of biological responses including survival, differentiation, and proliferation of multiple cell types including T-cells. (
  • In principle, the in vitro differentiation of neurosphere-forming cells includes five steps: (1) cessation of proliferation, (2) attachment of the neurosphere, (3) detachment of cells from the neurosphere cell cluster, (4) migration of these cells away from the sphere, and (5) their actual differentiation into different cell types. (
  • Gene interaction effects on disease susceptibility were analysed in case-control and family series (546 patients, 538 controls, 245 nuclear families). (
  • However, we found that rs2476601/Trp 620 has a higher relative risk in type 1 diabetic case subjects carrying lower risk HLA class II genotypes than in those carrying higher risk ones ( P = 1.36 × 10 −4 in a test of interaction). (
  • Functional Interaction of Ga13 with p115RhoGEF Determined with Transcriptional Reporter System. (
  • The STATs become phosphorylated on tyrosine, then dimerize by reciprocal SH2 phosphotyrosine interaction and enter the nucleus to regulate transcription of many different genes. (
  • Lower panel: Protein interaction domains in the STATs listed at the left. (
  • We show that the risk allele, which is present in approximately 17% of white individuals from the general population and in approximately 28% of white individuals with RA, disrupts the P1 proline-rich motif that is important for interaction with Csk, potentially altering these proteins' normal function as negative regulators of T-cell activation. (
  • Recent accumulating evidence has suggested that the AT 2 receptor not only opposes the AT 1 receptor but also has unique effects beyond an interaction with AT 1 receptor signaling. (
  • On the other hand, recent experimental studies have also demonstrated the existence of proteins interacting with Ang II receptors by screening with a yeast-based 2-hybrid protein-protein interaction assay technique and revealed their functions ( Table ). (
  • 13 Although IC3 is well known as one of the most important domains of GPCRs for their interaction with G proteins, no interacting proteins with IC3 of both receptors have been reported to date. (
  • Moreover, virus infection regularly induces modifications of the viral and host cell transcriptomes and epigenomes through the interaction of viral proteins with cellular epigenetic regulators. (
  • Zebrafish embryos lacking functional PTEN display hyperbranching, overgrowth of blood vessels, visualized in the tunk region in Tg(kdrl:gfp) background. (
  • We isolated null mutants of both PTEN genes and found that adult zebrafish with a single wild type PTEN allele develop hemangiosarcomas, blood-filled clusters of blood vessels with endothelial origin. (
  • Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) hyperproliferate and arrest during differentiation in embryos lacking functional PTEN, resulting in enhanced numbers of blood cell progenitors, but no mature blood cells. (
  • Lipid-level phosphatases, such as PTEN and INPP4B, revert PI3K activity to keep the lipid second messengers inactive. (
  • PTEN and INPP4B phosphatases inactivate PIP-lipid second messengers to prevent AKT activation. (
  • These data define the genetic landscape of two human cancer types, provide new targets for diagnostic and therapeutic intervention, and open fertile avenues for basic research in tumor biology. (
  • Here, we report the design of a quantitative and high-throughput assay platform for monitoring cellular phosphatase activity toward specific phosphoprotein targets. (
  • 2-9 Therefore, recent advances in studies of Ang II receptors could prove the existence of a variety of new players and targets in addition to the traditional "Ang II world" and provide a new insight into cardiovascular biology. (
  • Here, we have summarized these emerging concepts concerning Ang II receptor interacting proteins and discuss new potent therapeutic targets in cardiovascular disease. (
  • Somatostatin (SST) was described initially as a secretory product of the hypothalamus acting as a potent inhibitor of GH secretion [ 12 ]. (
  • Through a glycomics approach, we identified 30 proteins, including tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), as a target protein for GnT-V in human colon cancer cell WiDr. (
  • Many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria utilize type III secretion systems (TTSS) to alter the normal functions of target host epithelial cells. (
  • The approach employed by Parkin and colleagues ( 1 ), using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays to identify chromosomal loci with recurrent somatic copy number abnormalities, has proved successful in this regard, and was used to identify TET2 and c-CBL as pathogenic genes in myeloid malignancies ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • Recent proteomics have focused on a dynamic alteration of post-translational modification of proteins, and many lines of evidence indicate that changes in post-translational modification of proteins are closely associated with the pathogenic processes of cells. (
  • This study incorporates the results of both transcriptional and genomic profiling for clinically relevant subgroups of NSCLC to identify genes of potential predictive or pathogenic importance in this deadly disease. (
  • This inhibitory effect involves direct interactions of the glucocorticoid receptor with transcription factors such as NF-κB and AP-1, resulting in the inhibition of their function (reviewed in references 1 and 47 ). (
  • When the TCR engages with antigenic peptide and MHC (peptide/MHC), the T lymphocyte is activated through signal transduction, that is, a series of biochemical events mediated by associated enzymes, co-receptors, specialized adaptor molecules, and activated or released transcription factors. (
  • Interestingly, via global microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) analyses of Meg2 KO and HET retinae, we observed a dysregulation of several candidate genes that are highly associated with retinal degeneration and intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation, the main risk factor for glaucoma. (
  • This study represents the first analysis of new candidate genes implicated in iron metabolism and immune function in relation to HIV-1 disease in the African context. (
  • So far we did not see any proliferative advantage of the cells transfected with the shRNA pool targeting the del20q candidate genes. (
  • Identification of candidate genes for generalized tonic-clonic seizures in Noda epileptic rat. (
  • Following acoustic trauma in the zebrafish inner ear, we used microarray analysis to identify genes involved in inner ear repair following acoustic exposure. (
  • To identify genes important in the invasive process, Patsialou and colleagues examined the functional role of a number of genes identified in the HIS. (
  • In silico genome-wide analyses have shown that over 60% of all mammalian protein-coding genes are regulated by miRNAs [5, (
  • Assays and Characterization of Mammalian Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate-Sensitive Phospholipase D. Characterization and Purification of Phosphatidylinositol Trisphosphate 5-Phosphatase from Rat Brain Tissues. (
  • Mouse genetics experiments have defined crucial roles for each known mammalian STAT. The discovery of a STAT in Drosophila , and most recently in Dictyostelium discoideum , implies an ancient evolutionary origin for this dual-function set of proteins. (
  • Seven mammalian STAT genes have been identified in three chromosomal clusters ( 4 ). (
  • Genetic variations of the midkine (MK) gene in human sporadic colorectal and gastric cancers. (
  • Elevated appearance of LOXL2 continues to be seen in different cancers types also, including those of digestive tract, esophageal, and breasts tissues (8, 9). (
  • EGFR is amplified or overexpressed in a wide range of human cancers where it is thought to play an important role in tumor progression ( 12 ). (
  • In this review, we summarize genetic and epigenetic alterations including mutation, deletion, amplification, and promoter methylation of PTPRs in cancer and consider the consequences of PTPR alterations in different types of cancers. (
  • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which are known collectively as nonmelanoma skin cancer, are two of the most common malignancies in the United States and are often caused by sun exposure, although several hereditary syndromes and genes are also associated with an increased risk of developing these cancers. (
  • After the binding of a growth factor to RTKs, there is an autophosphorylation of tyrosine sites within receptor and recruitment of adaptor proteins, such as GRB2 and SOS1, which acts in stimulating the switch from inactive Ras‐GDP to active Ras‐GTP. (
  • The E3 complex SCF β-TrCP , which promotes ubiquitination of phospho-IκBα, consists of five proteins: the scaffold protein Cullin1, the adaptor protein Skp1, the RING domain protein Roc1, the E2 UbcH5b, and the F box protein β-TrCP, which interacts with phospho-IκBα ( 5 ). (
  • In this study, we examine how Hippo signaling can work to regulate the proportions of different types of cells, as well as the total number of cells in an organ. (
  • Indeed, hypoxia-driven vascular remodeling is dynamically regulated through activities of ECM modifying enzyme, such as Lysysl Oxidase like 2 or Transgluaminase-2 that eventually regulate both matricellular proteins and growth factor availability, that eventually affect angiogenesis (Figure 2&3). (
  • Scavenger Receptor Cysteine-Rich domains of Lysyl Oxidase-Like2 regulate endothelial ECM and angiogenesis through non-catalytic scaffolding mechanisms. (
  • 14 These proteins mainly associate with the carboxyl (C) terminus of GPCRs and regulate their functions by trafficking, fine-tuning, and signaling modification. (