Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (fos) originally isolated from the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses. The proto-oncogene protein c-fos codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. The insertion of c-fos into FBJ-MSV or FBR-MSV induces osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The human c-fos gene is located at 14q21-31 on the long arm of chromosome 14.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.

A cytomegalovirus glycoprotein re-routes MHC class I complexes to lysosomes for degradation. (1/7149)

Mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) early gene expression interferes with the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) pathway of antigen presentation. Here we identify a 48 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by the MCMV early gene m06, which tightly binds to properly folded beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-associated MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This association is mediated by the lumenal/transmembrane part of the protein. gp48-MHC class I complexes are transported out of the ER, pass the Golgi, but instead of being expressed on the cell surface, they are redirected to the endocytic route and rapidly degraded in a Lamp-1(+) compartment. As a result, m06-expressing cells are impaired in presenting antigenic peptides to CD8(+) T cells. The cytoplasmic tail of gp48 contains two di-leucine motifs. Mutation of the membrane-proximal di-leucine motif of gp48 restored surface expression of MHC class I, while mutation of the distal one had no effect. The results establish a novel viral mechanism for downregulation of MHC class I molecules by directly binding surface-destined MHC complexes and exploiting the cellular di-leucine sorting machinery for lysosomal degradation.  (+info)

The amino-terminal C/H1 domain of CREB binding protein mediates zta transcriptional activation of latent Epstein-Barr virus. (2/7149)

Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is maintained as a nucleosome-covered episome that can be transcriptionally activated by overexpression of the viral immediate-early protein, Zta. We show here that reactivation of latent EBV by Zta can be significantly enhanced by coexpression of the cellular coactivators CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300. A stable complex containing both Zta and CBP could be isolated from lytically stimulated, but not latently infected RAJI nuclear extracts. Zta-mediated viral reactivation and transcriptional activation were both significantly inhibited by coexpression of the E1A 12S protein but not by an N-terminal deletion mutation of E1A (E1ADelta2-36), which fails to bind CBP. Zta bound directly to two related cysteine- and histidine-rich domains of CBP, referred to as C/H1 and C/H3. These domains both interacted specifically with the transcriptional activation domain of Zta in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Interestingly, we found that the C/H3 domain was a potent dominant negative inhibitor of Zta transcriptional activation function. In contrast, an amino-terminal fragment containing the C/H1 domain was sufficient for coactivation of Zta transcription and viral reactivation function. Thus, CBP can stimulate the transcription of latent EBV in a histone acetyltransferase-independent manner mediated by the CBP amino-terminal C/H1-containing domain. We propose that CBP may regulate aspects of EBV latency and reactivation by integrating cellular signals mediated by competitive interactions between C/H1, C/H3, and the Zta activation domain.  (+info)

Identification of additional genes that influence baculovirus late gene expression. (3/7149)

We were unable to confirm transient late gene expression using constructs of 18 genes that had been reported to support Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) late gene expression when transfected into Spodoptera frugiperda cells [Lu, A., and Miller, L. K. (1995). J. Virol. 69, 975-982]. Three genes (orf66, orf68, and orf41) were included, all or in part, in the constructs used in that study, but they had not been independently tested. Therefore we investigated these and neighboring orfs for their influence on late gene expression. We found that orf41 was required for late gene expression and that sequences within orf45 appeared to be required for the expression of orf41. Although orf66 and orf68 did not appear to affect late gene expression, orf69 stimulated expression. orf69 was found to have high homology to recent entries in GenBank from a variety of organisms. In addition, it was found that orf121, which was shown to be involved in early gene expression, and the viral homolog of pcna did not influence late gene expression.  (+info)

The nucleoprotein of Marburg virus is target for multiple cellular kinases. (4/7149)

The nucleoprotein (NP) of Marburg virus is phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues in a ratio of 85:15, regardless of whether the protein is isolated from virions or from eukaryotic expression systems. Phosphotyrosine is absent. Although many potential phosphorylation sites are located in the N-terminal half of NP, this part of the protein is not phosphorylated. Analyses of phosphorylation state and phosphoamino acid content of truncated NPs expressed in HeLa cells using the vaccinia virus T7 expression system led to the identification of seven phosphorylated regions (region I*, amino acids 404-432; II*, amino acids 446-472; III*, amino acids 484-511; IV*, amino acids 534-543; V*, amino acid 549; VI*, amino acids 599-604; and VII*, amino acid 619) with a minimum of seven phosphorylated amino acid residues located in the C-terminal half of NP. All phosphothreonine residues and consensus recognition sequences for protein kinase CKII are located in regions I*-V*. Regions VI* and VII* contain only phosphoserine with three of four serine residues in consensus recognition motifs for proline-directed protein kinases. Mutagenesis of proline-adjacent serine residues to alanine or aspartic acid did not influence the function of NP in a reconstituted transcription/replication system; thus it is concluded that serine phosphorylation in the most C-terminal part of NP is not a regulatory factor in viral RNA synthesis.  (+info)

Inhibition of the rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat-driven transcription by in vitro methylation: different sensitivity in permissive chicken cells versus mammalian cells. (5/7149)

Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) enhancer sequences in the long terminal repeat (LTR) have previously been shown to be sensitive to CpG methylation. We report further that the high density methylation of the RSV LTR-driven chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter is needed for full transcriptional inhibition in chicken embryo fibroblasts and for suppression of tumorigenicity of the RSV proviral DNA in chickens. In nonpermissive mammalian cells, however, the low density methylation is sufficient for full inhibition. The time course of inhibition differs strikingly in avian and mammalian cells: although immediately inhibited in mammalian cells, the methylated RSV LTR-driven reporter is fully inhibited with a significant delay after transfection in avian cells. Moreover, transcriptional inhibition can be overridden by transfection with a high dose of the methylated reporter plasmid in chicken cells but not in hamster cells. The LTR, v-src, LTR proviral DNA is easily capable of inducing sarcomas in chickens but not in hamsters. In contrast, Moloney murine leukemia virus LTR-driven v-src induces sarcomas in hamsters with high incidence. Therefore, the repression of integrated RSV proviruses in rodent cells is directed against the LTR.  (+info)

Interactions between Tat and TAR and human immunodeficiency virus replication are facilitated by human cyclin T1 but not cyclins T2a or T2b. (6/7149)

The transcriptional transactivator (Tat) from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) does not function efficiently in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Only somatic cell hybrids between CHO and human cells and CHO cells containing human chromosome 12 (CHO12) support high levels of Tat transactivation. This restriction was mapped to interactions between Tat and TAR. Recently, human cyclin T1 was found to increase the binding of Tat to TAR and levels of Tat transactivation in rodent cells. By combining individually with CDK9, cyclin T1 or related cyclins T2a and T2b form distinct positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) complexes. In this report, we found that of these three cyclins, only cyclin T1 is encoded on human chromosome 12 and is responsible for its effects in CHO cells. Moreover, only human cyclin T1, not mouse cyclin T1 or human cyclins T2a or T2b, supported interactions between Tat and TAR in vitro. Finally, after introducing appropriate receptors and human cyclin T1 into CHO cells, they became permissive for infection by and replication of HIV.  (+info)

Development of a Western blot assay for detection of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus using capsid and transmembrane envelope proteins expressed from recombinant baculovirus. (7/7149)

A 120-amino-acid polypeptide selected from the transmembrane protein region (tTM) and the major capsid protein p26 of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV) were expressed as fusion proteins from recombinant baculoviruses. The antigenic reactivity of both recombinant fusion proteins was confirmed by Western blot with bovine and rabbit antisera to BIV. BIV-negative bovine sera and animal sera positive for bovine syncytial virus and bovine leukemia virus failed to recognize the recombinant fusion proteins, thereby showing the specificity of the BIV Western blot. One hundred and five bovine serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-BIV antibodies by the recombinant protein-based Western blot and a reference Western blot assay using cell culture-derived virions as test antigens. There was a 100% concordance when the p26 fusion protein was used in the Western blot. However, the Western blot using the tTM fusion protein as its test antigen identified four BIV-positive bovine sera which had tested negative in both the p26 recombinant-protein-based and the reference Western blot assays. This resulted in the lower concordance of 96.2% between the tTM-protein-based and reference Western blot assays. The results of this study showed that the recombinant p26 and tTM proteins can be used as test antigens for the serodetection of BIV-infection in animals.  (+info)

Adventitial delivery minimizes the proinflammatory effects of adenoviral vectors. (8/7149)

PURPOSE: Adenovirus-mediated arterial gene transfer is a promising tool in the study of vascular biology and the development of vascular gene therapy. However, intraluminal delivery of adenoviral vectors causes vascular inflammation and neointimal formation. Whether these complications could be avoided and gene transfer efficiency maintained by means of delivering adenoviral vectors via the adventitia was studied. METHODS: Replication-defective adenoviral vectors encoding a beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) gene (AdRSVnLacZ) or without a recombinant gene (AdNull) were infused into the lumen or the adventitia of rabbit carotid arteries. Two days after infusion of either AdRSVnLacZ (n = 8 adventitial, n = 8 luminal) or AdNull (n = 4 luminal), recombinant gene expression was quantitated by histochemistry (performed on tissue sections) and with a beta-gal activity assay (performed on vessel extracts). Inflammation caused by adenovirus infusion was assessed 14 days after infusion of either AdNull (n = 6) or vehicle (n = 6) into the carotid adventitia. Inflammation was assessed by means of examination of histologic sections for the presence of neointimal formation and infiltrating T cells and for the expression of markers of vascular cell activation (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1). To measure the systemic immune response to adventitial infusion of adenovirus, plasma samples (n = 3) were drawn 14 days after infusion of AdNull and assayed for neutralizing antibodies. RESULTS: Two days after luminal infusion of AdRSVnLacZ, approximately 30% of luminal endothelial cells expressed beta-gal. Similarly, 2 days after infusion of AdRSVnLacZ to the adventitia, approximately 30% of adventitial cells expressed beta-gal. beta-gal expression was present in the carotid adventitia, the internal jugular vein adventitia, and the vagus nerve perineurium. Elevated beta-gal activity (50- to 80-fold more than background; P <.05) was detected in extracts made from all AdRSVnLacZ-transduced arteries. The amount of recombinant protein expression per vessel did not differ significantly between vessels transduced via the adventitia (17.1 mU/mg total protein [range, 8.1 to 71.5]) and those transduced via a luminal approach (10.0 mU/mg total protein [range, 3.9 to 42.6]). Notably, adventitial delivery of AdNull did not cause neointimal formation. In addition, vascular inflammation in arteries transduced via the adventitia (ie, T-cell infiltrates and ICAM-1 expression) was confined to the adventitia, sparing both the intima and media. Antiadenoviral neutralizing antibodies were present in all rabbits after adventitial delivery of AdNull. CONCLUSION: Infusion of adenoviral vectors into the carotid artery adventitia achieves recombinant gene expression at a level equivalent to that achieved by means of intraluminal vector infusion. Because adventitial gene transfer can be performed by means of direct application during open surgical procedures, this technically simple procedure may be more clinically applicable than intraluminal delivery. Moreover, despite the generation of a systemic immune response, adventitial infusion had no detectable pathologic effects on the vascular intima or media. For these reasons, adventitial gene delivery may be a particularly useful experimental and clinical tool.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Chromatin Immunoprecipitation and Microarray Analysis Suggest Functional Cooperation between Kaposis Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus ORF57 and K-bZIP. AU - Hunter, Olga V.. AU - Sei, Emi. AU - Blake Richardson, R.. AU - Conrad, Nicholas K.. PY - 2013/4. Y1 - 2013/4. N2 - The Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) open reading frame 57 (ORF57)-encoded protein (Mta) is a multifunctional regulator of viral gene expression. ORF57 is essential for viral replication, so elucidation of its molecular mechanisms is important for understanding KSHV infection. ORF57 has been implicated in nearly every aspect of viral gene expression, including transcription, RNA stability, splicing, export, and translation. Here we demonstrate that ORF57 interacts with the KSHV K-bZIP protein in vitro and in cell extracts from lytically reactivated infected cells. To further test the biological relevance of the interaction, we performed a chromatin immunoprecipitation and microarray (ChIP-chip) ...
Dr. Millers laboratory studies the mechanisms underlying the switch between latency and lytic replication of two oncogenic herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Current experiments explore how viral and cellular transcription factors that selectively bind to methylated DNA control expression of viral and cellular genes, how cellular gene expression is selectively inhibited while viral gene expression is enhanced, and how viral DNA replication is regulated by cellular proteins. Recent studies focus on a new class of anti-viral agents that inhibit reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus from latency into lytic infection.. ...
Dr. Millers laboratory studies the mechanisms underlying the switch between latency and lytic replication of two oncogenic herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Current experiments explore how viral and cellular transcription factors that selectively bind to methylated DNA control expression of viral and cellular genes, how cellular gene expression is selectively inhibited while viral gene expression is enhanced, and how viral DNA replication is regulated by cellular proteins. Recent studies focus on a new class of anti-viral agents that inhibit reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus from latency into lytic infection.. ...
Viral replication and maturation rely on a complex interplay between viral and cellular proteins. During the replication cycles of herpesviruses, a number of host immune defense mechanisms have to be overcome and, in particular, innate immune barriers that are poorly defined so far have to be circumvented in order to achieve high efficiencies of replication and dissemination in host tissues. Previous work by Cristea et al. (20) has shown that very early during infection, pp65 and IFI16 interact at the HCMV MIEP, thereby triggering an increase in IE protein expression, which is accompanied by a concomitant decrease in antiviral cytokine production. Consistent with this observation, an increase in IFI16 expression during the first steps of HCMV infection has been reported previously by our group (16), confirming that HCMV triggers IFI16 expression with the scope of increasing IE gene expression early during infection.. Based on these observations, the aim of the present study was to investigate ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 protein interacts with PYM to enhance translation of viral intronless mRNAs. AU - Boyne, James R.. AU - Jackson, Brian R.. AU - Taylor, Adam. AU - MacNab, Stuart A.. AU - Whitehouse, Adrian. PY - 2010/6/2. Y1 - 2010/6/2. N2 - Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) expresses numerous intronless mRNAs that are unable to access splicing-dependent cellular mRNA nuclear export pathways. To circumvent this problem, KSHV encodes the open reading frame 57 (ORF57) protein, which orchestrates the formation of an export-competent virus ribonucleoprotein particle comprising the nuclear export complex hTREX, but not the exon-junction complex (EJC). Interestingly, EJCs stimulate mRNA translation, which raises the intriguing question of how intronless KSHV transcripts are efficiently translated. Herein, we show that ORF57 associates with components of the 48S pre-initiation complex and co-sediments with the 40S ribosomal subunits. ...
The repression of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early (IE) lytic gene expression is crucial for the maintenance of the latent viral state. By using conditionally permissive cell lines, which provide a good model for the differentiation state-dependent repression of IE gene expression, we have identified several cellular factors that bind to the major immediate-early promoter (MIEP) and whose expression is down-regulated after differentiation to a permissive phenotype. Here we show that the cellular protein Ets-2 Repressor Factor (ERF) physically interacts with the MIEP and represses MIEP activity in undifferentiated non-permissive T2 embryonal carcinoma cells. This factor binds to the dyad element and the 21 bp repeats within the MIEP - regions known to be important for the negative regulation of MIEP activity. Finally, we show that following differentiation to a permissive phenotype ERF's repressive effects are severely abrogated.
Nuclear mRNA export is a highly complex and regulated process in cells. Cellular transcripts must undergo successful maturation processes, including splicing, 5-, and 3-end processing, which are essential for assembly of an export competent ribonucleoprotein particle. Many viruses replicate in the nucleus of the host cell and require cellular mRNA export factors to efficiently export viral transcripts. However, some viral mRNAs undergo aberrant mRNA processing, thus prompting the viruses to express their own specific mRNA export proteins to facilitate efficient export of viral transcripts and allowing translation in the cytoplasm. This review will focus on the Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 protein, a multifunctional protein involved in all stages of viral mRNA processing and that is essential for virus replication. Using the example of ORF57, we will describe cellular bulk mRNA export pathways and highlight their distinct features, before exploring how the virus has evolved to exploit
Viral infection of mammalian cells entails the regulated induction of viral gene expression. The induction of many viral genes, including the herpes simplex virus gene encoding thymidine kinase (tk), depends on viral regulatory proteins that act in trans. Because recognition of the tk promoter by cellular transcription factors is well understood, its trans induction by viral regulatory proteins may serve as a useful model for the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. A comprehensive set of mutations was therefore introduced into the chromosome of herpes simplex virus at the tk promoter to directly analyze the effects of promoter mutations on tk transcription. The promoter domains required for efficient tk expression under conditions of trans induction corresponded to those important for recognition by cellular transcription factors. Thus, trans induction of tk expression may be catalyzed initially by the interaction of viral regulatory proteins with cellular transcription factors. ...
Gene expression during productive infection by the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) occurs in an ordered and sequential manner, beginning with immediate early (IE), then early (E) and finally late (L) gene expression. Significant work has addressed the regulation of IE and E gene expression while relatively little work has addressed the control of late gene expression. In order to further address HCMV late gene expression, the promoter of the HCMV UL75 (glycoprotein H, gH) late gene was characterized. The data obtained in this study were combined with observations made in two other studies that have addressed HCMV late gene expression to develop a model of the regulation of HCMV late gene expression. The gH promoter and numerous promoter mutants were cloned into a reporter vector to address sequences responsible for the regulation of gene expression. These gH promoter constructs were transfected into human fibroblasts and subsequently infected with HCMV. Our data revealed that viral infection was necessary
DELETION OF THE CARBOXY TERMINUS OT SIMIAN VIRUS 40 LARGE T ANTIGEN AFFECTS VIRAL LATE GENE EXPRESSION A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Terryl Stacy DARTMOUTH COLLEGE Hanover, New Hampshire March 8,1990 ...
In the reproduction of HSV-1, the temporal profile of the viral gene expressions and the molecular mechanisms regulating the expressions are extensively studied. Functional roles of the temporally ordered gene expressions has not yet been clarified. We construct a simple mathematical model for the intracellular replication of HSV-1 to investigate the function of the ordered gene expressions. We obtain the condition for the explosion of the virus from our model. The expression ratio of the early gene to the late gene must be higher than the ratio of the reaction rate of the encapsidation to that of the viral DNA replication for viruses to reproduce successfully. The preceded accumulation of the early gene product prevents the growth arrest. Further, as promoter activity of the early gene becomes higher, the replication speed of virus becomes faster. The structure of early gene promoter that has many binding motif to transcription factor accelerates the replication speed of HSV-1. This structure ...
BACKGROUND:. Despite progress in understanding the pathophysiology of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, its manifestations in the immune compromised host are frequently associated with high morbidity and mortality. In this setting, HCMV disease can develop e.g. following immune suppression as a result of reactivation of latent HCMV acquired earlier in life. The mechanisms leading to establishment of latent infections and their subsequent reactivation are not clear. It is also unknown whether HCMV exists in a latent form with limited viral gene expression or as a persistent infection with normal virus transcription.. DESIGN NARRATIVE:. The specific aims of the study were to: 1) examine the percentage of HCMV positive donors whose bone marrow progenitors contained HCMV DNA using nested PCR and determine if virus could be rescued from those cells. 2) Analyze the HCMV life cycle in hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells. 3) identify and analyze HCMV gene expression in in vivo infected ...
The goal of our studies is to understand the mechanisms that regulate viral late gene expression and genome amplification during the productive life cycle of on...
HPLC Application #15467: SFC - Drugs on Luna 10u Si(2). Column used: Luna® 10 µm Silica (2) 100 Å, LC Column 250 x 4.6 mm, Ea Part#: 00G-4091-E0
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Introduction: During productive infection, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genes are expressed in a temporal cascade, with temporal phases designated as immediate-early (IE), early, and late. The major IE (MIE) genes, UL123 and UL122 (IE1/IE2), play a critical role in subsequent viral gene expression and the efficiency of viral replication. The early viral genes encode proteins necessary for viral DNA replication. Following viral DNA replication, delayed-early and late viral genes are expressed which encode structural proteins for the virion. The late genes can be divided into two broad classes. At early times the gamma-1 or leaky-late class are expressed at low levels after infection and are dramatically upregulated at late times. In contrast, the gamma-2 or true late genes are expressed exclusively after viral DNA replication. Expression of true late (gamma-2 class) viral genes is completely prevented by inhibition of viral DNA synthesis. Areas covered: This review addresses the viral genes required
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) episome is known to interact with the three-dimensional structure of the human genome in infected cells. However, the exact locations of these interactions and their potential functional consequences remain unclear. Recently, high-resolution chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) assays in lymphoblastoid cells have become available, enabling us to precisely map the contacts between the EBV episome(s) and the human host genome. Using available Hi-C data at a 10-kb resolution, we have identified 15,000 reproducible contacts between EBV episome(s) and the human genome. These contacts are highly enriched in chromatin regions denoted by typical or super enhancers and active markers, including histone H3K27ac and H3K4me1. Additionally, these contacts are highly enriched at loci bound by host transcription factors that regulate B cell growth (e.g., IKZF1 and RUNX3), factors that enhance cell proliferation (e.g., HDGF), or factors that promote viral replication (e.g., NBS1 ...
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was first isolated 50 years ago, when the new technology of cell culture became available. The pathogenesis of HCMV disease is complex, involving contributions from the host as well as from the virus. Increasing knowledge about the genetic composition of the virus can help to illuminate this complex series of relationships and provide a rational basis for therapeutic intervention and prevention of disease. The major immediate-early promoter (MIEP) enhancer contains multiple recognition sites for the transcription factors. Additionally, the MIEP is specifically transactivated by the tegument protein pp71, which is released as soon as incoming virions are uncoated. Thus, HCMV employs multiple methods independent of de novo viral gene expression to induce an intracellular milieu favorable to the initiation of immediate-early (IE) gene transcription. Humoral immunity could reduce the level of HCMV replication and reduce disease without being able to eliminate infection entirely.
To verify the assignment of performance of a distinct viral gene, it is actually probably needed to restore the mutation back to the wild form sequence and deter mine irrespective of whether the phenotype in the rescuant viruses is similar to that of the parental virus. Having said that, the rescue procedures could potentially introduce adventitious muta tions that arise elsewhere in the genome. Meanwhile, it truly is doable the deletion of the target ORF could possibly impact the expression of other viral genes, like individuals in close by regions, since the deleted area may well func tion as a regulatory component vital for that expression of those genes, additionally to encoding the target ORF. Substantial research are necessary to demonstrate that the dele tion does not affect every other gene expression in the viral genome.. Alternatively, a viral mutant that contains a sub tle mutation, such as stage mutations, to inactivate the ORF could be info generated. Examination with the phenotype ...
Supplemental material: Late Eocene crustal thickening followed by Early-Late Oligocene extension along the India-Asia suture zone: Evidence for cyclicity in the Himalayan orogen
OG-L002 is a potent selective LSD1 inhibitor, it also inhibits inhibitor MAO-A and MAO-B. OG-L002 inhibits the HSV IE gene expression in vitro and in vivo.
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Researchers have discovered a hidden viral gene lurking in many commercial GMO crops, raising possible concerns about its impact on human health.
HPLC Application #18919: Corticosteroids Analysis on Luna 5u CN 150 x 4.6mm ID. Column used: Luna® 5 µm CN 100 Å, LC Column 150 x 4.6 mm, Ea Part#: 00F-4255-E0
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I dont know If this topic was picked before, but giving a look at old threads something came to my mind. We all know this game is ruled by TEs, and luna is
Alkalno - tremalni izvor kraškog porekla, Lađevac, među meštanima poznat je i kao toplo vrelo, jer temepratura vode konstantno se kreće od 15 do 18 stepeni
The regulatory cyclin, Cyclin T1 (CycT1), is a host factor essential for HIV-1 replication in CD4 T cells and macrophages. The importance of CycT1 and the Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) complex for HIV replication is well-established, but regulation of CycT1 expression and protein levels during HIV replication and latency establishment in CD4 T cells is less characterized. To better define the regulation of CycT1 levels during HIV replication in CD4 T cells, multiparameter flow cytometry was utilized to study the interaction between HIV replication (intracellular p24) and CycT1 of human peripheral blood memory CD4 T cells infected with HIV in vitro. CycT1 was further examined in CD4 T cells of human lymph nodes. In activated (CD3+CD28 costimulation) uninfected blood memory CD4 T cells, CycT1 was most significantly upregulated in maximally activated (CD69+CD25+ and HLA.DR+CD38+) cells. In memory CD4 T cells infected with HIV in vitro, two distinct infected populations of p24+CycT1+
TY - BOOK. T1 - Viral genome replication. AU - Cameron, Craig Eugene. AU - Raney, Kevin D.. AU - Götte, Matthias. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. N2 - Provides the first comprehensive review of viral genome replication strategies, emphasizing not only pathways and regulation but also the structure-function, mechanism, and inhibition of proteins and enzymes required for this process Currently, there is no single source that permits comparison of the factors, elements, enzymes and/or mechanisms employed by different classes of viruses for genome replication. As a result, we (and our students) often restrict our focus to our particular system, missing out on the opportunity to define unifying themes in viral genome replication or benefit from the advances in other systems. For example, extraordinary biological and experimental paradigms that have been established over the past five years for the DNA replication systems of bacteriophage T4 and T7 will likely be of great value to anyone interested in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Media components influence viral gene expression assays in human fetal astrocyte cultures.. AU - McCarthy, M.. AU - Wood, C.. AU - Fedoseyeva, L.. AU - Whittemore, S. R.. PY - 1995/9. Y1 - 1995/9. N2 - In vitro neurovirological studies of viral infectivity or viral gene expression may be confounded by the multiple neural cell types and/or fibroblast contamination present in early passage cultures prepared from dissociated human central nervous system (CNS) tissue. We have developed highly enriched astrocyte cultures for neurovirological study by culturing in a serum-free defined medium, B16, supplemented with basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). Subculture in this medium selects against fibroblast proliferation and favors sustained proliferation of a highly enriched glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cell population. These astrocytes support productive replication of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and transient expression of transfected CMV and human immunodeficiency virus ...
T. gondii is an important zoonotic Apicomplexan parasite, but no drugs could eliminate the pathogen from the host effectively. In recent studies, DNA vaccines have shown the potential to defend against T. gondii infection in view of their abilities to induce long-term humoral and cellular immune responses in animal models. Many rhoptry proteins (ROP5, ROP13, ROP16 and ROP18) [16-19] are identified to be potential candidates for development of T. gondii DNA vaccines. TgROP38, a new member of the rhoptry protein family, was firstly identified by the phylogenomic approach and was found to regulate the expression of host transcription factors, signaling pathways and cell proliferation, and apoptosis that sum up about 1200 host genes [21]. These key biological roles of TgROP38 in T. gondii infection of the host have stimulated us to evaluate whether TgROP38 could elicit effective immune responses against infection with T. gondii in the mice model. Therefore, we constructed the recombinant plasmid ...
Dr. Verma research involves understanding the pathogenesis of tumor viruses, specifically Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) and Kaposis sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Both viruses undergo lytic replication in epithelial cells during primary infection and during reactivation from latent infection in B-lymphocytes. Epstein Barr virus SM is an RNA binding protein essential for viral replication that enhances EBV gene expression by enhancing RNA stability and RNA export. Dr. Verma has shown that SM interacts with cellular splicing factors and influences splicing of both EBV and cellular pre-mRNAs. Like EBV SM, KSHV ORF57 is also a post-transcriptional regulatory protein, essential for KSHV lytic replication and has high degree of gene specificity. His current research is focused on regulation of gene expression and antiviral drug screening in the following areas ...
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Immediate-early genes have important roles in processes such as brain development, learning, and responses to drug abuse. Further, immediate-early genes play an essential role in cellular responses that contribute to long-term neuronal plasticity. Neuronal plasticity is a characteristic of the nervo …
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The 72 kDa IE1 protein of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is one of a few viral regulatory proteins expressed immediately after infection of a host cell. Although it is now well-established that IE1 is a potent transcriptional activator of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) long terminal repeat (LTR), the identity of the nucleotide sequence responsive to IE1 remains elusive and the molecular mechanism of this interaction is not well-understood. We have constructed various LTR mutants and tested them for their ability to be activated by IE1 using transient transfection assays. Mutations in the NF-κB sites, of either a few changes in the nucleotide sequence or a deletion of the entire region, abrogated IE1-driven transactivation. Deletion of the Tat-responsive element (TAR) had no significant effect on reporter expression. Mutations in the Sp1 sites or the TATA box significantly lowered LTR activity, but this is probably due to an effect on the general transcription system, as these elements are also
The life cycle of Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) consists of two phases, latent and lytic. The virus establishes latency as a strategy for avoiding host immune surveillance and fusing symbiotically with the host for lifetime persistent infection. However, latency can be disrupted and KSHV is reactivated for entry into the lytic replication. Viral lytic replication is crucial for efficient dissemination from its long-term reservoir to the sites of disease and for the spread of the virus to new hosts. The balance of these two phases in the KSHV life cycle is important for both the virus and the host and control of the switch between these two phases is extremely complex. Various environmental factors such as oxidative stress, hypoxia, and certain chemicals have been shown to switch KSHV from latency to lytic reactivation. Immunosuppression, unbalanced inflammatory cytokines, and other viral co-infections also lead to the reactivation of KSHV. This review article summarizes the current
Kaposis sarcoma (KS) is a vascular tumor predominantly found in the immunosuppressed. Epidemiologic studies suggest that an infective agent is the etiologic culprit. Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), or human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), is a gamma human herpesvirus present in all epidemiol …
Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus vOX2 protein: inhibits neutrophil function and can contribute to immune dysfunction and could have anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential
Ringold, G M., Glucocorticoid regulation of mouse mammary tumor virus gene expression. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 3076 ...
5E5A: Crystal structure of the chromatin-tethering domain of Human cytomegalovirus IE1 protein bound to the nucleosome core particle
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a member of the herpesvirus group, is species specific and can establish both persistent and latent infections. The virus appears to be able to infect a number of cell...
Das Immediate-Early Protein 2 (IE2) des humanen Zytomegalievirus ist ein essentieller Regulationsfaktor des lytischen Infektionszyklus. Es aktiviert verschiedene early Promotoren, autoreprimiert seine eigene Expression und besitzt darüber hinaus auch zellzyklusregulatorische Aktivitäten. Um einzelne Funktionen des IE2 Proteins gezielt analysieren zu können, ist eine genaue Kenntnis seiner regulatorischen Domänen unabdingbar. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde daher eine Struktur-Funktionsanalyse des IE2 Proteins durchgeführt mit dem Ziel, seine funktionellen Domänen genauer zu charakterisieren. Hierfür wurden verschiedene IE2-Mutanten hergestellt und ihre Aktivität im Hinblick auf Transaktivierung, Autorepression und DNA-Bindung sowie Zellzylusarrestinduktion bestimmt. Die Untersuchungen ergaben, dass innerhalb einer Core-Region im C-Terminus des Proteins (AS 450-544) die regulatorischen Domänen der untersuchten Funktionen überlappen und hier schon kleinere Mutationen zu einem ...
Das Immediate-Early Protein 2 (IE2) des humanen Zytomegalievirus ist ein essentieller Regulationsfaktor des lytischen Infektionszyklus. Es aktiviert verschiedene early Promotoren, autoreprimiert seine eigene Expression und besitzt darüber hinaus auch zellzyklusregulatorische Aktivitäten. Um einzelne Funktionen des IE2 Proteins gezielt analysieren zu können, ist eine genaue Kenntnis seiner regulatorischen Domänen unabdingbar. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde daher eine Struktur-Funktionsanalyse des IE2 Proteins durchgeführt mit dem Ziel, seine funktionellen Domänen genauer zu charakterisieren. Hierfür wurden verschiedene IE2-Mutanten hergestellt und ihre Aktivität im Hinblick auf Transaktivierung, Autorepression und DNA-Bindung sowie Zellzylusarrestinduktion bestimmt. Die Untersuchungen ergaben, dass innerhalb einer Core-Region im C-Terminus des Proteins (AS 450-544) die regulatorischen Domänen der untersuchten Funktionen überlappen und hier schon kleinere Mutationen zu einem ...
Nakamura Y, Sakuma S, Ohta Y, Kawano K, Hashimoto T. Detection of the human cytomegalovirus gene in placental chronic villitis by polymerase chain reaction. Hum Pathol. 1994 Aug;25(8):815-8. PMID: #8056423# ...
VIRUS GENES publishesstudies on analysis of virus genes, gene products and functions, regulation of virus gene function, cell biology of virus infectionfunctional studies of genes and gene families, encoded by eukaryotic, ...
VIRUS GENES publishesstudies on analysis of virus genes, gene products and functions, regulation of virus gene function, cell biology of virus infectionfunctional studies of genes and gene families, encoded by eukaryotic, ...
Note: We used the same viral genomic sequence for potential target identification for viral miRNAs. It is likely that viral miRNA could serve as a self-mediated feedback regulation. Download Candidate Sequences. Back To miRNA display CGI home. ...
Impact of viral propagation on user interface design. A Giardina, R Vasa, F Tan. (2012), pp. 154-157, Proceedings of the 24th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference, OzCHI 2012, E1-1. ...
Trial Team members review FOREO LUNA 3. Read the reviews to find out how our Trial Team rated this multi-tasking skincare tool....
Luna is to indie rock what Hal Hartley is to indie filmmaking: well established but no sellout, distinctive but not repetitive, mannered but heartwrenching. Definitely long-lived in a fickle scene. Both are quintessential New York City laced with a certain vague internationalism, and both solidifie...
EMS foloseste acest principiu natural si este capabil de a intensifica acest proces pentru a ajunge la straturile musculare profunde, care sunt greu de activat prin metodele conventionale de antrename
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type I (ARCL type I) is characterized by generalized cutis laxa with pulmonary emphysema and/or vascular complications. Rarely, mutations can be identified in FBLN4 or FBLN5. Recently, LTBP4 mutations have been implicated in a similar phenotype. Studying FBLN4, FBLN5, and LTBP4 in 12 families with ARCL type I, we found bi-allelic FBLN5 mutations in two probands, whereas nine probands harbored biallelic mutations in LTBP4. FBLN5 and LTBP4 mutations cause a very similar phenotype associated with severe pulmonary emphysema, in the absence of vascular tortuosity or aneurysms. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract involvement seems to be more severe in patients with LTBP4 mutations. Functional studies showed that most premature termination mutations in LTBP4 result in severely reduced mRNA and protein levels. This correlated with increased transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) activity. However, one mutation, c.4127dupC, escaped nonsense-mediated decay. The ...
McClung CA, Nestler EJ (2003). "Regulation of gene expression and cocaine reward by CREB and ∆FosB". Nature Neuroscience. 6 (11 ... Carlezon WA, Boundy VA, Haile CN, Kalb RG, Neve R, Nestler EJ (1997). "Sensitization to morphine induced by viral-mediated gene ... The Nestler laboratory has driven innovative use of viral-mediated gene transfer, inducible, cell-type specific mutations in ... "Epigenetic basis of opiate suppression of Bdnf gene expression in the ventral tegmental area". Nat Neurosci. 18 (3): 415-422. ...
Regulation and Genetics Viral Gene Expression and Integration. Plenum Press. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-4684-0832-4. Manzoni, Tomaz B; ... were produced and that these interfered with viral replication. This resulted in a reduction in the infectivity of influenza. ... López, Carolina B (July 2018). "Defective (interfering) viral genomes re-explored: impact on antiviral immunity and virus ...
Modifications in tRNA have the well-known ability to control and modulate gene expression. The regulation of gene expression ... Even if m6A-marked viral transcripts are involved in regulating gene expression of a number of different viruses, the ... Yue Y, Liu J, He C (July 2015). "RNA N6-methyladenosine methylation in post-transcriptional gene expression regulation". Genes ... "Epitranscriptomic regulation of viral replication". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms. 1860 (4 ...
Thus USP7 may also be important for regulation of viral gene expression. The fact that viral proteins have evolved so as to ... "Entrez Gene: USP7 ubiquitin specific peptidase 7 (herpes virus-associated)". Everett RD, Meredith M, Orr A, Cross A, Kathoria M ... Hong S, Kim SJ, Ka S, Choi I, Kang S (Jun 2002). "USP7, a ubiquitin-specific protease, interacts with ataxin-1, the SCA1 gene ... Hong S, Kim SJ, Ka S, Choi I, Kang S (Jun 2002). "USP7, a ubiquitin-specific protease, interacts with ataxin-1, the SCA1 gene ...
"Importance of codon usage for the temporal regulation of viral gene expression". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Thus, codon usage can introduce an additional level of transcriptional regulation for appropriate gene expression under ... gene expression level and species-specific diversity of codon usage based on multivariate analysis". Gene. 238 (1): 143-155. ... Fox JM, Erill I (June 2010). "Relative codon adaptation: a generic codon bias index for prediction of gene expression". DNA Res ...
They play a role in gene expression regulation, transposon silencing, and viral infection inhibition. Once considered as "dark ... Li L (2008). "Small RNA-Mediated Gene Activation". In Morris KV (ed.). RNA and the Regulation of Gene Expression: A Hidden ... The upregulation of gene expression can partially be explained by the predicted gene targets of endogenous miRNAs. ... It has been found that dsRNA can also activate gene expression, a mechanism that has been termed "small RNA-induced gene ...
Evidence for immediate early/Early/Late regulation of viral gene expression". Virology. 145 (1): 49-61. doi:10.1016/0042-6822( ... the interactions of viral and cellular proteins, and how these interactions either up-regulate or retard viral gene expression ... "Regulation of equine herpesvirus type 1 gene expression: Characterization of immediate early, early, and late transcription". ... research on the biochemistry of herpesviruses reveals how viral regulator proteins govern the viral genome's expression. He and ...
Analysis of Mouse Polyomavirus Infection Reveals Dynamic Regulation of Viral and Host Gene Expression and Promiscuous Viral RNA ... MTag plays a role in viral DNA replication and in the transition from early to late gene expression, and its absence can cause ... The LTag gene is usually encoded in two exons, of which the first overlaps with the genes for STag and MTag. The result of this ... The "late region" contains genes encoding the viral capsid proteins.) In MTag-containing polyomaviruses, the early region ...
In addition, the expression of IRF genes is under epigenetic regulation by promoter DNA methylation. IRFs primarily regulate ... Following a viral infection, pathogens are detected by Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), including various types of Toll- ... Interferon regulatory factors (IRF) are proteins which regulate transcription of interferons (see regulation of gene expression ... IRF4 and IRF8 specify and direct the differentiation of different subsets of DCs by stimulating subset-specific gene expression ...
... her research focused upon gene regulation in cancer, regulation of viral gene expression, expression of viral genome fragments ... Later she made discoveries about the molecular biology of cancer and of viral gene regulation. Ru-Chih Chow was born April 2, ... was done when little was known about the molecular approach to gene expression. The term chromatin as an interphase state of ... 1980) "Sequence organization of clones intracisternal a particle genes." Cell 21 (2):465-473. L Hoopes, A Brown, and Ru Chih C ...
... which is notably involved in the epigenetic regulation of retroelements and which regulates critical gene expression programs ... Despite a longstanding interests in the biology of viruses and viral infections, research in Trono's lab at EPFL has shifted ... towards the study of mobile genetic elements called transposons and their role in the regulation of mammalian gene expression. ... awarded with two Advanced Grants from the European Research Council in 2010 and 2015 for projects on mammalian gene regulation ...
... on the sequences of expression regulation of viral and cellular genes. He identified cellular transcription factors responsible ... His work on gene expression regulation has led him to focus on the role of transcription factors and chromatin remodeling ... for the expression of viral genes and their functions in regulating cell growth and oncogenic transformation. His team ... Factors involved in control of tissue-specific expression of albumin gene », Cell, 1987, p. 50:627 Klochendler-Yeivin A, et al ...
"MiR-155-5p modulates HSV-1 replication via the epigenetic regulation of SRSF2 gene expression". Epigenetics. 14 (5): 494-503. ... Hence, based on location Paraspeckles are thought to play a role in cancer regulation, reproduction and viral management. One ... an immune-responsive gene, or can activate the ADARB2 gene. Thus, gene regulation can be manipulated not just through ... "NEAT1 regulates neuroglial cell mediating Aβ clearance via the epigenetic regulation of endocytosis-related genes expression". ...
Concurrently, the down-regulation of anti-viral gene expression leaves the individual more vulnerable to viral infection such ... This process of translation, or "turning on" of a gene to its final gene products is termed gene expression. Genetic expression ... characterized by increased pro-inflammatory gene expression and a suppression of anti-viral gene expression, has been proposed ... on the expression of individual genes, or more commonly, clusters of many genes (i.e. gene profiles, or gene programs). In the ...
... and mRNA translation and regulation of gene expression. VP1 is located in the core of the virus particle and is an RNA- ... Viral particles are up to 76.5 nm in diameter and are not enveloped. There are six viral proteins (VPs) that form the virus ... Each helix, or segment, is a gene, numbered 1 to 11 by decreasing size. Each gene codes for one protein, except genes 9, which ... NSP4 is a viral enterotoxin that induces diarrhoea and was the first viral enterotoxin discovered. It is a viroporin that ...
Env is a viral gene that encodes the protein forming the viral envelope. The expression of the env gene enables retroviruses to ... "Regulation of human immunodeficiency virus env expression by the rev gene product". J. Virol. 63 (5): 1959-66. doi:10.1128/JVI. ... The env mRNA must be spliced for expression. The mature product of the env gene is the viral spike protein, which has two main ... Env expression is regulated by the gene product of rev. Experimental deletion of rev resulted in the inability to detect the ...
"Epigenetic regulation of latent HSV-1 gene expression". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms. 1799 ... In the lytic phase, the viral genes are being actively transcribed and many times ultimately lead to cell death. In the lytic ... Instead, it appears that the main way that expression of viral transcripts is maintained at a lower level during latency is ... The mechanism that controls this is very complex because expression of viral proteins during latency is decreased a great deal ...
... working on transcriptional regulation of cell and viral gene expressions, as well as viral vectors in gene therapy. He was the ... At the University of Michigan, Nabel's basic research investigated gene transfer, basic mechanisms of HIV gene regulation and ... studying regulation of HIV gene expression by the recently discovered NF-κB, a host transcription factor. He completed his ... "Direct gene transfer with DNA-liposome complexes in melanoma: expression, biologic activity, and lack of toxicity in humans". ...
Regulation: Regulation of gene expression and protein activity; information processing in response to environmental input; ... Other/Unknown: an unknown function, viral proteins, or toxins. Each domain superfamily in SCOP classes a to g were manually ... Gene Ontology Domain-centric Gene Ontology (GO) automatically annotated. Due to the growing gap between sequenced proteins and ... "Gene ontology: Tool for the unification of biology. The Gene Ontology Consortium". Nature Genetics. 25 (1): 25-29. doi:10.1038/ ...
As miRNAs generally function to repress gene expression by binding to 3'UTR sites, this positive regulation of viral ... June 2009). "Integration of microRNA miR-122 in hepatic circadian gene expression". Genes & Development. 23 (11): 1313-1326. ... September 2011). "Positive regulation of hepatic miR-122 expression by HNF4α". Journal of Hepatology. 55 (3): 602-611. doi: ... August 2010). "MicroRNA expression in ACTH-producing pituitary tumors: up-regulation of microRNA-122 and -493 in pituitary ...
... gene expression regulation, plant MeSH G05.315.385 - gene expression regulation, viral MeSH G05.315.410 - gene silencing MeSH ... gene expression regulation, fungal MeSH G05.315.370 - gene expression regulation, neoplastic MeSH G05.315.370.500 - gene ... gene amplification MeSH G05.315.290 - gene expression regulation, archaeal MeSH G05.315.300 - gene expression regulation, ... gene expression regulation, developmental MeSH G05.315.320 - gene expression regulation, enzymologic MeSH G05.315.320.200 - ...
Because of its central role in controlling eukaryotic gene expression, P-TEFb is subject to stringent regulation at the level ... The structure of HIV Tat bound to P-TEFb demonstrated that the viral protein forms extensive contacts with the cyclin T1 ... Genes Dev 2011; 25:661-72. He N, Liu M, Hsu J, Xue Y, Chou S, Burlingame A, et al. HIV-1 Tat and host AFF4 recruit two ... Genes Dev 1998; 12:755-62. Yang Z, Yik JH, Chen R, He N, Jang MK, Ozato K, et al. Recruitment of P-TEFb for stimulation of ...
Singer's research interests are in the areas of regulation of transcription in cancer, gene expression and molecular immunology ... to expand serological testing capacity and research to characterize the immune responses elicited by the SARS-CoV-2 viral ... Dinah Schiffer Singer (born 1948) is an American immunologist specialized in the regulation of transcription in cancer, gene ... of the interplay between promoter elements and transcription complexes that establish appropriate regulation of gene expression ...
The viral promoter or other transcription regulation elements, in turn, cause over-expression of that proto-oncogene, which, in ... In either case, expression of these genes promotes the malignant phenotype of cancer cells. Tumor suppressor genes are genes ... reduced or absent expression of DNA repair genes is due to epigenetic alterations that reduce or silence gene expression. This ... One key factor in healing is the regulation of cytokine gene expression, which enables complementary groups of cells to respond ...
In the context of gene regulation: transactivation is the increased rate of gene expression triggered either by biological ... HIV and HTLV are just two of the many viruses that encode transactivators to enhance viral gene expression. These ... Because the expression of the transactivator gene can be controlled, transactivation can be used to turn genes on and off. If ... The expression of one transactivator gene can activate multiple genes, as long as they have the same, specific promoter region ...
"Reduced Expression of Brain-Enriched microRNAs in Glioblastomas Permits Targeted Regulation of a Cell Death Gene". PLOS ONE. 6 ... Tax mediated downregulation of miRNAs associated with chromatin remodeling factors in T cells with stably integrated viral ... The common target gene for miR-873, β-glycan, has increased expression. It is thought that miR-873, along with other miRNAs, ... MicroRNAs function to regulate the expression levels of other genes by several mechanisms. Significant miR-873 reductions have ...
... known for his work in discovering and deciphering reversible RNA methylation in post-transcriptional gene expression regulation ... The existence of m6A in mRNA was discovered in 1974 in both eukaryotic and viral mRNAs; however, the biological significance ... He and co-workers have revealed the DNA N6-methyldeoxyadenosine as a new methylation mark that could affect gene expression in ... "N6-Methyladenosine-dependent regulation of messenger RNA stability". Nature. 505 (7481): 117-120. Bibcode:2014Natur.505..117W. ...
"HTLV-III expression and production involve complex regulation at the levels of splicing and translation of viral RNA". Cell. 46 ... to positively regulate the expression of structural genes and to negatively regulate the expression of regulatory genes. Rev ... "HTLV-III expression and production involve complex regulation at the levels of splicing and translation of viral RNA". Cell. 46 ... "Regulation of human immunodeficiency virus env expression by the rev gene product". Journal of Virology. 63 (5): 1959-66. doi: ...
Gaynor, R. (1992). "Cellular transcription factors involved in the regulation of HIV-1 gene expression". AIDS. 6 (4): 347-363. ... and thus viral load as they may encode proteins that are able to trans-activate the expression of the HIV-1 pro-viral DNA. ... "Gene Variation May Raise Risk of H.I.V., Study Finds" from The New York Times, 2008 (All articles with unsourced statements, ... The expression of these receptors is inducible by immune activation caused through infection or immunization, thus augmenting ...
... understanding of gene expression and the regulation of cell growth.[citation needed] SV40 was first identified by Ben Sweet and ... The complete viral genome was sequenced by Weissman at Yale University (US) in 1978 and also by Fiers and his team at the ... Inside the cell nucleus, the cellular RNA polymerase II acts to promote early gene expression. This results in an mRNA that is ... Banerji, J; Rusconi, S; Schaffner, W (December 1981). "Expression of a β-globin gene is enhanced by remote SV40 DNA sequences ...
... gene expression is mediated by decreased DNA binding of nuclear factor I proteins which control constitutive TTF-1 expression ... implications for viral tropism". J. Virol. 80 (21): 10506-10513. doi:10.1128/JVI.01355-06. PMC 1641797. PMID 16928756. NFIX+ ... "Transcriptional Regulation of Intermediate Progenitor Cell Generation during Hippocampal Development". Development. 143 (24): ... differential expression of two classes of NF-1 genes". J. Neurovirol. 2 (2): 87-100. doi:10.3109/13550289609146542. PMID ...
... a viral gene) to one where a gene that is normally present in the cell can cause cancer. It is believed that at one point an ... Dehm SM, Bonham K (April 2004). "SRC gene expression in human cancer: the role of transcriptional activation". Biochem. Cell ... It plays a role in the regulation of embryonic development and cell growth. An elevated level of activity of c-Src is suggested ... "Entrez Gene: SRC v-src sarcoma (Schmidt-Ruppin A-2) viral oncogene homolog (avian)". Wheeler DL, Iida M, Dunn EF (July 2009). " ...
In Silico Identification and Expression Analysis of CDF-Like Genes". In Olivares-Quiroz L, Resendis-Antonio O (eds.). ... This type of regulation often involves allosteric regulation of the activities of multiple enzymes in the pathway. Extrinsic ... Many viruses have an RNA genome, such as HIV, which uses reverse transcription to create a DNA template from its viral RNA ... There are multiple levels of metabolic regulation. In intrinsic regulation, the metabolic pathway self-regulates to respond to ...
Parthenogenetic/gynogenetic embryos have twice the normal expression level of maternally derived genes, and lack expression of ... such as genes of viral origin, mistakenly silenced genes whose silencing turned out to be beneficial for the organism. There ... Barlow DP (April 1993). "Methylation and imprinting: from host defense to gene regulation?". Science. 260 (5106): 309-10. ... among imprinted genes. It has also been postulated that if the retrotransposed gene is inserted close to another imprinted gene ...
Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ... "Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... The UPS is also involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses. This activity is usually attributed to the role of ... The gene PSMD7 encodes a non-ATPase subunit of the 19S regulator. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 17. The human ...
... elements in gene promoters. Type I IFNs can induce expression of genes with either ISRE or GAS elements, but gene induction by ... IFNs belonging to all three classes are important for fighting viral infections and for the regulation of the immune system. ... Gene cloning also confirmed that IFN-α was encoded by a family of many related genes. The type II IFN (IFN-γ) gene was also ... Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially ...
"Entrez Gene: ABL1 v-abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1". Shah NP, Tran C, Lee FY, Chen P, Norris D, Sawyers ... There is some evidence that the expression of Abl is regulated by the microRNA miR-203. BCR gene GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Yoshida K (2007). "Regulation for nuclear targeting of the Abl tyrosine kinase in response to DNA damage". Advances in ... This gene is a partner in a fusion gene with the BCR gene in the Philadelphia chromosome, a characteristic abnormality in ...
The data indicates that TTC39B as causal genes for lipid regulation. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000155158 - Ensembl, May ... Knockdown of the mouse ortholog TTC39B via a viral vector (50% knockdown) resulted in significantly higher plasma HDL-C levels ... with the allele associated with decreased expression correlating with increased HDL-C. ... The gene for TTC39B is located on the short arm of the ninth chromosome at 9p22.3. The genomic DNA is 136,517 bases long, ...
Genes and Immunity. 14 (7): 420-6. doi:10.1038/gene.2013.34. PMC 3791179. PMID 23823019. Lien E, Ingalls RR (January 2002). " ... It is also known that TLR2/6 binds some viral products, among them hepatitis C core and NS3 protein from the hepatitis C virus ... The various TLRs exhibit different patterns of expression. This receptor functionally interacts with toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 ... several strains of lactic acid bacteria have been reported to stimulate immune regulation via TLR2/6, leading to tolerogenic ...
Cousins RJ (1994). "Metal elements and gene expression". Annual Review of Nutrition. 14: 449-69. doi:10.1146/ ... Changes in intestinal tract absorbability and permeability due, in part, to viral, protozoal, or bacteria pathogens may also ... Foster M, Samman S (July 2012). "Zinc and regulation of inflammatory cytokines: implications for cardiometabolic disease". ... For example, zinc regulates the expression of metallothionein, which has multiple functions, such as intracellular zinc ...
Pestano GA, Zhou Y, Trimble LA, Daley J, Weber GF, Cantor H. Inactivation of mis-selected CD8 T cells by CD8 gene methylation ... Shinohara ML, Lu L, Bu J, Werneck MBF, Kobayashi KS, Glimcher LH, Cantor H. Osteopontin expression is essential for IFN-γ ... Nature Immunology, 2004;5:516 Lu L, Ikizawa K, Hu D, Werneck MBF, Wucherpfennig KW, Cantor H. Regulation of activated CD4+ T ... 1977;145:1. Dickman, Steven (February 27, 1998). "Viral saboteurs caught in the act". Science. Leavy, Olive (October 2010). " ...
They seem to play a particularly important role in the regulation of gene expression and the creation of RNA genes. This ... SINEs can be transferred between individuals or species via horizontal transfer through a viral vector. SINEs are known to ... increased SINE activity is correlated with certain gene-expression profiles and post-transcription regulation of certain genes ... Changes in chromosome structure influence gene expression primarily by affecting the accessibility of genes to transcriptional ...
"Gene Content, Organization and Molecular Evolution of Plant Organellar Genomes and Sex Chromosomes -Insights from the Case of ... Regulation of Cell Cycle and Chromosome Segregation Noboru Karashima - History and Society in South India: The Cholas to ... "Elucidation of the Molecular Basis of Paramyxovirus Pathogenicity and Generation of a Novel Class of Expression Vector" 2007 ( ... and Molecular Basis of the Neutralization of Viral Infectivity with Antibodies" Yukihiko Kitamura for "Development and ...
... production of interleukin-8 in response to lipopolysaccharide through up-regulation of membrane CD14 and MyD88 mRNA expression ... "Entrez Gene: MYD88 Myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88)". Bonnert TP, Garka KE, Parnet P, Sonoda G, Testa JR, ... However, available evidence suggests that MYD88 is dispensable for human resistance to common viral infections and to all but a ... Genes on human chromosome 3, Immune system, Human proteins, Genes mutated in mice). ...
Cloning, sequence analysis, and regulation of the human L7 ribosomal protein gene". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 268 ( ... Kasai H, Nadano D, Hidaka E, Higuchi K, Kawakubo M, Sato TA, Nakayama J (May 2003). "Differential expression of ribosomal ... the interaction between the HIV-1 Gag structural polyprotein and the cellular ribosomal protein L7 and its implication in viral ... As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, there are multiple processed pseudogenes of this gene dispersed through ...
When glucocorticoids bind to GR, its primary mechanism of action is the regulation of gene transcription. The unbound receptor ... these other transcription factors and prevent them from binding their target genes and hence repress the expression of genes ... Le Rouzic E, Benichou S (February 2005). "The Vpr protein from HIV-1: distinct roles along the viral life cycle". Retrovirology ... Kumar R, Thompson EB (April 2005). "Gene regulation by the glucocorticoid receptor: structure:function relationship". The ...
Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ... "Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... Zong C, Gomes AV, Drews O, Li X, Young GW, Berhane B, Qiao X, French SW, Bardag-Gorce F, Ping P (Aug 2006). "Regulation of ... Gene Structure and Expression. 1219 (2): 361-8. doi:10.1016/0167-4781(94)90060-4. PMID 7918633. Alongside alpha subunits 1-7, ...
CRK (gene) has been shown to interact with: BCAR1, Cbl gene, Dock180, EPS15, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Grb2, IRS4, ... Crk should not be confused with Src, which also has cellular (c-Src) and viral (v-Src) forms and is involved in some of the ... 1994). "Expression of the v-crk oncogene product in PC12 cells results in rapid differentiation by both nerve growth factor- ... Garton AJ, Tonks NK (1999). "Regulation of fibroblast motility by the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST". J. Biol. Chem. ...
Hara E, Smith R, Parry D, Tahara H, Stone S, Peters G (March 1996). "Regulation of p16CDKN2 expression and its implications for ... This gene is frequently mutated or deleted in a wide variety of tumors and is known to be an important tumor suppressor gene. ... Kaldis P, Ojala PM, Tong L, Mäkelä TP, Solomon MJ (December 2001). "CAK-independent activation of CDK6 by a viral cyclin". ... Both mechanisms cause the same end result: downregulation of gene expression that leads to decreased levels of the p16 protein ...
RLRs often interact and create cross-talk with the TLRs in the innate immune response and in regulation of adaptive immune ... Nonetheless, TLR11 is only a pseudogene in humans without direct function or functional protein expression. Each of the TLR has ... NODs signal via N-terminal CARD domains to activate downstream gene induction events, and interact with microbial molecules by ... which may be exploited in therapy of viral infections. It has been suggested that the main antiviral program induced by RLR is ...
Increased AP-1 levels lead to increased transactivation of target gene expression. Regulation of AP-1 activity is therefore ... Fos was first isolated as the cellular homologue of two viral v-fos oncogenes, both of which induce osteosarcoma in mice and ... AP-1 transcription is deeply involved in the modulation of gene expression. Changes in cellular gene expression in the ... Fujita S, Ito T, Mizutani T, Minoguchi S, Yamamichi N, Sakurai K, Iba H (May 2008). "miR-21 Gene expression triggered by AP-1 ...
Expression of peripheral myelin protein 22 in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and hereditary neuropathy with liability to ... Gabriel JM, Erne B, Pareyson D, Sghirlanzoni A, Taroni F, Steck AJ (December 1997). "Gene dosage effects in hereditary ... or viral infection. It can also be genetic (present from birth) or idiopathic (no known cause). In conventional medical usage, ... thermal regulation, dryness through sweat disturbances Other areas: hypoglycemia unawareness, genital impotence Neuritis is a ...
... which can have effects on gene expression. Synthetic condensates offer a way to probe cellular function and organization with ... Case LB, Ditlev JA, Rosen MK (May 2019). "Regulation of Transmembrane Signaling by Phase Separation". Annual Review of ... such as viral capsids or the proteasome - although both are examples of spontaneous molecular self-assembly or self- ... Schaefer KN, Peifer M (February 2019). "Wnt/Beta-Catenin Signaling Regulation and a Role for Biomolecular Condensates". ...
Hardison, R. (1999). "The Evolution of Hemoglobin: Studies of a very ancient protein suggest that changes in gene regulation ... Briefly, when cells are exposed to free radicals, there is a rapid induction of the expression of the stress-responsive heme ... Myeloperoxidase is present in mammalian neutrophils and is responsible for the destruction of invading bacteria and viral ... The following genes are part of the chemical pathway for making heme: ALAD: aminolevulinic acid, δ-, dehydratase (deficiency ...
... and therefore preventing the expression of those genes. A 2012 study found that targeting TERC with an siRNA reduced telomerase ... Cong YS, Wright WE, Shay JW (September 2002). "Human telomerase and its regulation". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews ... viral RNA replicases and bacteriophage B-family DNA polymerases. TERT proteins from many eukaryotes have been sequenced. By ... "HGNC database of human gene names - HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee". HGNC - TERC HGNC - DKC1 HGNC - TEP1 NCBI ...
... involvement of two genes which play a role in alkaline phosphatase regulation". Journal of Bacteriology. 113 (2): 529-39. doi: ... Thus, altered IAP expression has been implicated in chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It ... "Alkaline phosphatase: Liver Function Test - Viral Hepatitis". Retrieved 2016-05-02. Delmas PD (December ... The gene for tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase is located on chromosome 1, and the genes for the other three isoforms are ...
"Distinct subsets of primary effusion lymphoma can be identified based on their cellular gene expression profile and viral ... contributes to the regulation of cell growth; 2) missense mutations in the IRAK1 gene which causes overactivation of its ... and the abnormal expression of genes that may or may not be a result of the preceding structural gene changes. Potentially ... see KSHV/HHV8 genes). Products of these viral genes include: 1) LANA-1, which inhibits host cells' p53 protein thereby reducing ...
Some subtypes of mature T-cell lymphoma may be associated with viral exposure as well as gene mutations. Diagnosis is done by ... It can be recognized by a constant expression of the tumour receptor necrosis factor CD30, a membrane protein expressed by ... Cairns, Rob A.; Harris, Isaac S.; Mak, Tak W. (2011-01-24). "Regulation of cancer cell metabolism". Nature Reviews Cancer. 11 ( ... Mature T-cell lymphoma can be associated with viral exposure and gene mutations. Mature T-cell lymphoma can be associated with ...
... neuroimmunological research has shown that deregulation of correlated epigenetic processes in ASDs can alter gene expression ... Within the central nervous system production of cytokines has been detected as a result of brain injury, during viral and ... Studies have shown that autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may present due to basic disorders of epigenetic regulation. Other ... DNA methylation inhibitors are used to activate previously silenced genes. HDACs are a class of enzymes that have a broad set ...
Examples of genes whose RNA virus-triggered expression is stimulated by SNX8 are IFNB1, ISG56 and IL6 (being IL6 and IFNB1 ... Furthermore, RNA viral infections cause the translocation of SNX8 from the cytosol to the mitochondria. During the early stage ... It is suggested that it acts as an adaptor protein in events related to immune response and cholesterol regulation, for example ... Examples of genes whose DNA virus-triggered expression is stimulated by SNX8 are IFNB1, ISG56, CXCL10 and IL6 (being IFNB1 and ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Viral * Herpesviridae / genetics * Herpesviridae / physiology* * Herpesviridae Infections / ... Consistent with this, expression of CyHV-3 ORF12, encoding a soluble decoy receptor for TNF-α, delayed the manifestation of ...
Regulation of cytomegalovirus gene expression: alpha and beta promoters are trans activated by viral functions in permissive ... Silencing the type II sodium channel gene: a model for neural-specific gene regulation. ... Organization and expression of eukaryotic split genes coding for proteins.. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 1981; 50: 349-383. *Scopus ( ... Expression of the rat growth hormone-releasing hormone gene in placenta is directed by an alternative promoter. ...
Genes; Glands; Viral infections; Lipopolysaccharide; Cell type; Cellular reactions; Gene expression; Gene regulation; ... The expression pattern of microglial markers in Mocha cells suggests that immortalization leads to a more primitive phenotype, ... we isolated and enriched the population of CD11b+ cells from the cochlea and immortalized these cells with the 12S E1A gene of ... stimulation by upregulation of genes (Cox2, ICAM-1, Il6r, Ccl2, Il13Ra and Il15Ra) as well as releasing cytokines (IL-1beta, IL ...
Ionic Helical Polypeptides - Non-Viral Gene Delivery with Improved Transfection Efficiency. Tremendous potential exists for ... Libraries of helical polypeptides are screened for desired traits, i.e. efficient gene transfection compared to standard ... and in the presence of denaturing agents for gene delivery and cell-membrane penetration over commercially available products. ...
2004) Neuronal expression and regulation of CGRP promoter activity following viral gene transfer into cultured trigeminal ... calcitonin gene-related peptide. CRLR. calcitonin receptor-like receptor. cyno. cynomolgus monkey. DBF. dermal blood flow. DMEM ... 2004) Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist BIBN 4096 BS for the acute treatment of migraine. N Engl J Med 350: ... Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino-acid-long peptide expressed in both the central and peripheral nervous ...
... an essential trace element critical for thyroid function and known as an effective agent against viral infections, is emerging ... beyond the respiratory symptoms characterizing the classic viral disease, growing evidence has highlighted a possible ... Lammi, M.J.; Qu, C. Selenium-Related Transcriptional Regulation of Gene Expression. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2665. [Google ... ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression levels derived from the human protein atlas and genotype tissue expression. Review. [57]. ...
Small RNA-mediated Gene Regulation It has been shown that small RNAs repress or modify gene expression in all organisms. In ... as the spliceosome and ribosome play a key role in constitutive and regulated cellular processes and in the life cycle of viral ... higher eukaryotes, there are multiple mechanisms including the endogenous miRNA and anti-viral siRNA pathways. We are exploring ...
We also show that virus infection caused mild changes to the expression of endogenous miRNAs. Our work describes for the first ... Furthermore, activation or inhibition of the siRNA pathway had a direct effect on viral replication. ... We know very little about how this insect vector responds to viral infection. RNA interference (RNAi) utilizes small non-coding ... RNAi refers to different mechanisms of regulation of gene expression mediated by small non-coding RNAs [17]. The small ...
Present work is aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved and at identifying the viral protein(s) that counter UBFs ... in particular the highly conserved UL24 gene, in HSV replication and pathogenesis; 2) to understand the the role of nucleolar ... Present work is aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved and at identifying the viral protein(s) that counter UBFs ... in particular the highly conserved UL24 gene, in HSV replication and pathogenesis; 2) to understand the the role of nucleolar ...
... well-established rodent models of glaucoma including optic nerve injury models and transcriptomic gene expression profiling, ... overview of pathological features in a variety of animal models of glaucoma and top differentially expressed genes (DEGs) ... overview of pathological features in a variety of animal models of glaucoma and top differentially expressed genes (DEGs) ... well-established rodent models of glaucoma including optic nerve injury models and transcriptomic gene expression profiling, ...
Epigenetic regulation of viral gene expression in yeast; RNA targeted therapeutics; molecular pharmacology. Thomas Leustek, ... Regulation of gene expression; mechanisms of protein synthesis and G-protein regulation. Tony Ah-Ng Kong, Professor of ... Regulation of gene expression by nuclear hormone receptors. Dunne Fong, Associate Professor of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, ... Regulation of meiotic recombination; mouse models for the expression of tumor suppressor genes. Henrik Pedersen, Professor of ...
Cell Line, Humans, Herpesvirus 8, Human, Sarcoma, Kaposi, Endonucleases, RNA, Adenosine, Gene Expression Regulation, Viral, ...
This results in altered expression of subtelomeric genes. Recent observations further reveal telomere length-dependent gene ... During unfavorable conditions (e.g. tumor hypoxia or viral infection), canonical, cap-dependent mRNA translation is suppressed ... allowing expression of , 40 gene products involved in DNA repair and cell cycle regulation. Here, using a DNA replication ... Using gene expression and synthetic peptide arrays on membrane support and overlay analyses, we found here that inhibiting USP7 ...
Viral, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, DNA Replication, Epigenesis, Genetic, Gene Expression Regulation, Viral, Genome, Viral, ... gene control, gene expression regulation, genetic association, histone methylation, human, human cell, Human herpesvirus 8, ... Finally, ablation ofKDM3A expression from latently KSHV-infected cells significantly inhibited KSHV gene expression, leading to ... Finally, ablation ofKDM3A expression from latently KSHV-infected cells significantly inhibited KSHV gene expression, leading to ...
... on how the hepatitis B virus interacts with the cellular 3D genome and its consequences on viral and cellular gene expression. ... have highlighted the highly hierarchical organization of the cellular genome and its role in the regulation of gene expression ... Translational profiling of mouse dopaminoceptive neurons reveals region-specific gene expression, exon usage, and striatal ... Tip 1. You can use quotes "" to search for an exact expression.. Example: "cell division" ...
Regulation of gene expression by Growth factors tutorial of Eukaryotic Gene Expression course by Prof P N RANGARAJAN of IISc ... Gene expression in mammalian cells using viral vectors,GENE THERAPY AND TRANSGENIC TECHNOLOGY:Human Gene Therapy - DNA vaccines ... Regulation of gene expression by Growth factors - Regulation of gene expression by cytokines,REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION BY ... Regulation of gene expression by cyclicAMP - Regulation of gene expression by second messengers other than cAMP - Regulation of ...
... viral genome replication and regulation of viral gene expression, viral genetic diversity and evolution, virus-cell ... It publishes fully open access, peer-reviewed articles concerned with the viral infection process, host-viral interactions and ... interactions, cellular responses to viral infection, transformation and oncogenesis, gene delivery, viral pathogenesis and ... the mechanisms, severity and attenuation of viral disease. As a multidisciplinary and translation science journal Virulence ...
... and he is currently NIH Distinguished Investigator and Chief of the Genetic Engineering Section of the Laboratory of Viral ... Moss developed an interest in understanding the regulation of gene expression at MIT, but his introduction to virology research ... where he is currently NIH Distinguished Investigator and Chief of the Genetic Engineering Section of the Laboratory of Viral ...
The main interest of Monsef Benkirane and his team is to understand the regulation of HIV-1 gene expression. Their projects aim ... A common feature of these two situations is that viral replication is controlled at the gene expression level. A major ... are to identify the host factors and define the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of HIV-1 gene expression and to ... Ongoing viral replication causes the loss of CD4+ T cells and progression to immunodeficiency in infected individuals. However ...
MBB 736 - Gene Expression (3) A consideration of the mechanisms and regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes and prokaryotes ... The molecular strategies that bacterial and viral pathogens use to colonize the human body and cause disease will be studied. ... The study of DNA and RNA in relation to gene structure and expression: DNA replication and the regulation of gene expression in ... MBB 429 - RNA-mediated Gene Regulation (3) RNA plays an important role in gene regulation. This course will explore recent ...
Projects active in the group currently include research focusing on the epitranscriptomic regulation of viral gene expression, ... are also using CRISPR/Cas-mediated gene editing as a way of identifying cellular factors that either promote or inhibit viral ...
Munsky, B., Neuert, G., and van Oudenaarden, A. (2012). Using Gene Expression Noise to Understand Gene Regulation. Science 336 ... Immunodeficiency virus rev trans-activator modulates the expression of the viral regulatory genes. Nature 335, 181-183. ... Wolf, L., Silander, O.K., and van Nimwegen, E. (2015). Expression noise facilitates the evolution of gene regulation. eLife 4, ... How cellular processes amplify or attenuate gene-expression fluctuations (noise) is crucial to designing synthetic gene- ...
Regulation of gene expression: Possible role of repetitive sequences. Science 204: 1052--1059. Dayh Dayhoff, Judith. 1990. ... Selfish genes, the phenotype paradigm and genome evolution. Nature 284: 601--603. Eige Eigen, Manfred. 1993. Viral quasispecies ... Transposons may produce gene products and often are involved in gene regulation ( DaBr ). However, they may have no effect on ... In many cases transposons carry a sequence that acts as a promoter, altering the regulation of genes at the site of insertion ...
Specific regulation of gene expression by antisense, sense and antigene nucleic acids ... Expression of an antisense viral gene in transgenic tobacco confers resistance to the DNA virus tomato golden mosaic virus ( ... Expression of an antisense viral gene in transgenic tobacco confers resistance to the DNA virus tomato golden mosaic virus. ... Duplication of CaMV 35S Promoter Sequences Creates a Strong Enhancer for Plant Genes ...
... interfere with the regulation of endogenous gene expression, or be abnormally reactivated in terminally differentiated cells. ... Stadtfeld M, Nagaya M, Utikal J, Weir G, Hochedlinger K. Induced pluripotent stem cells generated without viral integration. ... These defective differentiated cell lines showed a high gene expression level for several genes, including human endogenous ... An embryonic stem cell-like gene expression signature in poorly differentiated aggressive human tumors. Nat Genet. 2008;40:499- ...
... peripheral blood gene expression patterns and polymorphisms in genes involved in neurotransmission and immune regulation. ... CDC Chronic Viral Diseases Branch is making the data accessible to researchers through CDCs NCHS Research Data Center (RDC). ... Email [email protected] with the subject "Wichita CFS Gene Expression Data" and someone will call you to discuss the process. ... Email [email protected] with the subject "Wichita CFS Gene Expression Data" and discuss next steps with your RDC Analyst. ...
... as it is powerful mechanism in the regulation of gene expression. Besides being a key natural cellular phenomenon, gene ... RNAi plays a vital role in normal cell development and differentiation, in cancer and viral defence, ... RNAi is a gene-silencing mechanism that uses a subtype of RNA molecules to interfere with and silence genes. ... Home en_news First-in-man study demonstrates the therapeutic effect of RNAi gene silencing in cancer treatment ...
  • Consistent with this, expression of CyHV-3 ORF12, encoding a soluble decoy receptor for TNF-α, delayed the manifestation of behavioral fever and promoted CyHV-3 replication in the context of a temperature gradient. (
  • Next, we isolated and enriched the population of CD11b+ cells from the cochlea and immortalized these cells with the 12S E1A gene of adenovirus in a replication-incompetent retroviral vector to derive a novel microglial cell line, designated Mocha (microglia of the cochlea). (
  • In agreement with this hypothesis, pre-treatment of cells with dsRNA against VSV was able to inhibit viral replication while knock-down of the central siRNA component, Argonaute-2, led to increased virus levels. (
  • Furthermore, activation or inhibition of the siRNA pathway had a direct effect on viral replication. (
  • Present work is aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved and at identifying the viral protein(s) that counter UBFs inhibitory activity to allow viral replication in the presence of UBF. (
  • Rel -Dependent Immune and Central Nervous System Mechanisms Control Viral Replication and Inflammation during Mouse Herpes Simplex Encephalitis. (
  • Among the key issues investigated are virus structure and assembly, viral genome replication and regulation of viral gene expression, viral genetic diversity and evolution, virus-cell interactions, cellular responses to viral infection, transformation and oncogenesis, gene delivery, viral pathogenesis and immunity, and vaccines and antiviral agents. (
  • Ongoing viral replication causes the loss of CD4+ T cells and progression to immunodeficiency in infected individuals. (
  • A common feature of these two situations is that viral replication is controlled at the gene expression level. (
  • Our main objectives are to identify the host factors and define the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of HIV-1 gene expression and to explore the involvement of cellular small non-coding RNAs in virus replication. (
  • We are also using CRISPR/Cas-mediated gene editing as a way of identifying cellular factors that either promote or inhibit viral replication. (
  • Errors in the replication process can result in one or more extra copies of a gene within a cell. (
  • P05 Grundhoff/Viejo-Borbolla , P06 Kaufer and P09 Bosse investigate how the cellular context and nuclear compartments may promote lytic replication, or lead to acquisition of global chromatin states that either permit persistence of a transiently silenced viral genome or result in the potentially permanent inactivation of viral genomes. (
  • Site-specific cleavage of the host poly(A) binding protein by the encephalomyocarditis virus 3C proteinase stimulates viral replication. (
  • These regions contain cis-acting elements that determine the efficiency of viral replication. (
  • In addition, the interaction of trans-acting factors with the 3‟ UTR is also important for regulation of HCV replication. (
  • However, the molecular basis of regulation of viral replication by these proteins is not well understood. (
  • Interferons provide signals to other cells-in response to such signals, these cells take action by turning on the expression of genes that inhibit viral replication, activate immune effector cells, and increase host defenses. (
  • Petropoulos, C. & Hughes, S. Replication-competent retrovirus vectors for the transfer and expression of gene cassettes in avian cells. (
  • They initially used a commercial Human Methylation Bead Chip microarray and then validated selected methylation signals in a replication panel by pyrosequencing, as well as looking for effects on gene expression. (
  • Enhanced retroviral replication due to host gene-targeting resulted in markedly increased RAE-1 expression in the absence of massive erythroid cell proliferation, indicating a direct role of retroviral replication in RAE-1 upregulation. (
  • E1 deleted adenoviruses are considered to be replication-defective and are used as shuttle vectors in gene therapy or vaccination for gene therapy and vaccine immunization. (
  • Adenovirus vectors generally have four strategies to achieve conditional replication: E1A specific promoter regulation, E1A CR2 deletion, E1A 13S CR3 deletion and E1B-55K deletion. (
  • Since E1A 13S is essential for the transport of YB-1 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, adenoviruses lacking E1A13S expression have replication defects in normal cells. (
  • Recent technological breakthroughs have highlighted the highly hierarchical organization of the cellular genome and its role in the regulation of gene expression. (
  • This review provides an updated overview on the current knowledge on how the hepatitis B virus interacts with the cellular 3D genome and its consequences on viral and cellular gene expression. (
  • Molecular cloning and sequencing of the HBV genome led to the redefinition of the three HBV antigens as viral gene products endowed with specific functions in viral life cycle [for an in-depth review on the molecular biology of HBV, see ref. 13].The HBcAg and HBeAg are alternative translation products of the core gene, with HBeAg translation requiring an upstream precore region ATG codon (Fig. 2 ). (
  • In this study, we describe the viral genome looping patterns in various EBV-associated cancer cell lines and identify important EBV enhancers in these cells. (
  • In addition to the role of overall chromatin states, projects P07 Stamminger and P08 Schreiner investigate the role of repressor complexes recruited to distinct genetic elements in the viral genome. (
  • miRNAs can either directly bind to the HCV genome and regulate its life cycle or indirectly modulate the expression of host proteins required by the virus. (
  • In participating UK research institutions, investigators can publish open access in Genome Research, Genes & Development, RNA, and Learning & Memory without article publication charges and all staff can read the entire renowned Cold Spring Harbor journal collection. (
  • Adenovirus DNA : the viral genome and its expression / edited by Walter Doerfler. (
  • The Alliance for Regenerative Medicine's (ARM) Gene Editing Task Force on Tuesday released a set of principles for human genome editing endorsed by thirteen of its members who are involved in the development of gene therapies or gene-editing technology. (
  • GEM is also investigating the potential utility of studies that focus on detection of the HPV viral genome in circulating free DNA (cfDNA). (
  • The outcome of HIV-1 infection is the result of complex interactions between viral proteins and host cell factors. (
  • In the new study, led by the Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology (VHIO), along with several other cancer research centres and the U.S. biotech company Alnylam, scientists have developed a lipid nanoparticle approach that can deliver two of these molecules targeted against the genes encoding two key proteins involved in the development of cancer cells (VEGF and KSP). (
  • Such posttranscriptional regulation of viral and cellular gene expression in infected cells requires viral E1B and E4 proteins. (
  • Major areas of investigation include: 1) structure-function analysis of Factors VII, IX and X through the study of naturally occurring mutant proteins and recombinant proteins produced using site-directed mutagenesis and a mammalian expression system, 2) study of the regulation of expression of the genes encoding the vitamin K dependent clotting factors. (
  • In other experiments, we are investigating the function of coagulation proteins through the use of targeted disruption of clotting factor genes. (
  • Further, the expression of RAE-1 proteins on erythroblast surfaces increased early after FV inoculation, and administration of an RAE-1-blocking antibody resulted in increased spleen infectious centers and exaggerated pathology, indicating that FV-infected erythroid cells are recognized by NK cells mainly through the NKG2D-RAE-1 interactions in vivo. (
  • 12]. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are brief, non-coding RNAs that work as detrimental regulators of appearance of protein-encoding genes by annealing to complementary sequences in 3 untranslated locations (3UTRs) of mRNAs and inhibiting additional steps of proteins synthesis [13]. (
  • Interacting with various cellular proteins, E6 and E7 influence fundamental cellular functions like cell cycle regulation, telomere maintenance, susceptibility to apoptosis, intercellular adhesion and regulation of immune responses. (
  • We are currently using both viral vectors to introduce the Factor IX cDNA into target cells of interest. (
  • My colleagues and I have several active projects, including a study on the generation and use of recombinant AAV vectors expressing Factor IX to treat hemophilia B. In particular, we are investigating novel methods of delivering vector to target tissues, and are also exploring the use of alternate serotypes and optimized expression cassettes in order to maximize gene expression. (
  • Gene therapy requires gene transfer vectors to deliver the therapeutic gene to the relevant target cell. (
  • Different vectors have different characteristics of DNA-carrying capacity, targeted cell types, duration and defined levels of expression. (
  • The WHO Monitoring Group on Gene transfer Medicinal Products was established to monitor devel- opments and draw up appropriate guidance for assuring the quality of gene transfer medicinal prod- ucts, including nucleic acids, viral and non-viral vectors, and genetically modified cells. (
  • The workshop included approaches that target both DNA and RNA, as well as gene products using viral vectors, antisense oligonucleotides, and RNA interference. (
  • COVID-19 represents a worldwide public health emergency, and, beyond the respiratory symptoms characterizing the classic viral disease, growing evidence has highlighted a possible reciprocal relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and thyroid dysfunction. (
  • In addition, at least in mosquitoes, another RNAi mechanism mediated by PIWI interacting RNAs (piRNAs) is activated by viral infection. (
  • However, there was no production of virus-derived piRNAs and only mild changes in the expression of vector miRNAs in response to infection. (
  • We know very little about how this insect vector responds to viral infection. (
  • We also show that virus infection caused mild changes to the expression of endogenous miRNAs. (
  • Inflammation and immune responses often occur together in a viral infection. (
  • The down-regulation of casein kinase 1 alpha as a host defense response against infectious bursal disease virus infection. (
  • This study aimed to determine the prevalence of occult HBV infection among Egyptian chronic HCV patients, the genotype and occurrence of surface gene mutations of HBV and the impact of co-infection on early response to treatment. (
  • Friedel will employ her expertise for an integrative comparison of transcriptional and epigenetic regulation in DNA virus infection ( Z01 ) collecting data and results from all DEEP-DV projects. (
  • A newer promising approach by Nanotechnology plays an essential role in targeting the specific pathogens for therapeutic and diagnosis of Viral infection. (
  • When transcription of the MA gene was induced during the late phase of infection, newly synthesized MA RNA entered the cytoplasm. (
  • These transcripts, which contain no vital sequences, therefore reproduce the behavior of exceptional cellular mRNA species observed when transcription of their genes is activated during the late phase of infection (U.-C. Yang, W. Huang, and S. J. Flint, J. Virol. (
  • A functional polymorphism in IFNAR1 gene is associated with susceptibility and severity of HFMD with EV71 infection. (
  • Although influenza infection causes T helper-1 cells to produce interferon-gamma and promote up-regulation of T-bet by the B-cells and their differentiation into antibody secreting cells, not all pathogens induce T helper-1 cell development. (
  • Two years later across the world in China, two girls, also as embryos, had their genes edited using CRISPR to make them (theoretically) resistant to HIV infection. (
  • Research shows that TNFSF14 plays a critical regulatory role in immune responses to viral infection, but its role is different in different diseases. (
  • When the host is infected with adenovirus, TNFSF14 can be used as an inflammatory biomarker to indicate whether there was an adenovirus infection in the host and the degree of disease caused by viral infection. (
  • The Friedel group has an extensive track record in integrative functional genomics data analysis and development of new computational methods with a focus on viral infections. (
  • Additional expertise in single-cell analyses and development of bioinformatics methods specifically applicable to viral infections comes from the Erhard group (P02). (
  • Myxovirus resistance 1 gene polymorphisms and outcomes of viral hepatitis B and C infections in Moroccan patients. (
  • Natural killer (NK) cells function as early effector cells in the innate immune defense against viral infections and also participate in the regulation of normal and malignant hematopoiesis. (
  • Therefore, T-bet-expressing B-cells play an important role in protecting the body from viral infections. (
  • There is increasing evidence that TLR3 plays an important role in the pathologic response to emerging viral infections and the excessive immune reactions they can trigger. (
  • New tools for editing genetic code offer hope for new treatments for inherited diseases, some cancers, and even stubborn viral infections. (
  • In conclusion, TNFSF14 plays different and significant roles in diverse viral infections. (
  • Therapeutic interventions targeting these identified genes and molecular pathways could be promising therapies. (
  • Carey is a member of the editorial boards of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Journal of Biological Chemistry , and has served on numerous grant review panels for the National Institutes of Health, American Cancer Society and the Prostate Cancer Foundation, and on an external review panel for the National Cancer Institute Receptor Biology and Gene Regulation laboratories. (
  • Carey also directs the Gene Regulation, Epigenomics and Transcriptomics (GREAT) home area in the Molecular Biology Institute Interdepartmental Graduate Program (MBIDP), and the UCLA Postdocs Longitudinal Investment in Faculty Training (UPLIFT) program supported by an Institutional Research and Academic Career Development Award (IRACDA) from the National Institutes of Health. (
  • The molecular mechanisms - signal transduction, transcriptional regulation and epigenetic - underpinning the regulation of gene expression in response to inflammatory stimuli in immune, non-immune cells and cancer cells and how this contributes to disease pathogenesis is the main focus of our research. (
  • He was co- director of the Gene Therapy Core Center at UCSF, director of the Division of Human Molecular Genetics at UVM, and head of the Stem Cell Research Program at California Pacific Medical Center. (
  • published a review in the International Journal Of Molecular Sciences , expounding in detail from the convenience of genetic engineering strategies, foreign gene expression and immune system stimulation. (
  • Cell lysis results in the release of viral progeny, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP), damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMP), and tumor-associated antigens (TAA) into the tumor microenvironment (TME). (
  • In summary, we present an experimentally validated lineage tree that encompasses multiple brain regions, and our work sheds light on the molecular regulation of region-specific neural lineages during human brain development. (
  • Advances in genetics, molecular biology and gene delivery technologies in recent years have led to new gene therapy strategies for treatment of a variety of diseases. (
  • Several transcription initiation sites were mapped upstream of the four 5′ exons, and transfection of promoter-reporter gene constructs confirmed that these sequences act as promoters. (
  • Here, using in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing in mouse kidney, we demonstrate that PTH activation rapidly induces increased recruitment of phosphorylated (p-133) CREB (pCREB) and its coactivators, CBP (CREB-binding protein) and CRTC2 (CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 2), to previously defined kidney-specific M1 and M21 enhancers near the Cyp27b1 gene. (
  • Their projects aim to determine mechanisms of both activation and repression of viral transcription. (
  • 2008). These transcriptional bursting models contrast with minimally stochastic, single-state (i.e., constitutive) transcription models, which are Poisson processes and generate Poisson distributions for cell-to-cell variability in gene products. (
  • The MYCN protein regulates the activity of other genes by attaching (binding) to specific regions of DNA and controlling the first step of protein production (transcription). (
  • ERGR research program investigators employ diverse model systems including cancer cells to elucidate fundamental mechanisms of gene regulation, from chromatin and transcription to RNA biology, and their alterations in cancer. (
  • Carey is co-author of the book Eukaryotic Gene Regulation: Concepts, Strategies and Techniques (CSHL Press, 1999, 2009), and he holds two patents on transcription-based imaging strategies for prostate cancer. (
  • Transcription of this reporter gene (designated MA) as well as of a sibling, which differed only in the inclusion of a cDNA copy of the Ad2 major late tripartite leader sequence upstream of β-actin sequences (termed MtplA), in recombinant virus-infected cells was strictly dependent on the addition of dexamethasone to the medium. (
  • Unexpectedly, however, higher concentrations of newly synthesized RNA accumulated in the cytoplasm when the tripartite leader sequence was present in the reporter RNA, despite equal rates of transcription of the two reporter genes. (
  • In the case of Factor X, we have determined through a variety of approaches the identity of the transcription factors binding to the promoter and are in the process of carrying out similar studies on the promoters of VII and IX, 3) studies designed to establish an experimental and clinical basis for gene therapy of hemophilia, a bleeding disorder that results from a deficiency of functional Factor IX. (
  • DNA methylation is a primary epigenetic mechanism which modulates DNA transcription and thereby gene expression. (
  • The expression levels were assayed quantitatively using reverse transcription and real-time RT-PCR. (
  • In tumor cells with mutations or disorders of pRB, E2F is no longer negatively regulated by pRB and can activate viral gene transcription to replicate. (
  • This coordinated genomic regulation results in production of endocrine 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , which, together with PTH and FGF23, controls mineral homeostasis. (
  • The results show that RNA noise is amplified in the cytoplasm compared to the nucleus in ~85% of genes across diverse promoters, genomic loci, and cell types (human and mouse). (
  • The primary goal of the ERGR research program is to promote the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center's critical mass of outstanding gene regulation, RNA biology and bioinformatic researchers to apply their expertise to the cancer problem using modern genomic and proteomic approaches. (
  • In an EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) GM12878 expressing type III EBV latency genes, abundant genomic interactions were identified by H3K27ac HiChIP. (
  • cDNA sequence and genomic structure of EV12B, a gene lying within an intron of the neurofibromatosis type 1 gene. (
  • A major segment of the neurofibromatosis type 1 gene: cDNA sequence, genomic structure, and point mutations. (
  • Few such modules were enriched in autism-associated genes and genomic variants in autistic children. (
  • They are involved in post transcriptional regulation of cellular gene expression. (
  • Viral and cellular gene expression are regulated by epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, and chromatin looping. (
  • Recent studies showed that epigenetic marks on the KSHV episome are well organized, exemplified by the absence of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation, a heterochromatic histone mark, from immediate early andlatent gene promoters in naturally infected cells. (
  • GSK in area of IBD with a focus on early drug discovery research, inflammation, leukocyte trafficking, miRNA and epigenetic regulation of inflammatory gene expression. (
  • His research group takes a functional genomics approach to discover the fundamental mechanisms underpinning cross-talk between inflammatory cytokine networks and their downstream effects on the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of inflammatory, anti-microbial and cell death gene expression. (
  • Ratner, L 2022, ' Epigenetic regulation of human t‐cell leukemia virus gene expression ', Microorganisms , vol. 10, no. 1, 84. (
  • PADI4 interferes with epigenetic gene regulation in Multiple Sclerosis. (
  • According to Harvard Medical School, the epigenetic study was 13 years in the making and demonstrated that the reorganization and regulation of genetic structures can either accelerate or reverse effects of aging like deteriorating eyesight, smaller attention span and skin tissue falters. (
  • Combined, the data demonstrate that alternative usage of four promoters within the BDNF gene and differential splicing control tissue-specific and seizure-induced expression of BDNF mRNA. (
  • K-RBP is a KRAB-containing zinc finger protein with multiple zinc finger motifs and represses Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) transactivator RTA-mediated transactivation of several viral lytic gene promoters, including the ORF57 promoter. (
  • We have isolated the 5' flanking sequences of all three genes, characterized promoter activity and determined, using DNase footprinting, the location of protein binding sites within these promoters. (
  • Tumor-specific promoters can cause high expression of specific genes. (
  • In higher eukaryotes, there are multiple mechanisms including the endogenous miRNA and anti-viral siRNA pathways. (
  • [ 23 ] They considered the expression patterns of the selected miRNA species in 162 healthy controls in comparison with 128 CD and 88 UC patients. (
  • Though many research have reviewed the expression patterns of assorted miRNAs in CRC, few research have targeted on totally different variants of miRNA. (
  • In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of pathological features in a variety of animal models of glaucoma and top differentially expressed genes (DEGs) depending on disease progression, RGC subtypes, retinal regions or animal species. (
  • Several transcriptomic studies with RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) or microarray have uncovered differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in RGCs or whole retina depending on disease progression, retinal regions, animal species or RGC subtypes. (
  • To research these two regimens' intrinsic affect on beef cattle, we used high-throughput sequencing and metabolomics analyses to discover differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and metabolimic networks within the liver. (
  • Dr. Kara Fitzgerald, whose award-winning research into DNA methylation - the regulation of gene expression - has been studying the difference between biological and chronological aging , and she's narrowed down how people can feel their best longer in her upcoming book, 'YOUNGER YOU: Reduce Your Bio Age and Live Longer, Better. (
  • Therapeutic agents that block the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) signaling pathway are a highly anticipated and promising new drug class for migraine therapy, especially after reports that small-molecule CGRP-receptor antagonists are efficacious for both acute migraine treatment and migraine prevention. (
  • Besides being a key natural cellular phenomenon, gene silencing shows great potential as a therapeutic device to shut down genes that have become hyperactive through cancer. (
  • Certain Nano platforms like Microneedle array delivered Virus S1 subunit vaccines, spike protein nanoparticles, Lumazine synthase Nanoparticles, Silver Nanoparticles, Self-Assembling Protein Nanoparticles against Viral therapy are the upcoming applications as a therapeutic approach. (
  • Because it often uses repurposed viruses to deliver therapeutic genes, gene therapy has been caught in a vicious cycle for nearly two decades owing to immune response, insertional mutagenesis, viral tropism, off-target activity, unwanted clinical outcomes (ranging from illness to death of participants in clinical trials), and patchy regulations (23, 28-31). (
  • However, the levels of therapeutic gene expression is consistantly controlled by insertion promoter of viral vector. (
  • This chapter will discuss the current understanding of aberrant regulation and expression of aromatase in breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers, and potential therapeutic strategies for prevention and treatment of these life-threatening diseases. (
  • Provention's mission is to in-license, transform and develop clinical-stage, or nearly clinical-stage, therapeutic candidates targeting the high morbidity, mortality and escalating costs of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases including: type 1 diabetes (T1D), Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, lupus, and certain life-threating viral diseases. (
  • This book gives a comprehensive overview of the present status and future directions of gene delivery systems and therapeutic strategies for the clinical application of gene therapy in cancer, cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases. (
  • Innate and adaptive anti-viral immune responses in MS patients treated with interferon-beta. (
  • The zinc finger DNA-binding domain of K-RBP plays an important role in regulating Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus RTA-mediated gene expression. (
  • Interference of STAT 5b expression by siRNA targeting enhanced the chemo-sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to gefitinib by promoting mitochondrial pathway-mediated cell apoptosis. (
  • In order to overcome these major barriers, an increased number of studies have utilized the following combined analytical methods: well-established rodent models of glaucoma including optic nerve injury models and transcriptomic gene expression profiling, resulting in the successful identification of molecules and signaling pathways relevant to RGC protection. (
  • The regulation of NAD + metabolism and the signaling networks reciprocally interacting with NAD + -producing metabolic pathways are not yet fully understood. (
  • The projects in RA2 synergistically address the question of how viruses exploit or evade cellular chromatin regulatory pathways upon nuclear entry of a naïve viral DNA molecule. (
  • The transforming activity of HTLV‐1 is driven by the viral oncoprotein Tax, which acts as a transcriptional activator of the cAMP response element‐binding protein (CREB) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) pathways. (
  • The post-translational regulation of CIC by means of ATXN1L and TRIM25 unbiased of ERK exercise means that the regulation of CIC stability and performance is extra intricate than beforehand appreciated and includes a number of unbiased pathways. (
  • Notably, the researchers found that the viral mimic poly(I:C) is sufficient to expose genetic susceptibility to hair graying. (
  • Some of the affected genes showed a strong overlap with susceptibility loci identified by Jostins et al . (
  • The present study demonstrates a correlation between the expression of the products of retinoic acid early transcript-1 (RAE-1) genes in target cells and their susceptibility to killing by NK cells isolated from FV-infected animals. (
  • GEM will continue to build upon and expand its previous successful efforts in identifying cancer susceptibility genes and how they influence cancer susceptibility. (
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial" by people in Profiles. (
  • Perturbation of the BILF2 enhancer by CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) and CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) altered the expression of BILF2 enhancer-linked genes, including BARF0 and BALF2, suggesting that this enhancer regulates the expression of linked genes. (
  • Specifically, we have an interest in understanding how the synergistic interactions between IFN-gamma and other inflammatory stimuli such as LPS, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha both in terms of their overall effect on inflammatory gene expression and also cell fate decisions contribute to pathogenesis in diseases such as IBD, type I diabetes and other inflammatory conditions. (
  • Gene therapy is a treatment for any disorder or pathophysiologic state bases upon the transfer of a normal copy of a single defective gene would revert the disease pathogenesis or even prevent the development of disease. (
  • The viral C promoter regulates the expression of all EBV nuclear antigens (EBNAs), some of which are very far away from the C promoter. (
  • Hepatic IFNL4 expression is associated with non-response to interferon-based therapy through the regulation of basal interferon-stimulated gene expression in chronic hepatitis C patients. (
  • Moss developed an interest in understanding the regulation of gene expression at MIT, but his introduction to virology research occurred at NIH, leading to a life-long study of poxviruses. (
  • We are at a remarkable time in biology where at last we can look at the "source code" for life-the DNA sequences that specify development, regulation, and function of organisms-but we are still far from adequately understanding how to read this vast trove of encoded information or being able to reconstruct how it evolved. (
  • The presence of extra copies of certain genes, known as gene amplification, can underlie the formation and growth of tumor cells. (
  • In T-cell development, T-bet activates inflammatory gene programmes that allow the T-cells to become T helper-1, or Th1, cells that can kill viruses and bacteria. (
  • Surprisingly, unlike T-cells, where T-bet turns on the inflammatory gene program, T-bet repressed or turned off more than 2,000 genes in the Th1-activated B-cells. (
  • Many of the genes that are repressed by T-bet in B-cells are normally involved in antiviral and inflammatory activity. (
  • The researchers found that the expression of the inflammatory gene programme in B-cells prevents the B-cells from differentiating into antibody-secreting cells. (
  • Recent studies have revealed the regulation and integration of inflammatory responses by the central nervous system (CNS) through the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems ( Tracey, 2002 ). (
  • In 1966, Moss joined the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as an investigator in the National Institute for Allegy and Infectious Disease (NIAID), where he is currently NIH Distinguished Investigator and Chief of the Genetic Engineering Section of the Laboratory of Viral Diseases. (
  • CDC Chronic Viral Diseases Branch is making the data accessible to researchers through CDC's NCHS Research Data Center (RDC) . (
  • His research focuses on development of gene editing and cell-based therapies for inherited diseases and cancer. (
  • Gene therapy holds promise for treating a wide range of diseases, such as cancer, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, hemophilia and AIDS. (
  • H3K27ac ChIP followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) identified several strong EBV enhancers in T/NK (natural killer) lymphoma cells that express type II EBV latency genes. (
  • Extensive intragenomic interactions were also found which linked enhancers to target genes. (
  • Figure 3: Spatially restricted expression in chick embryos, using region-specific enhancers from different species. (
  • A multi-omics analysis revealed differentially active genes and enhancers during cortical development. (
  • However, funding for this type of work was not as exuberant as it was for viral cDNA-based therapies, so it was difficult to make significant progress on this technology. (
  • As the vaccinations begin to spread among the world population, the growth of other gene therapies as a type of vaccination could increase. (
  • Gene therapies remain under strict regulation and few gene therapeutics have been approved by health authorities because of safety concerns. (
  • On April 23 and 24, 2019 the Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders convened a workshop titled "Advancing Gene-Targeted Therapies for Central Nervous System Disorders" in Washington, DC. (
  • This public workshop brought together experts and key stakeholders from academia, government, industry, philanthropic foundations, and disease/patient-focused nonprofit organizations to explore approaches for advancing the development of gene-targeted therapies for central nervous system (CNS) disorders, and implications of developing these therapies. (
  • Stem cell-based therapies and gene expression regulatory systems as novel platform technologies for various gene therapy applications are also discussed. (
  • But the typical method for delivering gene therapies to specific tissues in the body can be complicated and may cause troubling side effects. (
  • IL12-Mediated liver inflammation reduces the formation of AAV transcriptionally active forms but has no effect over preexisting AAV transgene expression. (
  • TLR3 has also been implicated in chronic pathologic inflammation triggered by non-viral RNA. (
  • As evidence of microglial function, Mocha cells phagocytose fluorescent beads at 37 degrees C, but not at 4 degrees C. The expression pattern of microglial markers in Mocha cells suggests that immortalization leads to a more primitive phenotype, a common phenomenon in immortalized cell lines. (
  • Tremendous potential exists for helical polypeptides that are water soluble (ionic) and remain stable at physiological conditions, variable environmental conditions including pH fluctuations, temperature changes, and in the presence of denaturing agents for gene delivery and cell-membrane penetration over commercially available products. (
  • but the more complex multi-state models (e.g. random-telegraph models) are required to fit the vast majority of measured cell-to-cell expression distributions, which are super-Poissonian ( Sanchez and Golding, 2013 ). (
  • RNAi plays a vital role in normal cell development and differentiation, in cancer and viral defence, as it is powerful mechanism in the regulation of gene expression. (
  • These genes play important roles in regulating cell growth and division (proliferation) and the self-destruction of cells (apoptosis). (
  • These genetic changes prevent one copy of the gene in each cell from producing any functional MYCN protein. (
  • In contrast, H3K27ac HiChIP found significantly fewer intragenomic interactions in type I EBV latency gene-expressing primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cell lines. (
  • Our contention was that if you were going to have cell-independent expression of the transgene (correcting) gene, then it's not going to be under the regulation of a specific cell that expresses the gene. (
  • Gene transfer into human leukemia cell lines by electroporation: experience with exponentially decaying and square wave pulse. (
  • Other analyses implicated dendritic cell activity and differential regulation of cytokines, especially IL-17. (
  • By these means, environmentally induced changes to gene expression are likely to determine cell phenotype and function in IBD. (
  • Both factors produce greater impacts on regulation and functional of nucleus cell. (
  • STAT5 activation by EGF constitutes an important cascade for the regulation of cell proliferation and invasion in trophoblast cells. (
  • Conclusion: p63, p16, MIB, Cal A, Cys A are markedly expressed and p16 is strongly suppressed in oral cavity tumors, which suggests that the latter protein may play a role in negative regulation of cell cycle progression. (
  • Another protein, calgranulin A (Cal A), is involved in the regulation of several cell processes, including the cell cycle and cell differentiation. (
  • In non-replicating cells, retinocytoma protein (pRB) can bind to gene regulatory protein E2F, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation. (
  • Direct comparison of the cell types were made to primary tissues using gene expression atlases and fetal human brain single-cell gene expression data, and this established that the cell types resembled early human brain cell types, including preplate cells. (
  • In accompanying experiments using influenza virus-infected mice, the Lund team found that B-cell intrinsic T-bet expression was required for the development of influenza-specific long-lived antibody-secreting cells, which provide protection from subsequent encounters with the virus. (
  • The protocols outlined in this chapter describe the use of the Affinofile system, a 293-based dual-inducible cell line that expresses up to 25 distinct combinations of CD4 and CCR5, as well as the associated Viral Entry Receptor Se. (
  • The Protein kinase C (PKC) -associated sign pathway performs essential roles in regulation of cell development, differentiation and apoptosis. (
  • This increases low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) receptor recycling and expression on the hepatocyte cell surface, which increases LDL-C uptake and lowers LDL-C levels in the circulation. (
  • While the principles endorse somatic cell gene editing and the development of regulatory standards for gene editing, the document asserts that it is too early to support any form of human germline gene editing due to unanswered ethical, legal and safety questions. (
  • miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs with some ability to regulate gene expression. (
  • While learning the function from the miR-146 family members, we pointed out that both, miR-146b-5p and miR-146a-5p, putatively regulate the appearance of in thyroid cancers tissue may be due to the up-regulation from the miR-146a family members, as well as the inhibition of the miRs might trigger the recovery of RAR and elevated efficiency of retinoic acidity adjuvant therapy. (
  • Some cells were positively labeled by a expression of a barcoded viral transgene to help establish clonality (marked by an SK). (
  • A strong enhancer was located near the BILF2 gene and looped to multiple genes around BALFs loci. (
  • Involved in positive regulation of granulocyte differentiation. (
  • Differentiation-Associated Expression of Conventional Protein Kinase C Isoforms in Primary Cultures of Bone Marrow Cells Induced by M-CSF and G-CSF. (
  • The current research focuses on typical PKC (cPKC) expression and its regulation in major cultures of bone marrow cells induced to endure macrophage/granulocyte differentiation by macrophage colony-stimulating issue (M-CSF) or granular colony-stimulating issue (G-CSF). (
  • Although focused on mechanisms underlying fundamental epigenomics and gene regulatory processes, the ERGR research program strives to translate its knowledge to pre-clinical and clinical applications. (
  • The American Society of Gene Therapy has taken lead in fixing this fragmented funding method by making many recommendations including the elimination of redundant regulatory processes and establishment of the National Gene Vector Laboratories (NGVL) to review vector production and toxicology. (
  • Data show that BACH2 and STAT5B are activated by viral insertions, generating chimeric mRNAs specifically enriched in T regulatory cells favoring their persistence. (
  • These cytokines have been grouped as Th1, Th2, Th17 and T regulatory (Treg) based on their expression pattern and effects on target cells or tissues [ 5 ]. (
  • Libraries of helical polypeptides are screened for desired traits, i.e. efficient gene transfection compared to standard transfection reagents. (
  • Comparison of three non-viral transfection methods for foreign gene expression in early chicken embryos in ovo . (
  • They artificially stimulated the mouse innate immune response, either through a genetic mechanism or via exposure to viral mimic. (
  • The researchers discovered that MITF has a novel role in the regulation of systemic innate immune gene expression. (
  • More specifically, they discovered that MITF is involved in repressing the expression of innate immune genes within cells of the melanocyte lineage by keeping in check interferon responses. (
  • This new discovery suggests that genes that control pigment in hair and skin also work to control the innate immune system. (
  • Vitamin D metabolism centers on kidney regulation of Cyp27b1 by mineralotropic hormones, including induction by parathyroid hormone (PTH), suppression by fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ), and reciprocal regulations for Cyp24a1 . (
  • As a result, only half the normal amount of this protein is available to control the activity of specific genes during development. (
  • Large RNAs and complex ribonucleoprotein machines such as the spliceosome and ribosome play a key role in constitutive and regulated cellular processes and in the life cycle of viral pathogens. (
  • Small RNA-mediated Gene Regulation It has been shown that small RNAs repress or modify gene expression in all organisms. (
  • Transient expression of heterologous RNAs using tomato golden mosaic virus. (
  • Gene expression may also be related to chromatin modifications and effects on non-coding RNAs. (
  • Riboswitches are 5′-untranslated regions of mRNA that change their conformation in response to ligand binding, allowing post-transcriptional gene regulation. (
  • The mRNA vaccinations are a form of gene therapy, according to its definition in many parts of the world, including Europe. (
  • The HBcAg (called "core protein" nowadays) assembles into viral nucleocapsid (core particle), which packages the pregenome (an RNA copy of viral DNA) and polymerase. (
  • Inside the core particle, the viral polymerase directs the synthesis of minus strand DNA from the RNA template. (
  • Through confocal microscopy and GST pulldown assays, we have demonstrated that HuR co localizes with the viral polymerase, NS5B and directly interacts with the NS5B protein. (
  • Laboratory testing evaluated neuroendocrine status, autonomic nervous system function, systemic cytokine profiles, peripheral blood gene expression patterns and polymorphisms in genes involved in neurotransmission and immune regulation. (
  • Eukaryotic Gene ExpressionBasics & Benefits by Prof.P N RANGARAJAN,Department of Biochemistry,IISC Bangalore. (
  • Andreason, G. & Evans, G. Induction and expression of DNA molecules in eukaryotic cells by electroporation. (
  • that translational upregulation by means of the expression of eukaryotic translation initiation issue 4E (eIF4E) additional enhanced the ATX2-induced dendritic phenotypes. (
  • viral decoy receptor for cytokine. (
  • On this research, we discovered that dsDNA induced dose- and time-dependent enhance in IFN-α and Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), TLR9 and IRF7 expression in pDCs. (
  • Non-viral gene delivery utilizing RALA modulates sFlt-1 secretion, important for preeclampsia. (
  • Jan 2021 GSTM1 Modulates Expression of Endothelial Adhesion Molecules in Uremic Milieu. (
  • These findings suggest that the DNA-binding activity of K-RBP plays an important role in repressing viral promoter activity. (
  • Recommendations concerning the prevention of other types of viral hepatitis are found in MMWR 1990;39(No. RR-2): 1-8, 22-26. (
  • Inside our prior studies we discovered serious deregulation of microRNAs in papillary thyroid carcinoma with miR-146a-5p and miR-146b-5p getting together with the set of up-regulated genes [14,15]. (
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are grasp regulators of gene expression in cancers. (
  • cGMP plays a role in the regulation of vascular tone, cardiac contractility, and cardiac remodeling. (
  • A substantial number of DAPK Substrate Peptide individual cancers display aberrant appearance of gene [7C9]. (
  • Moreover, some core promoter mutants are impaired in virion secretion due to missense mutations in the envelope gene. (
  • At least 36 mutations involving the MYCN gene have been found to cause Feingold syndrome type 1. (
  • Some gene mutations are acquired during a person's lifetime and are present only in certain cells. (
  • Expression of p63 is almost exclusively restricted to epithelial cells, mutations in this gene are infrequent, and its expression is increased in a variety of solid tumors, particularly those of the head and neck area 12,13 . (
  • AveXis, a Novartis company, today announced the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Zolgensma® (onasemnogene abeparvovec-xioi) for the treatment of pediatric patients less than 2 years of age with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) with bi-allelic mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. (
  • Most forms of NDM and MODY are caused healthy blood sugar at 50 Blood Sugar Levels Chart by autosomal dominant mutations, meaning they can be passed on to children when only one parent carries healthy blood sugar at 50 the gene for the disease. (
  • Encoded by the cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP19A1) gene, aromatase is expressed in a wide variety of tissues, as well as benign and malignant tumors, and is regulated in a pathway- and tissue-specific manner. (
  • CRISPRi also validated the functional connection between BILF2 enhancer and BARF1 gene. (
  • Networks of converging gene and enhancer modules were assembled into six and four global patterns of expression and activity across time. (
  • RNAi is a gene-silencing mechanism that uses a subtype of RNA molecules to interfere with and silence genes. (
  • The MYCN gene provides instructions for making a protein that plays an important role in the formation of tissues and organs during development before birth. (
  • Our current findings implicate oncogenic transformative occasions in persistent iron-exposed FTSECs, together with elevated expression of oncogenic mediators, elevated telomerase transcripts, and elevated progress/migratory potential. (