A family of transcription factors that bind to the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. Family members contain a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain. They can act as both activators and repressors of expression of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain. Runx1 is frequently mutated in human LEUKEMIAS.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 3.5.1.28.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.
A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.
Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)
A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.
A variant of the GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME characterized by the acute onset of oculomotor dysfunction, ataxia, and loss of deep tendon reflexes with relative sparing of strength in the extremities and trunk. The ataxia is produced by peripheral sensory nerve dysfunction and not by cerebellar injury. Facial weakness and sensory loss may also occur. The process is mediated by autoantibodies directed against a component of myelin found in peripheral nerves. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1313; Neurology 1987 Sep;37(9):1493-8)
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.
An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Any codon that signals the termination of genetic translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). PEPTIDE TERMINATION FACTORS bind to the stop codon and trigger the hydrolysis of the aminoacyl bond connecting the completed polypeptide to the tRNA. Terminator codons do not specify amino acids.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.

A cytomegalovirus glycoprotein re-routes MHC class I complexes to lysosomes for degradation. (1/7149)

Mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) early gene expression interferes with the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) pathway of antigen presentation. Here we identify a 48 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by the MCMV early gene m06, which tightly binds to properly folded beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-associated MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This association is mediated by the lumenal/transmembrane part of the protein. gp48-MHC class I complexes are transported out of the ER, pass the Golgi, but instead of being expressed on the cell surface, they are redirected to the endocytic route and rapidly degraded in a Lamp-1(+) compartment. As a result, m06-expressing cells are impaired in presenting antigenic peptides to CD8(+) T cells. The cytoplasmic tail of gp48 contains two di-leucine motifs. Mutation of the membrane-proximal di-leucine motif of gp48 restored surface expression of MHC class I, while mutation of the distal one had no effect. The results establish a novel viral mechanism for downregulation of MHC class I molecules by directly binding surface-destined MHC complexes and exploiting the cellular di-leucine sorting machinery for lysosomal degradation.  (+info)

The amino-terminal C/H1 domain of CREB binding protein mediates zta transcriptional activation of latent Epstein-Barr virus. (2/7149)

Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is maintained as a nucleosome-covered episome that can be transcriptionally activated by overexpression of the viral immediate-early protein, Zta. We show here that reactivation of latent EBV by Zta can be significantly enhanced by coexpression of the cellular coactivators CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300. A stable complex containing both Zta and CBP could be isolated from lytically stimulated, but not latently infected RAJI nuclear extracts. Zta-mediated viral reactivation and transcriptional activation were both significantly inhibited by coexpression of the E1A 12S protein but not by an N-terminal deletion mutation of E1A (E1ADelta2-36), which fails to bind CBP. Zta bound directly to two related cysteine- and histidine-rich domains of CBP, referred to as C/H1 and C/H3. These domains both interacted specifically with the transcriptional activation domain of Zta in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Interestingly, we found that the C/H3 domain was a potent dominant negative inhibitor of Zta transcriptional activation function. In contrast, an amino-terminal fragment containing the C/H1 domain was sufficient for coactivation of Zta transcription and viral reactivation function. Thus, CBP can stimulate the transcription of latent EBV in a histone acetyltransferase-independent manner mediated by the CBP amino-terminal C/H1-containing domain. We propose that CBP may regulate aspects of EBV latency and reactivation by integrating cellular signals mediated by competitive interactions between C/H1, C/H3, and the Zta activation domain.  (+info)

Identification of additional genes that influence baculovirus late gene expression. (3/7149)

We were unable to confirm transient late gene expression using constructs of 18 genes that had been reported to support Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) late gene expression when transfected into Spodoptera frugiperda cells [Lu, A., and Miller, L. K. (1995). J. Virol. 69, 975-982]. Three genes (orf66, orf68, and orf41) were included, all or in part, in the constructs used in that study, but they had not been independently tested. Therefore we investigated these and neighboring orfs for their influence on late gene expression. We found that orf41 was required for late gene expression and that sequences within orf45 appeared to be required for the expression of orf41. Although orf66 and orf68 did not appear to affect late gene expression, orf69 stimulated expression. orf69 was found to have high homology to recent entries in GenBank from a variety of organisms. In addition, it was found that orf121, which was shown to be involved in early gene expression, and the viral homolog of pcna did not influence late gene expression.  (+info)

The nucleoprotein of Marburg virus is target for multiple cellular kinases. (4/7149)

The nucleoprotein (NP) of Marburg virus is phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues in a ratio of 85:15, regardless of whether the protein is isolated from virions or from eukaryotic expression systems. Phosphotyrosine is absent. Although many potential phosphorylation sites are located in the N-terminal half of NP, this part of the protein is not phosphorylated. Analyses of phosphorylation state and phosphoamino acid content of truncated NPs expressed in HeLa cells using the vaccinia virus T7 expression system led to the identification of seven phosphorylated regions (region I*, amino acids 404-432; II*, amino acids 446-472; III*, amino acids 484-511; IV*, amino acids 534-543; V*, amino acid 549; VI*, amino acids 599-604; and VII*, amino acid 619) with a minimum of seven phosphorylated amino acid residues located in the C-terminal half of NP. All phosphothreonine residues and consensus recognition sequences for protein kinase CKII are located in regions I*-V*. Regions VI* and VII* contain only phosphoserine with three of four serine residues in consensus recognition motifs for proline-directed protein kinases. Mutagenesis of proline-adjacent serine residues to alanine or aspartic acid did not influence the function of NP in a reconstituted transcription/replication system; thus it is concluded that serine phosphorylation in the most C-terminal part of NP is not a regulatory factor in viral RNA synthesis.  (+info)

Inhibition of the rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat-driven transcription by in vitro methylation: different sensitivity in permissive chicken cells versus mammalian cells. (5/7149)

Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) enhancer sequences in the long terminal repeat (LTR) have previously been shown to be sensitive to CpG methylation. We report further that the high density methylation of the RSV LTR-driven chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter is needed for full transcriptional inhibition in chicken embryo fibroblasts and for suppression of tumorigenicity of the RSV proviral DNA in chickens. In nonpermissive mammalian cells, however, the low density methylation is sufficient for full inhibition. The time course of inhibition differs strikingly in avian and mammalian cells: although immediately inhibited in mammalian cells, the methylated RSV LTR-driven reporter is fully inhibited with a significant delay after transfection in avian cells. Moreover, transcriptional inhibition can be overridden by transfection with a high dose of the methylated reporter plasmid in chicken cells but not in hamster cells. The LTR, v-src, LTR proviral DNA is easily capable of inducing sarcomas in chickens but not in hamsters. In contrast, Moloney murine leukemia virus LTR-driven v-src induces sarcomas in hamsters with high incidence. Therefore, the repression of integrated RSV proviruses in rodent cells is directed against the LTR.  (+info)

Interactions between Tat and TAR and human immunodeficiency virus replication are facilitated by human cyclin T1 but not cyclins T2a or T2b. (6/7149)

The transcriptional transactivator (Tat) from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) does not function efficiently in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Only somatic cell hybrids between CHO and human cells and CHO cells containing human chromosome 12 (CHO12) support high levels of Tat transactivation. This restriction was mapped to interactions between Tat and TAR. Recently, human cyclin T1 was found to increase the binding of Tat to TAR and levels of Tat transactivation in rodent cells. By combining individually with CDK9, cyclin T1 or related cyclins T2a and T2b form distinct positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) complexes. In this report, we found that of these three cyclins, only cyclin T1 is encoded on human chromosome 12 and is responsible for its effects in CHO cells. Moreover, only human cyclin T1, not mouse cyclin T1 or human cyclins T2a or T2b, supported interactions between Tat and TAR in vitro. Finally, after introducing appropriate receptors and human cyclin T1 into CHO cells, they became permissive for infection by and replication of HIV.  (+info)

Development of a Western blot assay for detection of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus using capsid and transmembrane envelope proteins expressed from recombinant baculovirus. (7/7149)

A 120-amino-acid polypeptide selected from the transmembrane protein region (tTM) and the major capsid protein p26 of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV) were expressed as fusion proteins from recombinant baculoviruses. The antigenic reactivity of both recombinant fusion proteins was confirmed by Western blot with bovine and rabbit antisera to BIV. BIV-negative bovine sera and animal sera positive for bovine syncytial virus and bovine leukemia virus failed to recognize the recombinant fusion proteins, thereby showing the specificity of the BIV Western blot. One hundred and five bovine serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-BIV antibodies by the recombinant protein-based Western blot and a reference Western blot assay using cell culture-derived virions as test antigens. There was a 100% concordance when the p26 fusion protein was used in the Western blot. However, the Western blot using the tTM fusion protein as its test antigen identified four BIV-positive bovine sera which had tested negative in both the p26 recombinant-protein-based and the reference Western blot assays. This resulted in the lower concordance of 96.2% between the tTM-protein-based and reference Western blot assays. The results of this study showed that the recombinant p26 and tTM proteins can be used as test antigens for the serodetection of BIV-infection in animals.  (+info)

Adventitial delivery minimizes the proinflammatory effects of adenoviral vectors. (8/7149)

PURPOSE: Adenovirus-mediated arterial gene transfer is a promising tool in the study of vascular biology and the development of vascular gene therapy. However, intraluminal delivery of adenoviral vectors causes vascular inflammation and neointimal formation. Whether these complications could be avoided and gene transfer efficiency maintained by means of delivering adenoviral vectors via the adventitia was studied. METHODS: Replication-defective adenoviral vectors encoding a beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) gene (AdRSVnLacZ) or without a recombinant gene (AdNull) were infused into the lumen or the adventitia of rabbit carotid arteries. Two days after infusion of either AdRSVnLacZ (n = 8 adventitial, n = 8 luminal) or AdNull (n = 4 luminal), recombinant gene expression was quantitated by histochemistry (performed on tissue sections) and with a beta-gal activity assay (performed on vessel extracts). Inflammation caused by adenovirus infusion was assessed 14 days after infusion of either AdNull (n = 6) or vehicle (n = 6) into the carotid adventitia. Inflammation was assessed by means of examination of histologic sections for the presence of neointimal formation and infiltrating T cells and for the expression of markers of vascular cell activation (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1). To measure the systemic immune response to adventitial infusion of adenovirus, plasma samples (n = 3) were drawn 14 days after infusion of AdNull and assayed for neutralizing antibodies. RESULTS: Two days after luminal infusion of AdRSVnLacZ, approximately 30% of luminal endothelial cells expressed beta-gal. Similarly, 2 days after infusion of AdRSVnLacZ to the adventitia, approximately 30% of adventitial cells expressed beta-gal. beta-gal expression was present in the carotid adventitia, the internal jugular vein adventitia, and the vagus nerve perineurium. Elevated beta-gal activity (50- to 80-fold more than background; P <.05) was detected in extracts made from all AdRSVnLacZ-transduced arteries. The amount of recombinant protein expression per vessel did not differ significantly between vessels transduced via the adventitia (17.1 mU/mg total protein [range, 8.1 to 71.5]) and those transduced via a luminal approach (10.0 mU/mg total protein [range, 3.9 to 42.6]). Notably, adventitial delivery of AdNull did not cause neointimal formation. In addition, vascular inflammation in arteries transduced via the adventitia (ie, T-cell infiltrates and ICAM-1 expression) was confined to the adventitia, sparing both the intima and media. Antiadenoviral neutralizing antibodies were present in all rabbits after adventitial delivery of AdNull. CONCLUSION: Infusion of adenoviral vectors into the carotid artery adventitia achieves recombinant gene expression at a level equivalent to that achieved by means of intraluminal vector infusion. Because adventitial gene transfer can be performed by means of direct application during open surgical procedures, this technically simple procedure may be more clinically applicable than intraluminal delivery. Moreover, despite the generation of a systemic immune response, adventitial infusion had no detectable pathologic effects on the vascular intima or media. For these reasons, adventitial gene delivery may be a particularly useful experimental and clinical tool.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Chromatin Immunoprecipitation and Microarray Analysis Suggest Functional Cooperation between Kaposis Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus ORF57 and K-bZIP. AU - Hunter, Olga V.. AU - Sei, Emi. AU - Blake Richardson, R.. AU - Conrad, Nicholas K.. PY - 2013/4. Y1 - 2013/4. N2 - The Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) open reading frame 57 (ORF57)-encoded protein (Mta) is a multifunctional regulator of viral gene expression. ORF57 is essential for viral replication, so elucidation of its molecular mechanisms is important for understanding KSHV infection. ORF57 has been implicated in nearly every aspect of viral gene expression, including transcription, RNA stability, splicing, export, and translation. Here we demonstrate that ORF57 interacts with the KSHV K-bZIP protein in vitro and in cell extracts from lytically reactivated infected cells. To further test the biological relevance of the interaction, we performed a chromatin immunoprecipitation and microarray (ChIP-chip) ...
Dr. Millers laboratory studies the mechanisms underlying the switch between latency and lytic replication of two oncogenic herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Current experiments explore how viral and cellular transcription factors that selectively bind to methylated DNA control expression of viral and cellular genes, how cellular gene expression is selectively inhibited while viral gene expression is enhanced, and how viral DNA replication is regulated by cellular proteins. Recent studies focus on a new class of anti-viral agents that inhibit reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus from latency into lytic infection.. ...
Dr. Millers laboratory studies the mechanisms underlying the switch between latency and lytic replication of two oncogenic herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Current experiments explore how viral and cellular transcription factors that selectively bind to methylated DNA control expression of viral and cellular genes, how cellular gene expression is selectively inhibited while viral gene expression is enhanced, and how viral DNA replication is regulated by cellular proteins. Recent studies focus on a new class of anti-viral agents that inhibit reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus from latency into lytic infection.. ...
Viral replication and maturation rely on a complex interplay between viral and cellular proteins. During the replication cycles of herpesviruses, a number of host immune defense mechanisms have to be overcome and, in particular, innate immune barriers that are poorly defined so far have to be circumvented in order to achieve high efficiencies of replication and dissemination in host tissues. Previous work by Cristea et al. (20) has shown that very early during infection, pp65 and IFI16 interact at the HCMV MIEP, thereby triggering an increase in IE protein expression, which is accompanied by a concomitant decrease in antiviral cytokine production. Consistent with this observation, an increase in IFI16 expression during the first steps of HCMV infection has been reported previously by our group (16), confirming that HCMV triggers IFI16 expression with the scope of increasing IE gene expression early during infection.. Based on these observations, the aim of the present study was to investigate ...
Technology Networks is an internationally recognised publisher that provides access to the latest scientific news, products, research, videos and posters.
Luna Xenia is a wikiHow editor. This user has started 0 articles and made 72 article edits. The articles Luna Xenia has started have received a total of 0 views. This user has also patrolled 0 edits.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 protein interacts with PYM to enhance translation of viral intronless mRNAs. AU - Boyne, James R.. AU - Jackson, Brian R.. AU - Taylor, Adam. AU - MacNab, Stuart A.. AU - Whitehouse, Adrian. PY - 2010/6/2. Y1 - 2010/6/2. N2 - Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) expresses numerous intronless mRNAs that are unable to access splicing-dependent cellular mRNA nuclear export pathways. To circumvent this problem, KSHV encodes the open reading frame 57 (ORF57) protein, which orchestrates the formation of an export-competent virus ribonucleoprotein particle comprising the nuclear export complex hTREX, but not the exon-junction complex (EJC). Interestingly, EJCs stimulate mRNA translation, which raises the intriguing question of how intronless KSHV transcripts are efficiently translated. Herein, we show that ORF57 associates with components of the 48S pre-initiation complex and co-sediments with the 40S ribosomal subunits. ...
The repression of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early (IE) lytic gene expression is crucial for the maintenance of the latent viral state. By using conditionally permissive cell lines, which provide a good model for the differentiation state-dependent repression of IE gene expression, we have identified several cellular factors that bind to the major immediate-early promoter (MIEP) and whose expression is down-regulated after differentiation to a permissive phenotype. Here we show that the cellular protein Ets-2 Repressor Factor (ERF) physically interacts with the MIEP and represses MIEP activity in undifferentiated non-permissive T2 embryonal carcinoma cells. This factor binds to the dyad element and the 21 bp repeats within the MIEP - regions known to be important for the negative regulation of MIEP activity. Finally, we show that following differentiation to a permissive phenotype ERF's repressive effects are severely abrogated.
Nuclear mRNA export is a highly complex and regulated process in cells. Cellular transcripts must undergo successful maturation processes, including splicing, 5-, and 3-end processing, which are essential for assembly of an export competent ribonucleoprotein particle. Many viruses replicate in the nucleus of the host cell and require cellular mRNA export factors to efficiently export viral transcripts. However, some viral mRNAs undergo aberrant mRNA processing, thus prompting the viruses to express their own specific mRNA export proteins to facilitate efficient export of viral transcripts and allowing translation in the cytoplasm. This review will focus on the Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 protein, a multifunctional protein involved in all stages of viral mRNA processing and that is essential for virus replication. Using the example of ORF57, we will describe cellular bulk mRNA export pathways and highlight their distinct features, before exploring how the virus has evolved to exploit
Viral infection of mammalian cells entails the regulated induction of viral gene expression. The induction of many viral genes, including the herpes simplex virus gene encoding thymidine kinase (tk), depends on viral regulatory proteins that act in trans. Because recognition of the tk promoter by cellular transcription factors is well understood, its trans induction by viral regulatory proteins may serve as a useful model for the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. A comprehensive set of mutations was therefore introduced into the chromosome of herpes simplex virus at the tk promoter to directly analyze the effects of promoter mutations on tk transcription. The promoter domains required for efficient tk expression under conditions of trans induction corresponded to those important for recognition by cellular transcription factors. Thus, trans induction of tk expression may be catalyzed initially by the interaction of viral regulatory proteins with cellular transcription factors. ...
Gene expression during productive infection by the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) occurs in an ordered and sequential manner, beginning with immediate early (IE), then early (E) and finally late (L) gene expression. Significant work has addressed the regulation of IE and E gene expression while relatively little work has addressed the control of late gene expression. In order to further address HCMV late gene expression, the promoter of the HCMV UL75 (glycoprotein H, gH) late gene was characterized. The data obtained in this study were combined with observations made in two other studies that have addressed HCMV late gene expression to develop a model of the regulation of HCMV late gene expression. The gH promoter and numerous promoter mutants were cloned into a reporter vector to address sequences responsible for the regulation of gene expression. These gH promoter constructs were transfected into human fibroblasts and subsequently infected with HCMV. Our data revealed that viral infection was necessary
DELETION OF THE CARBOXY TERMINUS OT SIMIAN VIRUS 40 LARGE T ANTIGEN AFFECTS VIRAL LATE GENE EXPRESSION A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Terryl Stacy DARTMOUTH COLLEGE Hanover, New Hampshire March 8,1990 ...
In the reproduction of HSV-1, the temporal profile of the viral gene expressions and the molecular mechanisms regulating the expressions are extensively studied. Functional roles of the temporally ordered gene expressions has not yet been clarified. We construct a simple mathematical model for the intracellular replication of HSV-1 to investigate the function of the ordered gene expressions. We obtain the condition for the explosion of the virus from our model. The expression ratio of the early gene to the late gene must be higher than the ratio of the reaction rate of the encapsidation to that of the viral DNA replication for viruses to reproduce successfully. The preceded accumulation of the early gene product prevents the growth arrest. Further, as promoter activity of the early gene becomes higher, the replication speed of virus becomes faster. The structure of early gene promoter that has many binding motif to transcription factor accelerates the replication speed of HSV-1. This structure ...
BACKGROUND:. Despite progress in understanding the pathophysiology of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, its manifestations in the immune compromised host are frequently associated with high morbidity and mortality. In this setting, HCMV disease can develop e.g. following immune suppression as a result of reactivation of latent HCMV acquired earlier in life. The mechanisms leading to establishment of latent infections and their subsequent reactivation are not clear. It is also unknown whether HCMV exists in a latent form with limited viral gene expression or as a persistent infection with normal virus transcription.. DESIGN NARRATIVE:. The specific aims of the study were to: 1) examine the percentage of HCMV positive donors whose bone marrow progenitors contained HCMV DNA using nested PCR and determine if virus could be rescued from those cells. 2) Analyze the HCMV life cycle in hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells. 3) identify and analyze HCMV gene expression in in vivo infected ...
The goal of our studies is to understand the mechanisms that regulate viral late gene expression and genome amplification during the productive life cycle of on...
HPLC Application #15467: SFC - Drugs on Luna 10u Si(2). Column used: Luna® 10 µm Silica (2) 100 Å, LC Column 250 x 4.6 mm, Ea Part#: 00G-4091-E0
Hi this is Luna our cozy cat. She is born the 30th of August and with us since the 1st of Decemb… Jeroen van Hoeven needs your support for Help Luna Fight FIP
Luna Protein Bar information including description from Clif Bar, supplement facts, and suggested use. Order online for quick delivery at the best prices.
Introduction: During productive infection, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genes are expressed in a temporal cascade, with temporal phases designated as immediate-early (IE), early, and late. The major IE (MIE) genes, UL123 and UL122 (IE1/IE2), play a critical role in subsequent viral gene expression and the efficiency of viral replication. The early viral genes encode proteins necessary for viral DNA replication. Following viral DNA replication, delayed-early and late viral genes are expressed which encode structural proteins for the virion. The late genes can be divided into two broad classes. At early times the gamma-1 or leaky-late class are expressed at low levels after infection and are dramatically upregulated at late times. In contrast, the gamma-2 or true late genes are expressed exclusively after viral DNA replication. Expression of true late (gamma-2 class) viral genes is completely prevented by inhibition of viral DNA synthesis. Areas covered: This review addresses the viral genes required
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) episome is known to interact with the three-dimensional structure of the human genome in infected cells. However, the exact locations of these interactions and their potential functional consequences remain unclear. Recently, high-resolution chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) assays in lymphoblastoid cells have become available, enabling us to precisely map the contacts between the EBV episome(s) and the human host genome. Using available Hi-C data at a 10-kb resolution, we have identified 15,000 reproducible contacts between EBV episome(s) and the human genome. These contacts are highly enriched in chromatin regions denoted by typical or super enhancers and active markers, including histone H3K27ac and H3K4me1. Additionally, these contacts are highly enriched at loci bound by host transcription factors that regulate B cell growth (e.g., IKZF1 and RUNX3), factors that enhance cell proliferation (e.g., HDGF), or factors that promote viral replication (e.g., NBS1 ...
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was first isolated 50 years ago, when the new technology of cell culture became available. The pathogenesis of HCMV disease is complex, involving contributions from the host as well as from the virus. Increasing knowledge about the genetic composition of the virus can help to illuminate this complex series of relationships and provide a rational basis for therapeutic intervention and prevention of disease. The major immediate-early promoter (MIEP) enhancer contains multiple recognition sites for the transcription factors. Additionally, the MIEP is specifically transactivated by the tegument protein pp71, which is released as soon as incoming virions are uncoated. Thus, HCMV employs multiple methods independent of de novo viral gene expression to induce an intracellular milieu favorable to the initiation of immediate-early (IE) gene transcription. Humoral immunity could reduce the level of HCMV replication and reduce disease without being able to eliminate infection entirely.
To verify the assignment of performance of a distinct viral gene, it is actually probably needed to restore the mutation back to the wild form sequence and deter mine irrespective of whether the phenotype in the rescuant viruses is similar to that of the parental virus. Having said that, the rescue procedures could potentially introduce adventitious muta tions that arise elsewhere in the genome. Meanwhile, it truly is doable the deletion of the target ORF could possibly impact the expression of other viral genes, like individuals in close by regions, since the deleted area may well func tion as a regulatory component vital for that expression of those genes, additionally to encoding the target ORF. Substantial research are necessary to demonstrate that the dele tion does not affect every other gene expression in the viral genome.. Alternatively, a viral mutant that contains a sub tle mutation, such as stage mutations, to inactivate the ORF could be info generated. Examination with the phenotype ...
Supplemental material: Late Eocene crustal thickening followed by Early-Late Oligocene extension along the India-Asia suture zone: Evidence for cyclicity in the Himalayan orogen
OG-L002 is a potent selective LSD1 inhibitor, it also inhibits inhibitor MAO-A and MAO-B. OG-L002 inhibits the HSV IE gene expression in vitro and in vivo.
Luna Innovations (LUNA) surged in morning trading Tuesday off the strength of Rada Electronic Industries (RADA), which reported second-quarter earnings Monday.
Researchers have discovered a hidden viral gene lurking in many commercial GMO crops, raising possible concerns about its impact on human health.
HPLC Application #18919: Corticosteroids Analysis on Luna 5u CN 150 x 4.6mm ID. Column used: Luna® 5 µm CN 100 Å, LC Column 150 x 4.6 mm, Ea Part#: 00F-4255-E0
I dont know If this topic was picked before, but giving a look at old threads something came to my mind. We all know this game is ruled by TEs, and luna is
Alkalno - tremalni izvor kraškog porekla, Lađevac, među meštanima poznat je i kao toplo vrelo, jer temepratura vode konstantno se kreće od 15 do 18 stepeni
The regulatory cyclin, Cyclin T1 (CycT1), is a host factor essential for HIV-1 replication in CD4 T cells and macrophages. The importance of CycT1 and the Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) complex for HIV replication is well-established, but regulation of CycT1 expression and protein levels during HIV replication and latency establishment in CD4 T cells is less characterized. To better define the regulation of CycT1 levels during HIV replication in CD4 T cells, multiparameter flow cytometry was utilized to study the interaction between HIV replication (intracellular p24) and CycT1 of human peripheral blood memory CD4 T cells infected with HIV in vitro. CycT1 was further examined in CD4 T cells of human lymph nodes. In activated (CD3+CD28 costimulation) uninfected blood memory CD4 T cells, CycT1 was most significantly upregulated in maximally activated (CD69+CD25+ and HLA.DR+CD38+) cells. In memory CD4 T cells infected with HIV in vitro, two distinct infected populations of p24+CycT1+
TY - BOOK. T1 - Viral genome replication. AU - Cameron, Craig Eugene. AU - Raney, Kevin D.. AU - Götte, Matthias. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. N2 - Provides the first comprehensive review of viral genome replication strategies, emphasizing not only pathways and regulation but also the structure-function, mechanism, and inhibition of proteins and enzymes required for this process Currently, there is no single source that permits comparison of the factors, elements, enzymes and/or mechanisms employed by different classes of viruses for genome replication. As a result, we (and our students) often restrict our focus to our particular system, missing out on the opportunity to define unifying themes in viral genome replication or benefit from the advances in other systems. For example, extraordinary biological and experimental paradigms that have been established over the past five years for the DNA replication systems of bacteriophage T4 and T7 will likely be of great value to anyone interested in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Media components influence viral gene expression assays in human fetal astrocyte cultures.. AU - McCarthy, M.. AU - Wood, C.. AU - Fedoseyeva, L.. AU - Whittemore, S. R.. PY - 1995/9. Y1 - 1995/9. N2 - In vitro neurovirological studies of viral infectivity or viral gene expression may be confounded by the multiple neural cell types and/or fibroblast contamination present in early passage cultures prepared from dissociated human central nervous system (CNS) tissue. We have developed highly enriched astrocyte cultures for neurovirological study by culturing in a serum-free defined medium, B16, supplemented with basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). Subculture in this medium selects against fibroblast proliferation and favors sustained proliferation of a highly enriched glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cell population. These astrocytes support productive replication of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and transient expression of transfected CMV and human immunodeficiency virus ...
T. gondii is an important zoonotic Apicomplexan parasite, but no drugs could eliminate the pathogen from the host effectively. In recent studies, DNA vaccines have shown the potential to defend against T. gondii infection in view of their abilities to induce long-term humoral and cellular immune responses in animal models. Many rhoptry proteins (ROP5, ROP13, ROP16 and ROP18) [16-19] are identified to be potential candidates for development of T. gondii DNA vaccines. TgROP38, a new member of the rhoptry protein family, was firstly identified by the phylogenomic approach and was found to regulate the expression of host transcription factors, signaling pathways and cell proliferation, and apoptosis that sum up about 1200 host genes [21]. These key biological roles of TgROP38 in T. gondii infection of the host have stimulated us to evaluate whether TgROP38 could elicit effective immune responses against infection with T. gondii in the mice model. Therefore, we constructed the recombinant plasmid ...
Dr. Verma research involves understanding the pathogenesis of tumor viruses, specifically Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) and Kaposis sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Both viruses undergo lytic replication in epithelial cells during primary infection and during reactivation from latent infection in B-lymphocytes. Epstein Barr virus SM is an RNA binding protein essential for viral replication that enhances EBV gene expression by enhancing RNA stability and RNA export. Dr. Verma has shown that SM interacts with cellular splicing factors and influences splicing of both EBV and cellular pre-mRNAs. Like EBV SM, KSHV ORF57 is also a post-transcriptional regulatory protein, essential for KSHV lytic replication and has high degree of gene specificity. His current research is focused on regulation of gene expression and antiviral drug screening in the following areas ...
Shop Immediate-early protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Immediate-early protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Immediate-early genes have important roles in processes such as brain development, learning, and responses to drug abuse. Further, immediate-early genes play an essential role in cellular responses that contribute to long-term neuronal plasticity. Neuronal plasticity is a characteristic of the nervo …
Nokia Lumia 625 vs LUNA 5.5 4G LTE. Compare the specs and features of the Nokia Lumia 625 and LUNA 5.5 4G LTE to see which is better.
I accidentally gave my lactating dog Vetoryl. 70lbs 15mg. Just now no. Luna 2.5 yrs. She is nursing pups that are 5 - Answered by a verified Dog Veterinarian
Ministarstvo odbrane i Vojska Srbije nizom manifestacija obeležavaju 23. april - Dan Vojske Srbije, u znak sećanja na podizanje Drugog srpskog ustanka, na Cveti
The 72 kDa IE1 protein of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is one of a few viral regulatory proteins expressed immediately after infection of a host cell. Although it is now well-established that IE1 is a potent transcriptional activator of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) long terminal repeat (LTR), the identity of the nucleotide sequence responsive to IE1 remains elusive and the molecular mechanism of this interaction is not well-understood. We have constructed various LTR mutants and tested them for their ability to be activated by IE1 using transient transfection assays. Mutations in the NF-κB sites, of either a few changes in the nucleotide sequence or a deletion of the entire region, abrogated IE1-driven transactivation. Deletion of the Tat-responsive element (TAR) had no significant effect on reporter expression. Mutations in the Sp1 sites or the TATA box significantly lowered LTR activity, but this is probably due to an effect on the general transcription system, as these elements are also
The life cycle of Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) consists of two phases, latent and lytic. The virus establishes latency as a strategy for avoiding host immune surveillance and fusing symbiotically with the host for lifetime persistent infection. However, latency can be disrupted and KSHV is reactivated for entry into the lytic replication. Viral lytic replication is crucial for efficient dissemination from its long-term reservoir to the sites of disease and for the spread of the virus to new hosts. The balance of these two phases in the KSHV life cycle is important for both the virus and the host and control of the switch between these two phases is extremely complex. Various environmental factors such as oxidative stress, hypoxia, and certain chemicals have been shown to switch KSHV from latency to lytic reactivation. Immunosuppression, unbalanced inflammatory cytokines, and other viral co-infections also lead to the reactivation of KSHV. This review article summarizes the current
Kaposis sarcoma (KS) is a vascular tumor predominantly found in the immunosuppressed. Epidemiologic studies suggest that an infective agent is the etiologic culprit. Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), or human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), is a gamma human herpesvirus present in all epidemiol …
Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus vOX2 protein: inhibits neutrophil function and can contribute to immune dysfunction and could have anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential
Ringold, G M., Glucocorticoid regulation of mouse mammary tumor virus gene expression. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 3076 ...
5E5A: Crystal structure of the chromatin-tethering domain of Human cytomegalovirus IE1 protein bound to the nucleosome core particle
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a member of the herpesvirus group, is species specific and can establish both persistent and latent infections. The virus appears to be able to infect a number of cell...
Das Immediate-Early Protein 2 (IE2) des humanen Zytomegalievirus ist ein essentieller Regulationsfaktor des lytischen Infektionszyklus. Es aktiviert verschiedene early Promotoren, autoreprimiert seine eigene Expression und besitzt darüber hinaus auch zellzyklusregulatorische Aktivitäten. Um einzelne Funktionen des IE2 Proteins gezielt analysieren zu können, ist eine genaue Kenntnis seiner regulatorischen Domänen unabdingbar. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde daher eine Struktur-Funktionsanalyse des IE2 Proteins durchgeführt mit dem Ziel, seine funktionellen Domänen genauer zu charakterisieren. Hierfür wurden verschiedene IE2-Mutanten hergestellt und ihre Aktivität im Hinblick auf Transaktivierung, Autorepression und DNA-Bindung sowie Zellzylusarrestinduktion bestimmt. Die Untersuchungen ergaben, dass innerhalb einer Core-Region im C-Terminus des Proteins (AS 450-544) die regulatorischen Domänen der untersuchten Funktionen überlappen und hier schon kleinere Mutationen zu einem ...
Das Immediate-Early Protein 2 (IE2) des humanen Zytomegalievirus ist ein essentieller Regulationsfaktor des lytischen Infektionszyklus. Es aktiviert verschiedene early Promotoren, autoreprimiert seine eigene Expression und besitzt darüber hinaus auch zellzyklusregulatorische Aktivitäten. Um einzelne Funktionen des IE2 Proteins gezielt analysieren zu können, ist eine genaue Kenntnis seiner regulatorischen Domänen unabdingbar. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde daher eine Struktur-Funktionsanalyse des IE2 Proteins durchgeführt mit dem Ziel, seine funktionellen Domänen genauer zu charakterisieren. Hierfür wurden verschiedene IE2-Mutanten hergestellt und ihre Aktivität im Hinblick auf Transaktivierung, Autorepression und DNA-Bindung sowie Zellzylusarrestinduktion bestimmt. Die Untersuchungen ergaben, dass innerhalb einer Core-Region im C-Terminus des Proteins (AS 450-544) die regulatorischen Domänen der untersuchten Funktionen überlappen und hier schon kleinere Mutationen zu einem ...
Nakamura Y, Sakuma S, Ohta Y, Kawano K, Hashimoto T. Detection of the human cytomegalovirus gene in placental chronic villitis by polymerase chain reaction. Hum Pathol. 1994 Aug;25(8):815-8. PMID: #8056423# ...
VIRUS GENES publishesstudies on analysis of virus genes, gene products and functions, regulation of virus gene function, cell biology of virus infectionfunctional studies of genes and gene families, encoded by eukaryotic, ...
VIRUS GENES publishesstudies on analysis of virus genes, gene products and functions, regulation of virus gene function, cell biology of virus infectionfunctional studies of genes and gene families, encoded by eukaryotic, ...
Impact of viral propagation on user interface design. A Giardina, R Vasa, F Tan. (2012), pp. 154-157, Proceedings of the 24th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference, OzCHI 2012, E1-1. ...
Trial Team members review FOREO LUNA 3. Read the reviews to find out how our Trial Team rated this multi-tasking skincare tool....
Luna is to indie rock what Hal Hartley is to indie filmmaking: well established but no sellout, distinctive but not repetitive, mannered but heartwrenching. Definitely long-lived in a fickle scene. Both are quintessential New York City laced with a certain vague internationalism, and both solidifie...
EMS foloseste acest principiu natural si este capabil de a intensifica acest proces pentru a ajunge la straturile musculare profunde, care sunt greu de activat prin metodele conventionale de antrename
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type I (ARCL type I) is characterized by generalized cutis laxa with pulmonary emphysema and/or vascular complications. Rarely, mutations can be identified in FBLN4 or FBLN5. Recently, LTBP4 mutations have been implicated in a similar phenotype. Studying FBLN4, FBLN5, and LTBP4 in 12 families with ARCL type I, we found bi-allelic FBLN5 mutations in two probands, whereas nine probands harbored biallelic mutations in LTBP4. FBLN5 and LTBP4 mutations cause a very similar phenotype associated with severe pulmonary emphysema, in the absence of vascular tortuosity or aneurysms. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract involvement seems to be more severe in patients with LTBP4 mutations. Functional studies showed that most premature termination mutations in LTBP4 result in severely reduced mRNA and protein levels. This correlated with increased transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) activity. However, one mutation, c.4127dupC, escaped nonsense-mediated decay. The ...
"Importance of codon usage for the temporal regulation of viral gene expression". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Thus, codon usage can introduce an additional level of transcriptional regulation for appropriate gene expression under ... Fox JM, Erill I (June 2010). "Relative codon adaptation: a generic codon bias index for prediction of gene expression". DNA Res ... Heterologous gene expression is used in many biotechnological applications, including protein production and metabolic ...
Regulation and Genetics Viral Gene Expression and Integration. Plenum Press. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-4684-0832-4. Manzoni, Tomaz B; ... were produced and that these interfered with viral replication. This resulted in a reduction in the infectivity of influenza. ... López, Carolina B (July 2018). "Defective (interfering) viral genomes re-explored: impact on antiviral immunity and virus ...
Thus USP7 may also be important for regulation of viral gene expression. The fact that viral proteins have evolved so as to ... "Entrez Gene: USP7 ubiquitin specific peptidase 7 (herpes virus-associated)". Everett RD, Meredith M, Orr A, Cross A, Kathoria M ... Hong S, Kim SJ, Ka S, Choi I, Kang S (Jun 2002). "USP7, a ubiquitin-specific protease, interacts with ataxin-1, the SCA1 gene ... Hong S, Kim SJ, Ka S, Choi I, Kang S (Jun 2002). "USP7, a ubiquitin-specific protease, interacts with ataxin-1, the SCA1 gene ...
McClung CA, Nestler EJ (2003). "Regulation of gene expression and cocaine reward by CREB and ∆FosB". Nature Neuroscience. 6 (11 ... Carlezon WA, Boundy VA, Haile CN, Kalb RG, Neve R, Nestler EJ (1997). "Sensitization to morphine induced by viral-mediated gene ... The Nestler laboratory has driven innovative use of viral-mediated gene transfer, inducible, cell-type specific mutations in ... "Epigenetic basis of opiate suppression of Bdnf gene expression in the ventral tegmental area". Nat Neurosci. 18 (3): 415-422. ...
Modifications in tRNA have the well-known ability to control and modulate gene expression. The regulation of gene expression ... Even if m6A-marked viral transcripts are involved in regulating gene expression of a number of different viruses, the ... Yue Y, Liu J, He C (July 2015). "RNA N6-methyladenosine methylation in post-transcriptional gene expression regulation". Genes ... "Epitranscriptomic regulation of viral replication". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms. 1860 (4 ...
Analysis of Mouse Polyomavirus Infection Reveals Dynamic Regulation of Viral and Host Gene Expression and Promiscuous Viral RNA ... MTag plays a role in viral DNA replication and in the transition from early to late gene expression, and its absence can cause ... The LTag gene is usually encoded in two exons, of which the first overlaps with the genes for STag and MTag. The result of this ... The "late region" contains genes encoding the viral capsid proteins.) In MTag-containing polyomaviruses, the early region ...
Tonnelle C, DeMars R, Long EO (1986). "DO beta: a new beta chain gene in HLA-D with a distinct regulation of expression". EMBO ... Andrieu JM, Even P, Venet A (1986). "AIDS and related syndromes as a viral-induced autoimmune disease of the immune system: an ... The DO beta gene is a divergent member of the class II beta gene family". J. Biol. Chem. 262 (18): 8759-66. PMID 3036827. ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOB gene. HLA-DOB ...
In addition, the expression of IRF genes is under epigenetic regulation by promoter DNA methylation. IRFs primarily regulate ... Following a viral infection, pathogens are detected by Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), including various types of Toll- ... Interferon regulatory factors (IRF) are proteins which regulate transcription of interferons (see regulation of gene expression ... IRF4 and IRF8 specify and direct the differentiation of different subsets of DCs by stimulating subset-specific gene expression ...
... on the sequences of expression regulation of viral and cellular genes. He identified cellular transcription factors responsible ... His work on gene expression regulation has led him to focus on the role of transcription factors and chromatin remodeling ... for the expression of viral genes and their functions in regulating cell growth and oncogenic transformation. His team ... Factors involved in control of tissue-specific expression of albumin gene », Cell, 1987, p. 50:627 Klochendler-Yeivin A, et al ...
Initiation Signals in Viral Gene Expression pp 5-24 Chapter: Regulation of Viral Transcription and DNA Replication by the SV40 ... Banerji, J; Rusconi, S; Schaffner, W (December 1981). "Expression of a β-globin gene is enhanced by remote SV40 DNA sequences ... Unha vez no núcleo o antíxeno T grande únese a tres sitios do ADN viral, chamados I, II e III. Os sitios de unión I e II ... O xenoma viral completo foi secuenciado por Fiers e o seu equipo na Universidade de Gante (Bélxica) en 1978.[27] ...
... regulation and expression of genes. The ribosomes then take the RNA messages and turn them into proteins that build cells. When ... This is how viral infections occur. The cell then explodes with the overproduction of the virus, releasing it into the body to ... A carrier protein delivers a signal to a nuclear pore where it can enter the nucleus and turn the gene on or off. Cells can ... a way to turn off the production of a certain gene inside the protein. RNAi therapy is currently being tested in the treatment ...
... her research focused upon gene regulation in cancer, regulation of viral gene expression, expression of viral genome fragments ... Later she made discoveries about the molecular biology of cancer and of viral gene regulation. Ru-Chih Chow was born April 2, ... was done when little was known about the molecular approach to gene expression. The term chromatin as an interphase state of ... 1980) "Sequence organization of clones intracisternal a particle genes." Cell 21 (2):465-473. L Hoopes, A Brown, and Ru Chih C ...
... which is notably involved in the epigenetic regulation of retroelements and which regulates critical gene expression programs ... Despite a longstanding interests in the biology of viruses and viral infections, research in Trono's lab at EPFL has shifted ... towards the study of mobile genetic elements called transposons and their role in the regulation of mammalian gene expression. ... awarded with two Advanced Grants from the European Research Council in 2010 and 2015 for projects on mammalian gene regulation ...
Concurrently, the down-regulation of anti-viral gene expression leaves the individual more vulnerable to viral infection such ... This process of translation, or "turning on" of a gene to its final gene products is termed gene expression. Genetic expression ... characterized by increased pro-inflammatory gene expression and a suppression of anti-viral gene expression, has been proposed ... on the expression of individual genes, or more commonly, clusters of many genes (i.e. gene profiles, or gene programs). In the ...
... perhaps having to do with the regulation of gene expression. Recently a study showed that most CpG islands are a result of non- ... This is used to detect intracellular viral infection.. CpG dinucleotides have long been observed to occur with a much lower ... This observation led to the speculation that methylation of CpG sites in the promoter of a gene may inhibit gene expression. ... of far more genes than does mutation.. DNA repair genes with hyper/hypo-methylated promoters in cancers[edit]. DNA repair genes ...
"MiR-155-5p modulates HSV-1 replication via the epigenetic regulation of SRSF2 gene expression". Epigenetics. 14 (5): 494-503. ... Hence, based on location Paraspeckles are thought to play a role in cancer regulation, reproduction and viral management. One ... an immune-responsive gene, or can activate the ADARB2 gene. Thus, gene regulation can be manipulated not just through ... "NEAT1 regulates neuroglial cell mediating Aβ clearance via the epigenetic regulation of endocytosis-related genes expression". ...
... working on transcriptional regulation of cell and viral gene expressions, as well as viral vectors in gene therapy. He was the ... At the University of Michigan, Nabel's basic research investigated gene transfer, basic mechanisms of HIV gene regulation and ... studying regulation of HIV gene expression by the recently discovered NF-κB, a host transcription factor. He completed his ... "Direct gene transfer with DNA-liposome complexes in melanoma: expression, biologic activity, and lack of toxicity in humans". ...
As miRNAs generally function to repress gene expression by binding to 3'UTR sites, this positive regulation of viral ... "Integration of microRNA miR-122 in hepatic circadian gene expression". Genes Dev. 23 (11): 1313-1326. doi:10.1101/gad.1781009. ... There is evidence that miR-122 is regulated by Rev-ErbA alpha which is involved in circadian gene expression, suggesting that ... Lee, HC; Narayanan, S; Park, SJ; Seong, SY; Hahn, YS (21 February 2014). "Transcriptional regulation of IFN-λ genes in ...
... and mRNA translation and regulation of gene expression. VP1 is located in the core of the virus particle and is an RNA- ... Viral particles are up to 76.5 nm in diameter and are not enveloped. There are six viral proteins (VPs) that form the virus ... Each helix, or segment, is a gene, numbered 1 to 11 by decreasing size. Each gene codes for one protein, except genes 9, which ... NSP4 is a viral enterotoxin that induces diarrhoea and was the first viral enterotoxin discovered. NSP5 is encoded by genome ...
Because of its central role in controlling eukaryotic gene expression, P-TEFb is subject to stringent regulation at the level ... The structure of HIV Tat bound to P-TEFb demonstrated that the viral protein forms extensive contacts with the cyclin T1 ... Genes Dev 2011; 25:661-72. He N, Liu M, Hsu J, Xue Y, Chou S, Burlingame A, et al. HIV-1 Tat and host AFF4 recruit two ... Genes Dev 1998; 12:755-62. Yang Z, Yik JH, Chen R, He N, Jang MK, Ozato K, et al. Recruitment of P-TEFb for stimulation of ...
"Epigenetic regulation of latent HSV-1 gene expression". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms. 1799 ... In the lytic phase, the viral genes are being actively transcribed and many times ultimately lead to cell death. In the lytic ... Instead, it appears that the main way that expression of viral transcripts is maintained at a lower level during latency is ... The mechanism that controls this is very complex because expression of viral proteins during latency is decreased a great deal ...
Env is a viral gene that encodes the protein forming the viral envelope. The expression of the env gene enables retroviruses to ... "Regulation of human immunodeficiency virus env expression by the rev gene product". J. Virol. 63 (5): 1959-66. doi:10.1128/JVI. ... The env mRNA must be spliced for expression. The mature product of the env gene is the viral spike protein, which has two main ... Env expression is regulated by the gene product of rev. Experimental deletion of rev resulted in the inability to detect the ...
The viral promoter or other transcription regulation elements, in turn, cause over-expression of that proto-oncogene, which, in ... In either case, expression of these genes promotes the malignant phenotype of cancer cells. Tumor suppressor genes are genes ... Epigenetics is the study of the regulation of gene expression through chemical, non-mutational changes in DNA structure. The ... In acutely transforming viruses, the viral particles carry a gene that encodes for an overactive oncogene called viral-oncogene ...
... gene expression regulation, plant MeSH G05.315.385 - gene expression regulation, viral MeSH G05.315.410 - gene silencing MeSH ... gene expression regulation, fungal MeSH G05.315.370 - gene expression regulation, neoplastic MeSH G05.315.370.500 - gene ... gene amplification MeSH G05.315.290 - gene expression regulation, archaeal MeSH G05.315.300 - gene expression regulation, ... gene expression regulation, developmental MeSH G05.315.320 - gene expression regulation, enzymologic MeSH G05.315.320.200 - ...
Regulation: Regulation of gene expression and protein activity; information processing in response to environmental input; ... Other/Unknown: an unknown function, viral proteins, or toxins. Each domain superfamily in SCOP classes a to g were manually ... Gene Ontology Domain-centric Gene Ontology (GO) automatically annotated. Due to the growing gap between sequenced proteins and ... "Gene ontology: Tool for the unification of biology. The Gene Ontology Consortium". Nature Genetics. 25 (1): 25-29. doi:10.1038/ ...
... understanding of gene expression and the regulation of cell growth.[citation needed] SV40 was first identified by Ben Sweet and ... The complete viral genome was sequenced by Fiers and his team at the University of Ghent (Belgium) in 1978. Viruses portal ... Inside the cell nucleus, the cellular RNA polymerase II acts to promote early gene expression. This results in an mRNA that is ... Banerji, J; Rusconi, S; Schaffner, W (December 1981). "Expression of a β-globin gene is enhanced by remote SV40 DNA sequences ...
In the context of gene regulation: transactivation is the increased rate of gene expression triggered either by biological ... HIV and HTLV are just two of the many viruses that encode transactivators to enhance viral gene expression. These ... Because the expression of the transactivator gene can be controlled, transactivation can be used to turn genes on and off. If ... The expression of one transactivator gene can activate multiple genes, as long as they have the same, specific promoter region ...
"Reduced Expression of Brain-Enriched microRNAs in Glioblastomas Permits Targeted Regulation of a Cell Death Gene". PLOS ONE. 6 ... Tax mediated downregulation of miRNAs associated with chromatin remodeling factors in T cells with stably integrated viral ... The common target gene for miR-873, β-glycan, has increased expression. It is thought that miR-873, along with other miRNAs, ... MicroRNAs function to regulate the expression levels of other genes by several mechanisms. Significant miR-873 reductions have ...
Yagi M، Zieger B، Roth GJ، Ware J (June 1998). "Structure and expression of the human septin gene HCDCREL-1". Gene. 212 (2): ... regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. • synaptic vesicle targeting. • انقسام خلوي. • regulation of exocytosis. • mitotic ... "Dopamine-dependent neurodegeneration in rats induced by viral vector-mediated overexpression of the parkin target protein, ... characterization and expression analysis of the human septin SEPT8 (KIAA0202)". Gene. 312: 313-20. PMID 12909369. doi:10.1016/ ...
... while most genes involved in genome expression are common between Archaea and Eukarya.[66] Within prokaryotes, archaeal cell ... the impact of viral infection is higher on archaea than on bacteria and virus-induced lysis of archaea accounts for up to one- ... "DNA-binding proteins and evolution of transcription regulation in the archaea". Nucleic Acids Res. 27 (23): 4658-70. doi ... Asexual reproduction, horizontal gene transfer. Asexual reproduction, horizontal gene transfer. Sexual and asexual reproduction ...
... and viral genes.[8][2] The TATA box was found in protein coding genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II.[2] ... Mutations in maize promoters affect the expression of the promoter genes in a plant-organ-specific manner.[29] A duplication of ... Gene transcription by RNA polymerase II depends on the regulation of the core promoter by long-range regulatory elements such ... The type of core promoter affects the level of transcription and expression of a gene. TATA-binding protein (TBP) can be ...
... transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation. Neuroscience. Stanley Institute for Cognitive Genomics employs deep ... 21] See the classic paper McClintock B 1951 "Chromosome Organization and Genic Expression" (Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. ... A.D. Hershey and Martha Chase, "Independent Functions of Viral Protein and Nucleic Acid in Growth of Bacteriophage," J. General ... In 1988 Ed Harlow demonstrates that cancer-causing and cancer-preventing genes (oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes) interact; ...
Hargrove JL, Berdanier CD (1993). Nutrition and gene expression. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-6961-2. .. [page needed ... "Margarine Regulations". Archived from the original on 2007-10-11.. *^ "Enriched White Bread in Canada". The Canadian Celiac ... "Gene-culture coevolution between cattle milk protein genes and human lactase genes". Nature Genetics. 35 (4): 311-3. doi: ... expression in mice could be attributed to the accumulation of DNA methylation in the Lct gene and the adjacent Mcm6 gene.[94] ...
posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. • negative regulation of gene expression. • regulation of centrosome ... viral process. • DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in cell cycle arrest. • regulation of ... regulation of cell cycle. • positive regulation of protein localization to nucleolus. • chromatin remodeling. • regulation of ... positive regulation of cell cycle G2/M phase transition. • negative regulation of centrosome duplication. • regulation of ...
... and transient gene expression in deficient cells". American Journal of Human Genetics. 47 (3): 440-5. PMC 1683879. PMID 2203258 ... regulation of the force of heart contraction. • diaphragm contraction. • heart morphogenesis. • maltose metabolic process. • ... This article on a gene on human chromosome 17 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... it is encoded by the GAA gene.[6] Errors in this gene cause glycogen storage disease type II (Pompe disease). ...
"Seizures and the regulation of neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide gene expression in brain". Epilepsy Research. Supplement. 4 ... of BDNF into the lateral ventricles doubled the population of newborn neurons in the adult rat olfactory bulb and viral ... positive regulation of receptor binding. • regulation of protein localization to cell surface. • regulation of receptor ... Expression[edit]. The BDNF protein is encoded by a gene that is also called BDNF, found in humans on chromosome 11.[7][8] ...
The host cell then treats the viral DNA as part of its own genome, transcribing and translating the viral genes along with the ... The promoter of the provirus DNA can also cause over expression of regulatory genes. ... "Impact of transposable elements on the evolution of mammalian gene regulation". Cytogenet Genome Res. 110 (1-4): 342-52. doi: ... Gene therapy[edit]. Gammaretroviral and lentiviral vectors for gene therapy have been developed that mediate stable genetic ...
Eugene Paul Wigner; Andrew Szanton (1992). Andrew Szanton, ed. The Recollections of Eugene P. Wigner As Told to Andrew Szanton ... nor even with an expression of emotional antipathy, for he loved to use religious expressions and metaphors, but simply by ... Norman Pirie FRS (1907-1997): British biochemist and virologist co-discoverer in 1936 of viral crystallization, an important ... a liberal who advocated state regulation, an individualist who championed social cooperation, and a very private public ...
Some of the viruses evolved into DNA viruses to protect their genes from attack. Through the process of viral infection into ... Riboswitches have been found to act as regulators of gene expression, particularly in bacteria, but also in plants and archaea ... Such enzyme targeting is also responsible for gene down regulation though RNA interference (RNAi), where an enzyme-associated ... RNA thermometers regulate gene expression in response to temperature changes.[44] Support and difficulties[edit]. The RNA world ...
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q IMMUNOLOGY - CHAPTER ONE - INNATE (NON-SPECIFIC) IMMUNITY Gene Mayer, Ph.D. Immunology ... Neural regulation[edit]. The innate immune response to infectious and sterile injury is modulated by neural circuits that ... When host cells die, either by programmed cell death (also called apoptosis) or by cell injury due to a bacterial or viral ... although indispensable for expression of SAR, is not the translocated signal responsible for the systemic response. Recent ...
Regulation of gene expression. *Gene regulatory network. *Developmental-genetic toolkit. *Evolutionary developmental biology ... "Viral quasispecies evolution". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 76 (2): 159-216. doi:10.1128/mmbr.05023-11. PMC ... then gene A is epistatic and gene B is hypostatic. For example, the gene for total baldness is epistatic to the gene for brown ... Epistasis within genes[edit]. Just as mutations in two separate genes can be non-additive if those genes interact, mutations in ...
"Expression in Escherichia coli of chemically synthesized genes for human insulin". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Staff (28 November 2005) Health Canada - The Regulation of Genetically Modified Food Glossary definition of Genetically ... "Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage". The Journal of General Physiology. 36 (1 ... "Artificial Genes". TIME. 15 November 1982. Diakses tanggal 17 July 2010.. *^ Bratspies, Rebecca (2007). "Some Thoughts on the ...
Downstream effects of this include regulation of gene expression and the cell cycle. The role of PI3K has been investigated by ... A non-viral PDGF "bio patch" can regenerate missing or damaged bone by delivering DNA in a nano-sized particle directly into ... and gene expression and significantly augmented the influx of inflammatory cells and fibroblasts, accelerating extracellular ... It has been shown that the sis oncogene is derived from the PDGF B-chain gene. PDGF-BB is the highest-affinity ligand for the ...
negative regulation of gene expression. • protein localization to plasma membrane. • positive regulation of protein catabolic ... negative regulation of viral genome replication. • humoral immune response. • positive regulation of interleukin-8 production. ... positive regulation of gene expression. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via ... positive regulation of cell adhesion. • regulation of protein secretion. • positive regulation of apoptotic process. • ...
ISBN 0-8153-3218-1. [1] Chapter 7: Control of Gene Expression, pp 451-452. Ding, S. W.; Voinnet, O. (2007). "Antiviral Immunity ... Some viral families, such as the Bromoviridae instead opt to have multipartite genomes, genomes split between multiple viral ... which is a form of translational regulation. In TMV, this extra sequence of polypeptide is an RNA polymerase that replicates ... The structure of a virus is given by its coat of proteins, which surround the viral genome. Assembly of viral particles takes ...
After integration, the viral gene expression and particle production may take place immediately or at some point in the future ... This protein may use the morpheein model of allosteric regulation. Site-specific recombinase technology Masuda, Takao (2011-01- ... Integration occurs following production of the double-stranded viral DNA by the viral RNA/DNA-dependent DNA polymerase reverse ... ends of the viral DNA to expose the invariant CA dinucleotides at both 3'-ends of the viral DNA. the strand transfer reaction, ...
RNA and the regulation of gene expression: a hidden layer of complexity. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-25-7.. ... Viral genomes[change , change source]. Viral genomes, which are usually RNA, take over the cell machinery and make both new ... Small interfering RNAs (sometimes called silencing RNAs) interfere with the expression of a specific gene. They are quite small ... There are a number of RNAs which regulate genes, that is, they regulate the rate at which genes are transcribed or translated.[ ...
Among communicable diseases, both viral and bacterial, AIDS/HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria are the most common, causing ... and expression of disease.[57] Stress management is the application of methods to either reduce stress or increase tolerance to ... which handles regulation and policy relating to worker safety and health.[60][61][62] ... Biological factors, such as genes or brain chemistry. *Life experiences, such as trauma or abuse ...
... he researched the regulation of bacterial gene expression by cyclic AMP. In 1970, he began postdoctoral research in Bishop's ... Their discovery triggered the identification of many other cellular proto-oncogenes-progenitors of viral oncogenes and targets ... Jacks, T. and Varmus, H.E. Expression of the Rous sarcoma virus pol gene by ribosomal frameshifting. Science 230:1237, 1985. ... Their best-known accomplishment[7] was the identification of a cellular gene (c-src) that gave rise to the v-src oncogene of ...
... such as long-noncoding RNA and microRNAs in gene expression regulation. Small-seq is a single-cell method that captures small ... "Improved genome recovery and integrated cell-size analyses of individual uncultured microbial cells and viral particles" ... patterns of gene expression can be identified through gene clustering analyses. This can uncover the existence of rare cell ... Specifically, scientists have used gene expression profiles from pan-cancer datasets in order to build coexpression networks, ...
"Androgen receptor gene amplification and protein expression in recurrent prostate cancer". The Journal of Urology. 170 (5): ... Viral infection. Papilloma virus has been proposed in several studies to have a potential role in prostate cancer, but as of ... "Regulation of inflammation in cancer by eicosanoids". Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 96 (1-4): 27-36. doi:10.1016/j. ... No single gene is responsible for prostate cancer; many different genes have been implicated. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, ...
Gene regulation[edit]. Main article: Regulation of gene expression. At the cellular level, homeostasis is carried out by ... such as the advent of a concurrent acute viral infection), which sends the body reeling through a new cascade of events. Such ... receptors include nuclear receptors that bring about changes in gene expression through up-regulation or down-regulation, and ... Main articles: Blood sugar regulation and Glycolysis § Regulation of the rate limiting enzymes ...
"Gene expression analysis of human red blood cells". International Journal of Medical Sciences. 6 (4): 156-9. doi:10.7150/ijms. ... Tilton, WM; Seaman, C; Carriero, D; Piomelli, S (August 1991). "Regulation of glycolysis in the erythrocyte: role of the ... as recognized by the presence of giant pronormoblasts with viral particles and inclusion bodies, thus temporarily depleting the ... XK - defines the Kell Blood Group and the Mcleod unusual phenotype (lack of Kx antigen and greatly reduced expression of Kell ...
Several roles in gene expression have been attributed to the untranslated regions, including mRNA stability, mRNA localization ... Spatial regulation of bold beta-actin translation by Src-dependent phosphorylation of ZBP1 Nature04115. ... Hajj, Khalid A.; Whitehead, Kathryn A. (12 September 2017). "Tools for translation: non-viral materials for therapeutic mRNA ... where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression. RNA polymerase transcribes primary ...
More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • phosphatase binding. • phosphoprotein phosphatase activity ... negative regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling. • negative regulation of ... viral process. • T cell cytokine production. • T cell activation. • peristalsis. • receptor localization to synapse. • single ... regulation of ventricular cardiac muscle cell action potential. • regulation of potassium ion import. • regulation of voltage- ...
negative regulation of gene expression. • cellular response to DNA damage stimulus. • negative regulation of G1/S transition of ... HIV infected individuals who naturally suppress viral replication have elevated levels of p21 and its associated mRNA. p21 ... positive regulation of B cell proliferation. • negative regulation of cell growth. • cell cycle arrest. • response to ... positive regulation of programmed cell death. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • response to glucocorticoid. • ...
Regulation of GAD65 and GAD67[edit]. Despite an extensive sequence similarity between the two genes, GAD65 and GAD67 fulfill ... December 1993). "Differential expression of GAD65 and GAD67 in human, rat, and mouse pancreatic islets". Diabetes. 42 (12): ... The bilateral delivery of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) by an adeno-associated viral vector into the subthalamic nucleus of ... which are encoded by two different genes on different chromosomes (GAD1 and GAD2 genes, chromosomes 4 and 10 respectively).[1][ ...
"Regulation of L1 expression and retrotransposition by melatonin and its receptor: implications for cancer risk associated with ... Doshi, Viral; Bauer, Chee Yoon; Aston, Christopher; Muppavarapu, Kalyan; Christian, Francis (2019-04-13). "0630 Sleep Health of ... Gene-transcription feedback loops in individual SCN cells form the molecular basis of biological timekeeping.[13] Circadian ... Nicholson PJ, D'Auria DA (April 1999). "Shift work, health, the working time regulations and health assessments". Occupational ...
Unraveling cellular gene expression regulation during viral infection. Viruses are by definition fully dependent on the ... we uncover diverse and dynamic translational regulation for subsets of host genes. Although ribosome profiling provides precise ... and quantitative analysis of genes that are translationally regulated, our molecular understanding of this type of regulation ... and the extent to which translation machinery contributes to the overall pattern of viral replication and pathogenesis remained ...
RUNX genes in development and cancer: regulation of viral gene expression and the discovery of RUNX family genes.. Ito Y1. ... They have genomic alterations within the viral enhancer, which is required for viral gene expression and DNA replication. This ... and a human gene AML1 that was identified as a part of the fusion gene, AML1/ETO (MTG8) generated by t(8;21) chromosome ... There are three mammalian RUNX genes, RUNX1, RUNX2, and RUNX3. RUNX1 is essential for generation of hematopoietic stem cells ...
Since many chromosomal genes are known to be required for the replication, expression, and regulation of this viral genome ... However, after mating and sporulation, the [KIL-d] element becomes active in epigenetic regulation of viral gene expression in ... Cytoplasmic Genetic Element of Yeast Results in Epigenetic Regulation of Viral M Double-Stranded RNA Gene Expression. Zsolt ... Cytoplasmic Genetic Element of Yeast Results in Epigenetic Regulation of Viral M Double-Stranded RNA Gene Expression. Zsolt ...
... are small RNAs that play important roles in the regulation of gene expression. First described as posttranscriptional gene ... While deciphering the functions of viral miRNAs has lagged behind their discovery, recent functional studies are bringing into ... Intensification of cART does not decrease the residual viral load or immune activation. cART restricts the synthesis of ... KSHV reactivation from latency is an exceedingly intricate process mediated by the integration of viral and cellular factors. ...
We have also learned the important functions of noncoding RNAs and epigenetic regulations. More importantly, whole genome ... Each chapter is written by experts investigating biological stresses, epigenetic regulation, and functions of transcription ... Viral GenomesMolecular Structure, Diversity, Gene Expression Mechanisms and Host-Virus InteractionsEdited by Maria Garcia ... Gene Expression and Regulation in Mammalian CellsTranscription Toward the Establishment of Novel TherapeuticsEdited by Fumiaki ...
Human cytomegalovirus miR-UL112-1 promotes the down-regulation of viral immediate early gene expression during latency to ... Human cytomegalovirus miR-UL112-1 promotes the down-regulation of viral immediate early gene expression during latency to ... viral IE gene expression thereby preventing recognition of latently infected cells by the hosts potent pre-existing anti-viral ... Lau_et_al-2016-Journal_of_Gene .... Size:. 2Mb. Format:. PDF. Description:. Accepted version. ...
You are here: Home Groups Albert Jordan: Chromatin regulation of human and viral gene expression ... Jordan A (2016) Editor of the Special Issue: Histone H1 in gene expression and development. BBA Gene Regulatory Mechanisms 1859 ... Jordan A (2016) Editorial-Histone H1 in gene expression and development. BBA Gene Regulatory Mechanisms 1859(3): 429-30. ... where he became interested in the role of chromatin in human and viral gene expression control. In 2002 he got a Ramon y Cajal ...
Genome Replication and Regulation of Viral Gene Expression. *. Open Access. Genome Replication and Regulation of Viral Gene ... Genome Replication and Regulation of Viral Gene Expression. Expression of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 MicroRNAs in Cell Culture ... Genome Replication and Regulation of Viral Gene Expression. Lysis Delay and Burst Shrinkage of Coliphage T7 by Deletion of ... Genome Replication and Regulation of Viral Gene Expression. Palmitoylation and p8-Mediated Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 ...
Genome Replication and Regulation of Viral Gene Expression. Comparative Analysis of Gene Expression in Virulent and Attenuated ... Genome Replication and Regulation of Viral Gene Expression. Design and Use of Chikungunya Virus Replication Templates Utilizing ... Genome Replication and Regulation of Viral Gene Expression. Determination of Critical Requirements for Classical Swine Fever ... Genome Replication and Regulation of Viral Gene Expression. *. ... Genome Replication and Regulation of Viral Gene Expression. * ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Viral* * HIV / physiology* * Host-Pathogen Interactions* * Humans * Nuclear Proteins / chemistry ... We begin with a focus on acetylated viral factors, followed by a discussion of structural and biological studies defining the ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial * Gene Expression Regulation, Viral * Genes, Bacterial * Genes, Viral ... THe genetic determinants mediating expression of enterotoxin A (entA) and staphylokinase (sak) were cloned from the DNA of the ... triple-converting phage and expression of the cloned determinants detected in Escherichia coli and S. aureus. The entA and sak ...
Coronavirus nonstructural protein 1: Common and distinct functions in the regulation of host and viral gene expression. Virus ... Coronavirus nonstructural protein 1 : Common and distinct functions in the regulation of host and viral gene expression. In: ... Coronavirus nonstructural protein 1 : Common and distinct functions in the regulation of host and viral gene expression. / ... title = "Coronavirus nonstructural protein 1: Common and distinct functions in the regulation of host and viral gene expression ...
Alternative polyadenylation mediates genetic regulation of gene expression Briana E Mittleman et al. ... 4) The GWAS to viral sequence variation is probably the most interesting finding of this study, with 48 viral amino acids ... Evidence of differential HLA class i-mediated viral evolution in functional and accessory/regulatory genes of HIV-1 * ZL Brumme ... HIV-1 amino acids vs plasma viral load. To address whether there was an observable impact of viral mutation on a clinical ...
The journal welcomes studies on viruses as well as on viral infections and diseases. The journal will feature articles on new ... virus discovery, molecular characterization of viruses, viral pathogenesis and host immunity, vaccine development, antiviral ... PLANT POSITIVE-STRANDED RNA VIRUSES: STRUCTURE, EXPRESSION AND REGULATION OF THE VIRAL GENES ...
... novel anticode oligomers and methods of using them for controlling the growth of cancer cells expressing the bcl-2 gene. ... in Advance in Viral Oncology, 7:35-51, G. Klein (ed.), New York: Raven Press, 1987. High levels of expression of the human bcl- ... bcl-2 gene expression refers to bcl-2 protein production from the human bcl-2 gene; e.g. reduced bcl-2 gene expression means ... Regulation of bcl-2 gene expression. EP0058146A1. Feb 5, 1982. Aug 18, 1982. U C B, S.A.. 2-(4-(Diphenylmethyl)-1-piperazinyl)- ...
It is, therefore, important to study altered expression patterns of cellular genes in adenov ... There is increasing evidence that changes in the transcriptional program of cellular genes in virus-transformed cells can ... Cell Transformation, Viral*. Gene Expression Regulation*. Genes, jun. Genes, myc. Genome, Viral*. Heat-Shock Proteins / ... It is, therefore, important to study altered expression patterns of cellular genes in adenovirus-infected and -transformed ...
Additional Keywords : Gene Expression Regulation. [+] Vitamin E-induced decrease in influenza viral titre is mediated through ... Pharmacological Actions : Heat Shock Protein Down-Regulation, Immunomodulatory, Interferon Gamma Reducer. Additional Keywords ... Diseases : Coxsackievirus Infections, Myocarditis: Viral Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Cardioprotective, ... Pharmacological Actions : Chemokine (C-C motif) Ligand 2 (CCL2) Down-Regulation, Interferon Gamma Reducer, Interleukin-10 ...
Regulation of Baculovirus Ealry Gene Expression; P.D. Friesen. Baculovirus DNA Replication; A. Lu, et al. Regulation of ... Cytological Changes and Viral Morphogenesis During Baculovirus Infection; G.V. Williams, P. Faulkner. Baculovirus Genome ... Regulation of Programmed Cell Death by Baculoviruses; R.J. Clem. Auxiliary Genes of Baculoviruses; D.R. OReilly. Baculovirus ... Baculovirus Late and Very Late Gene Expression; A. Lu, L.K. Miller. The Molecular Basis of Baculovirus Host Range; L.K. Miller ...
"Importance of codon usage for the temporal regulation of viral gene expression". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Thus, codon usage can introduce an additional level of transcriptional regulation for appropriate gene expression under ... Fox JM, Erill I (June 2010). "Relative codon adaptation: a generic codon bias index for prediction of gene expression". DNA Res ... Heterologous gene expression is used in many biotechnological applications, including protein production and metabolic ...
... with the proposed approach to restore normal gene expression. Concise models of the function of posttranscriptional regulatory ... recognized by a complementary set of one or more trans-acting factors to regulate posttranscriptional gene expression. This ... The molecular characteristics of pathological cis-acting sequences that rose from gene mutations or transcriptional aberrations ... Gene Expression and Regulation in Mammalian Cells. Edited by Fumiaki Uchiumi. Next chapter. Influence of Endogenous Viral ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Viral*. Genes, Viral*. Humans. Macromolecular Substances. Promoter Regions, Genetic*. Sp1 ... Next Document: Human papillomavirus type 16 E6 protein transcriptionally modulates fibronectin gene expression by i.... ... 8065918 - Tissue specific expression of the rat ah-receptor and arnt mrnas.. 6094238 - The catabolite gene activation system of ... 0/Viral Proteins; 0/Viral Structural Proteins; 137750-19-7/rep proteins, Adeno-associated virus 2 ...
Influenza; Viral infections; Lung cells; Gene regulation; Gene expression; Proteins; Cellular reactions; Cellular effects; Cell ... We investigated the gene expression profiles of IAV-infected versus mock-infected cells at the early stage of infection using a ... Our data indicate that a significant transcriptional regulation of apoptotic, necrotic and DR genes occur at early and late ... Host-viral interaction occurring throughout the infection process between the influenza A virus (IAV) and bronchial cells ...
Genes; Glands; Viral infections; Lipopolysaccharide; Cell type; Cellular reactions; Gene expression; Gene regulation; ... The expression pattern of microglial markers in Mocha cells suggests that immortalization leads to a more primitive phenotype, ... we isolated and enriched the population of CD11b+ cells from the cochlea and immortalized these cells with the 12S E1A gene of ... stimulation by upregulation of genes (Cox2, ICAM-1, Il6r, Ccl2, Il13Ra and Il15Ra) as well as releasing cytokines (IL-1beta, IL ...
regulation of gene expression Source: GO_Central. *RNA secondary structure unwinding Source: GO_Central ... br>,/br>These range from a single component such as Viral genomes to several components as in the case of eukaryotic ... help/expression_section target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Expressioni. Gene expression databases. Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression ... p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of ...
Viral-gene-expression-regulation-ppat.1002591.s005.ogv 15 s, 504 × 480; 2.2 MB. ...
positive regulation of gene expression, epigenetic Source: Reactome. *positive regulation of type I interferon production ... R-HSA-168325. Viral Messenger RNA Synthesis. R-HSA-1834949. Cytosolic sensors of pathogen-associated DNA. R-HSA-203927. ... help/expression_section target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Expressioni. Gene expression databases. Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression ... p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of ...
We will explore several stratagems used by HTLV-I accessory genes to escape immune surveillance, to establish latency and to ... We will explore several stratagems used by HTLV-I accessory genes to escape immune surveillance, to establish latency and to ... recent evidence suggests that additional viral proteins are essential for the virus life cycle in vivo. In this review, we will ... recent evidence suggests that additional viral proteins are essential for the virus life cycle in vivo. In this review, we will ...
1992) Interaction of p107 with cyclin-A independent of complex-formation with viral oncoproteins. Science 255:85-87. ... Profiling global gene expression changes on up- or down-regulation of RBR3, and investigating its interactions with members of ... Because RBR3 controls expression of key genes involved in the regulation of DNA synthesis, we investigated whether its ... Because RepA expression results in up-regulation of MCM genes, increased DNA replication, and transformation, all of which ...
Our general research interest is the regulation of gene expression during viral infection. Studies of viral gene regulation ... hopeful that our future studies will contribute to the understanding of fundamental principles of gene regulation in both viral ... During the past several years, we have largely focused on gene regulation during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. ... We have investigated the mechanism of action of the viral transcriptional activator protein known as Tat. Tat is unusual among ...
Gene Expression and Regulation; Cardiac Muscle Biology; DNA Repair and Cancer Cell Biology; Fluorescence Spectroscopy; and ... Viral DNA Packaging.. *The PhD Biostatistics track in the UMBC Statistics PhD program affords students the opportunity to gain ... The spectrometer is located in a space where tight regulation of temperature and humidity are maintained. The spectrometer is ...
  • By simultaneously examining the changes in transcription and translation along HCMV infection, using ribosome profiling and RNA-seq, we uncover diverse and dynamic translational regulation for subsets of host genes. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The capsid and capsid-RNA polymerase proteins constitute the helper function that L-A dsRNA provides for M dsRNA satellite viral genomes. (genetics.org)
  • The development of efficient therapies against CHIKV has been hampered by gaps in our understanding of how nonstructural proteins (nsPs) function to form the viral replicase and replicate virus RNA. (asm.org)
  • We begin with a focus on acetylated viral factors, followed by a discussion of structural and biological studies defining the involvement of bromodomain proteins in the HIV life cycle. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, all these SNPs were found within a group of genes known as the HLA (human leukocyte antigen) system, which encodes for proteins that play a vital role in the immune response. (elifesciences.org)
  • Several viral families (herpesvirus, lentivirus, papillomavirus, polyomavirus, adenovirus, and parvovirus) are known to encode structural proteins that display heavily skewed codon usage compared to the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The suggestion has been made that these codon biases play a role in the temporal regulation of their late proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a previous report, we have shown that transactivation of the p40 promoter by the viral Rep proteins required an upstream Rep binding element (in the terminal repeat or the p5 promoter), an unidentified p19 promoter element, and a p40 promoter element (D. J. Pereira and N. Muzyczka, J. Virol. (biomedsearch.com)
  • While the role of Tax and Rex in viral replication and pathogenesis has been extensively studied, recent evidence suggests that additional viral proteins are essential for the virus life cycle in vivo . (frontiersin.org)
  • Expression of viral proteins and replication is under the control of virus long terminal repeat (LTR) transactivator Tax and viral RNA export Rex proteins ( Kashanchi and Brady, 2005 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, the pX region also produces two other proteins, p21-Rex and Rof (p12 Rex Orf I). This review will focus on the role of HTLV-1 regulatory genes in virus infection, immune escape, and transformation. (frontiersin.org)
  • RBR proteins repress cell cycle progression primarily through the inhibition of E2 promoter binding factor (E2F)-dependent transcription, which is required to express many genes involved in S-phase and cell cycle progression, including the minichromosome maintenance 2-7(MCM2-7) family of DNA replication factors ( 4 , 6 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Thus, repression or expression of E2F targets, such as MCM2-7 genes, is a good indicator of the activity of RBR and E2F proteins. (pnas.org)
  • In overexpression studies, all 3 mammalian pocket proteins inhibit E2F-dependent gene expression, recruit chromatin remodeling complexes, actively repress transcription, and arrest cell growth ( 3 , 12 , 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, gene knockouts in mice have shown that, in addition to having overlapping functions, individual pocket proteins have unique properties ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • In HFFs infected by the null mutant Hr6, synthesis of viral late mRNAs and proteins was severely impaired. (asm.org)
  • During the late phase of human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) infection, cellular protein synthesis is severely inhibited, while viral late proteins are made in large quantities ( 3 , 6 ). (asm.org)
  • In infected cells, these last two early proteins form a complex ( 84 ) that has been implicated in regulation of mRNA export ( 12 , 19 ). (asm.org)
  • Our approach usually starts with the cloning of relevant genes and the expression and purification of the encoded proteins. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • Portal proteins or connectors are large multimeric proteins involved in DNA packaging into viral capsids. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • These results demonstrate that NSP1 is degraded through a proteasome-dependent pathway, and viral proteins, alone or in combination with viral mRNAs, interfere with such degradation. (deepdyve.com)
  • In addition, animal virus genomes contain elements and encode proteins that are very useful for the design of vectors for gene cloning and expression in mammalian cells. (waterstones.com)
  • Structural genes contain sequences of DNA that encode for proteins. (wikibooks.org)
  • The early region codes for proteins involved in the regulation of viral transcription (E2), viral DNA replication (E1 and E2), cell proliferation (E5, E6 and E7) and, possibly, some late steps in the viral life cycle (E4). (inchem.org)
  • The late region contains two genes, which code for the capsid proteins L1 and L2. (inchem.org)
  • Adenovirus Early 1A proteins (E1A) are crucial for initiation of the viral life cycle after infection. (mdpi.com)
  • Which genes are expressed (i.e. govern the synthesis of new proteins) is controlled by the machinery that copies DNA to mRNA in a process called transcription. (scienceblog.com)
  • Plasmids expressing the ZEBRA proteins from B95-8 and HR-1 viruses were less efficient at activating replication in D98/HR-1 cells than those which contained the ZEBRA gene from the defective virus. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Furthermore, our analysis reveals a significantly lower than expected frequency of epitopes in early regulatory proteins, suggesting a possible evolutionary- and/or immunoselection directed against variants of viral products that contain CTL epitopes. (jimmunol.org)
  • The virulence of this parasite is reliant upon the mutually exclusive expression of cytoadherence proteins encoded by the 60-member var gene family. (asm.org)
  • Each of these factors is activated by serine phosphorylation in virus-infected cells, either directly or of associated inhibitory proteins, and while the kinases involved and the viral signals important for kinase activation are not completely defined, viral replication in many cases is critical, especially in the case of negative-sense RNA viruses ( 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • The IFN-β enhancer contains binding sites for all three transcription factors necessary for its expression, and their cooperative interaction and concerted recruitment of coactivator proteins allows efficient transcriptional induction of IFN-β expression. (rupress.org)
  • KSHV reactivation from latency is an exceedingly intricate process mediated by the integration of viral and cellular factors. (isharonline.org)
  • Alterations in the levels of expression of specific cellular genes in adenovirus-infected and -transformed cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • There is increasing evidence that changes in the transcriptional program of cellular genes in virus-transformed cells can contribute to virus transformation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It is, therefore, important to study altered expression patterns of cellular genes in adenovirus-infected and -transformed cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We have used 40 different cellular genes or gene segments as hybridization probes to analyze the cytoplasmic RNA from adenovirus type 2 (Ad2)-infected KB cells, from Ad5-transformed human cells (293) or from several Ad2- or adenovirus type 12 (Ad12)-transformed hamster cell lines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We will explore several stratagems used by HTLV-1 accessory genes to escape immune surveillance, to establish latency, and to deregulate cell cycle and apoptosis to participate in virus-mediated cellular transformation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Several years ago, we identified a cellular serine/threonine protein kinase, now termed P-TEFb, which is the crucial co-factor that the Tat protein binds to, resulting in phosphorylation of the CTD and the subsequent activation of transcription of the viral genome. (bcm.edu)
  • We are particularly interested in investigating the normal cellular roles and regulation of P-TEFb in cell types relevant to HIV infection, namely CD4+ T cells and monocytes/macrophages. (bcm.edu)
  • We are hopeful that our future studies will contribute to the understanding of fundamental principles of gene regulation in both viral and cellular systems. (bcm.edu)
  • The human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) E1B 55-kDa protein is required for selective nuclear export of viral late mRNAs from the nucleus and concomitant inhibition of export of cellular mRNAs in HeLa cells and some other human cell lines, but its contributions(s) to replication in normal human cells is not well understood. (asm.org)
  • However, the molecular basis of such coupling remains unknown, nor has the cellular export pathway by which viral late mRNAs are transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm been identified. (asm.org)
  • The E1B 55-kDa protein contains a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) that is recognized by the cellular exportin 1 export receptor and mediates shuttling of the viral protein when it is synthesized either alone or in Ad5-infected cells ( 26 , 58 ). (asm.org)
  • Whereas viruses use, in general, pathways of macromolecular biosynthesis common to the host cell, they have a cunning ability to adopt unusual mechanisms of gene expression and gene replication, provided these special pathways offer an advantage in competition for cellular resources. (waterstones.com)
  • Any study of viral gene expression and replication is likely to lead also to new insights in cellular metabolism. (waterstones.com)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in a variety of cellular processes through regulation of their target gene expression. (gc.ca)
  • Transcriptional profiling followed by ChIP identified a subset of cellular genes that are regulated in a similar fashion to HIV-1 by Spt6 and/or PAAF1, including many that are involved in cancer, such as BRCA1 and BARD1. (cnrs.fr)
  • CONCLUSION: These results show that intracellular levels of Spt6 are fine-tuned by PAAF1 and proteasome, which is required for HIV-1 transcription and extends to cellular genes implicated in cancer. (cnrs.fr)
  • This region of E1A contributes to a variety of processes including the regulation of viral and cellular gene expression, immortalization and transformation. (mdpi.com)
  • It is also been shown that epigenomic regulation mediates cellular responses to external stimuli such as environmental toxins, infection, psychosocial stress, and drugs of abuse. (nih.gov)
  • and special emphasis on structure, mechanism of action, and regulation of cellular and viral encoded transcriptional activators and coactivators. (nasonline.org)
  • however, HSV-1 is able to coopt cellular silencing mechanisms to facilitate the suppression of lytic gene expression. (asm.org)
  • B. Role of cellular splicing factors in viral gene regulation. (utah.edu)
  • C. Gene specific effect of ORF57 on KSHV lytic replication and cellular gene expression. (utah.edu)
  • Expression of genetic information involves cellular and molecular mechanisms. (prezi.com)
  • Major topics in cellular structure and function include prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, metabolic pathways and their regulation, membrane dynamics and cell surfaces, organelles, cytoskeleton, and cell cycle. (ets.org)
  • This, the third volume then looks at transformation and E1A, adenovirus genetics, pathogenesis and gene therapy. (springer.com)
  • Major areas in genetics and molecular biology include viruses, chromatin and chromosomal structure, genomic organization and maintenance, and the regulation of gene expression. (ets.org)
  • Unlike many viruses, HCMV does not suppress the host translation machinery, and the extent to which translation machinery contributes to the overall pattern of viral replication and pathogenesis remained elusive. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The recent emergence of two highly pathogenic human coronaviruses (CoVs), severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV, has ignited a strong interest in the identification of viral factors that determine the virulence and pathogenesis of CoVs. (utmb.edu)
  • Modulation of host gene expression and innate immunity by viruses / edited by Peter Palese. (opal-libraries.org)
  • Animal viruses are providing scientists with relatively simple models to study the molecular biology of genome replication and gene expression. (waterstones.com)
  • Finally, viruses have yielded invaluable reagents in molecular biology as, for example, the vaccinia virus vector for the expression of foreign genes. (waterstones.com)
  • Accumulated experimental evidence has demonstrated that infections by viruses are associated with the altered expression profile of miRNAs and their mRNA targets in the host. (gc.ca)
  • The second section addresses molecular biology of bacteria, including DNA replication, transcription and translation, regulation of gene expression, genomics, and bacterial viruses. (umich.edu)
  • cART restricts the synthesis of infectious virus but does not curtail HIV-1 transcription and translation from either the integrated or unintegrated viral genomes in infected cells. (isharonline.org)
  • took samples of both human and viral genomes from 1071 individuals infected with HIV, the AIDS virus, and used genotyping and sequencing technology to obtain a comprehensive description of the genetic variation in both. (elifesciences.org)
  • Viral RNA was also found associated with ND10 before early protein synthesis (ICP8), suggesting that input virus genomes are deposited at ND10 before they start replication. (nih.gov)
  • The genes encoding Stx are carried in the genomes of resident prophages of the lambda family. (umich.edu)
  • DDX56 relocalizes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it binds to a stem-loop in the viral genome and destabilizes incoming genomes. (asm.org)
  • 4507-4519, 2002), induced a more severe defect in viral mRNA export in HFFs. (asm.org)
  • The observation that the accumulation of viral mRNAs at enlarged interchromatin granules, which form in infected cells as the late phase progresses, correlates with efficient late mRNA export ( 4 , 13 ) provides further support for the view that efficient mRNA export is intimately coupled to the organization of infected cell nuclei. (asm.org)
  • 4. An anticode oligomer as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein said strategic site is in the 5'-untranslated region of said mRNA expressed from the human bcl-2 gene and wherein said anticode oligomer binds exclusively to the or a portion of the 5'- untranslated region. (google.com.au)
  • 10. An anticode oligomer as claimed in claim 8 wherein the strategic site is a sequence portion in pre- mRNA expressed from said bcl-2 gene. (google.com.au)
  • However, the regulatory network of miRNA-mRNA interactions during viral infection remains largely unknown. (gc.ca)
  • In 1998, the American scientists Andrew Fire and Craig Mello published their discovery of a mechanism that can degrade mRNA from a specific gene. (scienceblog.com)
  • When such mRNA molecules disappear, the corresponding gene is silenced and no protein of the encoded type is made. (scienceblog.com)
  • BBA Gene Regulatory Mechanisms 1859(3): 510-19. (csic.es)
  • In this review, we will summarize possible molecular mechanisms evoked in the literature to explain how p12, p8, p30, and p13 facilitate persistent viral infection of the host. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we discuss the importance of known regulatory mechanisms and suggest directions for further study, in particular the use ncRNAs in controlling HIV expression. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, we address the regulatory mechanisms of gene expression and the control mechanisms of DNA replication. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • Studies of the mechanisms that enable EBV to infect nonactivated, noncycling B cells provide compelling evidence for a sequence of events in which EBV binding to CD21 on purified resting human B cells rapidly activates the NF-kappaB transcription factor, which, in turn, binds to and mediates transcriptional activation of Wp, the initial viral latent gene promoter. (nih.gov)
  • In this review, we summarized the current findings of the host- or virus-encoded lncRNAs and the underlying mechanisms, discussed their impacts on immune responses and viral replication, and highlighted their critical roles in host-virus interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in the regulation of viral gene expression. (bireme.br)
  • Specific patterns of neural impulses regulate genes controlling nervous system development and plasticity, but it is not known how intracellular signaling cascades and transcriptional activation mechanisms can regulate specific genes in response to specific patterns of action potentials. (jneurosci.org)
  • We are particularly interested in understanding regulatory mechanisms that influence selection and regulation of HIV sites of integration in the host genome. (nih.gov)
  • Topics covered include nutrient procurement and processing, gas exchange, internal transport, regulation of fluids, control mechanisms and effectors, and reproduction in autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms. (ets.org)
  • Viral infections of humans : epidemiology and control / R.A. Kaslow, L.R. Stanberry, J.W. LeDuc (eds. (opal-libraries.org)
  • Although ribosome profiling provides precise and quantitative analysis of genes that are translationally regulated, our molecular understanding of this type of regulation is still at its infancy. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The molecular characteristics of pathological cis-acting sequences that rose from gene mutations or transcriptional aberrations are briefly outlined, with the proposed approach to restore normal gene expression. (intechopen.com)
  • One unifying concept states that posttranscriptional regulation is mediated by two major molecular components: cis-acting regulatory sequence elements and trans-acting factors. (intechopen.com)
  • As a partner of the European Consortium 3D-REPERTOIRE and coordinator of the Spanish Structural Genomics Consortium GENES , our group studies several protein complexes and molecular machines, some of which are related to the epigenetic control of gene expression. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • Molecular methods are increasingly applied for virus detection in environmental samples without rendering data on viral infectivity. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The Nestler laboratory has driven innovative use of viral-mediated gene transfer, inducible, cell-type specific mutations in mice, and locus-specific epigenome editing to establish causal links between molecular and behavioral phenomena in animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our studies provide basic molecular information helpful for further investigation of the function of the two genes in pig models. (labome.org)
  • One of the molecular hallmarks of the IFN system is its precise regulation of expression ( 9 ). (rupress.org)
  • As a wide range of immunity-related lncRNAs has been identified based on differential expression analysis in response to viral infections, the host lncRNAs have been shown to act as regulators in the innate or adaptive immune signaling pathways ( 11 , 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, we performed small RNA (sRNA)-seq, degradome-seq and as well as a genome-wide transcriptome analysis to profile the global gene and miRNA expression in soybean following infections by three different Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) isolates, L (G2 strain), LRB (G2 strain) and G7 (G7 strain). (gc.ca)
  • The same two regions also contained genes that made soybean plants resistant to the seed discoloration that is often caused by SMV infections and is one of the major losses in seed quality associated with SMV infections. (usda.gov)
  • Using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), based upon HPV virus-like particles synthesized by the expression of HPV late genes in recombinant vectors, antibodies reactive to the virus capsid have been found in a proportion of patients with HPV infections and HPV-related diseases. (inchem.org)
  • It is of great importance for the regulation of gene expression, participates in defense against viral infections, and keeps jumping genes under control. (scienceblog.com)
  • Mammalian cells exhibit numerous strategies to recognize and contain viral infections. (asm.org)
  • The U.S. National Institutes of Health registers 3253 gene therapy studies worldwide, enrolling tens of thousands of subjects, mostly dying from incurable diseases such as cancer, autoimmune diseases (AIDS), and viral infections. (scirp.org)
  • 1 ) Aberrant expression of microRNAs contributes to disease states such as cancer and viral infections. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Whereas viral vectors are impregnated with risks [19] - [23] , non-viral transduction efficiency using liposomes or nanoparticles are significantly reduced. (scirp.org)
  • Viral vectors provide an efficient means for modification of eukaryotic cells, and their use is now commonplace in academic laboratories and industry for both research and clinical gene therapy applications. (bionity.com)
  • THe genetic determinants mediating expression of enterotoxin A (entA) and staphylokinase (sak) were cloned from the DNA of the triple-converting phage and expression of the cloned determinants detected in Escherichia coli and S. aureus. (nih.gov)
  • Employs postgenomic/proteomic era research methodology in such areas as transcriptional regulation, genotype/phenotype based prediction of disease course, genetic association studies, and biomarker development. (queensu.ca)
  • Research areas include: gene regulation, pharmacogenomic applications in diagnosis, drug design, treatment and prediction of outcomes, implications and psychosocial impact of population screening and genetic testing. (queensu.ca)
  • The bacterium Escherichia coli carries approximately 3000 genes, but this total repertoire describes its potential properties and, in reality, only a small subset of this genetic information is expressed at any given moment. (springer.com)
  • Historically, detailed genetic analyses of viral functions and evolution have identified key viral determinants for the successful completion of each stage in the replication cycle. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • Learn about the viral transfer of genetic material into bacteria. (study.com)
  • In every experiment, injection of double-stranded RNA carrying a genetic code led to silencing of the gene containing that particular code. (scienceblog.com)
  • Viral replication results in genetic variation, and viral infection can introduce genetic variation into the hosts. (prezi.com)
  • Histone Arg methylation has been correlated with transcriptional activation of p53 target genes. (environmental-expert.com)
  • However, whether this modification is reversed to repress the expression of p53 target genes is unclear. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Here, we report that peptidylarginine deiminase 4, a histone citrullination enzyme, is involved in the repression of p53 target genes. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Inhibition or depletion of PAD4 elevated the expression of a subset of p53 target genes, including p21/CIP1/WAF1, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Genome-Wide Investigation Using sRNA-Seq, Degradome-Seq and Transcriptome-Seq Reveals Regulatory Networks of microRNAs and Their Target Genes in Soybean during Soybean mosaic virus Infection. (gc.ca)
  • CHIP assays proved that the translocation of MLL1 to chromatin was dependent on NF-?B. Our results suggest that MLL1 is recruited to its target genes by activated NF-?B and regulates their transcription. (labome.org)
  • These observations argue that an important role for miR-UL112-1 during latency is to ensure tight control of lytic viral IE gene expression thereby preventing recognition of latently infected cells by the host's potent pre-existing anti-viral CTL response. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Chromosomal regions associated with SMV seed transmission and seed discoloration contained genes involved in basal anti-viral defenses and regulation of gene expression. (usda.gov)
  • The beta-interferon-mediated antimitogenic state resembles the anti-viral state. (uwgi.org)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that play important roles in the regulation of gene expression. (isharonline.org)
  • Latent infection is associated with a restricted viral transcription programme compared to lytic infection which consists of defined protein coding RNAs but also includes a number of virally encoded microRNAs (miRNAs). (cam.ac.uk)
  • certain host and viral microRNAs can impact HIV/AIDS processes. (nih.gov)
  • For example, it is estimated that non-coding pri- and pre-microRNAs account for approximately 1% of human genes yet regulate the expression of at least 10% of all genes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Thus, the [KIL-d] effect on viral gene expression is epigenetic in nature. (genetics.org)
  • EPIGENETIC phenomena, defined as the alteration of gene expression without change (mutation) in the nucleotide sequence of the gene, occur in many genes in diverse organisms. (genetics.org)
  • Previously described examples (briefly reviewed by H enikoff and M atzke 1997 ) of epigenetic phenomena involve alteration in expression of chromosomal genes in various organisms, generally mediated by the "heritable, but potentially reversible, changes in chromatin structure and/or DNA methylation" ( H enikoff and M atzke 1997 ). (genetics.org)
  • This regulation appears to involve the nucleus of the host cell and is the first example that we are aware of in which an epigenetic phenomenon alters phenotypic expression of a viral RNA genome. (genetics.org)
  • We have also learned the important functions of noncoding RNAs and epigenetic regulations. (intechopen.com)
  • Each chapter is written by experts investigating biological stresses, epigenetic regulation, and functions of transcription factors in human diseases. (intechopen.com)
  • Protein complexes, epigenetic regulation of gene expression and cancer. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • Herpesviruses are subject to epigenetic regulation that modulates viral gene expression, lytic replication, and latency-reactivation cycles. (asm.org)
  • Dr. Weiguo Han's studies of epigenetic regulation of lung cell gene expression in vitro. (montefiore.org)
  • This protein's diverse activities range from nuclear tRNA export and the maintenance of genomic integrity, to cytoplasmic post-transcriptional control of gene expression and receptor mediated cell signaling, to membrane facilitation of iron metabolism, trafficking and fusion. (worldcat.org)
  • The regulation of gene expression (transcription) enables prokaryotes to control their metabolism. (wikibooks.org)
  • Is the Subject Area "Viral genomics" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • By uncoupling RBR3 from the negative regulation of RBR1 in cultured maize embryos through a combination of approaches, we demonstrate that RBR3 has a positive and critical role in the expression of E2F targets required for the initiation of DNA synthesis, DNA replication, and the efficiency with which transformed plants can be obtained. (pnas.org)
  • Initiation appears efficient because most polymerases demonstrate stable gene association. (cnrs.fr)
  • In face of debilitation and death of patients without effective remedy, the FDA, EMA and SFDA have been under pressure since year 1990 to approve initiation of various gene therapy clinical trials. (scirp.org)
  • Transcriptional activation occurs through the interaction of transcription factors binding to the promoters of specific genes. (jimmunol.org)
  • For Wp to represent a target of the signaling pathway, the viral genome must have reached the nucleus and transcriptional activation of Wp must have occurred within the time frame of EBV-induced NF-κB activation. (nih.gov)
  • Activates IFNG and CXCR3 genes in part by recruiting chromatin remodeling complexes including KDM6B , a SMARCA4 -containing SWI/SNF-complex, and an H3K4me2-methyltransferase complex to their promoters and all of these complexes serve to establish a more permissive chromatin state conducive with transcriptional activation (PubMed:10761931, PubMed:17923685, PubMed:21095589). (rcsb.org)
  • Cloning and expression of JE, a gene inducible by platelet-derived growth factor and whose product has cytokine-like properties. (uwgi.org)
  • Cholesterol-rich diet impairs endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and enhances inducible NOS (iNOS) expression. (koreamed.org)
  • Inducible HSP70s encoded by two almost identical hsp70 genes, known as hsp70.1 and hsp70.3 are located in a tandem array on mouse chromosome 17. (koreamed.org)
  • In a second line of research, we use an HIV promoter model to investigate the influence of chromatin organization at the integration site on HIV expression, with a focus on the role of heterochromatin on the establishment of viral latency, and we search for therapies for reactivation. (csic.es)
  • Retinoblastoma-related (RBR) genes inhibit the cell cycle primarily by repressing adenovirus E2 promoter binding factor (E2F) transcription factors, which drive the expression of numerous genes required for DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression. (pnas.org)
  • Binding sites for multiple transcription factors, including NF-κB, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ), 3 and c-Jun, have been identified in the proximal promoter of the TNF-α gene ( 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Epstein-Barr virus binding to CD21 activates the initial viral promoter via NF-kappaB induction. (nih.gov)
  • Regulation of transcription is based on the accessibility of RNA polymerase to the gene being transcribed and is directed by an operon, which consists of structural genes, an operator gene, and a promoter gene. (wikibooks.org)
  • Tyler, J.S., Mills, M.J., and Friedman, D.I. (2004) The operator and early promoter region of the Shiga toxin type 2-encoding bacteriophage 933W and control of toxin expression. (umich.edu)
  • To address this, we have analysed latent infection in myeloid cells using a virus in which the target site for miR-UL112-1 in the 3' untranslated region of IE72 was removed such that any IE72 RNA present during latent infection would no longer be subject to regulation by miR-UL112-1 through the RNAi pathway. (cam.ac.uk)
  • We investigated the gene expression profiles of IAV-infected versus mock-infected cells at the early stage of infection using a PCR array for death receptor (DR) pathway. (cdc.gov)
  • At early stages infection (2h) with IAV significantly upregulated DR pathway genes in HBEpCs, whereas 6h exposure to IAV resulted in downregulation of same genes. (cdc.gov)
  • IAV replication in HBEpCs decreased the levels of DR pathway genes including TNF-receptor super family1, Fas-associated Death Domain, caspase-8, and caspase-3, by 6h, resulting in increased survival of cells. (cdc.gov)
  • The RBR-E2F pathway is conserved in plants, but cereals such as maize are characterized by having a complex RBR gene family with at least 2 functionally distinct members, RBR1 and RBR3. (pnas.org)
  • Our results indicate a cell cycle pathway in maize, in which 2 RBR genes have specific and opposing functions. (pnas.org)
  • Padilla-Noriega, L. 2007-02-01 00:00:00 The nonstructural rotavirus protein NSP1 binds specifically to viral mRNAs and to interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), inducing IRF3 degradation through a proteasome-dependent pathway. (deepdyve.com)
  • High expression of c-fos was dependent on the combined activation of the MAPK pathway and phosphorylation of CREB. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although the interferon (IFN) signaling pathway is a key host mechanism to restrict infection of a diverse range of viral pathogens, its unrestrained activity either at baseline or in the context of an immune response can result in host cell damage and injury. (asm.org)
  • 3(high) CD4(+)CCR7(-) T cell selectivity through two different pathways, including the classic channel activity-associated IL-2 pathway and the new Kv1.3 channel gene expression pathway. (labome.org)
  • Reporter gene assays, leptomycin B (LMB) sensitivity experiments, and RNase protection assays indicate that RU5 gag RNA accesses a nuclear export pathway that is distinct from the LMB-inhibited leucine-rich nuclear export sequence-dependent CRM1 pathway, which is used by the HIV-1 RRE. (jove.com)
  • This viral regulatory region was considered as a potential probe for mouse cell differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • In 293 cells and in three adenovirus-transformed hamster cell lines (T637, BHK21-Ad2E1A-E1B, and BHK21-Ad2 HindIII-G), the transcription of the c-jun gene was increased, whereas c-myc transcription was decreased in the latter two cell lines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The control of gene expression is fundamental to mammalian cell life. (intechopen.com)
  • Next, we isolated and enriched the population of CD11b+ cells from the cochlea and immortalized these cells with the 12S E1A gene of adenovirus in a replication-incompetent retroviral vector to derive a novel microglial cell line, designated Mocha (microglia of the cochlea). (cdc.gov)
  • As evidence of microglial function, Mocha cells phagocytose fluorescent beads at 37 degrees C, but not at 4 degrees C. The expression pattern of microglial markers in Mocha cells suggests that immortalization leads to a more primitive phenotype, a common phenomenon in immortalized cell lines. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, the paradigm that RBR genes are negative cell cycle regulators cannot be considered universal. (pnas.org)
  • The regulation of cell behaviour is fundamental to our understanding of the development of organisms and the pathology of many diseases. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • We examine systems related to horizontal gene transfer which involve the DNA translocation across the cell membranes. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • The deposition of input viral DNA at ND10 is virus gene expression independent, probably indicating cell regulation of this process. (nih.gov)
  • It presents the cell with the signals that ultimately lead to gene regulation-the turning on or off of gene expression. (springer.com)
  • Explore how operons, or clusters of genes, function within the bacterial cell. (study.com)
  • Shows gene expression control in cell. (wikibooks.org)
  • How specificity is maintained between stimulus and transcription of specific genes is a fundamental problem in cell biology. (jneurosci.org)
  • They also form the basis for gene technology, in which a DNA sequence is introduced into a cell to produce new protein. (scienceblog.com)
  • Thus, mice lacking the IRAK-4 gene showed diminished acquired T cell immunity to viral infection. (sciencemag.org)
  • Activates transcription of a set of genes important for Th1 cell function, including those encoding IFN-gamma and the chemokine receptor CXCR3 . (rcsb.org)
  • Paramyxoviruses, including human parainfluenza virus type 3, are internalized into host cells by fusion between viral and target cell membranes. (asm.org)
  • stimulated activation of genes downstream of NF-?B. J Cell Sci. (labome.org)
  • A cell-cycle constraint on the regulation of gene expression by platelet-derived growth factor. (uwgi.org)
  • The importance of non-coding RNAs in gene regulation and cell expression is increasingly recognized. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Gene regulation results in differential gene expression, leading to cell specialization. (prezi.com)
  • However, MyD88 was essential for microbiota-induced colonic expression of the antimicrobial genes Reg3β and Reg3γ in the epithelium, and Myd88 deficiency was associated with both a shift in bacterial diversity and a greater proportion of segmented filamentous bacteria in the small intestine. (bmj.com)
  • The gut harbours a vast ensemble of bacteria, the gut microbiota, encoding 150-fold more genes than our own genome. (bmj.com)
  • In pathogenic bacteria, plasmids may carry antibiotic resistance genes. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • Conjugation is the main route for horizontal gene transfer in bacteria and is responsible for the spread of antibiotic resistance. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • Many bacteria also contain smaller circular rings of DNA called plasmids, which contain accessory genes. (wikibooks.org)
  • This laboratory uses bacteria to study basic questions relating to gene expression and applies this knowledge to the study of the expression of a bacterial virulence factor. (umich.edu)
  • The major contributor to the virulence of these bacteria are the products of genes encoding Shiga toxin (Stx), a glucosidase that destroys ribosomal RNA of eukaryotic cells resulting in a loss of protein synthesis. (umich.edu)
  • They have genomic alterations within the viral enhancer, which is required for viral gene expression and DNA replication. (nih.gov)
  • The first transcriptome analysis performed a decade ago came to a surprising conclusion that only about 2% of the genomic DNA harbors protein-coding genes ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Maize RBR1 represses expression of RBR3 through a mechanism that most likely involves inhibition of E2F transcription factors ( 19 ), and can be circumvented by expression of RepA ( 19 , 29 ), which inhibits RBR1 through a pocket-dependent mechanism ( 17 , 18 , 30 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have investigated the mechanism of action of the viral transcriptional activator protein known as Tat. (bcm.edu)
  • This study characterized the mechanism by which NF-κB family members interact to regulate the human TNF-α gene. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this Review, we consider the evidence pointing towards a neuronal mechanism in migraine development, highlighting the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which is found in small to medium-sized neurons in the trigeminal ganglion. (nature.com)
  • RNA interference was discovered as a mechanism used by cells for regulating gene expression . (wikiversity.org)
  • A. Mechanism and regulation of EBV SM mediated RNA splicing. (utah.edu)
  • Further, we show that the 9AA could significantly inhibit virus replication in activated PBMCs, likely through a mechanism of inhibiting the viral replication machinery. (springer.com)
  • A mechanism study reveals that the phosphorylated p53ser15 may be dissociated from binding to HIV-1 Tat protein, thereby activating the p21/waf1 gene. (springer.com)
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus modulates inflammatory activity by regulating the TLR4 and NF-κB expression in porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Human papillomavirus type 16 E6 protein transcriptionally modulates fibronectin gene expression by i. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Intensification of cART does not decrease the residual viral load or immune activation. (isharonline.org)
  • for example, the transcription factor NF-κB activates a large number of innate and acquired immune response genes. (sciencemag.org)
  • 7 However, despite the progress towards the understanding of the factors responsible for HIV shedding in the lower female genital tract, little is known regarding the regulation of local immune responses in the female genital tract. (bmj.com)
  • We hypothesise that a major role for MMP-12 is its regulation of gene expression during the innate antiviral immune response, controlling the secretion of alpha interferon (IFN-α) during enterovirus induced myocarditis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Expression of the early genes of phage l is regulated by the viral encoded N protein. (umich.edu)
  • In particular, we are exploring how phage-encoded functions contribute to toxin expression and release. (umich.edu)
  • Phage regulatory circuits and virulence gene expression. (umich.edu)
  • Such defects in late gene expression were the result of inefficient progression into the late phase of infection, for viral DNA synthesis was 10-fold less efficient in Hr6-infected HFFs than in cells infected by Ad5. (asm.org)
  • Mutations that prevent synthesis of the E4 Orf 6 protein or reduce binding of this to the E1B 55-kDa protein ( 83 ) result in both mislocalization of the E1B 55-kDa protein and defects in export of viral late mRNAs ( 39 , 70 ). (asm.org)
  • They are then used as the blueprint for protein synthesis (gene expression). (wikibooks.org)
  • Viral latency and regulation of gene expression is a key consideration when developing effective treatments. (mdpi.com)
  • While our understanding of these processes remains incomplete new developments suggest that non-coding RNA (ncRNA) mediated regulation may provide an avenue to controlling both viral expression and latency. (mdpi.com)
  • Epigenomic regulation has been shown to affect the establishment and maintenance of HIV latency. (nih.gov)
  • Both toxin and resistance substances are produced by processing of the single preprotoxin polypeptide produced by translation of viral transcripts of M dsRNA. (genetics.org)
  • Different assays are now available that can detect small amounts of HPV DNA, quantify the amount of viral DNA in clinical specimens, identify a broad spectrum of genital and cutaneous HPV types, test for selected HPV types and localize the viral genome and viral transcripts to individual cells. (inchem.org)
  • Gene expression dynamics revealed an up-regulation of viral transcripts already 1 h post-infection (p.i. (mdpi.com)
  • The E1A gene is encoded at the left end of the viral genome and consists of two exons, the first encoding 185 amino acids in the 289 residues adenovirus 5 E1A, while the second exon encodes 104 residues. (mdpi.com)
  • Studies have revealed both functional conservation and mechanistic divergence among the nsp1 of different mammalian CoVs in perturbing host gene expression and antiviral responses. (utmb.edu)
  • Additionally, some virus-encoded lncRNAs facilitate viral replication through individually or synergistically inhibiting the host antiviral responses or regulating multiple steps of the virus life cycle. (frontiersin.org)
  • PEBP2alpha was found to be highly homologous to a Drosophila segmentation gene, runt, and a human gene AML1 that was identified as a part of the fusion gene, AML1/ETO (MTG8) generated by t(8;21) chromosome translocation associated with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). (nih.gov)
  • We focus our research on the control of gene expression in human cells by chromatin organization, components and modifications, with a focus on the linker histone. (csic.es)
  • Knock-out experiments have suggested that the different variants are redundant and one isoform can substitute for another, but slowly new reports including ours are suggesting specific roles for the H1 variants, including involvement in specific gene expression regulation, and differential distribution in the human genome. (csic.es)
  • 3000 genome-wide scans, testing for associations between host DNA polymorphisms, HIV-1 sequence variation and plasma viral load (VL), while considering human and viral population structure. (elifesciences.org)
  • Computational techniques were then used to search for links between variants in the human DNA sequences and variants in the viral sequences. (elifesciences.org)
  • Many of the genes probed were not expressed in human or hamster cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Studies of viral gene regulation contribute to the understanding of important human pathogens and often lead to insight into general biological processes. (bcm.edu)
  • During the past several years, we have largely focused on gene regulation during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (bcm.edu)
  • However, ectopically expressed wild-type or dominant-negative (DN) versions of these transcription factors have not been employed to document their importance in the regulation of the TNF-α gene in primary human macrophages. (jimmunol.org)
  • 9. An anticode oligomer as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein the cells expressing the human bcl-2 gene are human tumor cells. (google.com.au)
  • Restoration of the expression of transports associated with antigen processing in human malignant melanoma increases tumor-specific immunity. (labome.org)
  • inhibits osteopontin expression in human decidual stromal cells and can be attenuated by 1? (labome.org)
  • They also fuse with genetically abnormal myofibers of muscular dystrophy, cardi omyopathy, or Type II diabetes, transferring their nuclei containing the normal human genome to provide stable, long-term expression of the missing gene products. (scirp.org)
  • Among those was a surprising DNA polymerase type Delta (only found in Eukaryotes), and two genes with closest homology to genes from human parasites of the urogenital tract. (mdpi.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 11884554 The 5' long terminal repeat of spleen necrosis virus (SNV) facilitates Rev/Rev-responsive element (RRE)-independent expression of intron-containing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gag. (jove.com)
  • Cervical cancer is known to be highly associated with viral oncogene E6 and E7 of human papilloma virus. (koreamed.org)
  • All killer virus-infected cells as well as nearly all nonkillers harbor the replication-competent L-A dsRNA viral genome, which functions as a helper virus for satellites, such as M dsRNA. (genetics.org)
  • The present invention provides novel anticode oligomers and methods of using them for controlling the growth of cancer cells expressing the bcl-2 gene. (google.com)
  • Transcription of the ADPRT and the heat shock protein 70 genes was increased in Ad2-infected KB cells and in 293 cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In Ad2-infected KB cells, c-myc gene transcription was decreased. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Host-viral interaction occurring throughout the infection process between the influenza A virus (IAV) and bronchial cells determines the success of infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Our data indicate that a significant transcriptional regulation of apoptotic, necrotic and DR genes occur at early and late hours of infection that are vital in modulating the survival of host cells and replication of IAV. (cdc.gov)
  • The resulting Mocha cells express a number of markers consistent with microglia and respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation by upregulation of genes (Cox2, ICAM-1, Il6r, Ccl2, Il13Ra and Il15Ra) as well as releasing cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-12, IL-13 and RANTES). (cdc.gov)
  • The regulation of TNF-α gene expression in myelomonocytic cells is complex and stimulus-dependent. (jimmunol.org)
  • The A143 mutation, which specifically impaired export of viral late mRNAs from the nucleus in infected HeLa cells (R. A. Gonzalez and S. J. Flint, J. Virol. (asm.org)
  • Viral entry into host cells / edited by Stefan Pohlmann, Graham Simmons. (opal-libraries.org)
  • Understand this method of direct gene transfer between bacterial cells. (study.com)
  • After a series of simple but elegant experiments, Fire and Mello deduced that double-stranded RNA can silence genes, that this RNA interference is specific for the gene whose code matches that of the injected RNA molecule, and that RNA interference can spread between cells and even be inherited. (scienceblog.com)
  • There had long been interest in the idea that it might be possible to alter gene expression by using single strands of nucleic acid that might base pair hybridize with a specific target in cells. (wikiversity.org)
  • Can activate Th1 genes also via recruitment of Mediator complex and P-TEFb (composed of CDK9 and CCNT1 /cyclin-T1) in the form of the super elongation complex (SEC) to super-enhancers and associated genes in activated Th1 cells (PubMed:27292648). (rcsb.org)
  • Protects Th1 cells from amplifying aberrant type-I IFN response in an IFN-gamma abundant microenvironment by acting as a repressor of type-I IFN transcription factors and type-I IFN- stimulated genes (PubMed:28623086). (rcsb.org)
  • The receptor binding protein, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), and the fusion protein (F) facilitate viral fusion and entry into cells through a process involving HN activation by receptor binding, which triggers conformational changes in F to activate it to reach its fusion-competent state. (asm.org)
  • Hao H, Aixia Y, Dan L, Lei F, Nancai Y, Wen S. Baicalin suppresses expression of Chlamydia protease-like activity factor in Hep-2 cells infected by Chlamydia trachomatis. (labome.org)
  • Like EBV SM, KSHV ORF57 is also a post-transcriptional regulatory protein, essential for KSHV lytic replication and has high degree of gene specificity. (utah.edu)
  • Cis-acting regulatory sequence elements are sequences contained in the 3′ and 5′ untranslated region, introns, or coding regions of precursor RNAs and mature mRNAs that are selectively recognized by a complementary set of one or more trans-acting factors to regulate posttranscriptional gene expression. (intechopen.com)
  • Transcription of viral late genes and at least initial processing of viral pre-mRNAs take place at these same sites ( 4 , 14 , 74 , 75 ). (asm.org)
  • In E.coli , we address the PhoB transcriptional activator, a response regulator of the two-component signal transduction system that controls the expression of more than 40 genes related to phosphate assimilation. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • Transduction occurs when fragments of the bacterial chromosome accidentally become packaged into viral progeny produced during a viral infection. (wikibooks.org)
  • Although there is considerable information on the multiple signal transduction pathways leading from membrane depolarization to gene transcription, it is not fully understood how these reactions operate as a system to extract and transmit information from temporally varying stimulation. (jneurosci.org)
  • All three products are of adenoviral origin and are based on single gene transduction. (scirp.org)
  • It is not yet known whether these functional differences are due to variations in expression of the plasmids or to intrinsic differences in the activity of these polymorphic polypeptides. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • These properties indicate that E4 Orf 6 protein-dependent recruitment of the E1B protein to the specialized nuclear sites at which viral late pre-mRNAs are synthesized promotes selective export of the processed mRNAs. (asm.org)
  • Chromosomal regions associated with seed transmission and seed-coat mottling contained homologues of Arabidopsis genes DCL3 and RDR6, which encode enzymes involved in RNA-mediated transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene silencing. (usda.gov)
  • HIV is a chronic viral infection affecting an estimated 34 million people worldwide. (mdpi.com)
  • controls chronic viral infection by promoting the antiviral antibody IgG2a isotype switching and via regulation of a broad antiviral gene expression program (PubMed:27430722). (rcsb.org)
  • Genes are composed of DNA, which contains information coded in the base pair sequences. (wikibooks.org)
  • Single amino acid substitution analogs of the known Mamu A*01 binding peptide gag 181-190 and libraries of naturally occurring sequences of viral or bacterial origin were used to rigorously define the peptide binding motif associated with Mamu A*01 molecules. (jimmunol.org)
  • This review summarizes the current knowledge about the biological functions of CoV nsp1 that provides an insight into the novel strategies utilized by this viral protein to modulate host and viral gene expression during CoV infection. (utmb.edu)
  • Genes responsive to SMV infection are identified as are their potential miRNA regulators. (gc.ca)
  • The specific chapters of this edition are related to the analysis of miRNA, targets and expression profiling, various methods to determine its regulation of gene expression, the preparation and isolation of miRNAs in specific tissues, its detection in the saliva, and potential application in cosmetics, wound healing, and prostate cancer. (springer.com)
  • Additionally, we identified a total of 24 hairpin structures, representing six miRNA gene families, to be miRNA precursors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At least one mathematical model has been developed where both codon usage and tRNA expression co-evolve in feedback fashion (i.e., codons already present in high frequencies drive up the expression of their corresponding tRNAs, and tRNAs normally expressed at high levels drive up the frequency of their corresponding codons). (wikipedia.org)
  • Another problem is that the evolution of tRNA genes has been a very inactive area of research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different factors have been proposed to be related to codon usage bias, including gene expression level (reflecting selection for optimizing translation process by tRNA abundance), %G+C composition (reflecting horizontal gene transfer or mutational bias), GC skew (reflecting strand-specific mutational bias), amino acid conservation, protein hydropathy, transcriptional selection, RNA stability, optimal growth temperature, hypersaline adaptation and dietary nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The selectionist model also explains why more frequent codons are recognized by more abundant tRNA molecules, as well as the correlation between preferred codons, tRNA levels and gene copy numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • These experiments identify an Epstein-Barr virus-encoded gene product, called ZEBRA (BamHI fragment Z Epstein-Barr replication activator) protein, which activates a switch between the latent and replicative life cycle of the virus. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • These observations show that temporal features of action potentials (and associated Ca 2+ transients) regulate expression of neuronal genes by activating specific intracellular signaling pathways with appropriate temporal dynamics. (jneurosci.org)