Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Rosa: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE and order Rosales. This should not be confused with the genus RHODIOLA which is sometimes called roseroot.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Orchidaceae: A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Petunia: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain steroidal glycosides.MADS Domain Proteins: A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Dianthus: A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. Members contain dianthins, which are ribosome inactivating proteins.Antirrhinum: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. Members contain DEFICIENS PROTEIN.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)AGAMOUS Protein, Arabidopsis: A plant homeotic protein involved in the development of stamens and carpels of Arabidopsis thaliana. It is a DNA-binding protein that contains the MADS-box domain. It is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Primula: A plant genus of the family PRIMULACEAE. It can cause CONTACT DERMATITIS. SAPONINS have been identified in the root.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Bignoniaceae: A plant family of the order Lamiales. The family is characterized by oppositely paired, usually compound leaves and bell- or funnel-shaped, bisexual flowers having a five-lobed calyx and corolla.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Mimulus: A plant genus of the family Phrymaceae. Members contain 6-geranylflavanones and mimulone.Heliconiaceae: A plant family of the order ZINGIBERALES, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.Liliaceae: A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.Chrysanthemum: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common names of daisy or marguerite are easily confused with other plants. Some species in this genus have been reclassified to TANACETUM.Ipomoea: A plant genus in the family CONVOLVULACEAE best known for morning glories (a common name also used with CONVOLVULUS) and sweet potato.Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Oleaceae: A plant family of the order Lamiales. The leaves are usually opposite and the flowers usually have four sepals, four petals, two stamens, and two fused carpels that form a single superior ovary.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Hibiscus: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. Members contain CITRIC ACID; MALATES; ANTHOCYANINS; FLAVONOIDS; GLYCOSIDES; DIETARY FIBER; and LIGNANS. Hibiscus sabdariffa is common constituent of HERBAL TEAS. Hibiscus cannabinus is a source of hemp fiber for TEXTILES.Ranunculaceae: The buttercup plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually alternate and stalkless. The flowers usually have two to five free sepals and may be radially symmetrical or irregular.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Ovule: The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Dahlia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that contains antifungal plant defensin.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Magnolia: A plant genus of the family MAGNOLIACEAE. The germacranolide sesquiterpene lactones costunolide, parthenolide, and costunolide diepoxide have been isolated from the leaves. Bark contains honokiol and magnolol. Parts are an ingredient of Banxia Houpo Tang.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Thysanoptera: An order of very small, fringed-wing INSECTS including many agricultural pests.Nymphaea: A plant genus of the family NYMPHAEACEAE. The common name of lotus is also used for LOTUS and NELUMBO.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cyperaceae: The sedge plant family of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons)Camellia: A plant genus in the family THEACEAE, order THEALES best known for CAMELLIA SINENSIS which is the source of Oriental TEA.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Gentianaceae: A plant family of the order Gentianales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Sagittaria: A plant genus of the family ALISMATACEAE that grows in salty marshes and is used for phytoremediation of oil spills. The unisexual flowers have 3 sepals and 3 petals. Members contain trifoliones (DITERPENES).Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Malus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.DEFICIENS Protein: DEFICIENS is a homeotic gene involved in the genetic control of Antirrhinum majus flower development. Its protein is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.Alstroemeria: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain allergens, tuliposide A and tulipalin A.Campanulaceae: A plant family of the order Campanulales, subclass Asteridae, class MagnoliopsidaPlant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Philodendron: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. As a houseplant it sometimes poisons children and animals.Rubiaceae: The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Flowering Tops: Tops of plants when in flower, including the stems, leaves and blooms.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Norisoprenoids: Thirteen-carbon butene cyclohexene degradation products formed by the cleavage of CAROTENOIDS. They contribute to the flavor of some FRUIT. Ionone should not be confused with the similarly named ionol.Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Marantaceae: A plant family of the order ZINGIBERALES, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Onagraceae: The evening primrose plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Flower parts are mostly in fours and the ovary is inferior.Persea: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cyclamen: A plant genus of the family PRIMULACEAE that contains triterpenoid saponins.
  • Although horizontal gene transfer is well documented in microbial genomes, no case has been reported in higher plants. (pnas.org)
  • The second intron of the nad1 gene, located between exons b and c, is a group II intron (ref. 11 and Fig. 1 A ). Group II introns are self-splicing RNAs that are typical components of contemporary organellar genomes in plants, algae, fungi, protists, and eubacteria ( 10 , 12 - 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • To identify ultraconserved CNS s, we included genomes of additional plant families and identified 715 binding sites for 501 genes conserved in dicots, monocots, mosses, and green algae. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The potential for this transfer is further decreased by the frequent occurrence of whole-genome duplications and genomic rearrangements in the genomes of flowering plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Microarray analysis will, together with other functional genomics tools, take us closer to understanding the functions of all genes in genomes of living organisms. (helsinki.fi)
  • Natural diversity in gene expression, divergence, and function can now be examined in non-model organisms and across clades [ 1 , 2 ] with the advent of new molecular tools and improved genetic resources (e.g., transcriptomes and an increasing number of genomes). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the expression of the SgPGs, SgPME1 and SgGN1 was specific to male catkins (inflorescences), these genes were found in the genomes of both male and female plants. (oup.com)
  • Analysis of climatological data suggests that late flowering in accessions with putatively functional FRI was associated with reduced January precipitation at the site of origin, consistent with previous reports of a positive genetic correlation between water use efficiency and flowering time in Arabidopsis , and the pleiotropic effects of FRI of increasing water use efficiency. (pnas.org)
  • In accessions collected from Southern latitudes, we detected that putatively functional FRI alleles were associated with accelerated flowering relative to accessions with nonfunctional FRI under the winter conditions of our experiment. (pnas.org)
  • We discuss how functional diversification of pleiotropic genes in the regulation of different traits across the life cycle may mitigate evolutionary constraints of pleiotropy, permitting traits to respond more independently to environmental cues, and how it may even contribute to the evolutionary divergence of gene function across taxa. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Because co-expressed members of gene families in Arabidopsis frequently act in a redundant manner, these results suggest a high degree of functional redundancy during early flower development, but also that its extent may vary in a stage-specific manner. (caltech.edu)
  • The availability of this data set in a user-friendly platform enables the exploration of functional noncoding DNA to study gene regulation in a variety of plant species, including crops. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Recently, we have shown that gene loss is strikingly different for large- and small-scale duplication events and highly biased towards the functional class to which a gene belongs. (ugent.be)
  • By using microarray expression data for Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that the mode of duplication, the function of the genes involved, and the time since duplication play important roles in the divergence of gene expression and, therefore, in the functional divergence of genes after duplication. (ugent.be)
  • Bi ZH, Tahir AT, Huang HS, Hua YW (2018) Cloning and functional analysis of five TERMINAL FLOWER1 / CENTRORADIALIS- like genes from Hevea brasiliensis . (springer.com)
  • The recent availability of functional genomics data, such as expression data from whole-genome microarrays, opens up completely novel ways to investigate the divergence of duplicated genes, and several studies using such data have already provided intriguing new insights into gene fate after duplication. (springer.com)
  • ATTED-II ( http://atted.jp ) is a gene coexpression database for a wide variety of experimental designs, such as prioritizations of genes for functional identification and analyses of the regulatory relationships among genes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • With the ability to investigate condition-specific coexpression and species conservation, ATTED-II can help researchers to clarify the functional and regulatory networks of genes in a broad array of plant species. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2009 ). The user can effectively find the functional relationships of genes and design experiments to confirm the gene functions by reverse genetics and general molecular biological techniques (Obayashi and Kinoshita 2010 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This study provides a novel and systematic link between GhPRF1 gene expression and the flower primordium initiation via up-regulation of the ARP genes, and an insight into the functional characterization of GhPRF1 gene acting upstream to the flowering mechanism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, genes belonging to all the functional classes of the canonical ABC(D)E model of flower development have been obtained and identified. (unipd.it)
  • Scatter plots of the correlation coefficient in function of the K S value of the gene pairs belonging to different functional classes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Plots of other functional classes of genes can be found in Additional data file 3. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We used doubled haploid populations of crosses between Avalon × Cadenza, Charger × Badger and Spark × Rialto and identified short day flowering time response quantitative trait loci (QTL) on wheat chromosomes 1BS and 1BL. (jic.ac.uk)
  • A recombinant inbred line mapping population derived from a cross between domesticated Setaria italica (foxtail millet) and its wild relative Setaria viridis (green millet), was grown in eight trials with varying environmental conditions to identify a small number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control differences in flowering time. (g3journal.org)
  • As part of an investigation of the phylogeny of Gnetum (Gnetales, gymnosperms), we studied the distribution of a group II intron in the mitochondrial (mt) nad1 gene, which encodes subunit 1 of the respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase. (pnas.org)
  • 6. A method according to claim 3, wherein the specific excision signal sequences are LOX sequences and the second gene encodes CRE. (google.com)
  • After the reliability and reproducibility of the method were confirmed, the microarrays were utilized to investigate transcriptional differences between ray and disc flowers. (helsinki.fi)
  • These results suggest that APETALA1 and SEPALLATA3 may modulate chromatin accessibility, thereby facilitating access of other transcriptional regulators to their target genes. (tcd.ie)
  • Furthermore, by mapping binding sites of floral organ identity factors onto our dataset, we were able to identify gene groups that are likely predominantly under control of these transcriptional regulators. (tcd.ie)
  • As previously reported AG-like and STK-like genes are exclusively expressed in gynostemium and ovary, however no evidence for transcriptional divergence was found in the stage investigated. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • As they point out, differential expression of thousands of genes does not mean that they all were independently affected by selection, but rather that the whole transcriptional network has shifted, possibly due to just few upstream or hub-genes. (peercommunityin.org)
  • elf4 mutants show attenuated expression of CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1), a gene that is thought to function as a central oscillator component. (nih.gov)
  • Since then, researchers have studied the underlying reversion mechanisms using mutants with distorted flower development ( Scutt and Vandenbussche, 2014 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Circadian expression patterns of the GI gene and the clock-associated genes, LHY and CCA1 , are altered in gi mutants, showing that GI is required for maintaining circadian amplitude and appropriate period length of these genes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Furthermore, mutants in OsMADS50 , a rice ortholog of Arabidopsis SUPPRESOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 ( SOC1 ) did not flower up to 300 days after sowing under LD conditions, indicating that OsMADS50 , which acts upstream of RFT1 , promotes flowering under LD conditions. (biologists.org)
  • Several kinds of double-flowered cultivars have been produced from spontaneous mutants in Cyclamen persicum Mill. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions Our findings indicate that different homeotic factors regulate partly overlapping, yet also distinctive sets of target genes in a partly stage-specific fashion. (tcd.ie)
  • Flowering time and crop duration are the most important traits for adaptation of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) to different agro-climatic conditions. (springer.com)
  • Anbessa Y, Warkentin T, Vandenberg A, Ball R (2006) Inheritance of time to flowering in chickpea in a short-season temperate environments. (springer.com)
  • Aryamanesh N, Nelson MN, Yan G, Clarke HJ, Siddique KHM (2010) Mapping a major gene for growth habit and QTLs for ascochyta blight resistance and flowering time in a population between chickpea and Cicer reticulatum . (springer.com)
  • Bernard RL (1971) Two genes for time of flowering and maturity in soybeans. (springer.com)
  • Mapping of HvFT genes suggests that they provide important sources of flowering-time variation in barley. (genetics.org)
  • HvFTI was a candidate for VRN-H3 , a dominant mutation giving precocious flowering, while HvFT3 was a candidate for Ppd-H2 , a major QTL affecting flowering time in short days. (genetics.org)
  • Research team member Rebecca Murphy described "walking along the chromosome" of sorghum using genetic mapping techniques until landing on what she calls Maturity Locus 1, an historically important genetic determinant of flowering time originally discovered by AgriLife Research scientists in 1945. (eponline.com)
  • Flowering time is important for sorghum no matter what type of sorghum is grown," said Murphy, a biochemistry doctoral student at Texas A&M University. (eponline.com)
  • Before this discovery, a sorghum breeder would have to wait for a plant to flower to see what type of flowering time genes were in the sorghum," she said. (eponline.com)
  • Then, a breeder can pretty accurately predict flowering time without having to wait for the plant to mature. (eponline.com)
  • Early researchers identified four genes - called Ma1 through Ma4 - that control flowering time in sorghum, Mullet said. (eponline.com)
  • Brassica genes also were compared to flowering time genes in Arabidopsis thaliana by mapping RFLP loci with the same probes in both B. napus and Arabidopsis. (genetics.org)
  • The region containing one pair of Brassica QTLs was collinear with the top of chromosome 5 in A. thaliana where flowering time genes FLC, FY and CO are located. (genetics.org)
  • Thus, these Brassica genes may correspond to two genes ( FLC and FRI ) that regulate flowering time in the latest flowering ecotypes of Arabidopsis. (genetics.org)
  • Identification of genes contributing to flowering time variation is therefore relevant. (plos.org)
  • Reasons why these results contrast with previous results that have shown a slight but significant association between PgPHYC polymorphisms and variation in flowering time in pearl millet are discussed. (plos.org)
  • A latitudinal cline in flowering time in accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana has been widely predicted because the environmental cues that promote flowering vary systematically with latitude, but evidence for such clines has been lacking. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we report evidence of a significant latitudinal cline in flowering time among 70 Northern European and Mediterranean ecotypes when grown under ecologically realistic conditions in a common garden environment. (pnas.org)
  • Although Arabidopsis ecotypes collected over a wide latitudinal range do show significant variation in life history traits (e.g., ref. 12 ), clear empirical evidence in support of latitudinal clines in flowering time has been lacking despite numerous investigations (e.g., refs. (pnas.org)
  • These results have led some authors to suggest that ecotypic variation in flowering time is the result of genetic drift ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • Bell-shaped flowers are pale lavender-blue and bloom for an unusually long time (4-5 weeks) in summer with a repeat bloom in fall. (agriseek.com)
  • Here, we review examples of pleiotropy of flowering-time genes and highlight those that also influence seed germination. (jic.ac.uk)
  • The gerbera microarray is a fully-functioning tool for large-scale studies of flower development and correlation with real-time RT-PCR results show that it is also highly sensitive and reliable. (helsinki.fi)
  • However, only three of the approximately seven genes cloned for flowering time in maize colocalized with Setaria QTL. (g3journal.org)
  • This suggests that variation in flowering time in separate grass lineages is controlled by a combination of conserved and lineage specific genes. (g3journal.org)
  • Our understanding of the genetics of flowering time is particularly poor in the subfamily Panicoideae, containing sorghum and maize, where relatively few genes controlling flowering have been identified. (g3journal.org)
  • The single chromosome substitution lines of chromosome 3B of the Czech alternative wheat variety Česká přesívka (CP 3B) into two spring varieties Zlatka and Sandra, revealed clear differences in flowering time compared to the recipient varieties. (cas.cz)
  • In this study, we examine, for the first time, the ability of geometric morphometrics to detect morphological differences in floral dorsoventral asymmetry following virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This gradual, proportional response of flowering time to upstream changes enables a gradual adaptation to changing environmental factors such as temperature and light. (peerj.com)
  • Each dataset presented in the file consists of pairs of gene expression - flowering time, measured in various genetic backgrounds. (peerj.com)
  • Maximal expression of SgPGs and SgPME1 was detected when male flowers were fully open and mature, while maximal expression of SgGN1 occurred at an earlier time. (oup.com)
  • Understanding the flowering gene complex in bread wheat is important to utilize the maximum production potential in a time-limited growing season. (ualberta.ca)
  • Transcriptomic response to divergent selection for flowering time in maize reveals convergence and key players of the underlying gene regulatory network (2019), bioRxiv, 461947, ver. (peercommunityin.org)
  • In Saclay divergent selection experiment two maize inbred lines (F252 and MBS847) have been selected for early and late flowering for 13 generations, resulting in two week difference in flowering time. (peercommunityin.org)
  • In "Transcriptomic response to divergent selection for flowering time in maize reveals convergence and key players of the underlying gene regulatory network " Maud Tenaillon and her coworkers study the gene expression differences among these two independently selected maize populations. (peercommunityin.org)
  • Expectedly, they are enriched for known flowering time genes. (peercommunityin.org)
  • Here, we show that homologous constitutive overexpression of each of two Arabidopsis thaliana Bruno -like genes, AtBRN1 and AtBRN2 , delayed the flowering time, while the atbrn1 atbrn2-3 double mutant flowered early and exhibited increased expression of APETALA1 ( AP1 ) and LEAFY ( LFY ) transcripts. (wiley.com)
  • Overall, AtBRNs repress SOC1 activity in a 3′ UTR-dependent manner, thereby controlling the flowering time in Arabidopsis. (wiley.com)
  • It allows simultaneous monitoring of the expression of thousands of genes and has become a routinely used tool in laboratories worldwide. (helsinki.fi)
  • Transcription factors ( TF s) regulate gene expression by binding cis-regulatory elements, of which the identification remains an ongoing challenge owing to the prevalence of large numbers of nonfunctional TF binding sites. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Chao S, Kumar J, Shultz JL, Anupama K, Tefera F, Muehlbauer FJ (2002) Mapping genes for double podding and other morphological traits in chickpea. (springer.com)
  • This further evolution has produced the morphological and physiological diversity of the domestic gene pool which largely exceeds what is usually observed in their wild counterparts. (plos.org)
  • Comparative genomics of such acquired phenotypes had increased our understanding of the key genes and trans -factors underlying morphological variations in the antecedents and their descendants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The diverse flowers of Orchidaceae are the result of several major morphological transitions, among them the most studied is the differentiation of the inner median tepal into the labellum, a perianth organ key in pollinator attraction. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Morphological variation and agamous-like gene expression in double flowers of Cyclamen persicum Mill. (elsevier.com)
  • It was a variation in the activity of the gene corresponding to Ma1 that sorghum breeders have been using in breeding programs for years to fine-tune when their hybrids would flower. (eponline.com)
  • Detailed information about stage-specific changes in gene expression is crucial for the understanding of the gene regulatory networks underlying development. (caltech.edu)
  • All identified CNS s were integrated in the PLAZA 3.0 Dicots comparative genomics platform ( http://bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/plaza/versions/plaza_v3_dicots/ ) together with new functionalities facilitating the exploration of conserved cis-regulatory elements and their associated genes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The most interesting finding was differential expression of MADS-box genes, suggesting the existence of flower type-specific regulatory complexes in the specification of different types of flowers. (helsinki.fi)
  • Although some genes that encode sensory or regulatory elements for photoperiodic flowering are conserved between the long-day (LD) plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the short-day (SD) plant rice, the gene networks that control rice flowering, and particularly flowering under LD conditions, are not well understood. (biologists.org)
  • Böhlenius H, Huang T, Charbonnel-Campaa L, Brunner AM, Jansson S, Strauss SH, Nilsson O (2006) CO / FT regulatory module controls timing of flowering and seasonal growth cessation in trees. (springer.com)
  • By combining the information from DNA-binding and gene expression data, we are able to propose models of stage-specific regulatory interactions, thereby addressing dynamics of regulatory networks throughout flower development. (tcd.ie)
  • In situ hybridization shows that the flo gene is transiently expressed in the very early stages of flower development. (nih.gov)
  • a The relative expression levels of four genes at three stages of flower development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We further found that the distribution of paralogs among groups of co-expressed genes varies considerably, with genes expressed predominantly at early and intermediate stages of flower development showing the highest proportion of such genes. (tcd.ie)
  • Background Development of eukaryotic organisms is controlled by transcription factors that trigger specific and global changes in gene expression programs. (tcd.ie)
  • However, so far the changes in gene expression have not been in the focus of artificial selection experiment studies (see for an example though). (peercommunityin.org)
  • Six Harosoy 63 isolines that differ for flower color were evaluated for pleiotropic effects of the alleles for flower color. (illinois.edu)
  • The results indicate that COP1 is required to repress the AtMYB21 gene in seedlings, and the pleiotropic phenotypes shown in the cap1 mutant are due to the combination of misregulation of genuine light-signalling components and other tissue-specific factors. (elsevier.com)
  • Gibberellins (GA) inhibit flowering only in non-recurrent roses. (springer.com)
  • This means that a number of genes will directly regulate, for example, the maintenance of the stem cell's characteristics (gene WUSCHEL or WUS), and others will act via negative feedback mechanisms in order to inhibit a characteristic (gene CLAVATA or CLV). (wikipedia.org)