Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Rosa: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE and order Rosales. This should not be confused with the genus RHODIOLA which is sometimes called roseroot.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Orchidaceae: A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Petunia: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain steroidal glycosides.MADS Domain Proteins: A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Dianthus: A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. Members contain dianthins, which are ribosome inactivating proteins.Antirrhinum: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. Members contain DEFICIENS PROTEIN.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)AGAMOUS Protein, Arabidopsis: A plant homeotic protein involved in the development of stamens and carpels of Arabidopsis thaliana. It is a DNA-binding protein that contains the MADS-box domain. It is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Primula: A plant genus of the family PRIMULACEAE. It can cause CONTACT DERMATITIS. SAPONINS have been identified in the root.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Bignoniaceae: A plant family of the order Lamiales. The family is characterized by oppositely paired, usually compound leaves and bell- or funnel-shaped, bisexual flowers having a five-lobed calyx and corolla.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Mimulus: A plant genus of the family Phrymaceae. Members contain 6-geranylflavanones and mimulone.Heliconiaceae: A plant family of the order ZINGIBERALES, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.Liliaceae: A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.Chrysanthemum: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common names of daisy or marguerite are easily confused with other plants. Some species in this genus have been reclassified to TANACETUM.Ipomoea: A plant genus in the family CONVOLVULACEAE best known for morning glories (a common name also used with CONVOLVULUS) and sweet potato.Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Oleaceae: A plant family of the order Lamiales. The leaves are usually opposite and the flowers usually have four sepals, four petals, two stamens, and two fused carpels that form a single superior ovary.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Hibiscus: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. Members contain CITRIC ACID; MALATES; ANTHOCYANINS; FLAVONOIDS; GLYCOSIDES; DIETARY FIBER; and LIGNANS. Hibiscus sabdariffa is common constituent of HERBAL TEAS. Hibiscus cannabinus is a source of hemp fiber for TEXTILES.Ranunculaceae: The buttercup plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually alternate and stalkless. The flowers usually have two to five free sepals and may be radially symmetrical or irregular.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Ovule: The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Dahlia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that contains antifungal plant defensin.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Magnolia: A plant genus of the family MAGNOLIACEAE. The germacranolide sesquiterpene lactones costunolide, parthenolide, and costunolide diepoxide have been isolated from the leaves. Bark contains honokiol and magnolol. Parts are an ingredient of Banxia Houpo Tang.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Thysanoptera: An order of very small, fringed-wing INSECTS including many agricultural pests.Nymphaea: A plant genus of the family NYMPHAEACEAE. The common name of lotus is also used for LOTUS and NELUMBO.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cyperaceae: The sedge plant family of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons)Camellia: A plant genus in the family THEACEAE, order THEALES best known for CAMELLIA SINENSIS which is the source of Oriental TEA.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Gentianaceae: A plant family of the order Gentianales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Sagittaria: A plant genus of the family ALISMATACEAE that grows in salty marshes and is used for phytoremediation of oil spills. The unisexual flowers have 3 sepals and 3 petals. Members contain trifoliones (DITERPENES).Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Malus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.DEFICIENS Protein: DEFICIENS is a homeotic gene involved in the genetic control of Antirrhinum majus flower development. Its protein is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.Alstroemeria: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain allergens, tuliposide A and tulipalin A.Campanulaceae: A plant family of the order Campanulales, subclass Asteridae, class MagnoliopsidaPlant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Philodendron: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. As a houseplant it sometimes poisons children and animals.Rubiaceae: The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Flowering Tops: Tops of plants when in flower, including the stems, leaves and blooms.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Norisoprenoids: Thirteen-carbon butene cyclohexene degradation products formed by the cleavage of CAROTENOIDS. They contribute to the flavor of some FRUIT. Ionone should not be confused with the similarly named ionol.Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Marantaceae: A plant family of the order ZINGIBERALES, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Onagraceae: The evening primrose plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Flower parts are mostly in fours and the ovary is inferior.Persea: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cyclamen: A plant genus of the family PRIMULACEAE that contains triterpenoid saponins.
Bussell, Gene (December 2009). "Get Ready for Holiday Flowers". Southern Living. 44 (12): 88. "Mexico". United States ... meaning Christmas Eve Flower. In Spain it is known as Flor de Pascua or Pascua, meaning Easter flower. In Chile and Peru, the ... The flowers of the poinsettia are unassuming and do not attract pollinators. They are grouped within small yellow structures ... Flowers Ireland Archived November 18, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Jauron, Richard (December 8, 1995). "The Legends and ...
Red Queen hypothesis
... operating on the theory that lessening of the choice of gene variants and of potential cooperation among different gene types ... Carroll, Lewis (1991) . "2: The Garden of Live Flowers". Through the Looking-Glass (The Millennium Fulcrum Edition 1.7 ed ... The genes coding for immune system proteins evolve considerably faster. Further evidence for the Red Queen hypothesis was ... The Selfish Gene:30th Anniversary Edition. Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 250. Kent, Shelby; Bruce, Webb (1999). " ...
The flowers are white or pink, produced in a small umbel of 4-8 together. Although it has green leaves year-round, it receives ... Hunn, Eugene S. (1990). Nch'i-Wana, "The Big River": Mid-Columbia Indians and Their Land. University of Washington Press. p. ... Chimaphila umbellata, the umbellate wintergreen, pipsissewa, or prince's pine, is a small perennial flowering plant found in ... ISBN 0-295-97119-3. Blanchan, Neltje (2005). Wild Flowers Worth Knowing. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. Flora ...
William Cullen Bryant
Ehrlich, Eugene and Gorton Carruth. The Oxford Illustrated Literary Guide to the United States. New York: Oxford University ... ISBN 0-19-503186-5 Brooks, Van Wyck (1952). The Flowering of New England. New York: E. P. Dutton and Company. p. 116. "Vital ... ISBN 0-86576-008-X. Ehrlich, Eugene and Gorton Carruth. The Oxford Illustrated Literary Guide to the United States. New York: ...
Flowers, Jeffery Jane (2002). Pioneers, Scholars & Rogues: A Spirited History of the University of Oregon. Eugene, OR: ... a Eugene merchant, Eugene city mayor (1893-95) and a member of the Union University Association, which established the ... Friendly Hall, built in 1893, is a three-story, red-brick masonry building located on the University of Oregon campus in Eugene ... Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) "Board Ok's Plan to Add 27 Offices". Eugene Register Guard. Feb 3, 1961. Coordinates ...
... flowers may sometimes exhibit mutations that lead to the formation of female flowers in the tassel. These mutations, ts4 ... The p1 gene encodes an Myb-homologous transcriptional activator of genes required for biosynthesis of red phlobaphene pigments ... This may cause inflorescences containing both male and female flowers, or hermaphrodite flowers. Maize is an annual grass in ... The bulk of the collection consists of several hundred named genes, plus additional gene combinations and other heritable ...
Field, Eugene. Poems of Childhood/Norse Lullaby. Juyi, Bai. More Translations from the Chinese. Winthrop, Theodore. Life in the ... "Flower remedies". Cancer Research UK. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved September 2013. Check date values in ... However, according to Cancer Research UK, "there is no scientific evidence to prove that flower remedies can control, cure or ... Among them, John Muir, Dora Sigerson Shorter, Eugene Field, the Chinese, Theodore Winthrop, and Rev. George Allan D.D. Pines ...
Flowers provide bees with nectar (an energy source) and pollen (a source of protein). When bees go from flower to flower ... Fritsch, Felix Eugene; Salisbury, Edward James (1920). "An introduction to the structure and reproduction of plants". G. Bell. ... Self-pollination occurs when pollen from one flower pollinates the same flower or other flowers of the same individual. It is ... This young flower is about to open its anthers, but has not yet fully developed its pistil. These Geranium incanum flowers have ...
Major urinary proteins
Between 1979 and 1981, it was estimated that Mups are encoded by a gene family of between 15 and 35 genes and pseudogenes in ... Flower DR (1996). "The lipocalin protein family: structure and function". The Biochemical Journal. 318 (1): 1-14. PMC 1217580 ... the product of the cat Mup gene, and Rat n 1 (Rattus norvegicus allergen 1), the product of the rat Mup13 gene. Mice are ... have a single Mup gene. Some, however, have an expanded number: horses have three Mup genes and gray mouse lemurs have at least ...
Eliezer E. Goldschmidt
Induction of a Citrus gene highly homologous to plant and yeast. Thi: genes involved in thiamine biosynthesis during natural ... Gibberellins and flowering in citrus and other fruit trees: A critical analysis. Acta. Hort. 463:201-208. 6. Goldschmidt, EE. ... In: S.H. Futch and W.J. Kender (eds.) Citrus Flowering and Fruiting Short Course. Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake ... In: S.H. Futch and W.J. Kender (eds.) Citrus Flowering and Fruiting Short Course. Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake ...
In flowering plants, placentation occurs where the ovules are attached inside the ovary. The ovules inside a flower's ovary ( ... Griffith, O. W., Ujvari, B., Belov, K., & Thompson, M. B. (2013). Placental lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene expression in a ... "Flowers" At: Botany Online At: University of Hamburg Department of Biology. (see External links below). Fachbereich Biologie ( ... In botany, the term placentation most commonly refers to the arrangement of placentas inside a flower or fruit. Plant ...
Some flower-feeding thrips pollinate the flowers they are feeding on, and some authors suspect that they may have been among ... A preliminary analysis in 2013 of 37 species using 3 genes, as well as a phylogeny based on ribosomal DNA and three proteins in ... The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, has spread until it now has a worldwide distribution, and is the primary ... Flower-feeding thrips are routinely attracted to bright floral colors (including white, blue, and especially yellow), and will ...
Historical coats of arms of the U.S. states from 1876
New Jersey coat of arms was designed by Pierre Eugene Du Simitiere. The New Mexico coat of arms (territorial or state) was ... Shankle, George E. (1941). State Names, Flags, Seals, Songs, Birds, Flowers, and Other Symbols (Revised ed.). H.W. Wilson ... Zieber, Eugene (1895). Heraldry in America. The Bailey, Banks & Biddle Company. Huntoon, Peter; Shiva, Andrew (2013c). " ... ISBN 978-0-87184-520-7. Hessler, Gene (1993). The Engraver's Line - An Encyclopedia of Paper Money & Postage Stamp Art. BNR ...
... but later infusions of Tea rose genes created a Tea-Noisette subclass with larger flowers, smaller clusters, and considerably ... with proportionately short flower stalks. The main flowering is in the summer, but intermittent flowers continue into the ... The individual flowers of many cultivars are semi-pendent and nodding, due to weak flower stalks. In a "typical" Tea, pointed ... The flowers are well-formed with large, high-centred buds, and each flowering stem typically terminates in a single shapely ...
... part of the flower expresses one or more genes in the Cycloidea (CYC)/Dichotoma (DICH) family. In Cadia, these genes are ... Cadia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. It belongs to the subfamily Faboideae. Unlike most plants ... expressed throughout the flower. Thus, from a molecular point of view, Cadia is not reversing the ancestral evolution from ... in the Faboideae, it has radially symmetrical flowers. In related species with bilateral symmetry, such as those of Lupinus, ...
Lorenzo Thomas (poet)
Infected plants also expressed downstream JA and wound response genes but repressed levels of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. ... Overexpression of 12-OH-JA can also delay flowering. JA and MeJA inhibit the germination of nondormant seeds and stimulate the ... JA plays many roles in flower development. Mutants in JA synthesis or in JA signaling in Arabidopsis present with male ... All these molecules can act in combination to activate specific wound response genes. Finally, cross talk is not restricted for ...
Hana (花, flower): In the Kadensho (Instructions on the Posture of the Flower), Zeami describes hana saying "after you master ... Eugene O'Neill - O'Neill's plays The Iceman Cometh, Long Day's Journey Into Night, and Hughie have various similarities to Noh ... Individual hana is the beauty of the flower of youth, which passes with time, while "true hana" is the flower of creating and ... What is notable about hana is that, like a flower, it is meant to be appreciated by any audience, no matter how lofty or how ...
Plant matrix metalloproteinase
The flowers were noted as having the gene in pistils, ovules, and receptacles. It was concluded that the At2-MMP has a ... There are three major groups of the MMP family and each group has more than one distinct gene product that distinguishes them ... The possible role in the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis of a nodulin gene was investigated. The immune response of the plant to the ... In the leaves, the MMP gene was expressed in the phloem, developing xylem elements, neighboring mesophyll cell layers, and ...
Plant evolutionary developmental biology
These genes, in turn, act as direct controllers of flower development. The Flowering Leaf Theory proposes that simple flowers ... In Arabidopsis thaliana it is known that genes like CONSTANS (CO), FRIGIDA, Flowering Locus C (FLC) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) ... the functions of the B and C domain genes have been evolutionarily more conserved than the A domain gene. Many of these genes ... Many genes in the flowering time pathway are conserved across all plants studied to date. However, this does not mean that the ...
"Massive Mitochondrial Gene Transfer in a Parasitic Flowering Plant Clade". PLoS Genet. 9 (2): e1003265. doi:10.1371/journal. ... large flowers occurring singly Mitrastemonaceae: superior ovary, flowers occurring singly Cytinaceae: inferior ovary, flowers ... Especially high rates of HGT have been found to take place in Rafflesiaceae mitochondrial genes when compared to nuclear genes ... For this reason, some flowers of the family Rafflesia are nicknamed "corpse flowers". Most members of Rafflesiaceae possess a ...
List of Xavier Institute students and staff
4 Oclock Flowers Archived July 17, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Miko, I. Non-nuclear genes and their inheritance. Nature ... Also, when red-flowered plants are crossed with white-flowered plants, pink-flowered offspring, not red, are produced. This is ... Usually, the flowers are found in yellow, pink and white colors but you can find different combination of flowers growing on ... Flower patterns are referred to as sectors (whole sections of flower), flakes (stripes of varying length), and spots. A single ...
The top of each stem is occupied by a raceme of many flowers. Each flower has generally four yellow sepals and four yellow ... Hunn, Eugene S. (1990). Nch'i-Wana, "The Big River": Mid-Columbia Indians and Their Land. University of Washington Press. p. ... Cleome platycarpa is a species of flowering plant in the cleome family known by the common names golden bee plant and golden ... The fruit is a flat, hairy capsule up to 2.5 centimeters long which hangs on the long, remaining flower receptacle. Some ...
The sweet pea, Lathyrus odoratus, is a flowering plant in the genus Lathyrus in the family Fabaceae (legumes), native to Sicily ... the blue colour requiring two genes derived independently from the two white parents. ... Flowers are usually strongly scented. The annual species, L. odoratus, may be confused with the everlasting pea, L. latifolius ... Several new sweet pea cultivars have been created as a result, though not any with the yellow flower color so far. ...
"Cabbage Flowers for Food". Aggie Horticulture. Texas AgriLife Extension Service, Texas A&M System. Retrieved 12 October 2014.. ... "Toward Identification of the Candidate Gene Controlling Anthocyanin Accumulation in Purple Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. ... The word "cauliflower" derives from the Italian caoli fiori, meaning "cabbage flower". The ultimate origin of the name is ... Cauliflower heads resemble those in broccoli, which differs in having flower buds as the edible portion. Brassica oleracea also ...
The 154 kb chloroplast DNA map of a model flowering plant (Arabidopsis thaliana: Brassicaceae) showing genes and inverted ... Gene content and protein synthesisEdit. The chloroplast genome most commonly includes around 100 genes which code for a ... 3 Gene content and protein synthesis *3.1 Chloroplast genome reduction and gene transfer ... Chloroplasts may contain 60-100 genes whereas cyanobacteria often have more than 1500 genes in their genome. Contrarily, ...
America in the King Years
Darwin Medal - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Some genes may have two alleles with equal distribution. For other genes, one allele may be common, and another allele may be ... for the recessive allele producing white flowers in pea plants). The genotype of an organism that is homozygous-recessive for a ... Hemizygosity is also observed when one copy of a gene is deleted, or in the heterogametic sex when a gene is located on a sex ... A cell is said to be homozygous for a particular gene when identical alleles of the gene are present on both homologous ...
Disguise for Murder
Tertiary gene pool: L. lamottei and L. tomentosus. Crosses generally fail between members of different gene pools. However, ... The flowering begins from the lowermost buds and gradually moves upward, so-called acropetal flowering. About two weeks are ... According to their inter-crossability Lens species can be divided into three gene pools: *Primary gene pool: L. culinaris (and ... The flowers, one to four in number, are small, white, pink, purple, pale purple, or pale blue in colour. They arise from the ...
... is part stigma and part style, providing a female flower surface to which pollen grains can adhere and defining the ... The popcorn remains free to donate its genes via its own pollen to other types of corn. The effectiveness of this restriction ... "Corn (maize) flowers". Backyard nature. Alexander Krichevsky; et al. (2007). "How pollen tubes grow". Developmental Biology. ... thereby preventing the ingression of genes (natural or engineered) from other types of corn. ...
... s genes in the offspring. 87.5% of D3's genes would come from S, while D4 would receive 93.75% of their genes from S. ... Tutankhamun (c. 1341-1323 BC) (receiving flowers from Ankhesenamun). Tutankhamun, who was a descendant of one or possibly two ... as the inbreeding first removes many deleterious genes, and permits the expression of genes that allow a population to adapt to ... This overall homozygosity becomes an issue when there are deleterious recessive alleles in the gene pool of the family. By ...
Such a gene that exhibits multiple phenotypic expression is called a pleiotropic gene . Therefore mutation in a pleiotropic ... Mendel recognized that certain pea plant traits (seed coat color, flower color, and axial spots) seemed to be inherited ... Gene pleiotropy occurs when a gene product interacts with multiple other proteins or catalyzes multiple reactions. ... Pleiotropy describes the genetic effect of a single gene on multiple phenotypic traits. The underlying mechanism is genes that ...
Grammy Awards 2020
Bring My Flowers Now von Tanya Tucker (Autoren: Brandi Carlile, Phil Hanseroth, Tim Hanseroth, Tanya Tucker) ... Tunnel Vision von Gene Moore. *Settle Here von William Murphy. *Something's Happening! A Christmas Album von CeCe Winans ... Bring My Flowers Now von Tanya Tucker (Autoren: Brandi Carlile, Phil Hanseroth, Tim Hanseroth, Tanya Tucker) ...
Bioinformática, a enciclopedia libre
2005). Bioinformatics: A Practical Guide to the Analysis of Genes and Proteins (en inglés) (third edition ed.). Wiley. ISBN 0- ... "Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana". Nature 408. Páxs. 796-815. ... 1993) A Hidden Markov Model that finds genes in E. coli DNA ... Serial Analysis of Gene Expression, Análise en serie da ... Circular SV40 DNA Molecules Containing Lambda Phage Genes and the Galactose Operon of Escherichia coli" (PDF). Proceedings of ...
de Kloet, RS; de Kloet SR (2005). "The evolution of the spindlin gene in birds: Sequence analysis of an intron of the spindlin ... Bird-and-flower painting. *Feather tights. *In poetry *The Conference of the Birds ... W and Z gene reveals four major divisions of the Psittaciformes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 36 (3): 706-721. doi: ...
Michael W. Young
A new gene located on chromosome 2 was named timeless (tim) and was successfully cloned and sequenced. They found strong ... The book described biological clocks as the reason why a strange plant he had seen years earlier produced flowers that closed ... He was able to elucidate the function of the period gene, which is necessary for the fly to exhibit normal sleep cycles. ... Young's lab is also attributed with the discovery of the timeless and doubletime genes, which makes proteins that are also ...
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
In 2014, Zachary Lippman publishes toolkit of gene variations in flowering plants, allowing breeders to maximize yield of ... In 1988 Ed Harlow demonstrates that cancer-causing and cancer-preventing genes (oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes) interact; ... The program began as an initiative of Eugene G. Blackford and Franklin Hooper, director of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and ... In 1944 Barbara McClintock discovered transposons ("jumping genes"), for which she received a Nobel Prize in 1983. ...
原生質絲 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
Each plant bears separate yellow male and female flowers. In the Northern Hemisphere, flowering occurs during June to July and ... "Gene cloning and expression of a novel hypoglycaemic peptide from Momordica charantia". Journal of the Science of Food and ... Momordica Charantia Flower found at Dharmapuri ward, Oulgaret Municipality of Puducherry UT ... Momordica Charantia Flower found at Dharmapuri ward, Oulgaret Municipality of Puducherry UT ...
Geologic time scale
The gene bank and breeding of grain legumes (lupine, vetch, soya and beah) / B.S. Kurlovich and S.I. Repyev (Eds.), - St. ... Papilionoid flowers from the early Eocene of south eastern North America. Pages 43-55 in Advances in Legume Systematics, part 4 ... Crepet, W. L., and D. W. Taylor (1986). "Primitive mimosoid flowers from the Palaeocene-Eocene and their systematic and ... A phylogeny of the chloroplast gene rbcL in the Leguminosae: taxonomic correlations and insights into the evolution of ...
Colors of the flowers vary widely, as do other physical characteristics, such as number and shape of petals, number of flowers ... Two enzymes and their encoding genes, thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM) and codeine O-demethylase (CODM), are involved in ... Papaver somniferum, commonly known as the opium poppy, or breadseed poppy, is a species of flowering plant in the family ... Blamey, M.; Fitter, R.; Fitter, A (2003). Wild flowers of Britain and Ireland: The Complete Guide to the British and Irish ...
Anatomical terms of location
Hunn, Eugene S. (1990). Nch'i-Wana, "The Big River": Mid-Columbia Indians and Their Land. University of Washington Press. p. ... It has been the provincial flower of British Columbia since 1956. It was once protected by law in the province (in an act ... The flowers are individually small and inconspicuous, 2-3 mm across, produced in a dense, rounded, greenish-white flowerhead 2 ... The small flowers are in a dense cluster surrounded by large white bracts. ...
... flowers are protogynous, often with a complex flowering system to prevent inbreeding. The fruits are an important ... Sequences of the matK chloroplast gene, as well as sequences of chloroplast and nuclear genomes, reveal close ... Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i. Spec. Publ. 83. University of Hawaii Press and Bishop Museum Press. Bishop Museum. ... The flowering plant family Lauraceae, the laurels, includes the true laurel and its closest relatives. This family comprises ...
MADS-box genes expressed during flower development and fruit maturation in Nymphaea caerulea - [email protected]
Thus, genes belonging to all the functional classes of the canonical ABC(D)E model of flower development have been obtained and ... During the development of flowers, some of them act as homeotic selector genes specifying the identity of the floral organs, ... Overall, I was able to isolate the following different MADS-box genes from both flower and fruit tissues: APETALA1/FRUITFULL, ... Moschin, Silvia (2018) MADS-box genes expressed during flower development and fruit maturation in Nymphaea caerulea. [Ph.D. ...
Science: Flowers start from a single gene | New Scientist
A single gene triggers the growth of flowers in plants. Researchers at the Agriculture and Food Research Councils Plant ... both new ways of making plants flower to order and new varieties of flowers.. By inhibiting the genes which correspond to b ... genes in the plant, and standard gene mapping techniques, Coen identified. the location of the jumping genes on the chromosomes ... A single gene triggers the growth of flowers in plants. Researchers. at the Agriculture and Food Research Councils Plant ...
Ardent Rose Floral Design - Flowers - Eugene, OR - WeddingWire
Browse Flowers prices, photos and 4 reviews, with a rating of 4.9 out of 5 ... Contact Ardent Rose Floral Design in Eugene on WeddingWire. ... Flower crown. Flower hat. Lady in black. Colorful bouquet. The ... 3 · Eugene, OR Artis Flora is a flower farm/florist business located east of Eugene, Oregon. This team of floral artisans loves ... Flowers. Flower crown. Colorful bouquet. Newlyweds. Lovely bride. ...
Horizontal gene transfer from flowering plants to Gnetum | PNAS
Horizontal gene transfer from flowering plants to Gnetum. Hyosig Won and Susanne S. Renner ... Horizontal gene transfer is the basis for the genetic engineering of commercially important crops, and natural horizontal gene ... Possible Mechanisms of Horizontal Gene Transfer. The mechanisms by which horizontal gene transfer takes place are largely a ... These results indicate that natural mechanisms exist for the horizontal transfer of mt genes, suggesting that horizontal gene ...
Bouquet of Flowers reproduction by Eugene Delacroix - Artchive.com
... - The words largest virtual museum. Featuring the largest ... Bouquet of Flowers reproduction. Odilon Redon:. Flowers II reproduction. Juan De Arellano:. Basket of Flowers c. 1670 ... Bouquet of Flowers. To Order a 100% Handmade Oil Painting Reproduction of this painting, Click Here!. Artist Name:. Eugene ... Still Life of Flowers and a Birds Nest on a Pedestal reproduction. Abraham Brueghel:. Flowers in a Bronze Vase 1670 ...
The Future Flowers - Eugene Weekly
The Future Flowers. Oregon heads toward legalization with three potential ballot measures. News by Shannon FinnellPosted on 04/ ... 23 meeting, Eugene City Council unanimously voted to remove $4.5 million spending cap. News 5 days ago. ... Bergs Ski Shop As we approach Eugenes season-long stretch of drizzle, combined with a second COVID lockdown imposing stricter ... As the holiday season approaches, the Eugene City Council was feeling generous at its Nov. 23 meeting. The councilors ...
Allelic relationships of flowering time genes in chickpea | SpringerLink
Flowering time and crop duration are the most important traits for adaptation of chickpea ( Cicer arietinumL.) to different ... ICC 16641 and ICC 16644 had a common early flowering gene which was not allelic to other reported early flowering genes. The ... late flowering was dominant to early-flowering. The results indicated that the efl-1 gene identified from ICCV 2 was also ... Kumar J, van Rheenen HA (2000) A major gene for time of flowering in chickpea. J Hered 91:67-68CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Romantic Flowers Giclee Print by Eugene Henri Cauchois at Art.com
Flowers for LTC Eugene Calvin Cheatham Jr. - Find A Grave Memorial
Eugene Calvin Cheatham, Jr. was one of the Tuskegee Airmen and a career officer in the United States Air Force. Cheatham was ... Flowers. Flowers added to the memorial appear on the bottom of the memorial or here on the Flowers tab. To add a flower, click ... Add Photos for LTC Eugene Calvin Cheatham Jr.. Fulfill Photo Request for LTC Eugene Calvin Cheatham Jr.. ... Eugene Calvin Cheatham, Jr. was one of the Tuskegee Airmen and a career officer in the United States Air Force.. Cheatham was ...
Flower Power (Pop) - Eugene Weekly
Flower Power (Pop). The Posies come to Eugene behind classic album reissues. Music by William KennedyPosted on 05/17/2018. * ... Local musicians perform pandemic-related music at two free park concerts in Eugene. Music 6 days ago. ... An accompanying world tour, featuring an early lineup of the bands, stops in Eugene, May 20, at WOW Hall. In truth, The Posies ... Putting on a concert in the park in late September in Eugene normally means things might get rained out. These days, however, ...
Science-Frictions: Gene modified embryos and flowers containing human DNA | DesignLab | University of Twente
Genome-Wide Analysis of Gene Expression during Early Arabidopsis Flower Development
Here, we describe the global gene expression dynamics during early flower development, a key process in the life cycle of a ... We found that the onset of flower formation is characterized by a massive downregulation of genes in incipient floral primordia ... which is followed by a predominance of gene activation during the differentiation of floral organs. Among the genes we ... Because co-expressed members of gene families in Arabidopsis frequently act in a redundant manner, these results suggest a high ...
Modeling Spatiotemporal Gene Expression in Flower Development
Staff publications is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research. Staff publications contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.. Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.. Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.. We have a manual that explains all the features ...
The FLOWERING LOCUS T-Like Gene Family in Barley (Hordeum vulgare) | Genetics
The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene plays a central role in integrating flowering signals in Arabidopsis because its expression is ... 1999). It is a member of a small gene family, which includes five other genes: TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1), TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF ... HvFT1 was therefore identified as the main barley FT-like gene involved in the switch to flowering. Mapping of HvFT genes ... Associations of HvFT genes with flowering-time QTL:. Three of the HvFT genes are in regions previously shown to contain ...
Gene Controlling Flowering Boosts Energy Production from Sorghum -- Environmental Protection
A sorghum hybrid that does not flower and accumulates as much as three times the amount of stem and leaf matter may help the ... "But when the gene is active, the plants flower late. It was a variation in the activity of the gene corresponding to Ma1 that ... Gene Controlling Flowering Boosts Energy Production from Sorghum. *Sep 27, 2011. A sorghum hybrid that does not flower and ... "Before this discovery, a sorghum breeder would have to wait for a plant to flower to see what type of flowering time genes were ...
FKF1, a clock-controlled gene that regulates the transition to flowering in Arabidopsis. - PubMed - NCBI
FKF1, a clock-controlled gene that regulates the transition to flowering in Arabidopsis.. Nelson DC1, Lasswell J, Rogg LE, ... Plant reproduction requires precise control of flowering in response to environmental cues. We isolated a late-flowering ... and deletion of FKF1 alters the waveform of rhythmic expression of two clock-controlled genes, implicating FKF1 in modulating ...
A survey of flowering genes reveals the role of gibberellins in floral control in rose | SpringerLink
Exhaustive studies on flowering control in annual plants have provided a framework for exploring this process in other plant ... Only a few rose genes potentially involved in flowering have been described, i.e. homologues of ABC model genes and floral ... Based on a candidate gene strategy, we isolated genes that have similarities with genes known to be involved in floral control ... We propose that flowering gene networks are conserved between Arabidopsis and rose. The GA pathway appears to be a key ...
Comparison of Flowering Time Genes in Brassica rapa, B. napus and Arabidopsis thaliana | Genetics
Thus, these Brassica genes may correspond to two genes (FLC and FRI) that regulate flowering time in the latest flowering ... Brassica genes also were compared to flowering time genes in Arabidopsis thaliana by mapping RFLP loci with the same probes in ... Comparison of Flowering Time Genes in Brassica rapa, B. napus and Arabidopsis thaliana T. C. Osborn, C. Kole, I. A. P. Parkin, ... Comparison of Flowering Time Genes in Brassica rapa, B. napus and Arabidopsis thaliana T. C. Osborn, C. Kole, I. A. P. Parkin, ...
Evolution of Neutral and Flowering Genes along Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) Domestication
Identification of genes contributing to flowering time variation is therefore relevant. In this study we focused on three ... flowering candidate genes, PgHd3a, PgDwarf8 and PgPHYC. We tested for signatures of past selective events within polymorphism ... A positive selection was evidenced in PgHd3a and PgDwarf8 genes of domestic forms but not in the wild population. Conclusion ... The Bayesian approach and previous studies suggest that gene flow between wild relatives and domesticated pearl millets is a ...
It's in the Genes: Research Pinpoints How Plants Know When to Flower
Arabidopsis thaliana »Flowering »Plants »biological process »circadian clock »flower »flowering plant »food crop »locus » ... Further reports about: , Arabidopsis thaliana , Flowering , Plants , biological process , circadian clock , flower , flowering ... At specific times of year, flowering plants produce a protein known as FLOWERING LOCUS T in their leaves that induces flowering ... Its in the Genes: Research Pinpoints How Plants Know When to Flower 30.05.2012 ...
The ELF4 gene controls circadian rhythms and flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana
... Nature. 2002 Sep 5;419(6902):74-7. doi: ... Here we describe the gene EARLY FLOWERING 4 (ELF4), which is involved in photoperiod perception and circadian regulation. ELF4 ... elf4 mutants show attenuated expression of CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1), a gene that is thought to function as a central ... Mutations in elf4 result in early flowering in non-inductive photoperiods, which is probably caused by elevated amounts of ...
Genome-wide association mapping in Arabidopsis identifies previously known flowering time and pathogen resistance genes. -...
Genome-wide association mapping in Arabidopsis identifies previously known flowering time and pathogen resistance genes.. ... Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Arabidopsis Identifies Previously Known Flowering Time and Pathogen Resistance Genes ... Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Arabidopsis Identifies Previously Known Flowering Time and Pathogen Resistance Genes ... Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Arabidopsis Identifies Previously Known Flowering Time and Pathogen Resistance Genes ...
A latitudinal cline in flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana modulated by the flowering time gene FRIGIDA | PNAS
The flowering time gene FRIGIDA (FRI) is considered to be the major determinant of flowering time variation in natural ... A latitudinal cline in flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana modulated by the flowering time gene FRIGIDA. John R. Stinchcombe ... A latitudinal cline in flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana modulated by the flowering time gene FRIGIDA ... A latitudinal cline in flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana modulated by the flowering time gene FRIGIDA ...
Frontiers | Using Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Genes Involved in Switchgrass Flower Reversion | Plant Science
... and transcriptional regulation processes crucial for switchgrass flower reversion. When some of the genes were overexpressed in ... and transcriptional regulation processes crucial for switchgrass flower reversion. When some of the genes were overexpressed in ... and uncultured immature inflorescences were analyzed and 517 genes were identified as participating in flower reversion. ... and uncultured immature inflorescences were analyzed and 517 genes were identified as participating in flower reversion. ...
GENE WATSON - PICK THE WILDWOOD FLOWER LYRICS
Pick The Wildwood Flower lyrics - Them Texas fields were hot and That tractor never was my kinda livin And when I hit sixteen ... www.lyricsty.com/gene-watson-pick-the-wildwood-flower-lyrics.html ] Gene Watson lyrics , Lyricsty ... Get your guitar and pick the wildwood flower. Now Dallas it was big and hard to find a job. And so I didnt. It was easier to ... Send "Pick The Wildwood Flower" Ringtone to Cell Phone Them Texas fields were hot and. That tractor never was my kinda livin. ...
NEGAN - Anthocyanin-activating R2R3 MYB transcription factor - Erythranthe lewisii (Purple monkey flower) - NEGAN gene & protein
p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source ... Erythranthe lewisii (Purple monkey flower) (Mimulus lewisii)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... Four distinct tokens exist: Name, Synonyms, Ordered locus names and ORF names.,p>,a href=/help/gene_name target=_top ... help/gene_ontology target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>GO - Molecular functioni. *DNA binding Source: UniProtKB-KW ...
The VERNALIZATION INDEPENDENCE 4 gene encodes a novel regulator of FLOWERING LOCUS C
... gene. To better understand this repressive mechanism, we have taken a genetic approach to identify novel genes that posi … ... The late-flowering, vernalization-responsive habit of many Arabidopsis ecotypes is mediated predominantly through repression of ... the floral programme by the FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) ... suggesting that VIP4 regulates flowering-time genes in addition ... The VERNALIZATION INDEPENDENCE 4 gene encodes a novel regulator of FLOWERING LOCUS C Plant J. 2002 Sep;31(5):663-73. doi: ...
Control of Circadian Rhythms and Photoperiodic Flowering by the Arabidopsis GIGANTEA Gene | Science
... gene cause photoperiod-insensitive flowering and alteration of circadian rhythms. The GI gene encodes a protein containing six ... the cyclic expression of the GIgene as well as known clock-associated genes and simple output genes (for example, CAB) shows a ... Circadian expression patterns of the GI gene and the clock-associated genes, LHY and CCA1, are altered in gi mutants, showing ... Control of Circadian Rhythms and Photoperiodic Flowering by the Arabidopsis GIGANTEA Gene ...
Genes directing flower development in Arabidopsis. | Plant Cell
Genes directing flower development in Arabidopsis.. J L Bowman, D R Smyth, E M Meyerowitz ... It seems that the wild-type alleles of these four genes allow cells to determine their place in the developing flower and thus ... We propose that these genes may be involved in setting up or responding to concentric, overlapping fields within the flower ... Temperature shift experiments indicate that the wild-type AP2 gene product acts at the time of primordium initiation; the AP3 ...
Trapping genes that control flower d...( Identifying genes based on patterns of ...)
... genes,that,control,flower,development,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology ... Identifying genes based on patterns of gene expression in specific organs or at specific stages of development is a useful ... in Connecticut Rob Martienssen at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York and their colleagues used a strategy known as gene ... Gene regulation, not just genes, is what sets humans apart. 3. Study finds gender differences in renal and other genes ...
Global Identification of DELLA Target Genes during Arabidopsis Flower Development | Plant Physiology
Gene ontology of RGA-regulated genes during flower development. RGA-regulated genes were analyzed by the NetAffx Gene Ontology ... In situ localization of selected genes in flowers. In situ hybridization was performed in wild-type flowers (A, D, G, and J) ... RGA-regulated genes include some genes involved in water or osmotic stress, such as aquaporin-like genes, dehydrins, and Pro ... The largest group of down-regulated genes (a total of 171 genes) encoded metabolic enzymes, of which a large number of genes ...
PathwayPathwaysDevelopmentalPhenotypeGenomesProteinsFunctionalHomeotic genesGenomeQuantitative traiEncodesTranscriptionalRegulates flowMutantsDifferentially expressed genesTranscription factorVernalization-responsiveTarget GenesTimeOrgansMicroarrayQTLsRepressorRegulatorsPromotesLociLocusExpression of thousands of genesIdentificationPatternsMorphologicalCandidateSOC1VariationRegulatoryCuesStages of flower developmentTERMINAL FLOWER1Circadian clockChanges in gene expressionSpecific genesPredominantlyTransgenicMeristemPleiotropicCaused by the repressionSequenceInhibitLineages
- So in a practical sense, we now understand how this gene regulates flowering and this insight is helping us fill in an entire pathway which regulates flowering time in sorghum. (eponline.com)
- Murphy indicated that a planting test of sorghum phenotypes with an active form of Ma1 and other genes in this pathway could be delayed in flowering for up to 200 days compared to the usual 60 days for a grain-type sorghum. (eponline.com)
- Based on a candidate gene strategy, we isolated genes that have similarities with genes known to be involved in floral control in Arabidopsis (GA pathway, floral repressors and integrators). (springer.com)
- The GA pathway appears to be a key regulator of flowering in rose. (springer.com)
- Epistasis analysis suggests that VIP4 could act in a separate pathway from previously identified FLC regulators, including FRIGIDA and the autonomous flowering promotion pathway gene LUMINIDEPENDENS. (nih.gov)
- A photoperiod-dependent pathway relays signals from photoreceptors to a transcription factor gene, CONSTANS ( CO ), which activates downstream meristem identity genes such as LEAFY ( LFY ). (sciencemag.org)
- In Arabidopsis , a photoperiod-dependent pathway promotes flowering in response to an inductive long-day (LD) photoperiod, whereas an autonomous pathway functions independently of the photoperiod and other environmental conditions ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Pleiotropy in developmental regulation by flowering-pathway genes: is it an evolutionary constraint? (jic.ac.uk)
- Thus, these studies revealed that rice flowering is regulated both by a `SD activation pathway' and a `LD suppression pathway' as an SDP. (biologists.org)
- Candidate genes from flowering time pathways identified in rice and Arabidopsis were identified in Setaria QTL intervals, including those involved in the CONSTANS photoperiod pathway. (g3journal.org)
- These results provide a method to quantify the role that specific genes play in the developmental pathway affecting the dorsoventral axis of symmetry in zygomorphic flowers. (biomedcentral.com)
- These signals integrate into a network of floral pathway integrator genes. (peerj.com)
- At a quantitative level, it is currently unclear how the impact of genetic variation in signaling pathways on flowering time is mediated by floral pathway integrator genes. (peerj.com)
- Here, using datasets available from literature, we connect Arabidopsis thaliana flowering time in genetic backgrounds varying in upstream signalling components with the expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes in these genetic backgrounds. (peerj.com)
- Our modelling results indicate that flowering time depends in a quite linear way on expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes. (peerj.com)
- Each sheet in the file contains data for one floral pathway integrator gene. (peerj.com)
- Focusing on the Iochrominae clade (Solanaceae), we examine how repeated losses of floral anthocyanin pigmentation associated with flower color transitions have affected the molecular evolution of three anthocyanin pathway genes ( Chi , F3h , and Dfr ). (beds.ac.uk)
- The broad conservation of anthocyanin pathway genes across lineages with and without floral anthocyanins is consistent with the growing consensus that losses of pigmentation are largely achieved by changes in gene expression as opposed to structural mutations. (beds.ac.uk)
- The FLOWERING LOCUS T ( FT ) gene plays a central role in integrating flowering signals in Arabidopsis because its expression is regulated antagonistically by the photoperiod and vernalization pathways. (genetics.org)
- By combining knowledge of the genetic pathways that lead to flowering with data on the site of collection of accessions, it is possible to evaluate the effects of macroscale ecological forces such as climate and photoperiod on life history transitions at the level of specific genetic loci (see ref. 5 for an example related to seedling emergence traits). (pnas.org)
- The environmental cues for these genetic and developmental pathways (photoperiod amplitude and temperature) vary systematically with latitude ( 10 , 11 ), and for this reason a latitudinal cline in flowering time has been predicted (e.g., refs. (pnas.org)
- Flowering in Arabidopsis is promoted via several interacting pathways. (sciencemag.org)
- In higher plants, flowering-the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth phase-is controlled via several interacting pathways influenced by both endogenous factors and environmental conditions. (sciencemag.org)
- Recent studies suggest that the FT gene may be regulated via both photoperiod-dependent and autonomous pathways and may act redundantly with LFY in promoting flowering ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Arabidopsis thaliana flowering-time genes, and the pathways in which they operate, are among the most thoroughly studied regarding molecular functions, phenotypic effects, and adaptive significance. (jic.ac.uk)
- Some genes appear to operate in the same genetic pathways when regulating both traits, whereas others show diversity of function in their regulation, either interacting with the same genetic partners but in different ways or potentially interacting with different partners. (jic.ac.uk)
- Among these regulators, Ehd1 , a rice-specific floral inducer, integrates multiple pathways to regulate RFT1 , leading to flowering under appropriate photoperiod conditions. (biologists.org)
- However, the genetic pathways governing LD flowering in rice are not well understood. (biologists.org)
- However, much of our knowledge on the genetic control of flowering in grasses is derived from studies in rice, and it is unclear to what extent flowering time pathways are shared across grasses, or what the relative importance of the separate pathways are in the different grass subfamilies. (g3journal.org)
- In Arabidopsis, both autonomous and environmentally mediated flowering time pathways have been identified ( Amasino 2010 ). (g3journal.org)
- Photoperiod and vernalization genetic pathways allow Arabidopsis to adjust flowering time responses across its geographic range. (g3journal.org)
- Genes involved in related biological pathways are cooperatively expressed to establish their functions, and thus information on their coexpression is key to understanding the biological systems at the molecular level (Eisen et al. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enriched analysis suggested that some of the genes were significantly associated with the sex determination process of P. bungeana , such as those involved in tryptophan metabolism, zeatin biosynthesis, and cysteine and methionine metabolism, and the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathways. (mdpi.com)
- Trait losses may lead to a range of outcomes for genes in pathways underlying those traits. (beds.ac.uk)
- Moreover, we found that the majority of these genes is specifically up-regulated during certain developmental stages. (caltech.edu)
- Flowering is a major developmental transition in the life-history of plants, and the genetic manipulation of flowering time has been crucial in the domestication and spread of cereal grasses such as wheat, rice, and maize. (g3journal.org)
- However, the mechanisms by which these factors dynamically regulate the expression of their target genes at different developmental stages are still poorly understood. (tcd.ie)
- Dynamic changes in APETALA1 and SEPALLATA3 DNA binding correlated with changes in gene expression, and many of the target genes could be associated with the developmental stage in which they are transcriptionally controlled. (tcd.ie)
- Background The formation of flowers is one of the main model systems to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that control developmental processes in plants. (tcd.ie)
- We analyzed groups of co-expressed genes for over-represented cellular and developmental functions through Gene Ontology analysis and found that they could be assigned specific patterns of activities, which are in agreement with the progression of flower development. (tcd.ie)
- Gene expression suggests a developmental regulatory system based on the combined activity of duplicate MADS-box genes. (uni-regensburg.de)
- These results suggest that the pollen-specific or antherspecific expression of genes for PGs, PME and GN occurs in a dioecious plant, willow, just as it does in monoecious plants, and that the expression of these genes is related to the developmental stage of pollen grains during male gametogenesis. (oup.com)
- Their tissue sampling is supported by flowering time phenotypic observations and covers the developmental transition stage, making a good effort to identify key transcriptional and phenotypic changes and their timing affected by selection. (peercommunityin.org)
- Also, the year-to-year variation had smaller effect in gene expression compared to developmental stage or genetic background, possibly indicating selection for stability across environmental fluctuation for such an important phenotype as flowering time. (peercommunityin.org)
- Transgenic wild-type Arabidopsis can reduce the flowering time and change plant morphogenesis, with fewer rosette leaves and terminal inflorescence to some degrees, as well as the phenotype of ft-10 can also be successfully rescued by ectopic expressing each of them, respectively, suggesting that both of them can exert the function of AtFT . (springer.com)
- Combining the genotype data with phenotype data on flowering time in five independent experiments under natural long day or controlled short day conditions revealed a single flowering time QTL. (cas.cz)
- Here we show that the ectopic expression of GhPRF1 gene in tobacco resulted in the hyperactivation of apical meristem and early flowering phenotype with increased flower number in comparison to the control plants. (biomedcentral.com)
- A method for making a genetically modified plant comprising regenerating a whole plant from a plant cell that has been transfected with DNA sequences comprising a first gene whose expression results in an altered plant phenotype linked to a transiently active promoter, the gene and promoter being separated. (google.com)
- s suppress an early-flowering phenotype of SOC1 101-D in which the coding sequence (CDS) with the 3′ UTR of SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 ( SOC1 ) gene is overexpressed. (wiley.com)
- Although horizontal gene transfer is well documented in microbial genomes, no case has been reported in higher plants. (pnas.org)
- The second intron of the nad1 gene, located between exons b and c, is a group II intron (ref. 11 and Fig. 1 A ). Group II introns are self-splicing RNAs that are typical components of contemporary organellar genomes in plants, algae, fungi, protists, and eubacteria ( 10 , 12 - 14 ). (pnas.org)
- To identify ultraconserved CNS s, we included genomes of additional plant families and identified 715 binding sites for 501 genes conserved in dicots, monocots, mosses, and green algae. (plantphysiol.org)
- The potential for this transfer is further decreased by the frequent occurrence of whole-genome duplications and genomic rearrangements in the genomes of flowering plants. (plantphysiol.org)
- Microarray analysis will, together with other functional genomics tools, take us closer to understanding the functions of all genes in genomes of living organisms. (helsinki.fi)
- Natural diversity in gene expression, divergence, and function can now be examined in non-model organisms and across clades [ 1 , 2 ] with the advent of new molecular tools and improved genetic resources (e.g., transcriptomes and an increasing number of genomes). (biomedcentral.com)
- Although the expression of the SgPGs, SgPME1 and SgGN1 was specific to male catkins (inflorescences), these genes were found in the genomes of both male and female plants. (oup.com)
- Intriguingly, the genes all share a common sequence of 150 nucleotide bases so they make proteins that have one end, amounting to a quarter of their structures, in common. (newscientist.com)
- We cloned the VIP4 gene and found that it encodes a highly hydrophilic protein with similarity to proteins from yeasts, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans. (nih.gov)
- Genes provide the blueprints for proteins that carry out the functions of living cells. (bio-medicine.org)
- RGA-GR . Although DELLA proteins were suggested as transcriptional repressors, similar numbers of genes were down-regulated or up-regulated by RGA during floral organ development. (plantphysiol.org)
- Both of them were found to have conserved genomic characteristics of the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein family and their encoding proteins possess conserved key amino acid residues of FT. RT-qPCR results showed that HbFT1 was restricted in mature leaves, male and female flowers whereas HbFT2 showed the main expression in reproductive organs. (springer.com)
- Results We characterized the relationship of chromatin accessibility, gene expression, and DNA binding of two MADS-domain proteins at different stages of Arabidopsis flower development. (tcd.ie)
- Plant profilin genes encode core cell-wall structural proteins and are evidenced for their up-regulation under cotton domestication. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our results indicate that GA promotes the expression of floral homeotic genes by antagonizing the effects of DELLA proteins, thereby allowing continued flower development. (nus.edu.sg)
- Overall, I was able to isolate the following different MADS-box genes from both flower and fruit tissues: APETALA1/FRUITFULL, APETALA3 (three splicing variants and two resulting proteins of different length), PISTILLATA, three different AGAMOUS-like genes (i.e. (unipd.it)
- Analysis of climatological data suggests that late flowering in accessions with putatively functional FRI was associated with reduced January precipitation at the site of origin, consistent with previous reports of a positive genetic correlation between water use efficiency and flowering time in Arabidopsis , and the pleiotropic effects of FRI of increasing water use efficiency. (pnas.org)
- In accessions collected from Southern latitudes, we detected that putatively functional FRI alleles were associated with accelerated flowering relative to accessions with nonfunctional FRI under the winter conditions of our experiment. (pnas.org)
- We discuss how functional diversification of pleiotropic genes in the regulation of different traits across the life cycle may mitigate evolutionary constraints of pleiotropy, permitting traits to respond more independently to environmental cues, and how it may even contribute to the evolutionary divergence of gene function across taxa. (jic.ac.uk)
- Because co-expressed members of gene families in Arabidopsis frequently act in a redundant manner, these results suggest a high degree of functional redundancy during early flower development, but also that its extent may vary in a stage-specific manner. (caltech.edu)
- The availability of this data set in a user-friendly platform enables the exploration of functional noncoding DNA to study gene regulation in a variety of plant species, including crops. (plantphysiol.org)
- Recently, we have shown that gene loss is strikingly different for large- and small-scale duplication events and highly biased towards the functional class to which a gene belongs. (ugent.be)
- By using microarray expression data for Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that the mode of duplication, the function of the genes involved, and the time since duplication play important roles in the divergence of gene expression and, therefore, in the functional divergence of genes after duplication. (ugent.be)
- Bi ZH, Tahir AT, Huang HS, Hua YW (2018) Cloning and functional analysis of five TERMINAL FLOWER1 / CENTRORADIALIS- like genes from Hevea brasiliensis . (springer.com)
- The recent availability of functional genomics data, such as expression data from whole-genome microarrays, opens up completely novel ways to investigate the divergence of duplicated genes, and several studies using such data have already provided intriguing new insights into gene fate after duplication. (springer.com)
- ATTED-II ( http://atted.jp ) is a gene coexpression database for a wide variety of experimental designs, such as prioritizations of genes for functional identification and analyses of the regulatory relationships among genes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- With the ability to investigate condition-specific coexpression and species conservation, ATTED-II can help researchers to clarify the functional and regulatory networks of genes in a broad array of plant species. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- 2009 ). The user can effectively find the functional relationships of genes and design experiments to confirm the gene functions by reverse genetics and general molecular biological techniques (Obayashi and Kinoshita 2010 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- This study provides a novel and systematic link between GhPRF1 gene expression and the flower primordium initiation via up-regulation of the ARP genes, and an insight into the functional characterization of GhPRF1 gene acting upstream to the flowering mechanism. (biomedcentral.com)
- Thus, genes belonging to all the functional classes of the canonical ABC(D)E model of flower development have been obtained and identified. (unipd.it)
- Scatter plots of the correlation coefficient in function of the K S value of the gene pairs belonging to different functional classes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Plots of other functional classes of genes can be found in Additional data file 3. (biomedcentral.com)
- We propose that flo interacts in a sequential manner with other homeotic genes affecting floral organ identity. (nih.gov)
- Hellens, Roger 2012-01-24 00:00:00 In Arabidopsis, the identity of perianth and reproductive organs are specified by antagonistic action of two floral homeotic genes, APETALA2 (AP2) and AGAMOUS (AG). (deepdyve.com)
- We find that the transcript levels of floral homeotic genes APETALA3 (AP3), PISTILLATA (PI), and AGAMOUS (AG) are immediately upregulated in young flowers of ga1-3 upon GA treatment. (nus.edu.sg)
- Using a steroid-inducible activation of RGA, we further demonstrated that these floral homeotic genes are transcriptionally repressed by RGA activity in young flowers whereas the expression of LEAFY (LFY) and APETALA1 (AP1) is not substantially affected. (nus.edu.sg)
- We used a novel floral induction system in Arabidopsis, which allows the isolation of a large number of synchronized floral buds, in conjunction with whole-genome microarray analysis to identify genes with differential expression at distinct stages of flower development. (caltech.edu)
- Wellmer F, Alves-Ferreira M, Dubois A, Riechmann JL, Meyerowitz EM (2006) Genome-wide analysis of gene expression during early Arabidopsis flower development. (caltech.edu)
- Nonrandom divergence of gene expression following gene and genome duplications in the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. (ugent.be)
- Furthermore, many of the duplicated genes seem to have been created through ancient genome-wide duplication events. (ugent.be)
- Czechowski T, Stitt M, Altmann T, Udvardi MK, Scheible WR (2005) Genome-wide identification and testing of superior reference genes for transcript normalization in Arabidopsis . (springer.com)
- For over 100 years, gene and genome duplications have been linked to the origin of evolutionary novelties, because it provides a source of genetic material on which evolution can work ([ 9 ] and references therein). (springer.com)
- Although several studies have explored gene expression during flower development in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana on a genome-wide scale, a continuous series of expression data from the earliest floral stages until maturation has been lacking. (tcd.ie)
- Using whole-genome microarray analysis, we identified 7,405 genes that exhibit rapid expression changes during flower development. (tcd.ie)
- They further provide a comprehensive reference dataset for temporal gene expression during flower formation and we demonstrate that it can be used to integrate data from other genomics approaches such as genome-wide localization studies of transcription factor binding sites. (tcd.ie)
- In a combined strategy of map-based cloning and the use of the publicly available grapevine reference genome sequence, the structure of the grapevine flower sex locus has been elucidated with the subsequent identification of candidate genes which might be involved in the development of the different flower sex types. (uni-bielefeld.de)
- The analyses are based on eight gene regions, of which seven are from the nuclear genome and one from the mitochondrial genome. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- A disadvantage of these techniques is that it cannot be controlled where exactly in the genome the new genes get inserted. (mpg.de)
- We used doubled haploid populations of crosses between Avalon × Cadenza, Charger × Badger and Spark × Rialto and identified short day flowering time response quantitative trait loci (QTL) on wheat chromosomes 1BS and 1BL. (jic.ac.uk)
- A recombinant inbred line mapping population derived from a cross between domesticated Setaria italica (foxtail millet) and its wild relative Setaria viridis (green millet), was grown in eight trials with varying environmental conditions to identify a small number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control differences in flowering time. (g3journal.org)
- As part of an investigation of the phylogeny of Gnetum (Gnetales, gymnosperms), we studied the distribution of a group II intron in the mitochondrial (mt) nad1 gene, which encodes subunit 1 of the respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase. (pnas.org)
- 6. A method according to claim 3, wherein the specific excision signal sequences are LOX sequences and the second gene encodes CRE. (google.com)
- After the reliability and reproducibility of the method were confirmed, the microarrays were utilized to investigate transcriptional differences between ray and disc flowers. (helsinki.fi)
- These results suggest that APETALA1 and SEPALLATA3 may modulate chromatin accessibility, thereby facilitating access of other transcriptional regulators to their target genes. (tcd.ie)
- Furthermore, by mapping binding sites of floral organ identity factors onto our dataset, we were able to identify gene groups that are likely predominantly under control of these transcriptional regulators. (tcd.ie)
- As previously reported AG-like and STK-like genes are exclusively expressed in gynostemium and ovary, however no evidence for transcriptional divergence was found in the stage investigated. (uni-regensburg.de)
- As they point out, differential expression of thousands of genes does not mean that they all were independently affected by selection, but rather that the whole transcriptional network has shifted, possibly due to just few upstream or hub-genes. (peercommunityin.org)
- elf4 mutants show attenuated expression of CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1), a gene that is thought to function as a central oscillator component. (nih.gov)
- Since then, researchers have studied the underlying reversion mechanisms using mutants with distorted flower development ( Scutt and Vandenbussche, 2014 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Circadian expression patterns of the GI gene and the clock-associated genes, LHY and CCA1 , are altered in gi mutants, showing that GI is required for maintaining circadian amplitude and appropriate period length of these genes. (sciencemag.org)
- Furthermore, mutants in OsMADS50 , a rice ortholog of Arabidopsis SUPPRESOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 ( SOC1 ) did not flower up to 300 days after sowing under LD conditions, indicating that OsMADS50 , which acts upstream of RFT1 , promotes flowering under LD conditions. (biologists.org)
- Several kinds of double-flowered cultivars have been produced from spontaneous mutants in Cyclamen persicum Mill. (elsevier.com)
Differentially expressed genes2
- Gene trapping is an alternative to methods such as DNA microarray analysis for the detection of differentially expressed genes, and has the advantage of identifying subtle differences in expression patterns within target organs. (bio-medicine.org)
- A total of 12,073 differentially expressed genes were detected between the two types of sexes in P. bungeana , and 5766 (47.76%) of them were up-regulated in females. (mdpi.com)
- The major difference between annual and biennial cultivars of oilseed Brassica napus and B. rapa is conferred by genes controlling vernalization-responsive flowering time. (genetics.org)
- The late-flowering, vernalization-responsive habit of many Arabidopsis ecotypes is mediated predominantly through repression of the floral programme by the FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) gene. (nih.gov)
- Flowering time and crop duration are the most important traits for adaptation of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) to different agro-climatic conditions. (springer.com)
- Anbessa Y, Warkentin T, Vandenberg A, Ball R (2006) Inheritance of time to flowering in chickpea in a short-season temperate environments. (springer.com)
- Aryamanesh N, Nelson MN, Yan G, Clarke HJ, Siddique KHM (2010) Mapping a major gene for growth habit and QTLs for ascochyta blight resistance and flowering time in a population between chickpea and Cicer reticulatum . (springer.com)
- Bernard RL (1971) Two genes for time of flowering and maturity in soybeans. (springer.com)
- Mapping of HvFT genes suggests that they provide important sources of flowering-time variation in barley. (genetics.org)
- HvFTI was a candidate for VRN-H3 , a dominant mutation giving precocious flowering, while HvFT3 was a candidate for Ppd-H2 , a major QTL affecting flowering time in short days. (genetics.org)
- Research team member Rebecca Murphy described "walking along the chromosome" of sorghum using genetic mapping techniques until landing on what she calls Maturity Locus 1, an historically important genetic determinant of flowering time originally discovered by AgriLife Research scientists in 1945. (eponline.com)
- Flowering time is important for sorghum no matter what type of sorghum is grown," said Murphy, a biochemistry doctoral student at Texas A&M University. (eponline.com)
- Before this discovery, a sorghum breeder would have to wait for a plant to flower to see what type of flowering time genes were in the sorghum," she said. (eponline.com)
- Then, a breeder can pretty accurately predict flowering time without having to wait for the plant to mature. (eponline.com)
- Early researchers identified four genes - called Ma1 through Ma4 - that control flowering time in sorghum, Mullet said. (eponline.com)
- Brassica genes also were compared to flowering time genes in Arabidopsis thaliana by mapping RFLP loci with the same probes in both B. napus and Arabidopsis. (genetics.org)
- The region containing one pair of Brassica QTLs was collinear with the top of chromosome 5 in A. thaliana where flowering time genes FLC, FY and CO are located. (genetics.org)
- Thus, these Brassica genes may correspond to two genes ( FLC and FRI ) that regulate flowering time in the latest flowering ecotypes of Arabidopsis. (genetics.org)
- Identification of genes contributing to flowering time variation is therefore relevant. (plos.org)
- Reasons why these results contrast with previous results that have shown a slight but significant association between PgPHYC polymorphisms and variation in flowering time in pearl millet are discussed. (plos.org)
- A latitudinal cline in flowering time in accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana has been widely predicted because the environmental cues that promote flowering vary systematically with latitude, but evidence for such clines has been lacking. (pnas.org)
- Here, we report evidence of a significant latitudinal cline in flowering time among 70 Northern European and Mediterranean ecotypes when grown under ecologically realistic conditions in a common garden environment. (pnas.org)
- Although Arabidopsis ecotypes collected over a wide latitudinal range do show significant variation in life history traits (e.g., ref. 12 ), clear empirical evidence in support of latitudinal clines in flowering time has been lacking despite numerous investigations (e.g., refs. (pnas.org)
- These results have led some authors to suggest that ecotypic variation in flowering time is the result of genetic drift ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
- Bell-shaped flowers are pale lavender-blue and bloom for an unusually long time (4-5 weeks) in summer with a repeat bloom in fall. (agriseek.com)
- Here, we review examples of pleiotropy of flowering-time genes and highlight those that also influence seed germination. (jic.ac.uk)
- The gerbera microarray is a fully-functioning tool for large-scale studies of flower development and correlation with real-time RT-PCR results show that it is also highly sensitive and reliable. (helsinki.fi)
- However, only three of the approximately seven genes cloned for flowering time in maize colocalized with Setaria QTL. (g3journal.org)
- This suggests that variation in flowering time in separate grass lineages is controlled by a combination of conserved and lineage specific genes. (g3journal.org)
- Our understanding of the genetics of flowering time is particularly poor in the subfamily Panicoideae, containing sorghum and maize, where relatively few genes controlling flowering have been identified. (g3journal.org)
- The single chromosome substitution lines of chromosome 3B of the Czech alternative wheat variety Česká přesívka (CP 3B) into two spring varieties Zlatka and Sandra, revealed clear differences in flowering time compared to the recipient varieties. (cas.cz)
- In this study, we examine, for the first time, the ability of geometric morphometrics to detect morphological differences in floral dorsoventral asymmetry following virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). (biomedcentral.com)
- This gradual, proportional response of flowering time to upstream changes enables a gradual adaptation to changing environmental factors such as temperature and light. (peerj.com)
- Each dataset presented in the file consists of pairs of gene expression - flowering time, measured in various genetic backgrounds. (peerj.com)
- Maximal expression of SgPGs and SgPME1 was detected when male flowers were fully open and mature, while maximal expression of SgGN1 occurred at an earlier time. (oup.com)
- Understanding the flowering gene complex in bread wheat is important to utilize the maximum production potential in a time-limited growing season. (ualberta.ca)
- Transcriptomic response to divergent selection for flowering time in maize reveals convergence and key players of the underlying gene regulatory network (2019), bioRxiv, 461947, ver. (peercommunityin.org)
- In Saclay divergent selection experiment two maize inbred lines (F252 and MBS847) have been selected for early and late flowering for 13 generations, resulting in two week difference in flowering time. (peercommunityin.org)
- In "Transcriptomic response to divergent selection for flowering time in maize reveals convergence and key players of the underlying gene regulatory network " Maud Tenaillon and her coworkers study the gene expression differences among these two independently selected maize populations. (peercommunityin.org)
- Expectedly, they are enriched for known flowering time genes. (peercommunityin.org)
- Here, we show that homologous constitutive overexpression of each of two Arabidopsis thaliana Bruno -like genes, AtBRN1 and AtBRN2 , delayed the flowering time, while the atbrn1 atbrn2-3 double mutant flowered early and exhibited increased expression of APETALA1 ( AP1 ) and LEAFY ( LFY ) transcripts. (wiley.com)
- Overall, AtBRNs repress SOC1 activity in a 3′ UTR-dependent manner, thereby controlling the flowering time in Arabidopsis. (wiley.com)
- The discovery is part of a wider series of breakthroughs in the study of flower development which have confirmed the theory, originally put forward by the poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe more than 200 years ago, that the different organs in a flower, such as petals and stamens, are all variations on a single theme. (newscientist.com)
- Candidate genes were mapped on a segregating population, gene expression was studied in different organs and transcript abundance was monitored in growing shoot apices. (springer.com)
- Identifying genes based on patterns of gene expression in specific organs or at specific stages of development is a useful approach to improving our understanding of complex biological processes. (bio-medicine.org)
- In this case, the researchers isolated 80 different gene trap Arabidopsis lines identifying genes that show distinct patterns of expression in flower petals and/or stamens (the pollen-bearing organs). (bio-medicine.org)
- Although the floral organ identity is established in flowers of the GA-deficient mutant ga1-3 , the growth of all floral organs is severely retarded. (plantphysiol.org)
- After the identity of a flower primordium is specified, APETALA1 interacts with APETALA2 in controlling the development of the outer two whorls of floral organs. (biologists.org)
- Here, we describe the global gene expression dynamics during early flower development, a key process in the life cycle of a plant, during which floral patterning and the specification of floral organs is established. (caltech.edu)
- We found that the onset of flower formation is characterized by a massive downregulation of genes in incipient floral primordia, which is followed by a predominance of gene activation during the differentiation of floral organs. (caltech.edu)
- The present study tests whether eight MADS-box candidate SEP-, FUL-, AG-, and STK-like genes have been specifically duplicated in the Orchidaceae and are also differentially expressed in association with the distinct flower organs of Phalaenopsis hyb. (uni-regensburg.de)
- In contrast, the uniform messenger levels of FUL-like genes suggest they are involved in the development of all organs and their expression in the ovary suggests cell differentiation starts before pollination. (uni-regensburg.de)
- During the development of flowers, some of them act as homeotic selector genes specifying the identity of the floral organs, according to the ABC(D)E model. (unipd.it)
- By contrast, for many basal Angiosperms the same model does not fit equally well, because their flowers may be organized with a different architecture and their floral organs are not always similarly well defined. (unipd.it)
- The identity of the organs present in the four floral verticils is a consequence of the interaction of at least three types of gene products, each with distinct functions. (wikipedia.org)
- In situ hybridization and transgenic studies further showed that the expression pattern and function of several selected genes were consistent with the predictions from microarray analysis. (plantphysiol.org)
- Here, we study the expression divergence of genes that were created during large- and small-scale gene duplication events by means of microarray data and investigate both the influence of the origin (mode of duplication) and the function of the duplicated genes on expression divergence. (ugent.be)
- The reliable estimation of coexpressed gene relationships requires large amounts of gene expression data obtained from DNA microarray experiments, which are available in public repositories (Craigon et al. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Three QTLs of earliness per se affecting days to flowering and maturity were mapped on chromosomes 1B (QEps.dms-1B1 and QEps.dms-1B2) and 5B (QEps.dms-5B1). (ualberta.ca)
- The photoperiod insensitive allele Ppd-D1a interacted in an additive fashion with QTLs for flowering and maturity times. (ualberta.ca)
- We propose that both positive ( OsMADS50 and Ehd1 ) and negative ( Hd1, phyB and Ghd7 ) regulators of RFT1 form a gene network that regulates LD flowering in rice. (biologists.org)
- These genes comprise many known floral regulators and we found that the expression profiles for these regulators match their known expression patterns, thus validating the dataset. (tcd.ie)
- During apical meristem determinacy and flower development, the GhPRF1 gene directly influences key flowering regulators through ARP -genes, indicating for its role upstream in the apical-to-floral meristem signalling cascade. (biomedcentral.com)
- It was shown that Hd1 represses Hd3a ( FT ) expression in long days ( H ayama and C oupland 2004 ) but promotes Hd3a ( FT ) expression in short days, leading to flowering. (genetics.org)
- These results show that variation in the CO - FT interplay is at the center of the long-day/short-day difference, but in both situations the induction of FT expression consistently promotes flowering. (genetics.org)
- FT , together with LFY , promotes flowering and is positively regulated by CO . Loss of FT causes delay in flowering, whereas overexpression of FT results in precocious flowering independent of CO or photoperiod. (sciencemag.org)
- Increased TaFT3-B1 copy number was associated with early flowering, suggesting that TaFT3-B1 promotes flowering. (jic.ac.uk)
- Rose is a woody perennial plant with a particular flowering strategy-recurrent blooming, which is controlled by a recessive locus ( RB ). (springer.com)
- We show here that RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 ( RFT1 ), the closest homolog to Heading date 3a ( Hd3a ), is a major floral activator under LD conditions. (biologists.org)
- Two Flower locus T-like genes were isolated and characterized in rubber tree. (springer.com)
- The introns in FLOWERING LOCUS T-LIKE (FTL) genes are useful markers for tracking paternity in tetraploid Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (cas.cz)
Expression of thousands of genes1
- We tested for signatures of past selective events within polymorphism patterns of these three genes that could have been associated with pearl millet domestication and/or landraces differentiation. (plos.org)
- Examining gene expression patterns therefore provides information on gene function. (bio-medicine.org)
- The expression profiles of these related genes were often highly correlated, indicating similar temporal expression patterns. (caltech.edu)
- In yeast, for instance, Gu and co-workers [ 27 ] found a significant correlation between the rate of coding sequence evolution and divergence of expression and showed that most duplicated genes in this organism quickly diverge in their expression patterns. (springer.com)
- 115 genes expression patterns are shifted due to selection in both genetic backgrounds. (peercommunityin.org)
- Chao S, Kumar J, Shultz JL, Anupama K, Tefera F, Muehlbauer FJ (2002) Mapping genes for double podding and other morphological traits in chickpea. (springer.com)
- This further evolution has produced the morphological and physiological diversity of the domestic gene pool which largely exceeds what is usually observed in their wild counterparts. (plos.org)
- Comparative genomics of such acquired phenotypes had increased our understanding of the key genes and trans -factors underlying morphological variations in the antecedents and their descendants. (biomedcentral.com)
- The diverse flowers of Orchidaceae are the result of several major morphological transitions, among them the most studied is the differentiation of the inner median tepal into the labellum, a perianth organ key in pollinator attraction. (uni-regensburg.de)
- Morphological variation and agamous-like gene expression in double flowers of Cyclamen persicum Mill. (elsevier.com)
- In this study we focused on three flowering candidate genes, PgHd3a , PgDwarf8 and PgPHYC . (plos.org)
- However, a potential role of any of the three candidate genes in the phenological differentiation between early and late landraces was not supported by our data. (plos.org)
- The 1BL QTL peak coincided with TaFT3-B1, a homologue of the barley gene HvFT3, the most likely candidate gene. (jic.ac.uk)
- Examining gene function relies on assaying phenotypic shifts following experimental changes in the amount, location, or timing of candidate gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
- Sequencing and gene annotation of the entire region revealed several candidate genes with a potential impact on flower sex formation. (uni-bielefeld.de)
- One of the presumed candidate genes, an adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, was analysed in more detail. (uni-bielefeld.de)
- The impact of other candidate genes is discussed, especially with regard to plant hormone actions. (uni-bielefeld.de)
- The GhPRF1 transduces key positive flowering regulator AP1 gene via coordinated expression of FT4 , SOC1 , FLC1 and FT1 genes involved in the apical-to-floral meristem signalling cascade which is consistent with our in silico profilin interaction data. (biomedcentral.com)
- SOC1 is a MADS-box-type gene, which integrates responses to photoperiod, vernalization and gibberellins. (wikipedia.org)
- Detailed information about stage-specific changes in gene expression is crucial for the understanding of the gene regulatory networks underlying development. (caltech.edu)
- All identified CNS s were integrated in the PLAZA 3.0 Dicots comparative genomics platform ( http://bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/plaza/versions/plaza_v3_dicots/ ) together with new functionalities facilitating the exploration of conserved cis-regulatory elements and their associated genes. (plantphysiol.org)
- The most interesting finding was differential expression of MADS-box genes, suggesting the existence of flower type-specific regulatory complexes in the specification of different types of flowers. (helsinki.fi)
- Although some genes that encode sensory or regulatory elements for photoperiodic flowering are conserved between the long-day (LD) plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the short-day (SD) plant rice, the gene networks that control rice flowering, and particularly flowering under LD conditions, are not well understood. (biologists.org)
- Böhlenius H, Huang T, Charbonnel-Campaa L, Brunner AM, Jansson S, Strauss SH, Nilsson O (2006) CO / FT regulatory module controls timing of flowering and seasonal growth cessation in trees. (springer.com)
- By combining the information from DNA-binding and gene expression data, we are able to propose models of stage-specific regulatory interactions, thereby addressing dynamics of regulatory networks throughout flower development. (tcd.ie)
Stages of flower development3
- In situ hybridization shows that the flo gene is transiently expressed in the very early stages of flower development. (nih.gov)
- a The relative expression levels of four genes at three stages of flower development. (biomedcentral.com)
- We further found that the distribution of paralogs among groups of co-expressed genes varies considerably, with genes expressed predominantly at early and intermediate stages of flower development showing the highest proportion of such genes. (tcd.ie)
- FKF1 mRNA levels oscillate with a circadian rhythm, and deletion of FKF1 alters the waveform of rhythmic expression of two clock-controlled genes, implicating FKF1 in modulating the Arabidopsis circadian clock. (nih.gov)
- The circadian clock gene LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL directly regulates the timing of floral scent emission in Petunia. (washington.edu)
Changes in gene expression2
- Background Development of eukaryotic organisms is controlled by transcription factors that trigger specific and global changes in gene expression programs. (tcd.ie)
- However, so far the changes in gene expression have not been in the focus of artificial selection experiment studies (see for an example though). (peercommunityin.org)
- Do gibberellins inhibit flowering of transgenic pears with silenced TFL1-encoding genes? (ishs.org)
- Here we asked if continuous flowering of transgenic pear ( Pyrus communis L.) trees with silenced TFL1-encoding genes will be affected by exogenous GA treatment. (ishs.org)
- The GA treatment reduced flower formation in the transgenic trees. (ishs.org)
- Spatial expression alteration in CLV1 , a key meristem-determinacy gene, is induced by the GhPRF1 overexpression in a WUS-dependent manner and mediates cell signalling to promote flowering. (biomedcentral.com)
- An external stimulus is required in order to trigger the differentiation of the meristem into a flower meristem. (wikipedia.org)
- Six Harosoy 63 isolines that differ for flower color were evaluated for pleiotropic effects of the alleles for flower color. (illinois.edu)
- The results indicate that COP1 is required to repress the AtMYB21 gene in seedlings, and the pleiotropic phenotypes shown in the cap1 mutant are due to the combination of misregulation of genuine light-signalling components and other tissue-specific factors. (elsevier.com)
Caused by the repression1
- Structure of the FT gene and sequence comparison. (sciencemag.org)
- Multiple sequence alignments for genes used in Angiosperms353 probe design (FASTA format). (datadryad.org)
- 7. A method according to claim 3, wherein the sequence that causes male sterility is the RIP gene linked to an anther specific promoter. (google.com)
- Gibberellins (GA) inhibit flowering only in non-recurrent roses. (springer.com)
- This means that a number of genes will directly regulate, for example, the maintenance of the stem cell's characteristics (gene WUSCHEL or WUS), and others will act via negative feedback mechanisms in order to inhibit a characteristic (gene CLAVATA or CLV). (wikipedia.org)
- The "orchid code" model summarizes this work and shows in Orchidaceae there are four paralogous lineages of DEFICIENS/AP3-like genes differentially expressed in each floral whorl. (uni-regensburg.de)
- Experimental tests of this model showed the conserved, higher expression of genes from two specific DEF-like gene lineages is associated with labellum development. (uni-regensburg.de)
- However, two of the three genes ( Chi , F3h ) show significantly elevated dN/dS ratios in lineages without floral pigmentation. (beds.ac.uk)
- Maximum likelihood analyses suggest that this increase is due to relaxed constraint on anthocyanin genes in the unpigmented lineages as opposed to positive selection. (beds.ac.uk)