Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
Basic functional unit of plants.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Material prepared from plants.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The reproductive cells of plants.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
Physiological functions characteristic of plants.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

Loss-of-function mutations in the rice homeobox gene OSH15 affect the architecture of internodes resulting in dwarf plants. (1/14262)

The rice homeobox gene OSH15 (Oryza sativa homeobox) is a member of the knotted1-type homeobox gene family. We report here on the identification and characterization of a loss-of-function mutation in OSH15 from a library of retrotransposon-tagged lines of rice. Based on the phenotype and map position, we have identified three independent deletion alleles of the locus among conventional morphological mutants. All of these recessive mutations, which are considered to be null alleles, exhibit defects in internode elongation. Introduction of a 14 kbp genomic DNA fragment that includes all exons, introns and 5'- and 3'- flanking sequences of OSH15 complemented the defects in internode elongation, confirming that they were caused by the loss-of-function of OSH15. Internodes of the mutants had abnormal-shaped epidermal and hypodermal cells and showed an unusual arrangement of small vascular bundles. These mutations demonstrate a role for OSH15 in the development of rice internodes. This is the first evidence that the knotted1-type homeobox genes have roles other than shoot apical meristem formation and/or maintenance in plant development.  (+info)

Enhanced resistance to bacterial diseases of transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing sarcotoxin IA, a bactericidal peptide of insect. (2/14262)

Sarcotoxin IA is a bactericidal peptide of 39 amino acids found in the common flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina. Many agronomically important bacteria in Japan are killed by this peptide at sub-micro molar levels, and the growth of tobacco and rice suspension cultured cells is not inhibited with less than 25 microM. Transgenic tobacco plants which overexpress the peptide, i.e. over 250 pmol per gram of fresh leaf, under the control of a high expression constitutive promoter showed enhanced resistance to the pathogens for wild fire disease (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci) and bacterial soft rot disease (Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora).  (+info)

Male gametic cell-specific gene expression in flowering plants. (3/14262)

The role of the male gamete-the sperm cell-in the process of fertilization is to recognize, adhere to, and fuse with the female gamete. These highly specialized functions are expected to be controlled by activation of a unique set of genes. However, male gametic cells traditionally have been regarded as transcriptionally quiescent because of highly condensed chromatin and a very reduced amount of cytoplasm. Here, we provide evidence for male gamete-specific gene expression in flowering plants. We identified and characterized a gene, LGC1, which was shown to be expressed exclusively in the male gametic cells. The gene product of LGC1 was localized at the surface of male gametic cells, suggesting a possible role in sperm-egg interactions. These findings represent an important step toward defining the molecular mechanisms of male gamete development and the cellular processes involved in fertilization of flowering plants.  (+info)

Novel genes induced during an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis formed between Medicago truncatula and Glomus versiforme. (4/14262)

Many terrestrial plant species are able to form symbiotic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Here we have identified three cDNA clones representing genes whose expression is induced during the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis formed between Medicago truncatula and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus versiforme. The three clones represent M. truncatula genes and encode novel proteins: a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase-related protein, a putative arabinogalactan protein (AGP), and a putative homologue of the mammalian p110 subunit of initiation factor 3 (eIF3). These genes show little or no expression in M. truncatula roots prior to formation of the symbiosis and are significantly induced following colonization by G. versiforme. The genes are not induced in roots in response to increases in phosphate. This suggests that induction of expression during the symbiosis is due to the interaction with the fungus and is not a secondary effect of improved phosphate nutrition. In situ hybridization revealed that the putative AGP is expressed specifically in cortical cells containing arbuscules. The identification of two mycorrhiza-induced genes encoding proteins predicted to be involved in cell wall structure is consistent with previous electron microscopy data that indicated major alterations in the extracellular matrix of the cortical cells following colonization by mycorrhizal fungi.  (+info)

A novel 53-kDa nodulin of the symbiosome membrane of soybean nodules, controlled by Bradyrhizobium japonicum. (5/14262)

A nodule-specific 53-kDa protein (GmNOD53b) of the symbiosome membrane from soybean was isolated and its LysC digestion products were microsequenced. cDNA clones of this novel nodulin, obtained from cDNA library screening with an RT-PCR (reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction)-generated hybridization probe exhibited no homology to proteins identified so far. The expression of GmNOD53b coincides with the onset of nitrogen fixation. Therefore, it is a late nodulin. Among other changes, the GmNOD53b is significantly reduced in nodules infected with the Bradyrhizobium japonicum mutant 184 on the protein level as well as on the level of mRNA expression, compared with the wild-type infected nodules. The reduction of GmNOD53b mRNA is related to an inactivation of the sipF gene in B. japonicum 184, coding for a functionally active signal peptidase.  (+info)

The auxin-insensitive bodenlos mutation affects primary root formation and apical-basal patterning in the Arabidopsis embryo. (6/14262)

In Arabidopsis embryogenesis, the primary root meristem originates from descendants of both the apical and the basal daughter cell of the zygote. We have isolated a mutant of a new gene named BODENLOS (BDL) in which the primary root meristem is not formed whereas post-embryonic roots develop and bdl seedlings give rise to fertile adult plants. Some bdl seedlings lacked not only the root but also the hypocotyl, thus resembling monopteros (mp) seedlings. In addition, bdl seedlings were insensitive to the auxin analogue 2,4-D, as determined by comparison with auxin resistant1 (axr1) seedlings. bdl embryos deviated from normal development as early as the two-cell stage at which the apical daughter cell of the zygote had divided horizontally instead of vertically. Subsequently, the uppermost derivative of the basal daughter cell, which is normally destined to become the hypophysis, divided abnormally and failed to generate the quiescent centre of the root meristem and the central root cap. We also analysed double mutants. bdl mp embryos closely resembled the two single mutants, bdl and mp, at early stages, while bdl mp seedlings essentially consisted of hypocotyl but did form primary leaves. bdl axr1 embryos approached the mp phenotype at later stages, and bdl axr1 seedlings resembled mp seedlings. Our results suggest that BDL is involved in auxin-mediated processes of apical-basal patterning in the Arabidopsis embryo.  (+info)

NADH-glutamate synthase in alfalfa root nodules. Genetic regulation and cellular expression. (7/14262)

NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT; EC is a key enzyme in primary nitrogen assimilation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root nodules. Here we report that in alfalfa, a single gene, probably with multiple alleles, encodes for NADH-GOGAT. In situ hybridizations were performed to assess the location of NADH-GOGAT transcript in alfalfa root nodules. In wild-type cv Saranac nodules the NADH-GOGAT gene is predominantly expressed in infected cells. Nodules devoid of bacteroids (empty) induced by Sinorhizobium meliloti 7154 had no NADH-GOGAT transcript detectable by in situ hybridization, suggesting that the presence of the bacteroid may be important for NADH-GOGAT expression. The pattern of expression of NADH-GOGAT shifted during root nodule development. Until d 9 after planting, all infected cells appeared to express NADH-GOGAT. By d 19, a gradient of expression from high in the early symbiotic zone to low in the late symbiotic zone was observed. In 33-d-old nodules expression was seen in only a few cell layers in the early symbiotic zone. This pattern of expression was also observed for the nifH transcript but not for leghemoglobin. The promoter of NADH-GOGAT was evaluated in transgenic alfalfa plants carrying chimeric beta-glucuronidase promoter fusions. The results suggest that there are at least four regulatory elements. The region responsible for expression in the infected cell zone contains an 88-bp direct repeat.  (+info)

A single limit dextrinase gene is expressed both in the developing endosperm and in germinated grains of barley. (8/14262)

The single gene encoding limit dextrinase (pullulan 6-glucanohydrolase; EC in barley (Hordeum vulgare) has 26 introns that range in size from 93 to 822 base pairs. The mature polypeptide encoded by the gene has 884 amino acid residues and a calculated molecular mass of 97,417 D. Limit dextrinase mRNA is abundant in gibberellic acid-treated aleurone layers and in germinated grain. Gibberellic acid response elements were found in the promoter region of the gene. These observations suggest that the enzyme participates in starch hydrolysis during endosperm mobilization in germinated grain. The mRNA encoding the enzyme is present at lower levels in the developing endosperm of immature grain, a location consistent with a role for limit dextrinase in starch synthesis. Enzyme activity was also detected in developing grain. The limit dextrinase has a presequence typical of transit peptides that target nascent polypeptides to amyloplasts, but this would not be expected to direct secretion of the mature enzyme from aleurone cells in germinated grain. It remains to be discovered how the enzyme is released from the aleurone and whether another enzyme, possibly of the isoamylase group, might be equally important for starch hydrolysis in germinated grain.  (+info)

The severity of plant poisoning depends on the type of plant consumed, the amount ingested, and individual sensitivity. Some common plants that are toxic to humans include:

1. Castor bean (Ricinus communis): The seeds contain ricin, a deadly toxin that can cause severe vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
2. Oleander (Nerium oleander): All parts of the plant are toxic, and ingestion can cause cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and death.
3. Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.): The leaves and flowers contain grayanotoxins, which can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and difficulty breathing.
4. Taxus (Taxus spp.): The leaves, seeds, and stems of yew (Taxus baccata) and Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) contain a toxin called taxine, which can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and cardiac problems.
5. Aconitum (Aconitum spp.): Also known as monkshood or wolf's bane, all parts of the plant are toxic and can cause nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
6. Belladonna (Atropa belladonna): The leaves, stems, and roots contain atropine, which can cause dilated pupils, flushed skin, and difficulty urinating.
7. Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna): All parts of the plant are toxic and can cause nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
8. Hemlock (Conium maculatum): The leaves and seeds contain coniine and gamma-coniceine, which can cause muscle weakness, paralysis, and respiratory failure.
9. Lantana (Lantana camara): The berries are toxic and can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
10. Oleander (Nerium oleander): All parts of the plant are toxic and can cause nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
11. Castor bean (Ricinus communis): The seeds are particularly toxic and can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
12. Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.): The leaves, stems, and flowers contain grayanotoxins, which can cause nausea, vomiting, and difficulty breathing.
13. Yew (Taxus spp.): The leaves, seeds, and stems of yew contain a toxin called taxine, which can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and cardiac problems.

It is important to note that while these plants are toxic, they can also be safely used in herbal remedies when prepared and administered properly under the guidance of a qualified practitioner. It is always best to consult with a medical professional before using any herbal remedy, especially if you have a medical condition or are pregnant or breastfeeding.

1. Innate immunity: This is the body's first line of defense against infection, and it involves the recognition and elimination of pathogens by cells and proteins that are present from birth.
2. Acquired immunity: This type of immunity develops over time as a result of exposure to pathogens, and it involves the production of antibodies and other immune cells that can recognize and eliminate specific pathogens.
3. Cell-mediated immunity: This is a type of immunity that involves the activation of immune cells, such as T cells and macrophages, to fight off infection.
4. Genetic resistance: Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to disease resistance, which can be influenced by their ancestry or genetic makeup.
5. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental factors, such as sunlight, clean water, and good nutrition, can also contribute to disease resistance.

Disease resistance is an important concept in the medical field, as it helps to protect against infectious diseases and can reduce the risk of illness and death. Understanding how disease resistance works can help healthcare professionals develop effective strategies for preventing and treating infections, and it can also inform public health policies and interventions aimed at reducing the burden of infectious diseases on individuals and communities.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

Polyploidy is a condition where an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, which are the thread-like structures that carry genetic information. It can occur in both plants and animals, although it is relatively rare in most species. In humans, polyploidy is extremely rare and usually occurs as a result of errors during cell division or abnormal fertilization.

In medicine, polyploidy is often used to describe certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer or colon cancer, that have extra sets of chromosomes. This can lead to the development of more aggressive and difficult-to-treat tumors.

However, not all cases of polyploidy are cancerous. Some individuals with Down syndrome, for example, have an extra copy of chromosome 21, which is a non-cancerous form of polyploidy. Additionally, some people may be born with extra copies of certain genes or chromosomal regions due to errors during embryonic development, which can lead to various health problems but are not cancerous.

Overall, the term "polyploidy" in medicine is used to describe any condition where an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, regardless of whether it is cancerous or non-cancerous.

Both partners (plant and fungus) must follow a precise sequence of gene expression for this to be successful. There is evidence ... Hilbert, J. L.; Martin, F. (1988). "Regulation of gene expression in ectomycorrhizas". New Phytologist. 110 (3): 339-346. doi: ... Dominant native plants can inhibit EcM fungi on the roots of neighboring plants, and some invasive plants can inhibit the ... Some fungal genes appear to be expressed before plant contact, suggesting that signals in the soil may induce important fungal ...
Zhou A, Pawlowski WP (August 2014). "Regulation of meiotic gene expression in plants". Frontiers in Plant Science. 5: 413. doi: ... specific genes are more highly transcribed. In addition to strong meiotic stage-specific expression of mRNA, there are also ... "Unified single-cell analysis of testis gene regulation and pathology in five mouse strains". eLife. 8: e43966. doi:10.7554/ ... regulating the ultimate meiotic stage-specific protein expression of genes during meiosis. Thus, both transcriptional and ...
Tobin, E M; Silverthorne, J (1 June 1985). "Light Regulation of Gene Expression in Higher Plants". Annual Review of Plant ... Origins of phytochrome-modulated Lhcb mRNA expression in seed plants Plant Physiology 126 (4) 1609-1618 Peer, W; Silverthorne, ... Gene regulation". Pigment of the Imagination: A History of Phytochrome Research. Elsevier. pp. 480-515. ISBN 978-0-323-13854-3 ... and light-regulated expression of individual members of the light-harvesting complex b gene family in Pinus palustris Plant ...
Tobin, E M; Silverthorne, J (1 June 1985). "Light Regulation of Gene Expression in Higher Plants". Annual Review of Plant ... as model plant systems to study light regulation of gene expression in plants, examining interactions between phytochrome ... "A Myb-related transcription factor is involved in the phytochrome regulation of an Arabidopsis Lhcb gene". The Plant Cell. 9 (4 ... The two genes were the first two components of the circadian clock or central oscillator mechanism in plants to be identified. ...
Serganov A, Patel DJ (October 2007). "Ribozymes, riboswitches and beyond: regulation of gene expression without proteins". ... Bocobza SE, Aharoni A (October 2008). "Switching the light on plant riboswitches". Trends in Plant Science. 13 (10): 526-533. ... is a temperature-sensitive non-coding RNA molecule which regulates gene expression. RNA thermometers often regulate genes ... Balsiger S, Ragaz C, Baron C, Narberhaus F (2004). "Replicon-specific regulation of small heat shock genes in Agrobacterium ...
"Regulation of the leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase gene expression in Vitis vinifera". Plant Science. 161 (3): 579-588. doi: ... The gene encoding the enzyme (PpLDOX) has been identified in peach and expression has been studied in Vitis vinifera. As of ... molecular cloning and functional expression of cDNA from a red forma of Perilla frutescens". Plant J. 17 (2): 181-9. doi: ... "Leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase gene (PpLDOX): a potential functional marker for cold storage browning in peach". Tree Genetics ...
Cho HT, Cosgrove DJ (December 2002). "Regulation of root hair initiation and expansin gene expression in Arabidopsis". Plant ... Cho HT, Kende H (September 1997). "Expression of expansin genes is correlated with growth in deepwater rice". Plant Cell. 9 (9 ... The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana contains around 26 different α-expansin genes and 6 β-expansin genes. A subset of β- ... So far, two large families of expansin genes have been discovered in plants, named alpha-expansins (given the gene symbol EXPA ...
Light regulation of plant gene expression by an upstream enhancer-like element. Nature 318, 579-582. PMID 3865055 Ahmad M and ... "Light regulation of plant gene expression by an upstream enhancer-like element". Nature. 318 (6046): 579-582. Bibcode:1985Natur ... Using transgenic plant cells, they demonstrated that in the pea plant, light-regulated expression was mediated by a 1 kilobase ... "My journey into the birth of plant transgenesis and its impact on modern plant biology". Biography of Pioneers in Plant ...
In plants, there is also environmental regulation of AK-HSD gene expression. Light exposure has been demonstrated to increase ... "Expression of an Aspartate Kinase Homoserine Dehydrogenase Gene IS Subject to Specific Spatial and Temporal Regulation in ... Zhu-Shimoni JX, Galili G (March 1998). "Expression of an Arabidopsis Aspartate Kinase/Homoserine Dehydrogenase Gene Is ... Additionally, the aspartate kinase-homoserine dehydrogenase gene is primarily expressed in actively growing, young plant ...
"Specificity of auxin regulation of gibberellin 20-oxidase gene expression in pea pericarp". Plant Molecular Biology. 49 (5): ... Most bioactive GAs are located in actively growing organs on plants. Both GA20ox and GA3ox genes (genes coding for GA 20- ... "Feedback regulation of GA5 expression and metabolic engineering of gibberellin levels in Arabidopsis". The Plant Cell. 11 (5): ... "The plant stress hormone ethylene controls floral transition via DELLA-dependent regulation of floral meristem-identity genes ...
Hormonal Regulation of Gene Expression and Development - Detailed introduction to plant hormones, including genetic information ... Plant hormones frequently regulate the concentrations of other plant hormones. Plants also move hormones around the plant ... Plant hormones affect gene expression and transcription levels, cellular division, and growth. They are naturally produced ... Plant hormones control all aspects of plant growth and development, from embryogenesis, the regulation of organ size, pathogen ...
The regulation of gene expression by nuclear receptors often occurs in the presence of a ligand-a molecule that affects the ... Nuclear receptors are specific to metazoans (animals) and are not found in protists, algae, fungi, or plants. Amongst the early ... when bound to their cognate nuclear receptors is normally to upregulate gene expression. This stimulation of gene expression by ... The result is up- or down-regulation of gene expression. A unique property of nuclear receptors that differentiates them from ...
"Regulation of expression of proteinase inhibitor genes by methyl jasmonate and jasmonic Acid". Plant Physiology. 98 (3): 995- ... When plants are attacked by insects, they respond by releasing JA, which activates the expression of protease inhibitors, among ... It has an important role in response to wounding of plants and systemic acquired resistance. The Dgl gene is responsible for ... Regulation". Plant Biology. 8 (3): 297-306. doi:10.1055/s-2006-923935. PMID 16807821. Gális, I.; Gaquerel, E.; Pandey, S. P.; ...
... is the control of gene expression at the RNA level. It occurs once the RNA polymerase has been ... "RNA-Binding Proteins in Plant Response to Abiotic Stresses". RNA Binding Proteins. CRC Press. 2012-08-10. pp. 137-148. doi: ... "Gene Expression and Regulation , Learn Science at Scitable". Retrieved 2020-10-12. Friedman RC, Farh KK, Burge ... "Control of gene expression during T cell activation: alternate regulation of mRNA transcription and mRNA stability". BMC ...
Plant Transcription Factor Database and Plant Transcriptional Regulation Data and Analysis Platform Regulation of Gene ... Regulation of gene expression, or gene regulation, includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or ... Conversely, down-regulation is a process resulting in decreased gene and corresponding protein expression. Up-regulation occurs ... Often, one gene regulator controls another, and so on, in a gene regulatory network. Gene regulation is essential for viruses, ...
Viral microRNAs play an important role in the regulation of gene expression of viral and/or host genes to benefit the virus. ... Found in plants, animals and some viruses, miRNAs are involved in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene ... There is a strong correlation between ITPR gene regulations and mir-92 and mir-19. dsRNA can also activate gene expression, a ... Li LC (2008). "Small RNA-Mediated Gene Activation". In Morris KV (ed.). RNA and the Regulation of Gene Expression: A Hidden ...
... the chromatin dynamics that enable switching between epigenetic states and quantitative regulation of gene expression. This ... "Patterns of gene action in plant development revealed by enhancer trap and gene trap transposable elements". Genes & ... As plants overwinter FLC expression is then epigenetically silenced through a cold-induced, cis-based, Polycomb switching ... Epigenetic switching and quantitative regulation of FLC play a central role in seasonal timing in plants. This acceleration of ...
One study suggested that this was possible through the up-regulation of PTEN gene expression in those breast cancer cells. ... Cited by Mitchell and Rook (1979). Mitchell, John; Rook, Arthur (1979). Botanical Dermatology: Plants and Plant Products ... De Amicis, Francesca (2015). "Bergapten drives autophagy through the up-regulation of PTEN expression in breast cancer cells". ... Contact with plant parts containing bergapten (and other linear furanocoumarins) followed by exposure to ultraviolet light may ...
"HOXC13 is involved in the regulation of human hair keratin gene expression". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (5): 3718 ... October 2018). "S-nitrosylation of the zinc finger protein SRG1 regulates plant immunity". Nature Communications. 9 (1): 4226. ... In terms of gene expression, ZNF226 is generally expressed in most tissues. Microarray data illustrates higher expression of ... The gene expression is lower in PB-EPCs when compared to CB-EPCs. PB-EPCs have more tumor suppressor (TP53) expression when ...
Similarly, the Cyp 28A1 gene expression is also upregulated in D. mettleri that are exposed to more alkaloids in host plants. ... This alteration is enough to lead to an up-regulation in gene expression causing a significant change in physical protein ... An up-regulation in the genes encoding for xenobiotic resistance are attributed to the specialized and highly efficient ... The upregulation of this gene is an adaptive response to exposure to toxic alkaloids in host plants. ...
The microgravity conditions in space induce changes in DNA regulation, expression of genes and cell structure and function. ... Microorganisms, small organisms, animal cells, tissue cultures, and small plants are studied in this lab. Space Technology and ... such as measuring microbial growth or monitoring gene expression. Space Automated Bioproduct Lab (SABL): can be used for ... Using a machine to analyze genes, one researcher is testing whether astronauts experience genetic changes in their DNA that ...
"MicroRNA profiling provides insights into post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in chickpea root apex under ... "Role of DREB-Like Proteins in Improving Stress Tolerance of Transgenic Plants". Plant Acclimation to Environmental Stress. ... "Role of DREB-Like Proteins in Improving Stress Tolerance of Transgenic Plants". Plant Acclimation to Environmental Stress. ... Subsequently, he joined the National Institute of Plant Genome Research, New Delhi where he holds the position of a Grade VII ...
... new insights into the regulation of tissue-specific gene expression". Nature Reviews Genetics. 12 (4): 283-293. doi:10.1038/ ... Bellen, Hugo J (December 1999). "Ten Years of Enhancer Detection: Lessons from the Fly". The Plant Cell. 11 (12): 2271-2281. ... Furthermore, gene expression levels on average were correlated with the sum of the enhancer strengths per gene, supporting ... The study of gene regulation and their responsible pathways in the genome during normal development and also in disease can be ...
A more likely source of cellular plasticity is through the Regulation of gene expression, such that while two cells may have ... Plant flavones are said to be inhibiting epigenomic marks that cause cancers. Two of the most characterized epigenetic ... Epigenetic modifications play an important role in gene expression and regulation, and are involved in numerous cellular ... the differential expression of certain genes results in variation. Research has shown that cells are capable of regulating gene ...
... his interest turned to gene expression, in particular the regulation of production of RNA from genes. Experiments in his ... 1994)"Chapters from my life" Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 45:1-23. Campos and Reinberg (2009) "Historic perspective on ... Studied Gene Regulation,By KAREN FREEMAN, September 19, 1996 Los Angeles Times:James F. Bonner; Improved Citrus Harvesting ... a protein associated with the genes, shuts off gene activity. If the histone fraction is extracted from isolated chromatin, ...
"Expression of cytokinin biosynthetic isopentenyltransferase genes in Arabidopsis: tissue specificity and regulation by auxin, ... ISBN 978-0-87893-866-7. Plant Physiology:Cytokinin Regulation of Leaf Senescence by Cytokinin, Sugar, and Light (Articles with ... Cytokinins (CK) are a class of plant hormones that promote cell division, or cytokinesis, in plant roots and shoots. They are ... Collins S (1964-08-14). "Plant Physiology: The Lore of Living Plants . By Johannes van Overbeek and Harry K. Wong. National ...
Gene Regulation and Expression; Cell and Developmental Biology; Molecular Physiology; Environmental and Applied Biology; MRC ... Plant Sciences research used to be based in the BSI building but following its closure, the division of Plant Sciences moved to ... The building originally housed the Divisions of Gene expression, Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Parasitology that were ... Developmental Biology Cell Signalling and Immunology Computational Biology Drug Discovery Unit Gene Regulation and Expression ...
... to related species has been shown to be due to differential gene expression and regulation of the same genes in both plants. ... The expression of such genes is used to determine whether a species is capable of hyperaccumulation. Expression of HA genes ... "Elevated expression of metal transporter genes in three accessions of the metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens." Plant, ... The ZIP gene family is a novel, plant-specific gene family that encodes Cd, Mn, Fe and Zn transporters. The ZIP family plays a ...
... but still have high biological significance for gene expression and its regulation. Telomerase is an enzyme that is present in ... At the time, "yeast nucleic acid" (RNA) was thought to occur only in plants, while "thymus nucleic acid" (DNA) only in animals ... and how those processes are regulated to regulate gene expression (i.e. turn genes on and off). Following the isolation of E. ... In this way, gene expression can be dramatically regulated at the post-transcriptional level. Another previously unknown ...
Gene expression Regulation of gene expression Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi India portal Science portal "Vice Chancellor ... and the Society for Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology, New Delhi (2009-2011) and is a former secretary of the Plant Tissue ... His researches on the gene expression and the activity of nitrate reductase revealed the effect of light on the turnover of ... Based on his work on dehydration stress and salinity-related gene regulation, he is known to have developed a new methodology ...
Structure and function of the cucumber malate synthase gene and expression during plant development. (PhD thesis). ... Dave, Anuja; Vaistij, Fabián E.; Gilday, Alison D.; Penfield, Steven D.; Graham, Ian A. (2016). "Regulation of Arabidopsis ... "Carbon Catabolite Repression Regulates Glyoxylate Cycle Gene Expression in Cucumber". The Plant Cell. 6 (5): 761-772. doi: ... "The malate synthase gene of cucumber". Plant Molecular Biology. 13 (6): 673-684. doi:10.1007/BF00016022. PMID 2491683. S2CID ...
Consumption regulations varies by county: many have adopted some sort of regulation allowing cannabis consumption clubs to ... They may grow up to ninety-nine cannabis plants of psychoactive use and obtain as product of the crop a maximum annual storage ... Music in homage from these clubs arose; Gene Krupa even composed an entire album named "Teapad Songs Volume 1". These clubs ... Many of these Spanish groups were members of the pan-European non-government organization ENCOD which coined the expression ...
... regulation, heterologous expression, and enzyme properties". European Journal of Biochemistry. 230 (3): 1053-8. doi:10.1111/j. ... barrels positioned face to face and thought to have evolved by gene duplication. The active site lies between the tops of the ... "Vitamin-B12-independent methionine synthase from a higher plant (Catharanthus roseus). Molecular characterization, ... a face-to-face double barrel that evolved by gene duplication". PLOS Biology. 3 (2): e31. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030031. PMC ...
Ohlrogge JB, Jaworski JG (June 1997). "Regulation of Fatty Acid Synthesis". Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant ... In Silico Identification and Expression Analysis of CDF-Like Genes". In Olivares-Quiroz L, Resendis-Antonio O (eds.). ... "How many genes are there in plants (... and why are they there)?". Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 10 (2): 199-203. doi: ... This type of regulation often involves allosteric regulation of the activities of multiple enzymes in the pathway. Extrinsic ...
Parthenogenetic/gynogenetic embryos have twice the normal expression level of maternally derived genes, and lack expression of ... "Identification and Comparison of Imprinted Genes Across Plant Species". In Spillane C, McKeown P (eds.). Plant Epigenetics and ... Barlow DP (April 1993). "Methylation and imprinting: from host defense to gene regulation?". Science. 260 (5106): 309-10. ... among imprinted genes. It has also been postulated that if the retrotransposed gene is inserted close to another imprinted gene ...
International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (PDF). International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. ... as a Mechanism for Invasive Aquatic Plant Management in Florida". Journal of Aquatic Plant Management. 53: 95-104. Estes, J. A ... The dolphin "smile" makes them popular attractions, as this is a welcoming facial expression in humans; however the smile is ... Zimmer, Carl (9 August 2018). "Marine Mammals Have Lost a Gene That Now They May Desperately Need". The New York Times. ...
Colocation for redox regulation of gene expression". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... Surprisingly, even those huge mtDNAs contain the same number and kinds of genes as related plants with much smaller mtDNAs. The ... Interestingly, while the expression of protein-encoding genes was stimulated by ACTH, the levels of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA ... As demonstrated by the effect of the trophic hormone ACTH on adrenal cortex cells, the expression of the mitochondrial genes ...
Cousins RJ (1994). "Metal elements and gene expression". Annual Review of Nutrition. 14: 449-69. doi:10.1146/ ... Plant breeding can improve zinc uptake capacity of plants under soil conditions with low chemical availability of zinc. ... Foster M, Samman S (July 2012). "Zinc and regulation of inflammatory cytokines: implications for cardiometabolic disease". ... Korayem, A.M. (1993). "Effect of zinc fertilization on rice plants and on the population of the rice-root nematode ...
... a tumor suppressing gene, and at several guanine residues in the 12th and 13th codons of the ras gene, a gene whose product ... "Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins in food and feed in 2003". Coulombe R. A. (1993). "Biological action of mycotoxins". J ... The mold lives in soil, surviving off dead plant and animal matter, but spreads through the air via airborne conidia. This ... Impairment of the cell-mediated response to vaccine antigen and modulation of cytokine expression". Toxicology and Applied ...
"Identification of the nik gene cluster of Brucella suis: regulation and contribution to urease activity". Journal of ... The Brucella abortus (rough LPS Brucella) vaccine, developed for bovine brucellosis and licensed by the USDA Animal Plant ... "Oral vaccination and immunocontraception of feral swine using brucella suis with multimeric gnrh protein expression." Proc. ... Flagellar genes, however, are present in the B. suis genome, but are thought to be cryptic remnants because some were truncated ...
Several gene expression studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified 800-1200 genes that change expression over the ... Regulation of the cell cycle involves processes crucial to the survival of a cell, including the detection and repair of ... In cells with nuclei (eukaryotes, i.e., animal, plant, fungal, and protist cells), the cell cycle is divided into two main ... In general, the binding of pRb to E2F inhibits the E2F target gene expression of certain G1/S and S transition genes including ...
... including genes, proteins and peptide fragments, expression systems, cells, and antibodies, for the field of plant disease The ... thus almost any regulation stated here exists in a tentative format. The US Copyright Act of 1976 identified "musical works" ... Trade marks are words, logos, slogans, sounds, or other distinctive expressions that distinguish the source, origin, or ... Costs considered could include R&D expenditures, pilot-plant and test-marketing costs, technology upgrading expenses, patent ...
Isolation and functional expression of the Chlase1 gene from ethylene-treated Citrus fruit and its regulation during ... "Regulation of photosynthesis by end-product accumulation in leaves of plants storing starch, sucrose, and hexose sugars". Plant ... The Retirees that Lengthen the Life of the Plants, Hebrew Hebrew University profile Profile with links to scholarly work ... development". Plant Journal. 20 (6): 653-661. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313X.1999.00637.x. PMID 10652137. Droby, S; Vinokur, V; Weiss ...
They seem to play a particularly important role in the regulation of gene expression and the creation of RNA genes. This ... in higher plants". The Plant Journal. 101 (3): 681-699. doi:10.1111/tpj.14567. PMID 31610059. Scarpato M, Angelini C, Cocca E, ... increased SINE activity is correlated with certain gene-expression profiles and post-transcription regulation of certain genes ... Changes in chromosome structure influence gene expression primarily by affecting the accessibility of genes to transcriptional ...
"Gene Content, Organization and Molecular Evolution of Plant Organellar Genomes and Sex Chromosomes -Insights from the Case of ... Regulation of Cell Cycle and Chromosome Segregation Noboru Karashima - History and Society in South India: The Cholas to ... "Elucidation of the Molecular Basis of Paramyxovirus Pathogenicity and Generation of a Novel Class of Expression Vector" 2007 ( ... Molecular Biology of Plant Virus RNA Genomes and its Application to Agriculture Hiroshi Okamoto - Studies on Experimental ...
... which results in different gene expression that can activate oncogenes and inactivate tumor-suppressor genes. Ultimately, this ... Characterization and Activity Regulation during Natural Senescence". Plant Physiology. 121 (3): 921-928. doi:10.1104/pp.121.3. ... Genes on human chromosome 15, Genes on human chromosome 20, Genes on human chromosome X, Webarchive template wayback links, EC ... February 2015). "WT1 recruits TET2 to regulate its target gene expression and suppress leukemia cell proliferation". Molecular ...
"Recruitment of the androgen receptor via serum response factor facilitates expression of a myogenic gene". The Journal of ... Androgen regulation decreases the likelihood of depression in males. In preadolescent male rats, neonatal rats treated with ... Scott F. Gilbert; with a chapter on plant development by Susan R. Singer (2000). Scott F. Gilbert (ed.). Developmental Biology ... Social isolation has a hindering effect in AHN whereas normal regulation of androgens increases AHN. A study using male rats ...
... the types of pollen that an ear of corn will accept through expression of certain forms of the Gametophyte Factor 1 gene. Many ... The effectiveness of this restriction can be measured by planting the popcorn beside purple dent corn; the xenia effect would ... regulations can cause their product to be rejected as organic corn, and for which they have no recourse against GMO growers. ... Ken Roseboro (August 28, 2014). "Plant breeder works to save organic corn from GMO contamination". Non GMO report. "What is the ...
Koehler, Claudia; Hennig, Lars (2010). "Regulation of cell identity by plant Polycomb and trithorax group proteins". Current ... Aberrant expression of PRC2 has been observed in cancer. Both loss and gain-of-function mutations in PRC2 components have been ... Polycomb group genes directly and indirectly regulate the DNA damage response which acts as an anti-cancer barrier. The PRC2 ... The PRC2 is evolutionarily conserved, and has been found in mammals, insects, fungi, and plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a ...
"Transient and stable expression of the firefly luciferase gene in plant cells and transgenic plants". Science. American ... Communication in the form of quorum sensing plays a role in the regulation of luminescence in many species of bacteria. Small ... The gene that makes the tails of fireflies glow has been added to mustard plants. The plants glow faintly for an hour when ... Koo, J.; Kim, Y.; Kim, J.; Yeom, M.; Lee, I. C.; Nam, H. G. (2007). "A GUS/Luciferase Fusion Reporter for Plant Gene Trapping ...
... the expected level of X-linked gene expression in males would be 50% that of females, thus the plant practices some degree of ... "Do male and female heterogamety really differ in expression regulation? Lack of global dosage balance in pygopodid geckos". ... In this XX/XO sex determination system, gene expression on the X chromosome is equalized by downregulating expression of genes ... Z-specific genes were over-expressed in males when compared to females, and a few genes had equal expression in both male and ...
This family of proteins is greatly expanded in plants, and constitutes a core component of plant immune systems. Three RLR ... RLRs often interact and create cross-talk with the TLRs in the innate immune response and in regulation of adaptive immune ... Nonetheless, TLR11 is only a pseudogene in humans without direct function or functional protein expression. Each of the TLR has ... NODs signal via N-terminal CARD domains to activate downstream gene induction events, and interact with microbial molecules by ...
Rosette C, Karin M (March 1995). "Cytoskeletal control of gene expression: depolymerization of microtubules activates NF-kappa ... MAPs have been shown to play a crucial role in the regulation of microtubule dynamics in-vivo. The rates of microtubule ... Plant Cell Biology: From Astronomy to Zoology. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press, p. 165. Cooper GM (2000). "Microtubule ... which has provided information on the differential expression of the genes depending on the presence of these factors. This ...
"Comparison of gene expression and fatty acid profiles in concentrate and forage finished beef". Journal of Animal Science. 1. ... However, U.S. regulations only partially prohibit the use of animal byproducts in feed. In 1997, regulations prohibited the ... silages of diverse plants, crop residues such as pea regrowth, straw or seed hulls, residues from other production such as ... Regulations on veterinary drug use in food animals and drug-residue testing programs ensure that the product in the grocery ...
For example, the 2,5-DKP cyclo(Phe-Pro) has been shown to play a role in the regulation of gene expression in multiple ... of marine microorganisms and has been identified as an active LasI quorum-sensing signal molecule important for the plant ... These chemicals can be used to imitate quorum sensing signals to regulate gene expression of pathogenic bacteria and help fight ...
2008 Regulation of the leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase gene expression in Vitis vinifera, Gollop R; Farhi S.; Perl A. 2001 ( ... 1. Detection and identification of anthocyanidins formed leuco-anthocyanins in plant tissues". Biochem. J. 58 (1): 122-5. doi: ... The gene encoding the enzyme (PpLDOX) has been identified in peach and expression has been studied in Vitis vinifera. Clark- ... Leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase gene (PpLDOX): a potential functional marker for cold storage browning in peach, E. A. Ogundiwin ...
... increased expression of proliferation associated genes CENPF, AGR2 and growth factor GDF15 as well as a number of other genes. ... Plant-based diets are associated with a lower risk for prostate cancer. Switching to a plant-based diet shows favorable results ... This cell death is very rapid Greene ER, Huang S, Serhan CN, Panigrahy D (November 2011). "Regulation of inflammation in cancer ... Many genes are involved in inherited risk for prostate cancer. The first gene linked to inherited prostate cancer in families ...
The regulation of levirate marriage in Deut 25:5-10 shows that the custom had encountered some opposition. The law in ... For as Onan coupled with Tamar and satisfied his appetite but did not complete the act by planting his seed for the God-given [ ... Eugene, OR: Resource Publications, Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 97. ISBN 9781621896708. OCLC 853272981. Archived from the ... and Popular Expression (Second ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 770. ISBN 978-1610691109. Hodge, Bryan C. (2010). The Christian Case against ...
... the rufous-collared sparrow also shows corresponding variation in gene regulation between these populations. High altitude ... This upregulation and expression are plastic, as found when high- and low-altitude birds were brought to a low elevation and no ... The open cup nest consists of plant material lined with fine grasses[citation needed]. It is constructed in matted vegetation ... Novoa, F. F. (1990). "Maximum metabolic rate and temperature regulation in the rufous-collared sparrow, zonotrichia capensis, ...
... causing the uninfected plant to up-regulate genes for the SA and JA pathways. Similarly, aphid-free plants were shown to only ... Jasmonates are used in plant defense against insects and pathogens and can cause the expression of proteases, which defend ... or the up-regulation of genes producing other defensive enzymes, many of which are toxic to pathogens or herbivores. Salicylic ... allowing receiving plants to react in the same way as the infected or infested plants. A variety of plant derived substances ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant * Subject Areas on Research. * A Co-opted Regulator of Lateral Root Development Controls ... DNA repair proteins are directly involved in regulation of gene expression during plant immune response. ... hrp gene-dependent induction of hin1: a plant gene activated rapidly by both harpins and the avrPto gene-mediated signal. ... Regulation of plant arginase by wounding, jasmonate, and the phytotoxin coronatine. * Regulation of plant stem cell quiescence ...
"Gene Expression Regulation, Plant" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "Gene Expression Regulation, Plant" was a ... Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*Gene Expression Regulation, Plant. *Regulation of Gene Expression, Plant ... "Gene Expression Regulation, Plant" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Gene Expression Regulation, Plant" by people in Profiles over the past ...
One of the challenges in constructing condition-independent coexpression data based on publicly available gene expression data ... is a gene coexpression database for nine plant species based on publicly available RNAseq and microarray data. ... Gene Expression Profiling / methods * Gene Expression Regulation, Plant * Gene Regulatory Networks * Genes, Plant* / genetics ... ATTED-II v11: A Plant Gene Coexpression Database Using a Sample Balancing Technique by Subagging of Principal Components Plant ...
CONCLUSIONS: The generation of a tobacco expression microarray is an important development for research in this model plant. ... set of over 40k unigenes and used to measure gene expression in 19 different tobacco samples to produce the Tobacco Expression ... maximise the benefit of TobEA a set of tools were developed to provide researchers with expression information on their genes ... shot of the transcriptional activity for thousands of tobacco genes in different tissues throughout the lifecycle of the plant ...
Börner, T.; Ostersetzer-Biran, O.; Schmitz-Linneweber, C.; Zoschke, R.: Analysis of the regulation of MatK gene expression. ... extremely low and variable gene copy numbers in mitochondria of somatic plant cells. The Plant Journal 64 (6), pp. 948 - 959 ( ... A Major Role for the Plastid-Encoded RNA Polymerase Complex in the Expression of Plastid Transfer RNAs. Plant Physiology 164 (1 ... Commonalities and differences of chloroplast translation in a green alga and land plants. Nature Plants 4 (8), pp. 564 - 575 ( ...
Regulation of plant gene expression by alternative splicing. Biochemical Society Transactions. 38:667-671. ... Mapping and expression of genes with a role in raspberry fruit ripening and softening. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 130: ... Molecular regulation of somatic embryogenesis in potato: an auxin led perspective. Plant Molecular Biology. 68:185-201. ... plant characteristics and local density on the reproductive success of a scarce plant species, Salix arbuscula. Plant Ecology. ...
... gene expression regulation; genes; growth and development; leaves; leucine zipper; models; plant growth; quantitative ... 1. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the bZIP gene family in apple (Malus domestica) ... Although genome-wide analysis of the bZIP gene family has been conducted in several plant species, only few comprehen .... DOI: ... The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family is one of the largest transcription factor (TF) families in plants, which play crucial ...
... of dynamic TF binding and defined a hierarchy among TFs to explain differential gene expression and pathway feedback regulation ... plant Biol. 2016. Libraries were prepared according to Illuminas instructions accompanying TruSeq DNA sample prep kit and ... Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone that allows plants to respond to environmental stresses such as high salinity, ... Because of its importance, transcriptome changes in response to ABA have been profiled extensively by the plant community. Very ...
... chromatin remodeling and gene expression in both mammals and plants. In Ar ... 2021). Epigenetic gene regulation is fundamental for genome integrity, gene expression and the repression of TEs. The plant- ... Cui X, Cao X (2014) Epigenetic regulation and functional exaptation of transposable elements in higher plants. Curr Opin Plant ... chromatin remodeling and gene expression in both mammals and plants. In Arabidopsis, their activity is linked to the RNA- ...
... sea anemones are more similar to plants rather to vertebrates or insects in their regulation of gene expression by short ... The news release claims that this creature is half animal, half plant, but what they mean is that gene regulation for both ... When they examined the epigenetic mechanisms for gene expression and regulation (the grammar of the genetic code), they found ... In summary, while the sea anemones genome, gene repertoire and gene regulation on the DNA level is surprisingly similar to ...
"Regulation of osteoblastic phenotype and gene expression by hop-derived phytoestrogens",. abstract = "Certain plant-derived ... Regulation of osteoblastic phenotype and gene expression by hop-derived phytoestrogens. Katharina E. Effenberger, Steven A. ... Regulation of osteoblastic phenotype and gene expression by hop-derived phytoestrogens. In: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and ... Regulation of osteoblastic phenotype and gene expression by hop-derived phytoestrogens. / Effenberger, Katharina E.; Johnsen, ...
12 Molecular Biology of the Gene 13 Regulation of Gene Expression. 14 Biotechnology and Genomics Unit 3 Evolution 15 Darwin and ... Unit 5 Plant Evolution and Biology 23 Plant Evolution and Diversity 24 Flowering Plants: Structure and Organization 25 ... 26 Flowering Plants: Control of Growth Responses 27 Flowering Plants: Reproduction Unit 6 Animal Evolution and Diversity 28 ... 36 Body Fluid Regulation and Excretory Systems 37 Neurons and Nervous Systems 38 Sense Organs 39 Locomotion and Support Systems ...
... for some common signal transduction events for opposite regulation of nitrate reductase and phytochrome-I gene expression by ... Molecular physiology of plant nitrogen use efficiency and biotechnological options for its enhancement. RR Pathak, A Ahmad, S ... Oxidative stress and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in the renal cortex of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. PV ... Signalling and the molecular aspects of N-use efficiency in higher plants. N Raghuram, RR Pathak, P Sharma ...
Gene expression and regulation * Natural selection * Plants * Animal Physiology * Animal reproduction * Animal behavior ... They will learn about different diversities in plants, animals and have a clear understanding on the anatomy and physiology of ...
Research interests: Promoter architecture, regulation of gene expression and functional genomics in metazoans and plants. ... Morandin, C., Brendel, V.P., Sundström, L.; Helanterä, H. & Mikheyev, A. (2019) Changes in gene DNA methylation and expression ...
Regulation of gene expression encoding the digestive α-amylase in the larvae of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa ... Gene. 766:145159.. Considering the relevance of insect α-amylases and natural α-amylase inhibitors present in plants to protect ... Comparisons of gene expression between populations from these regions revealed constitutively elevated expression of an array ... Variability in expression of the core RNAi machinery genes dicer (dcr2a) and argonaute (ago2a) was observed but did not ...
Genome, Plant (4) * Gene Expression Regulation, Plant (4) * Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental (4) ... The complex architecture and epigenomic impact of plant T-DNA insertions. Jupe, Florian; Rivkin, Angeline C; Michael, Todd P; ... Cryptochromes Interact Directly with PIFs to Control Plant Growth in Limiting Blue Light. Pedmale, Ullas V; Huang, Shao-Shan ...
Translational regulation of expression of the bacteriophage T4 lysozyme gene. DS McPheeters, A Christensen, ET Young, G Stormo ... Mitochondrial Genome Dynamics in Plants and Animals: Convergent Gene Fusions of a MutS Homologue. RV Abdelnoor, AC Christensen ... Substoichiometric shifting in the plant mitochondrial genome is influenced by a gene homologous to MutS. RV Abdelnoor, R Yule, ... Genes and junk in plant mitochondria-repair mechanisms and selection. AC Christensen ...
A centre of excellence for experimental plant biology in Umeå Sweden. ©UPSC ... Plant, Evolution, Molecular, Flowers, Gene Expression Regulation, Plant, Genes, Plant, Genome, Plant, Introns, Models, Genetic ... Gene Expression Regulation, Plant, Genes, Plant, MicroRNAs, Models, Biological, Models, Genetic, Plant Physiological Phenomena ... TFL2/LHP1 is involved in auxin biosynthesis through positive regulation of YUCCA genes: Positive regulation of YUCCA genes by ...
Regulation of gene expression by redox signals. We are studying redox signaling in the plant photosynthetic organelle, the ... Plants keep one foot on the brakes. We studied the mechanisms controlling the plant production of starch, which is the most ... Uri Alon) found that plants have control mechanisms that resemble those in human senses. According to our study, plants adjust ... Plants adjust photosynthesis to rapid light changes using a sophisticated sensing system. Our lab (with the collaboration of ...
Genomics of Gene Regulation (U01) RFA-HG-13-012. NHGRI ... gene regulation network model that explains how gene expression ... This FOA is limited to the study of metazoan systems; prokaryotic, viral, single-cell eukaryote and plant systems will not be ... regulation of gene expression; 3) the need for additional validated examples of well-characterized gene regulatory networks; ... or a few genes. However, it is likely that regulation of only a small number of genes will be explained by the specific gene ...
RNA splicing and gene expression, ... Read more ». Genomic adaptation in the CAZyome and specialised metabolism of the plant- ... Role of JMJD3 Demethylase and Its Inhibitor GSK-J4 in Regulation of , , , and Genes in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines.. Published: ... In this study, we evaluated the expression of eight genes related to endometrial function and their DNA methyl... Read more ». ... The Effect of Metformin and Carbohydrate-Controlled Diet on DNA Methylation and Gene Expression in the Endometrium of Women ...
... sea anemones are more similar to plants rather thn to vertebrates or insects in their regulation of gene expression by short ... Sea Anemone Shows Characteristics of Both Plant and Animal in Gene Regulation. March 25, 2014. ... However, genes are rarely single players, they rather act in concert and regulate each others activity and expression in gene ... This suggests, that this principle of gene regulation is already 600 million years old and dates back to the common ancestor of ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant Entry term(s). Plant Gene Expression Regulation Regulation of Gene Expression, Plant ... Plant Gene Expression Regulation. Regulation of Gene Expression, Plant. Regulation, Gene Expression, Plant. ... Gene Expression Regulation, Plant - Preferred Concept UI. M0027753. Scope note. Any of the processes by which nuclear, ... Gene Expression Regulation (1981-1994). Genes, Regulator (1973-1980). specific plant (1973-1994). ...
gene expression; regulation; barley; miRNAs; plants; environmental stress Popis v původním jazyce * :. Plant miRNAs are ... powerful regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, which was repeatedly proved in several model plant ... This can help us to understand the connection between plant miRNAs and (not only) abiotic stresses in general. In the end, some ... However, our understanding of plant miRNAs is still limited, despite the fact that an increasing number of studies have ...
... plant pathology and plant-microbe interactions, and plant breeding, field trials and genome analysis. ... Gene Expression And Regulation. *Molecular genetics/biotechnology *Biochemical and metabolomic analysis *Plant abiotic stress ... DOCTORATE IN PLANT GENETICS. Ph.D. in Plant Genetics (University of Alberta): genetics, recombination, plant breeding, ... FROM GENE TO FIELD. WITH DR. HEATHER RAY. ROCHFORT GENE CONSULTING, Saskatoon, SK. Canada.. SERVICESEXPERTISE ...
In particular, he focuses on gene regulation.. "Gene expression itself forms a kind of aging clock," Mitteldorf wrote. "Time is ... "Animals and plants have biological clocks that help to regulate circadian cycles, seasonal rhythms, growth, development, and ... the gene expression products are part of a signal cascade that affect all aspects of our bodys metabolism, yet they are also ... Levels of PER protein are guided by two genes, CLOCK and BMAL1. The level of PER protein in each cell rises during daylight and ...
  • Here, we demonstrate that as opposed to yeast and metazoans the plant exosome core possesses an unanticipated functional plasticity and present a genome-wide atlas of Arabidopsis exosome targets. (
  • 24. Regulation of gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana by artificial zinc finger chimeras. (
  • From seedling to mature plant: Arabidopsis plastidial genome copy number, RNA accumulation and transcription are differentially regulated during leaf development. (
  • In Arabidopsis, their activity is linked to the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway, which utilizes small RNAs (sRNAs) to influence the rate of DNA methylation and chromatin compaction and thus gene expression. (
  • In Arabidopsis, several members of the Microrchidia (MORC) protein family ( At MORC1 to At MORC7) are RdDM downstream players involved in repression of DNA methylated genes as well as transposable elements ( TEs ) by increasing chromatin compaction rate (Lorković et al. (
  • In Arabidopsis and potato, MORC proteins enhance resistance to pathogens, while in barley, tobacco and tomato, they negatively affect plant immunity (Kang et al. (
  • 2018 ). Thus, in clear contrast to Arabidopsis mutants that show reduced expression of pathogenesis-related genes ( PRs ), knock-down (KD) and knock-out (KO) mutants of barley MORC genes show enhanced PRs expression. (
  • They studied how cyst nematodes attacked the plant Arabidopsis, which is frequently used as a model plant because it has a relatively small genome. (
  • The Arabidopsis gene AXR3/IAA17 encodes a member of the Aux/IAA family of auxin respo. (
  • Microrchidia (MORC) proteins are fundamental regulators of genome stabilization, chromatin remodeling and gene expression in both mammals and plants. (
  • The GGR initiative will address the genome-proximal component of the regulation of gene networks by supporting a set of demonstration projects to develop and validate models that describe how a comprehensive set of sequence-based functional elements work in concert to regulate the finite set of genes that determine a biological phenomenon, using RNA amounts, and perhaps transcript structure, as the readout. (
  • Late in infection, the virus assembles a unique virus-host hybrid transcription complex that connects viral gene expression to viral DNA replication and genome packaging. (
  • Transcript profiling of Zea mays roots reveals gene responses to phosphate deficiency at the plant- and species-specific levels. (
  • Cooperation between the H3K27me3 Chromatin Mark and Non-CG Methylation in Epigenetic Regulation. (
  • 22. Promoter methylation confers kidney-specific expression of the Klotho gene. (
  • For instance, epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation that modify gene expression without changing the underlying genetic code, may facilitate the emergence of resistant phenotypes in complex ways. (
  • We assessed the effects of sublethal insecticide exposure, with the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, on DNA methylation in the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, examining both global changes in DNA methylation and specific changes found within genes and transposable elements. (
  • We found that exposure to insecticide led to decreases in global DNA methylation for parent and F2 generations, and that many of the sites of changes in methylation are found within genes associated with insecticide resistance, such as cytochrome P450s, or within transposable elements. (
  • Comparative profiles of gene expression in leaves and roots of maize seedlings under conditions of salt stress and the removal of salt stress. (
  • CRISPR/ Sp Cas9-mediated single and double knock-out mutants showed de-repression of transposable elements ( TEs ) and pathogenesis-related ( PR ) genes and interestingly increased resistance to both biotrophic and necrotrophic plant pathogenic fungi. (
  • 35. Regulation of Monoamine Oxidase B Gene Expression: Key Roles for Transcription Factors Sp1, Egr1 and CREB, and microRNAs miR-300 and miR-1224. (
  • The researchers' new approach was studying microRNAs, which are powerful regulators of gene activity. (
  • MicroRNAs are molecules that suppress, or negatively regulate, how strongly their target genes are activated. (
  • On the other hand, sea anemones are more similar to plants rather to vertebrates or insects in their regulation of gene expression by short regulatory RNAs called microRNAs . (
  • For instance, they estimate that 30 to 50 percent of genes are regulated by microRNAs, just one of the facets of regulatory processes. (
  • 34. Selective transcription of p53 target genes by zinc finger-p53 DNA binding domain chimeras. (
  • To broaden access and maximise the benefit of TobEA a set of tools were developed to provide researchers with expression information on their genes of interest via the Solanaceae Genomics Network (SGN) web site. (
  • The data provided by TobEA represents a valuable resource for plant functional genomics and systems biology research and can be used to identify gene targets for both fundamental and applied scientific applications in tobacco. (
  • Promoter architecture, regulation of gene expression and functional genomics in metazoans and plants. (
  • This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) solicits applications to start a new initiative, the Genomics of Gene Regulation (GGR), which is intended to explore genomic approaches to understanding the role of genomic sequence in the regulation of gene networks. (
  • A long-term goal of functional genomics is to decipher the rules by which gene networks are regulated and to understand how such regulation affects cellular function, development and disease. (
  • Commonalities and differences of chloroplast translation in a green alga and land plants. (
  • Chloroplast Translation: Structural and Functional Organization, Operational Control, and Regulation. (
  • Multiple Checkpoints for the Expression of the Chloroplast-Encoded Splicing Factor MatK. (
  • To clarify the distribution of amino acid racemases in plants, we have cloned, expressed and characterized eight SerR homologous genes from five plant species, including green alga. (
  • 37. MicroRNA-339 and microRNA-556 regulate Klotho expression in vitro. (
  • These genes are so-called transcription factors associated with plant growth regulation that themselves regulate the expression of many other genes. (
  • In the current study, we tested the effects of the hop-derived compounds 8-prenylnaringenin, 6-prenylnaringenin, xanthohumol and isoxanthohumol (1) to modulate markers of differentiation and gene expression in osteoblasts and (2) to regulate proliferation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. (
  • In the present study, we have extended our analysis on the role of barley MORC proteins in RdDM-mediated epigenetic regulation of disease resistance, using Bipolaris sorokiniana ( Bs ) (teleomorph Cochliobolus sativus ) and Fusarium root rot (FRR) caused by Fg as study cases as they are two major cereal pathogens of global importance. (
  • By extrapolating regulatory characteristics observed for the canonical ABA pathway components, we identified a new family of transcriptional regulators modulating ABA and salt responsiveness, and demonstrate their utility to modulate plant resilience to osmotic stress. (
  • This is in part constrained by the limited knowledge of the gene regulatory networks responsible for plant growth and responses to the environment, and by a poor understanding of the genetic diversity and gene content across Camelina accessions. (
  • DNA by itself doesn't do anything until you have regulatory mechanisms that activate the genes found in it,' said Baum. (
  • This FOA seeks to support substantial improvement in the methods for developing gene regulatory network models, rather than an incremental improvement on existing methods. (
  • An important goal is to identify key genes and genomic regions to target in breeding efforts to enhance productivity, while providing the research community with a number of tools to understand and manipulate Camelina gene expression. (
  • The plant hormone auxin exerts many of its effects on growth and development by controlling transcription of downstream genes. (
  • The Post-transcriptional Gene Expression Group is interested in the molecular mechanisms by which proteins of this family are regulated, and in their physiological roles in a variety of normal processes, including innate immunity in response to environmental cues, hematopoiesis, establishment of the fetal circulation, and placental physiology in mammals. (
  • His group studies the roles of a small family of CCCH tandem zinc finger proteins, exemplified by tristetraprolin or TTP, in the physiological regulation of mRNA turnover and translation. (
  • Members of this family of proteins exist in essentially all eukaryotes, from plants to humans, and are important in species-specific control of mRNA turnover, in some cases in response to environmental cues. (
  • Thomas J, Kim HR, Rahmatallah Y, Wiggins G, Yang Q, Singh R, Glazko G, Mukherjee A. RNA-seq reveals differentially expressed genes in rice (Oryza sativa) roots during interactions with plant-growth promoting bacteria, Azospirillum brasilense. (
  • Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants. (
  • Lecture summary: Oncogenic herpesviruses such as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus restrict cellular gene expression to dampen immune responses, while simultaneously stealing the cell's machinery to express viral genes. (
  • 21. Increased heparanase expression is caused by promoter hypomethylation and up-regulation of transcriptional factor early growth response-1 in human prostate cancer. (
  • 30. Specific interaction of Egr1 and c/EBPbeta leads to the transcriptional activation of the human low density lipoprotein receptor gene. (
  • TobEA provides a snap shot of the transcriptional activity for thousands of tobacco genes in different tissues throughout the lifecycle of the plant and enables the identification of the biological processes occurring in these different tissues. (
  • Putative transcriptional networks were identified based on the co-expression of these transcription factors. (
  • is head of the Post-Transcriptional Gene Expression Group and holds a secondary appointment in the NIEHS Immunity, Inflammation, and Disease Laboratory . (
  • 2018 ). Fusarium fungi, on the other hand, are devastating plant pathogens of wheat and barley that are widespread worldwide causing Fusarium head blight (FHB), Fusarium crown rot (FCR) and Fusarium root rot (FRR) (Hollaway et al. (
  • However, the full picture of the d-amino acid synthesis pathway in plants is not well understood. (
  • We uncovered determinants of dynamic TF binding and defined a hierarchy among TFs to explain differential gene expression and pathway feedback regulation. (
  • Previous studies have shown that several d-amino acids are widely present in plants, and serine racemase (SerR), which synthesizes d-serine in vivo, has already been identified from three plant species. (
  • Several interactions in a floral identity transcription factor network were consistent with previous results from other plant species. (
  • NPCs are not only conduits for nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking, they also promote many aspects of interphase nuclear function, including gene expression and heterochromatin organization. (
  • The project will 1) characterize the genetic variation, gene expression and chromatin accessibility across Camelina varieties and growth conditions, and 2) develop the tools to understand and manipulate Camelina gene expression. (
  • A Major Role for the Plastid-Encoded RNA Polymerase Complex in the Expression of Plastid Transfer RNAs. (
  • Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone that allows plants to respond to environmental stresses such as high salinity, drought and cold. (
  • Additionally, our study provides evidence for widespread polyadenylation- and exosome-mediated RNA quality control in plants, reveals unexpected aspects of stable structural RNA metabolism, and uncovers numerous novel exosome substrates. (
  • We conclude that resistance to DON is important in the FHB resistance complex and hypothesize that Qfhs.ndsu-3BS either encodes a DON-glucosyltransferase or regulates the expression of such an enzyme. (
  • 32. Lentivirus-mediated klotho up-regulation improves aging-related memory deficits and oxidative stress in senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 mice. (
  • Certain plant-derived compounds show selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) activity and may therefore be an alternative to the conventional hormone replacement therapy, which prevents osteoporosis but is also associated with an increased risk of breast and endometrial cancers. (
  • So here is another apparently 'simple organism' with 'complex gene content. (
  • In the last decades the sequencing of the human and many animal genomes showed that anatomically simple organisms such as sea anemones depict a surprisingly complex gene repertoire like higher model organism s. (
  • Some researchers hypothesized that not the individual genes code for more complex body plans, but how they are wired and linked between each other. (
  • Accordingly, researchers expected that these gene networks are less complex in simple organisms than in human or 'higher' animals. (
  • The dominance of complex regulation in such a simple organism leads these evolutionary biologists to postulate that 'this principle of complex gene regulation was already present in the common ancestor of human, fly and sea anemone some 600 million years ago. (
  • By studying how herpesviruses interface with these gene expression pathways, we hope to uncover conserved stress responses and new connections between seemingly distal components of the gene expression cascade. (
  • This research aims to demonstrate that the medicinal plants used as a treatment of viral diseases in the La Libertad region have, in fact, antiviral ac-tivity. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Gene Expression Regulation, Plant" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "Gene Expression Regulation, Plant" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Gene Expression Regulation, Plant" by people in Profiles over the past ten years. (
  • Plant stress profiles. (
  • The researchers discovered a relationship that one microRNA, which was only known to be involved in shoot and leaf development, had with two genes. (
  • 2022. "Exploring Camelina sativa Lipid Metabolism Regulation by Combining Gene Co-Expression and DNA Affinity Purification Analyses. (
  • The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family is one of the largest transcription factor (TF) families in plants, which play crucial roles in plant growth and development. (
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Both plants and rhizobia synthesise auxin. (
  • namely, we have tagged the proteins with auxin-induced degrons (AID), which cause them to be specifically destroyed upon the addition of auxin, a plant hormone. (
  • So, high microRNA concentrations result in low target gene activity and vice versa. (
  • It is also noteworthy that MORC mutants exhibit reduced leaf and root development in addition to their effects on the plant immune system (Galli et al. (
  • and regulation of gene expression, brain development, pigmentation, and immune system functioning [ 1 ]. (
  • The news item notes that 'biologists have developed increasing appreciation of how well genes and critical life processes are conserved over long evolutionary distances. (
  • however, the processes by which plants become successful invaders are not well understood. (
  • In: Plant Circadian Networks, 2. (
  • This creature, like the fruit fly, shows a similar unexpected complexity in its gene networks. (
  • TobEA: an atlas of tobacco gene expression from seed to senescence. (
  • Currently there is no commercially available microarray to allow such expression studies in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). (
  • RESULTS: A custom designed Affymetrix tobacco expression microarray was generated from a set of over 40k unigenes and used to measure gene expression in 19 different tobacco samples to produce the Tobacco Expression Atlas (TobEA). (
  • CONCLUSIONS: The generation of a tobacco expression microarray is an important development for research in this model plant. (
  • The present paper identifies multiple sources of ALA from plants, legumes, nuts and seeds and emphasizes the importance of the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids for proper desaturation and elongation of ALA into EPA and DHA. (
  • Cyst nematodes feed on plant cells by penetrating the host plant's roots. (
  • Cyst nematodes have learned to communicate with plant cells in a very subtle way,' said Thomas Baum, chair of Iowa State's plant pathology and microbiology department, who has been working with associate scientist Tarek Hewezi on the research. (