Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
Basic functional unit of plants.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Material prepared from plants.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The reproductive cells of plants.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
Physiological functions characteristic of plants.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

Loss-of-function mutations in the rice homeobox gene OSH15 affect the architecture of internodes resulting in dwarf plants. (1/14262)

The rice homeobox gene OSH15 (Oryza sativa homeobox) is a member of the knotted1-type homeobox gene family. We report here on the identification and characterization of a loss-of-function mutation in OSH15 from a library of retrotransposon-tagged lines of rice. Based on the phenotype and map position, we have identified three independent deletion alleles of the locus among conventional morphological mutants. All of these recessive mutations, which are considered to be null alleles, exhibit defects in internode elongation. Introduction of a 14 kbp genomic DNA fragment that includes all exons, introns and 5'- and 3'- flanking sequences of OSH15 complemented the defects in internode elongation, confirming that they were caused by the loss-of-function of OSH15. Internodes of the mutants had abnormal-shaped epidermal and hypodermal cells and showed an unusual arrangement of small vascular bundles. These mutations demonstrate a role for OSH15 in the development of rice internodes. This is the first evidence that the knotted1-type homeobox genes have roles other than shoot apical meristem formation and/or maintenance in plant development.  (+info)

Enhanced resistance to bacterial diseases of transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing sarcotoxin IA, a bactericidal peptide of insect. (2/14262)

Sarcotoxin IA is a bactericidal peptide of 39 amino acids found in the common flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina. Many agronomically important bacteria in Japan are killed by this peptide at sub-micro molar levels, and the growth of tobacco and rice suspension cultured cells is not inhibited with less than 25 microM. Transgenic tobacco plants which overexpress the peptide, i.e. over 250 pmol per gram of fresh leaf, under the control of a high expression constitutive promoter showed enhanced resistance to the pathogens for wild fire disease (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci) and bacterial soft rot disease (Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora).  (+info)

Male gametic cell-specific gene expression in flowering plants. (3/14262)

The role of the male gamete-the sperm cell-in the process of fertilization is to recognize, adhere to, and fuse with the female gamete. These highly specialized functions are expected to be controlled by activation of a unique set of genes. However, male gametic cells traditionally have been regarded as transcriptionally quiescent because of highly condensed chromatin and a very reduced amount of cytoplasm. Here, we provide evidence for male gamete-specific gene expression in flowering plants. We identified and characterized a gene, LGC1, which was shown to be expressed exclusively in the male gametic cells. The gene product of LGC1 was localized at the surface of male gametic cells, suggesting a possible role in sperm-egg interactions. These findings represent an important step toward defining the molecular mechanisms of male gamete development and the cellular processes involved in fertilization of flowering plants.  (+info)

Novel genes induced during an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis formed between Medicago truncatula and Glomus versiforme. (4/14262)

Many terrestrial plant species are able to form symbiotic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Here we have identified three cDNA clones representing genes whose expression is induced during the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis formed between Medicago truncatula and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus versiforme. The three clones represent M. truncatula genes and encode novel proteins: a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase-related protein, a putative arabinogalactan protein (AGP), and a putative homologue of the mammalian p110 subunit of initiation factor 3 (eIF3). These genes show little or no expression in M. truncatula roots prior to formation of the symbiosis and are significantly induced following colonization by G. versiforme. The genes are not induced in roots in response to increases in phosphate. This suggests that induction of expression during the symbiosis is due to the interaction with the fungus and is not a secondary effect of improved phosphate nutrition. In situ hybridization revealed that the putative AGP is expressed specifically in cortical cells containing arbuscules. The identification of two mycorrhiza-induced genes encoding proteins predicted to be involved in cell wall structure is consistent with previous electron microscopy data that indicated major alterations in the extracellular matrix of the cortical cells following colonization by mycorrhizal fungi.  (+info)

A novel 53-kDa nodulin of the symbiosome membrane of soybean nodules, controlled by Bradyrhizobium japonicum. (5/14262)

A nodule-specific 53-kDa protein (GmNOD53b) of the symbiosome membrane from soybean was isolated and its LysC digestion products were microsequenced. cDNA clones of this novel nodulin, obtained from cDNA library screening with an RT-PCR (reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction)-generated hybridization probe exhibited no homology to proteins identified so far. The expression of GmNOD53b coincides with the onset of nitrogen fixation. Therefore, it is a late nodulin. Among other changes, the GmNOD53b is significantly reduced in nodules infected with the Bradyrhizobium japonicum mutant 184 on the protein level as well as on the level of mRNA expression, compared with the wild-type infected nodules. The reduction of GmNOD53b mRNA is related to an inactivation of the sipF gene in B. japonicum 184, coding for a functionally active signal peptidase.  (+info)

The auxin-insensitive bodenlos mutation affects primary root formation and apical-basal patterning in the Arabidopsis embryo. (6/14262)

In Arabidopsis embryogenesis, the primary root meristem originates from descendants of both the apical and the basal daughter cell of the zygote. We have isolated a mutant of a new gene named BODENLOS (BDL) in which the primary root meristem is not formed whereas post-embryonic roots develop and bdl seedlings give rise to fertile adult plants. Some bdl seedlings lacked not only the root but also the hypocotyl, thus resembling monopteros (mp) seedlings. In addition, bdl seedlings were insensitive to the auxin analogue 2,4-D, as determined by comparison with auxin resistant1 (axr1) seedlings. bdl embryos deviated from normal development as early as the two-cell stage at which the apical daughter cell of the zygote had divided horizontally instead of vertically. Subsequently, the uppermost derivative of the basal daughter cell, which is normally destined to become the hypophysis, divided abnormally and failed to generate the quiescent centre of the root meristem and the central root cap. We also analysed double mutants. bdl mp embryos closely resembled the two single mutants, bdl and mp, at early stages, while bdl mp seedlings essentially consisted of hypocotyl but did form primary leaves. bdl axr1 embryos approached the mp phenotype at later stages, and bdl axr1 seedlings resembled mp seedlings. Our results suggest that BDL is involved in auxin-mediated processes of apical-basal patterning in the Arabidopsis embryo.  (+info)

NADH-glutamate synthase in alfalfa root nodules. Genetic regulation and cellular expression. (7/14262)

NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT; EC is a key enzyme in primary nitrogen assimilation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root nodules. Here we report that in alfalfa, a single gene, probably with multiple alleles, encodes for NADH-GOGAT. In situ hybridizations were performed to assess the location of NADH-GOGAT transcript in alfalfa root nodules. In wild-type cv Saranac nodules the NADH-GOGAT gene is predominantly expressed in infected cells. Nodules devoid of bacteroids (empty) induced by Sinorhizobium meliloti 7154 had no NADH-GOGAT transcript detectable by in situ hybridization, suggesting that the presence of the bacteroid may be important for NADH-GOGAT expression. The pattern of expression of NADH-GOGAT shifted during root nodule development. Until d 9 after planting, all infected cells appeared to express NADH-GOGAT. By d 19, a gradient of expression from high in the early symbiotic zone to low in the late symbiotic zone was observed. In 33-d-old nodules expression was seen in only a few cell layers in the early symbiotic zone. This pattern of expression was also observed for the nifH transcript but not for leghemoglobin. The promoter of NADH-GOGAT was evaluated in transgenic alfalfa plants carrying chimeric beta-glucuronidase promoter fusions. The results suggest that there are at least four regulatory elements. The region responsible for expression in the infected cell zone contains an 88-bp direct repeat.  (+info)

A single limit dextrinase gene is expressed both in the developing endosperm and in germinated grains of barley. (8/14262)

The single gene encoding limit dextrinase (pullulan 6-glucanohydrolase; EC in barley (Hordeum vulgare) has 26 introns that range in size from 93 to 822 base pairs. The mature polypeptide encoded by the gene has 884 amino acid residues and a calculated molecular mass of 97,417 D. Limit dextrinase mRNA is abundant in gibberellic acid-treated aleurone layers and in germinated grain. Gibberellic acid response elements were found in the promoter region of the gene. These observations suggest that the enzyme participates in starch hydrolysis during endosperm mobilization in germinated grain. The mRNA encoding the enzyme is present at lower levels in the developing endosperm of immature grain, a location consistent with a role for limit dextrinase in starch synthesis. Enzyme activity was also detected in developing grain. The limit dextrinase has a presequence typical of transit peptides that target nascent polypeptides to amyloplasts, but this would not be expected to direct secretion of the mature enzyme from aleurone cells in germinated grain. It remains to be discovered how the enzyme is released from the aleurone and whether another enzyme, possibly of the isoamylase group, might be equally important for starch hydrolysis in germinated grain.  (+info)

DEKALB Genetics Corporation, the fastest growing agricultural seed company in the U.S., has an opening for an independent PhD level scientist in the area of PLANT GENE EXPRESSION. The successful candidate will join the Agronomic Traits Program of DEKALBs biotechnology research facility in Mystic, CT, a scenic shoreline community on Long Island Sound. The research focus of the position will be aimed towards understanding and manipulating factors that affect the expression of transgenes in plants, identifying suitable promoters and enhancers, and employing this technology in the development of transgenic plant products. Other responsibilities may include cloning agronomically important genes. Candidates should have a Ph.D. in a relevant biological science, more than three years experience in plant molecular biology and demonstrated expertise in the area of plant gene expression. Post-doctoral experience is preferred. In addition to a stimulating scientific environment, DEKALB offers excellent ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Analysis of Plant Gene Expression Using Flow Cytometry and Sorting. AU - Galbraith, David W. PY - 2007/5/21. Y1 - 2007/5/21. KW - Analysis of plant gene expression. KW - Combining flow and image cytometry. KW - Defining cellular states. KW - Flow cytometry. KW - Flow sorting. KW - Methods. KW - Technologies. KW - Use of protoplasts for confirmatory studies. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1002/9783527610921.ch17. DO - 10.1002/9783527610921.ch17. M3 - Chapter. AN - SCOPUS:46449131685. SN - 9783527314874. SP - 405. EP - 422. BT - Flow Cytometry with Plant Cells: Analysis of Genes, Chromosomes and Genomes. PB - Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. ER - ...
Plants progress from a juvenile vegetative phase of development to an adult vegetative phase of development before they enter the reproductive phase. miR156 has been shown to be the master regulator of the juvenile-to-adult transition in plants. However, the mechanism of how miR156 is transcriptionally regulated still remains elusive. In a forward genetic screen, we identified that a mutation in the SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling ATPase BRAHMA (BRM) exhibited an accelerated vegetative phase change phenotype by reducing the expression of miR156, which in turn caused a corresponding increase in the levels of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE genes. BRM regulates miR156 expression by directly binding to the MIR156A promoter. Mutations in BRM not only increased occupancy of the -2 and +1 nucleosomes proximal to the transcription start site at the MIR156A locus but also the levels of trimethylated histone H3 at Lys 27. The precocious phenotype of brm mutant was partially suppressed by a second ...
This proposed research project seeks to understand environmental stress-responsive gene expression mediated through Heat Shock Transcription Factor (HSF). This project will involve the following three components: 1) a study of the DNA-binding properties of HSF to different stress-responsive promoters using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay to determine the relative binding affinity, and chemical cross linking reagents to determine the multimerization state of HSF; 2) map the sites of phosphorylation on HCF in response to different cellular stress; 3) determine the importance of the phosphorylation of HCF in regulating stress-responsive gene expression in vivo by constructing site directed mutations in the HCF phosphorylation sites and replacing the endogenous copy of HCF with each mutated HCF. Cells expressing the mutationally altered HCF molecules will be tested for their ability to activate CUP transcription in response to heat and oxidative stress. For the first research goal, DNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - RNA commutes to work. T2 - Regulation of plant gene expression by systemically transported RNA molecules. AU - Ueki, Shoko. AU - Citovsky, Vitaly. PY - 2001/12/1. Y1 - 2001/12/1. N2 - Although long-distance movement of endogenous mRNAs in plants is well established, the functional contributions of these transported RNA molecules has remained unclear. In a recent report, Kim et al. showed that systemically transported mRNA is capable of causing phenotypic change in developing tissue. Here, this finding and its significance are reviewed and discussed in detail. In addition, in order to give proper perspective, long-distance transport of other types of RNAs, e.g., RNA elicitors of post-transcriptional gene silencing and RNA genomes of plant viruses, and its possible regulation are discussed.. AB - Although long-distance movement of endogenous mRNAs in plants is well established, the functional contributions of these transported RNA molecules has remained unclear. In a recent report, ...
A collection of biotic and abiotic stress responsive genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa L. It uses HMM-based models to identify binding sites of transcription factors in their promoters ...
My research interests focus on the regulation of plant gene expression in response to abiotic stress and extreme environments, with particular interest in chromatin structure, genome organization and epigenetic change. Venues associated with spaceflight provide an opportunity to explore plant genomic responses to an environment that is outside the evolutionary experience of terrestrial organisms. This unique platform presents a background by which adaptive metabolisms can be observed as they are crafted to cope with a stress de novo; providing a window into the origins of adaptive processes.. ...
A plants eventual size depends on the integration of its genetic program with environmental cues, which vary on a daily basis. Both efficient carbon metabolism and the plant hormone gibberellin are required to guarantee optimal plant growth. Yet, little is known about the interplay between carbon metabolism and gibberellins that modulates plant growth. Here, we show that sugar starvation in Arabidopsis thaliana arising from inefficient starch metabolism at night strongly reduces the expression of ent-kaurene synthase, a key regulatory enzyme for gibberellin synthesis, the following day. Our results demonstrate that plants integrate the efficiency of photosynthesis over a period of days, which is transduced into a daily rate of gibberellin biosynthesis. This enables a plant to grow to a size that is compatible with its environment. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multiple abiotic stimuli are integrated in the regulation of rice gene expression under field conditions. AU - Plessis, Anne. AU - Hafemeister, Christoph. AU - Wilkins, Olivia. AU - Gonzaga, Zennia Jean. AU - Meyer, Rachel Sarah. AU - Pires, Inês. AU - Müller, Christian. AU - Septiningsih, Endang M.. AU - Bonneau, Richard. AU - Purugganan, Michael. PY - 2015/11/26. Y1 - 2015/11/26. N2 - Plants rely on transcriptional dynamics to respond to multiple climatic fluctuations and contexts in nature. We analyzed the genome-wide gene expression patterns of rice (Oryza sativa) growing in rainfed and irrigated fields during two distinct tropical seasons and determined simple linear models that relate transcriptomic variation to climatic fluctuations. These models combine multiple environmental parameters to account for patterns of expression in the field of coexpressed gene clusters. We examined the similarities of our environmental models between tropical and temperate field conditions, ...
Previous studies strongly suggest that changes in plant status for different mineral nutrients are linked to expression of mineral nutrition-related genes in a manner that facilitates mineral nutrient homeostasis (for reviews, see Grossman and Takahashi, 2001; Kochian, 2000; Raghothama, 2000). Therefore, we are interested in identifying genes that may play a role in plant responses to changes in mineral status. Seventeen different mineral deficiency-induced genes were identified and confirmed by RNA gel-blot analysis, along with genes previously reported to be induced specifically by P, K, and Fe deficiency in plants. These previously reported genes include phosphate transporters (LePT1 and LePT2; Liu et al., 1998) induced in response to −P conditions, K transporters (LeHAK5 and LeKC1) induced by K deprivation, and an Fe transporter (LeIRT1, Eckhardt et al., 2001) induced by −Fe conditions. LeKC1 reported here is a different gene from LKT1 (accession no. CAA65254) reported previously ...
Plants are multicellular eukaryotes with tissue systems made of various cell types that carry out specific functions. Plant tissue systems fall into one of two general types: meristematic tissue and permanent (or non-meristematic) tissue. Cells of the meristematic tissue are found in meristems, which are plant regions of continuous cell division and growth. Meristematic tissue cells are either undifferentiated or incompletely differentiated, and they continue to divide and contribute to the growth of the plant. In contrast, permanent tissue consists of plant cells that are no longer actively dividing.. Meristematic tissues consist of three types, based on their location in the plant. Apical meristems contain meristematic tissue located at the tips of stems and roots, which enable a plant to extend in length. Lateral meristems facilitate growth in thickness or girth in a maturing plant. Intercalary meristems occur only in monocots, at the bases of leaf blades and at nodes (the areas where leaves ...
Our study contributes to the literature that show that hyperosmotic stress induces an ER stress‐like response. Water restriction or dDAVP infusion, which both increase medullary osmolality, increased Grp78 and ATF4 expression in the inner medulla (van Balkom et al. 2004; Cai et al. 2006, 2010). Conversely, GRP78 protein abundance decreased in IMCD of animals subjected to vasopressin escape (Hoorn et al. 2005). Expression levels of ER stress‐responsive genes CHOP and ATF3 were increased by either NaCl or urea challenge in cultured IMCD cells (Kultz et al. 1998; Zhang et al. 1999; Tian and Cohen 2002) and several ER stress‐responsive genes were upregulated by NaCl challenge in renal fibroblast cell lines (Dihazi et al. 2011). Our study shows that overall, the extent of induction of ER stress‐responsive genes by either Tg or Tun was significantly higher than that induced by hyperosmolality. However, it should be noted that induction of ER stress by either chemical agent would be expected to ...
This study provides molecular, cellular, and genetic evidence that SnRK1 activity plays multiple essential roles in plant growth and development and that, from a nuclear location, SnRK1 regulates specific stress-inducible genes involved in physiological adaptation to stress.. The nuclear SnRK1 function in plants was much anticipated from orthologous gene functions in yeast and mammals (Ahuatzi et al., 2007; Bungard et al., 2010). Yeast Hxk2 functions in the nucleus through protein-protein interactions with another nuclear protein, Mig1, which is a protein substrate of Snf1 (Ahuatzi et al., 2007). Under low-Glc conditions, Snf1 phosphorylates Mig1 and the phosphorylated Mig1 exits the nucleus. This exclusion of the phosphorylated Mig1 derepresses Glc-repressed gene expression. Furthermore, using a fluorescent reporter, AMPK activity can be directly measured in the nucleus (Tsou et al., 2011). In this study, we found evidence that not only Arabidopsis SnRK1 (Bitrián et al., 2011) but also rice ...
Sampling the Arabidopsis transcriptome with massively parallel pyrosequencing.: Massively parallel sequencing of DNA by pyrosequencing technology offers much hi
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ERF subfamily transcription factors play an important role in plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. A cold responsive ethylene responsive factor (ERF), MfERF1, was isolated from Medicago falcata, an important forage legume that has great cold tolerance. Overexpression of MfERF1 resulted in an increased tolerance to freezing and chilling in transgenic tobacco plants, while down-regulation of the ortholog of MfERF1 in M. truncatula resulted in reduced freezing tolerance in RNAi plants. Higher transcript levels of some stress responsive genes (CHN50, OSM, ERD10C, and SAMS) and those involved in spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) synthesis (SAMDC1, SAMDC2, SPDS1, SPDS2, and SPMS) and catabolism (PAO) were observed in transgenic plants than in WT ...
Organ development in plant meristems requires that boundary domains around the primordia remain stable despite continuous growth and cell division. In Arabidopsis, the establishment and maintenance of the boundary around organ primordia of shoot apical and floral meristems is regulated by three partially redundant transcription factors, CUC1-CUC3. On p. 4311, Laufs et al. examine the interaction between these three transcription factors and a microRNA - miR164 - during boundary regulation. They show that miR164 targets cuc1 and cuc2, but not cuc3, mRNA for degradation, explaining why miR164 overexpression results in similar patterning and floral defects as cuc1 cuc2 double mutants. They also modified cuc2 mRNA to make it resistant to miR164-guided cleavage and found that this expanded the boundary domain. The authors propose that miR164 constrains the expanding boundary by clearing boundary cells of CUC1 and CUC2, thus changing their cell identity.. ...
We developed databases and tools to display and analyze next-gen sequencing data for a number of organisms and related varieties (mainly for plant small RNAs).
Kids love Santa! He brings them toys, and has great songs and stories that they want to hear over and over. Children often enthusiastically agree to visit Santa to tell him about their Christmas lists. But parents are then confronted with the dilemma of taking said kids to visit Santa only to have the same enthusiasm replaced with tears. There is no shortage of images on the web of children dressed in their holiday best, howling on Santas lap with outstretched arms toward a parent who has abandoned them just out of frame. I also remember being wary of a man entering our house unnoticed as a child, even if he was bringing presents. Here are a few tips for parents who want to help their children enjoy this holiday tradition and maybe even ace that holiday photo.. First, recognize that stranger anxiety is a healthy and expected developmental phase for young children. Toddlers and preschoolers are most likely to fear a visit to Santa. As familiar as the character of Santa becomes for young children ...
The project explores the exciting possibility that cells which escape into the blood stream exhibit a phenotype reminiscent of certain developmental phases. Confirmation of this will provide new treatment avenues and new opportunities for diagnosis.
Being sessile, plant are exposed to a range of stresses, of both abiotic and biotic origin, during the course of their life, and often simultaneously.
Leaves are categorized depending on their shapes, whether they are stalked or not, and if the leaves have smooth or jagged edges. All leaves are divided into two main types: simple or...
What should I charge for cleaning up leaves? Some yards still need a couple more mowings but the leaves are starting to come down. So what should I...
People often say: we have to forget what had been because past is past. But dont we realize that our past is what made us to become who we are in the present?
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Read SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE 2 controls floral organ development and plant fertility by activating ASYMMETRIC LEAVES 2 in Arabidopsis thaliana, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The plasma membrane-bound peroxidases (PRX) zmprx01, zmprx66 and zmprx70 and the respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOH) rbohA, rbohB, rbohC and rbohD were analysed in this study. The distribution of the genes inside the roots was investigated by real-time qPCR. Therefor four different segments (root tip, elongation zone, differentiation zone and lateral roots) were in focus of the analyses. It could be observed that the genes are differently distributed in the root. The peroxidases were predominantly expressed in the elongation zone and almost not in the root tip. The rboh genes were more inhomogeneous distributed. For each RBOH a specific expression pattern could be detected. rbohA was mostly expressed in the differentiation zone. rbohB was more even expressed in the root. rbohC was even distributed as well but predominantly in the elongation zone. rbohD was mostly expressed in the differentiation zone. For a further investigation of the peroxidases plants were exposed to cadmium (short term and
New DNA Sequences ======================= AC013430 AC013430 88172bp DNA HTG 11-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 1 clone F3F9, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 6 unordered pieces. HTG; HTGS_PHASE1. ATF11C1 AL132976 105644bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F11C1 ATF15G16 AL132959 104868bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F15G16 ATF18N11 AL132953 91275bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F18N11 ATF1P2 AL132955 101154bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F1P2 ATF24B22 AL132957 100285bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F24B22 ATF24M12 AL132980 129515bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F24M12 ATF2A19 AL132962 95993bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F2A19 ATF2K15 AL132956 130956bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F2K15 ...
Description of disease Arabidopsis thaliana. Treatment Arabidopsis thaliana. Symptoms and causes Arabidopsis thaliana Prophylaxis Arabidopsis thaliana
AtTome: Arabidopsis Transcriptome Functional Genomics Database. gebd Arabidopsis Genome Browser. iSect Tools, iView Tools and Gene Expression Atlas. Collection of Arabidopsis T-DNA/Ds, Full-length cDNA, Marker, EST, MPSS, SAGE, miRNA, sRNA, Arabidopsis Tiling Array and Gene Expression Data. Created and developed by Huaming Chen
AtTome: Arabidopsis Transcriptome Functional Genomics Database. gebd Arabidopsis Genome Browser. iSect Tools, iView Tools and Gene Expression Atlas. Collection of Arabidopsis T-DNA/Ds, Full-length cDNA, Marker, EST, MPSS, SAGE, miRNA, sRNA, Arabidopsis Tiling Array and Gene Expression Data. Created and developed by Huaming Chen
AtTome: Arabidopsis Transcriptome Functional Genomics Database. gebd Arabidopsis Genome Browser. iSect Tools, iView Tools and Gene Expression Atlas. Collection of Arabidopsis T-DNA/Ds, Full-length cDNA, Marker, EST, MPSS, SAGE, miRNA, sRNA, Arabidopsis Tiling Array and Gene Expression Data. Created and developed by Huaming Chen
AtTome: Arabidopsis Transcriptome Functional Genomics Database. gebd Arabidopsis Genome Browser. iSect Tools, iView Tools and Gene Expression Atlas. Collection of Arabidopsis T-DNA/Ds, Full-length cDNA, Marker, EST, MPSS, SAGE, miRNA, sRNA, Arabidopsis Tiling Array and Gene Expression Data. Created and developed by Huaming Chen Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress) is a flowering plant belonging to the family Brassicaceae which contains economically important brassica and mustard species. Arabidopsis thaliana was the first plant to have its genome sequenced. Arabidopsis thaliana is not of economic value itself, but has risen to prominence because of its small size, short generation time and small genome, which make it an ideal plant to use for research. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome has a haploid chromosome number of 5, containing 135 Mb with 32,000 protein-coding genes. The reference proteome is derived from the genome sequence published in 2000 for the ecotype Columbia ( ...
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The availability of the complete genome sequence of Arabidopsis thaliana together with those of other organisms provides an opportunity to decipher the genetic factors that define plant form and function. To begin this task, we have classified the nuclear protein-coding genes of Arabidopsis thaliana on the basis of their pattern of sequence similarity to organisms across the three domains of life. We identified 3,848 Arabidopsis proteins that are likely to be found solely within the plant lineage. More than half of these plant-specific proteins are of unknown function, emphasizing the general lack of knowledge of processes unique to plants. Plant-specific proteins that are membrane-associated and/or targeted to the mitochondria or chloroplasts are the most poorly characterized. Analyses of microarray data indicate that genes coding for plant-specific proteins, but not evolutionarily conserved proteins, are more likely to be expressed in an organ-specific manner. A large proportion (13%) of plant
The putative thylakoid lumen immunophilin, FKBP16-3, has not yet been characterized, although this protein is known to be regulated by thioredoxin and possesses a well-conserved CxxxC motif in photosynthetic organisms. Here, we characterized rice OsFKBP16-3 and examined the role of this gene in the regulation of abiotic stress in plants. FKBP16-3s are well conserved in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms, including the presence of a unique disulfide-forming CxxxC motif in their N-terminal regions. OsFKBP16-3 was mainly expressed in rice leaf tissues and was upregulated by various abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, high light, hydrogen peroxide, heat and methyl viologen. The chloroplast localization of OsFKBP16-3-GFP was confirmed through the transient expression of OsFKBP16-3 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis and transgenic rice plants that constitutively expressed OsFKBP16-3 exhibited increased tolerance to salinity, drought and oxidative stresses, but showed no change in
Cellular and molecular aspects of abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana subjected to cold, drought, and high salinity and in two photosynthetic green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Coccomyxa sp. C-169, subjected to nitrogen deprivation were investigated. Cold, drought, and high salinity can negatively affect plant growth and crop production. The first research aimed at determining the physiological functions of the stress-responsive Arabidopsis thaliana RD29A and RD29B genes. Cold, drought, and salt induced both genes; the promoter of RD29Awas found to be more responsive to drought and cold stresses, whereas the promoter of RD29B was highly responsive to salt stress. Therefore, RD29A and RD29B gene sequences have the potential to confer abiotic stress resistance in crop species grown in arid and semi-arid regions. RD29A and RD29B proteins were also found to unlikely serve directly as protective molecules. The second study aimed at investigating the impacts of nitrogen deprivation in
Read Isolation and Gene Expression Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Mutants With Constitutive Expression of ATL2, an Early Elicitor-Response RING-H2 Zinc-Finger Gene, Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Of the many plant genes whose expressions are controlled by the circadian clock, one of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase genes in soya bean (Glycine max) exhibits the unusual property that its control is organ-specific - it is under circadian control in leaves but not in roots. Preliminary experiments suggest that the same is true for at least one gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. It will be important to define the extent and function of this phenomenon and the underlying mechanism.. ...
Arabidopsis thaliana + , Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. + , Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) + , Arbisopsis thaliana + , mouse-ear cress + , thale cress + , thale-cress + ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs repressing target gene expression post-transcriptionally and are critically involved in various development processes and responses to environmental stresses. MiR408 is highly conserved in land plants and targets several transcripts encoding copper protei …
Understanding the evolutionary genetics of modern crop phenotypes has a dual relevance to evolutionary biology and crop improvement. Modern upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was developed following thousands of years of artificial selection from a wild form, G. hirsutum var. yucatanense, which bears a shorter, sparser, layer of single-celled, ovular trichomes (fibre). In order to gain an insight into the nature of the developmental genetic transformations that accompanied domestication and crop improvement, we studied the transcriptomes of cotton fibres from wild and domesticated accessions over a developmental time course. Fibre cells were harvested between 2 and 25 days post-anthesis and encompassed the primary and secondary wall synthesis stages. Using amplified messenger RNA and a custom microarray platform designed to interrogate expression for 40,430 genes, we determined global patterns of expression during fibre development. The fibre transcriptome of domesticated cotton is far more dynamic
Chilling stress affects plant growth and productivity. However, the multi-underlying mechanisms of chilling tolerance are not well understood. Arabidopsis PCaP2 is involved in regulating the dynamic of microtubules and F-actin and Ca2+-binding ability. Here, the results showed that the PCaP2 expression was highly induced in roots, cotyledons, true leaves, lateral roots and flowers under cold stress. Compared with the wild type, PCaP2-overexpressing plants displayed the enhanced tolerance, whereas its RNAi and mutant were more sensitive in seed germination, seedling and reproductive growth under chilling stress in Arabidopsis. In addition, PCaP2 was also a positive regulator of ABA signaling pathway by analyzing the expression of PCaP2 and the phenotypes of PCaP2-overexpressing, mutant and RNAi plants under ABA treatment. Interestingly, disruption of PCaP2 inhibited the expression of CBF1, -3 and CBF-target COR genes, while increased the CBF2 expression in response to cold or ABA. Moreover, we found that
The composition of the individual eukaryotes genome and its variation within a species remain poorly defined. Even for a sequenced genome such as that of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0, the large arrays of heterochromatic repeats are incompletely sequenced, with gaps of uncertain size persisting in them. Using geographically separate populations of A. thaliana, we assayed variation in the heterochromatic repeat arrays using two independent methods and identified significant polymorphism among them, with variation by as much as a factor of two in the centromeric 180 bp repeat, in the 45S rDNA arrays and in the Athila retroelements. In the accession with highest genome size as measured by flow cytometry, Loh-0, we found more than a two-fold increase in 5S RNA gene copies relative to Col-0; results from fluorescence in situ hybridization with 5S probes were consistent with the existence of size polymorphism between Loh-0 and Col-0 at the 5S loci. Comparative genomic hybridization
Phytohormones are organic compounds that exist naturally in plants and that even in low concentrations, orchestrate a broad range of physiological processes, including growth and development, as well as responses to abiotic and biotic stresses [1]. These hormones overlap signal transduction pathways or gene expression profiles by rapid induction or by preventing the degradation of transcriptional regulators [2-5].. Among all of the described phytohormones, ethylene, a naturally occurring triple response growth regulator (shoot elongation, stem thickening and horizontal growth habit) in seedlings, has been studied since ancient times [6]. Ethylene is also involved in leaf abscission, fruit ripening and senescence [6, 7] as well as seed germination, growth of adventitious roots under flooding conditions, epinasty stimulation, inhibition of shoot growth and stomatal closing and flowering [8, 9]. Moreover, it is involved in a wide variety of stresses, including wounding, pathogen attack, flooding, ...
Plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signaling coordinates nuclear gene expression with chloroplast function and is essential for the photoautotrophic life-style of plants. Three retrograde signals have been described, but little is known of their signaling pathways. We show here that GUN1, a chloroplast-localized pentatricopeptide-repeat protein, and ABI4, an Apetala 2 (AP2)-type transcription factor, are common to all three pathways. ABI4 binds the promoter of a retrograde-regulated gene through a conserved motif found in close proximity to a light-regulatory element. We propose a model in which multiple indicators of aberrant plastid function in Arabidopsis are integrated upstream of GUN1 within plastids, which leads to ABI4-mediated repression of nuclear-encoded genes. |P /|
A method for making a genetically modified plant comprising regenerating a whole plant from a plant cell that has been transfected with DNA sequences comprising a first gene whose expression results in an altered plant phenotype linked to a transiently active promoter, the gene and promoter being separated by a blocking sequence flanked on either side by specific excision sequences, a second gene that encodes a recombinase specific for the specific excision sequences linked to a repressible promoter, and a third gene that encodes the repressor specific for the repressible promoter. Also a method for making a genetically modified hybrid plant by hybridizing a first plant regenerated from a plant cell that has been transfected with DNA sequences comprising a first gene whose expression results in an altered plant phenotype linked to a transiently active promoter, the gene and promoter being separated by a blocking sequence flanked on either side by specific excision sequences to a second plant regenerated
Also known as: IN Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis., Arabidopsis At, Arabidopsis AS, Arabidopsis, Ara-bidopsis, ARABIDOPSIS In, ARABIDOPSIS ...
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It has been more than 50 years since Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was first introduced as a model organism to understand basic processes in plant biology. A well-organized scientific community has used this small reference plant species to make numerous fundamental plant biology discoveries (Provart et al., 2016). Due to an extremely well-annotated genome and advances in high-throughput sequencing, our understanding of this organism and other plant species has become even more intricate and complex. Computational resources, including CyVerse,3 Araport,4 The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR),5 and BAR,6 have further facilitated novel findings with just the click of a mouse. As we move toward understanding biological systems, Arabidopsis researchers will need to use more quantitative and computational approaches to extract novel biological findings from these data. Here, we discuss guidelines, skill sets, and core competencies that should be considered when developing curricula or ...
Efforts to elucidate the contributions by transcription factors to plant gene expression will require increasing knowledge of their specific in vivo regulatory associations. We are systematically investigating the role of individual TGA factors in the transcriptional control of pathogenesis-related …
Plants have the capacity to continuously produce organs throughout their life because they maintain stem-cell containing structures called meristems. The formation of flowers is an essential step of the plants life-cycle. In order to ensure flower development a new meristem must be formed within the young flower bud. Various data across the literature indicate that the transcription factor LEAFY is involved flower meristem formation in addition to its role as a master regulator of flower identity ...
Successful adaptation and evolution of land plants relied on the acquisition of the stomatal complex, which allows efficient gas exchange for photosynthesis and respiration while minimizing water loss. In the epidermis of higher plants, stomatal complexes differentiate nonrandomly from precursor cells through rounds of asymmetric division. Shpak et al. now find that three Arabidopsis ERECTA-family leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases, which are known to promote cell proliferation and organ growth, play overlapping but distinct roles to control stomatal patterning. The complexity of this signaling pathway illustrates how the interplay of moderate effects can lead to different outcomes in a developmental process. E. D. Shpak, J. M. McAbee, L. J. Pillitteri, K. U. Torii, Stomatal patterning and differentiation by synergistic interactions of receptor kinases. Science 309, 290-293 (2005). [Abstract] [Full Text]. ...
The TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) gene of Arabidopsis serves a key function in the development of the shoot apical meristem (SAM). The specific expression of TFL1 transcripts in the subapical region of the SAM suggests that TFL1 functions non-cell-autonomously and that TFL1 function may involve cell-cell communication. We demonstrate that the TFL1 protein is transmitted from the subapical region to the epidermis, and suggest that this protein trafficking is regulated during the developmental phase of the SAM. Our results suggest that TFL1 protein trafficking gives rise to the interlayer signaling responsible for the coordination of the distinct layers of the meristem ...
Both partners (plant and fungus) must follow a precise sequence of gene expression for this to be successful. There is evidence ... Hilbert, J. L.; Martin, F. (1988). "Regulation of gene expression in ectomycorrhizas". New Phytologist. 110 (3): 339-346. doi: ... Dominant native plants can inhibit EcM fungi on the roots of neighboring plants, and some invasive plants can inhibit the ... Some fungal genes appear to be expressed before plant contact, suggesting that signals in the soil may induce important fungal ...
Zhou A, Pawlowski WP (August 2014). "Regulation of meiotic gene expression in plants". Frontiers in Plant Science. 5: 413. doi: ... specific genes are more highly transcribed. In addition to strong meiotic stage-specific expression of mRNA, there are also ... "Unified single-cell analysis of testis gene regulation and pathology in five mouse strains". eLife. 8: e43966. doi:10.7554/ ... regulating the ultimate meiotic stage-specific protein expression of genes during meiosis. Thus, both transcriptional and ...
Serganov A, Patel DJ (October 2007). "Ribozymes, riboswitches and beyond: regulation of gene expression without proteins". ... Bocobza SE, Aharoni A (October 2008). "Switching the light on plant riboswitches". Trends in Plant Science. 13 (10): 526-533. ... is a temperature-sensitive non-coding RNA molecule which regulates gene expression. RNA thermometers often regulate genes ... Balsiger S, Ragaz C, Baron C, Narberhaus F (2004). "Replicon-specific regulation of small heat shock genes in Agrobacterium ...
"Regulation of the leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase gene expression in Vitis vinifera". Plant Science. 161 (3): 579-588. doi: ... The gene encoding the enzyme (PpLDOX) has been identified in peach and expression has been studied in Vitis vinifera. As of ... molecular cloning and functional expression of cDNA from a red forma of Perilla frutescens". Plant J. 17 (2): 181-9. doi: ... "Leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase gene (PpLDOX): a potential functional marker for cold storage browning in peach". Tree Genetics ...
Cho HT, Cosgrove DJ (December 2002). "Regulation of root hair initiation and expansin gene expression in Arabidopsis". Plant ... Cho HT, Kende H (September 1997). "Expression of expansin genes is correlated with growth in deepwater rice". Plant Cell. 9 (9 ... The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana contains around 26 different α-expansin genes and 6 β-expansin genes. A subset of β- ... So far, two large families of expansin genes have been discovered in plants, named alpha-expansins (given the gene symbol EXPA ...
In plants, there is also environmental regulation of AK-HSD gene expression. Light exposure has been demonstrated to increase ... "Expression of an Aspartate Kinase Homoserine Dehydrogenase Gene IS Subject to Specific Spatial and Temporal Regulation in ... Zhu-Shimoni JX, Galili G (March 1998). "Expression of an Arabidopsis Aspartate Kinase/Homoserine Dehydrogenase Gene Is ... Additionally, the aspartate kinase-homoserine dehydrogenase gene is primarily expressed in actively growing, young plant ...
2012). Non-Coding RNAs and Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression: Drivers of Natural Selection. Norfolk, UK: Caister ... Parts of the non-coding DNA were being deleted by the plant and this suggested that non-coding DNA may not be as critical for ... to enhance transcription levels of genes in a gene cluster. A silencer is a region of DNA that inactivates gene expression when ... Non-coding RNAs and Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression: Drivers of Natural Selection. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978- ...
"Regulation of expression of proteinase inhibitor genes by methyl jasmonate and jasmonic Acid". Plant Physiology. 98 (3): 995- ... When plants are attacked by insects, they respond by releasing JA, which activates the expression of protease inhibitors, among ... It has an important role in response to wounding of plants and systemic acquired resistance. The Dgl gene is responsible for ... Regulation". Plant Biology. 8 (3): 297-306. doi:10.1055/s-2006-923935. PMID 16807821. Gális, I.; Gaquerel, E.; Pandey, S. P.; ...
"Specificity of auxin regulation of gibberellin 20-oxidase gene expression in pea pericarp". Plant Molecular Biology. 49 (5): ... Most bioactive GAs are located in actively growing organs on plants. Both GA20ox and GA3ox genes (genes coding for GA 20- ... "Feedback regulation of GA5 expression and metabolic engineering of gibberellin levels in Arabidopsis". The Plant Cell. 11 (5): ... "The plant stress hormone ethylene controls floral transition via DELLA-dependent regulation of floral meristem-identity genes ...
"HOXC13 is involved in the regulation of human hair keratin gene expression". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (5): 3718 ... October 2018). "S-nitrosylation of the zinc finger protein SRG1 regulates plant immunity". Nature Communications. 9 (1): 4226. ... In terms of gene expression, ZNF226 is generally expressed in most tissues. Microarray data illustrates higher expression of ... The gene expression is lower in PB-EPCs when compared to CB-EPCs. PB-EPCs have more tumor suppressor (TP53) expression when ...
... the chromatin dynamics that enable switching between epigenetic states and quantitative regulation of gene expression. This ... "Patterns of gene action in plant development revealed by enhancer trap and gene trap transposable elements". Genes & ... As plants overwinter FLC expression is then epigenetically silenced through a cold-induced, cis-based, Polycomb switching ... Epigenetic switching and quantitative regulation of FLC play a central role in seasonal timing in plants. This acceleration of ...
One study suggested that this was possible through the up-regulation of PTEN gene expression in those breast cancer cells. ... Cited by Mitchell and Rook (1979). Mitchell, John; Rook, Arthur (1979). Botanical Dermatology: Plants and Plant Products ... De Amicis, Francesca (2015). "Bergapten drives autophagy through the up-regulation of PTEN expression in breast cancer cells". ... Contact with plant parts containing bergapten (and other linear furanocoumarins) followed by exposure to ultraviolet light may ...
"MicroRNA profiling provides insights into post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in chickpea root apex under ... "Role of DREB-Like Proteins in Improving Stress Tolerance of Transgenic Plants". Plant Acclimation to Environmental Stress. ... "Role of DREB-Like Proteins in Improving Stress Tolerance of Transgenic Plants". Plant Acclimation to Environmental Stress. ... Subsequently, he joined the National Institute of Plant Genome Research, New Delhi where he holds the position of a Grade VII ...
Similarly, the Cyp 28A1 gene expression is also upregulated in D. mettleri that are exposed to more alkaloids in host plants. ... This alteration is enough to lead to an up-regulation in gene expression causing a significant change in physical protein ... An up-regulation in the genes encoding for xenobiotic resistance are attributed to the specialized and highly efficient ... The upregulation of this gene is an adaptive response to exposure to toxic alkaloids in host plants. ...
... new insights into the regulation of tissue-specific gene expression". Nature Reviews Genetics. 12 (4): 283-293. doi:10.1038/ ... Bellen, Hugo J (December 1999). "Ten Years of Enhancer Detection: Lessons from the Fly". The Plant Cell. 11 (12): 2271-2281. ... Furthermore, gene expression levels on average were correlated with the sum of the enhancer strengths per gene, supporting ... The study of gene regulation and their responsible pathways in the genome during normal development and also in disease can be ...
... may also be defined as sequence-specific regulation of gene expression triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). ... small RNA candidates predicted to affect gene expression in plants, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, zebrafish, mouse, rat, and ... downregulation of genes For a detailed explanation of the up-regulation of genes, see RNAi:upregulation of genes The same way ... However, the varied and nuanced role of RNA silencing in the regulation of gene expression remains an ongoing scientific ...
A more likely source of cellular plasticity is through the Regulation of gene expression, such that while two cells may have ... Plant flavones are said to be inhibiting epigenomic marks that cause cancers. Two of the most characterized epigenetic ... Epigenetic modifications play an important role in gene expression and regulation, and are involved in numerous cellular ... the differential expression of certain genes results in variation. Research has shown that cells are capable of regulating gene ...
... his interest turned to gene expression, in particular the regulation of production of RNA from genes. Experiments in his ... 1994)"Chapters from my life" Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 45:1-23. Campos and Reinberg (2009) "Historic perspective on ... Studied Gene Regulation,By KAREN FREEMAN, September 19, 1996 Los Angeles Times:James F. Bonner; Improved Citrus Harvesting ... a protein associated with the genes, shuts off gene activity. If the histone fraction is extracted from isolated chromatin, ...
Hormonal Regulation of Gene Expression and Development - Detailed introduction to plant hormones, including genetic information ... Plant hormones frequently regulate the concentrations of other plant hormones. Plants also move hormones around the plant ... Plant hormones affect gene expression and transcription levels, cellular division, and growth. They are naturally produced ... Plant hormones control all aspects of plant growth and development, from embryogenesis, the regulation of organ size, pathogen ...
"Expression of cytokinin biosynthetic isopentenyltransferase genes in Arabidopsis: tissue specificity and regulation by auxin, ... ISBN 978-0-87893-866-7. Plant Physiology:Cytokinin Regulation of Leaf Senescence by Cytokinin, Sugar, and Light. ... Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 52 (1): 89-118. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.52.1.89. PMID 11337393. Sakakibara H (2006). " ... Cytokinins (CK) are a class of plant growth substances (phytohormones) that promote cell division, or cytokinesis, in plant ...
Expression profiles of the Arabidopsis WRKY gene superfamily during plant defense response. Plant Molecular Biology. 51(1). 21- ... Plant Growth Regulation. 70(3). 207-216, Qin, Tian, Han and Yang (2013) Constitutive expression of a salinity-induced wheat ... Expression profiles of the Arabidopsis WRKY gene superfamily during plant defense response. Plant Molecular Biology. 51(1). 21- ... This was the first of many studies identifying WRKY transcription factors in regulating gene expression for plant defense. By ...
In addition to regulation of plant development, TCPs also control the expression of lipoxygenase genes required for jasmonate ... Plant Pathology online early edition. Chen, Y. D.; Chen, T. A. (1998). "Expression of engineered antibodies in plants: A ... Phytoplasma-harboring flowering plants may nevertheless be sterile. The expression of genes involved in maintaining the apical ... more eggs on plants that expressing SAP11 transgenically than control plants, and 60% more eggs on plants infected with AY-WB. ...
Gene Regulation and Expression; Cell and Developmental Biology; Molecular Physiology; Environmental and Applied Biology; MRC ... Plant Sciences research used to be based in the BSI building but following its closure, the division of Plant Sciences moved to ... The building originally housed the Divisions of Gene expression, Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Parasitology that were ... Developmental Biology Cell Signalling and Immunology Computational Biology Drug Discovery Unit Gene Regulation and Expression ...
... to related species has been shown to be due to differential gene expression and regulation of the same genes in both plants. ... The expression of such genes is used to determine whether a species is capable of hyperaccumulation. Expression of HA genes ... "Elevated expression of metal transporter genes in three accessions of the metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens." Plant, ... The ZIP gene family is a novel, plant-specific gene family that encodes Cd, Mn, Fe and Zn transporters. The ZIP family plays a ...
... but still have high biological significance for gene expression and its regulation. Telomerase is an enzyme that is present in ... At the time, "yeast nucleic acid" (RNA) was thought to occur only in plants, while "thymus nucleic acid" (DNA) only in animals ... and how those processes are regulated to regulate gene expression (i.e. turn genes on and off). Following the isolation of E. ... In this way, gene expression can be dramatically regulated at the post-transcriptional level. Another previously unknown ...
Gene expression Regulation of gene expression Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi India portal Science portal "Vice Chancellor ... and the Society for Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology, New Delhi (2009-2011) and is a former secretary of the Plant Tissue ... His researches on the gene expression and the activity of nitrate reductase revealed the effect of light on the turnover of ... Based on his work on dehydration stress and salinity-related gene regulation, he is known to have developed a new methodology ...
RNA and the Regulation of Gene Expression: A Hidden Layer of Complexity. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-25-7. ... "Heterochromatin in animals and plants. Similarities and differences". Plant Physiology. 129 (1): 40-9. doi:10.1104/pp.010981. ... Both play a role in the expression of genes. Because it is tightly packed, it was thought to be inaccessible to polymerases and ... The polycomb repressive complexes PRC1 and PRC2 regulate chromatin compaction and gene expression and have a fundamental role ...
... of gene and gene product) for (evolutionary) continuity of redox regulation of gene expression". CoRR was put forward ... Mitochondria in both plant and animal cells perform respiration; the release of this stored energy when work is done. In ... Such genes comprise a core, or primary subset, of organellar genes. The requirement for redox control of each gene in the ... These genes comprise a secondary subset of organellar genes: genetic system genes. There is generally no requirement for redox ...
Viral microRNAs play an important role in the regulation of gene expression of viral and/or host genes to benefit the virus. ... Unlike plant microRNAs, the animal microRNAs target diverse genes. However, genes involved in functions common to all cells, ... Li LC (2008). "Small RNA-Mediated Gene Activation". In Morris KV (ed.). RNA and the Regulation of Gene Expression: A Hidden ... MicroRNAs play a vital role in the regulation of gene expression in all non-ctenophore animals investigated thus far except for ...
"Endosymbiotic gene transfer and transcriptional regulation of transferred genes in Paulinella chromatophora". Molecular Biology ... The 154 kb chloroplast DNA map of a model flowering plant (Arabidopsis thaliana: Brassicaceae) showing genes and inverted ... The chloroplast is mostly under nuclear control, though chloroplasts can also give out signals regulating gene expression in ... Gene content and protein synthesisEdit. The chloroplast genome most commonly includes around 100 genes[7][10] which code for a ...
These five proteins directly control the timing of expression of over 200 genes. The five master regulatory proteins are ... For example, Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen, Brucella abortus is an animal pathogen, and Sinorhizobium meliloti ... Cell polarity regulationEdit. In C. crescentus, cell polarity is readily apparent by the assembly of polar organelles and by ... Cell cycle regulation includes feedback signals that pace progression of the cell cycle engine to match progress of events at ...
"Expression of an antisense prosystemin gene in tomato plants reduces resistance toward Manduca sexta larvae". Proceedings of ... edible plants ever created.[20] Tobacco osmotic genes overexpressed in tomatoes produced plants that held a higher water ... "Expression of a synthesized gene encoding cationic peptide cecropin B in transgenic tomato plants protects against bacterial ... "Control of Ethylene Synthesis by Expression of a Bacterial Enzyme in Transgenic Tomato Plants". The Plant Cell. 3 (11): 1187- ...
Pays, E. (2005). "Regulation of antigen gene expression in Trypanosoma brucei". Trends Parasitol. 21 (11): 517-20. doi:10.1016/ ... According to this model, new genes are created by non-adaptive processes, such as by random gene duplication. These novel ... All changes in the gene frequencies of populations--and quite often in the traits those genes influence--are by definition ... how new alternative spliced isoforms of genes arise, how gene scrambling in ciliates evolved, and how pervasive pan-RNA editing ...
"Recruitment of the androgen receptor via serum response factor facilitates expression of a myogenic gene". The Journal of ... Early regulation[edit]. Before the production of the pituitary hormone luteinizing hormone (LH) by the embryo starting at about ... Scott F. Gilbert; with a chapter on plant development by Susan R. Singer (2000). Scott F. Gilbert, ed. Developmental Biology ( ... Androgen regulation decreases the likelihood of depression in males. In preadolescent male rats, neonatal rats treated with ...
... the types of pollen that an ear of corn will accept through expression of certain forms of the Gametophyte Factor 1 gene. Many ... The effectiveness of this restriction can be measured by planting the popcorn beside purple dent corn; the xenia effect would ... regulations can cause their product to be rejected as organic corn, and for which they have no recourse against GMO growers. ... Ken Roseboro (August 28, 2014). "Plant breeder works to save organic corn from GMO contamination". Non GMO report. "What is the ...
Regulation of gene expression. *Gene regulatory network. *Developmental-genetic toolkit. *Evolutionary developmental biology ... Mendel recognized that certain pea plant traits (seed coat color, flower color, and axial spots) seemed to be inherited ... Such a gene that exhibits multiple phenotypic expression is called a pleiotropic gene . Therefore mutation in a pleiotropic ... One basic model of pleiotropy's origin describes a single gene locus to the expression of a certain trait. The locus affects ...
"Control of Gene Expression". The Medical Biochemistry Page (en inglés). Consultado o 19 de setembro de 2008.. ... from expression to regulation". Proceedings of the IEEE 90 (11). Páxs. 1722-1743.. ... "Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana". Nature 408. Páxs. 796-815. ... Serial Analysis of Gene Expression, Análise en serie da expresión xénica), MPSS (Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing, ...
More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • nucleotide binding. • DNA binding. • DNA-dependent ATPase ... regulation of double-strand break repair via homologous recombination. • DNA metabolic process. • telomere organization. • ... In vertebrates and plants, five paralogs of RAD51 are expressed in somatic cells, including RAD51B (RAD51L1), RAD51C (RAD51L2 ... Table 1. RAD51 expression in sporadic cancers. Cancer. Over or Under expression. Frequency of altered expression. Evaluation ...
... while most genes involved in genome expression are common between Archaea and Eukarya.[66] Within prokaryotes, archaeal cell ... Plants and other organisms consume the latter.[181]. In the sulfur cycle, archaea that grow by oxidizing sulfur compounds ... "DNA-binding proteins and evolution of transcription regulation in the archaea". Nucleic Acids Res. 27 (23): 4658-70. doi ... Asexual reproduction, horizontal gene transfer. Asexual reproduction, horizontal gene transfer. Sexual and asexual reproduction ...
... his lab has made significant contributions in the field of chronobiology by identifying key genes associated with regulation of ... "Rhythmic expression of timeless: a basis for promoting circadian cycles in period gene autoregulation". Science. 270 (5237): ... The book described biological clocks as the reason why a strange plant he had seen years earlier produced flowers that closed ... A new gene located on chromosome 2 was named timeless (tim) and was successfully cloned and sequenced. They found strong ...
Mutations in maize promoters affect the expression of the promoter genes in a plant-organ-specific manner.[29] A duplication of ... Gene transcription by RNA polymerase II depends on the regulation of the core promoter by long-range regulatory elements such ... The type of core promoter affects the level of transcription and expression of a gene. TATA-binding protein (TBP) can be ... "Gene. 389 (1): 52-65. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2006.09.029. PMC 1955227. PMID 17123746.. ...
This affects their function of gene regulation. In general, genes that are active have less bound histone, while inactive genes ... In budding yeast, the candidate gene for activation of histone gene expression is SBF. SBF is a transcription factor that is ... Bonner, James (1994). "Chapters from my life". Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. 45: 1-23. doi: ... "NPAT links cyclin E-Cdk2 to the regulation of replication-dependent histone gene transcription". Genes & Development. 14 (18): ...
In 2014, Zachary Lippman publishes toolkit of gene variations in flowering plants, allowing breeders to maximize yield of ... transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation. Neuroscience. Stanley Institute for Cognitive Genomics employs deep ... 21] See the classic paper McClintock B 1951 "Chromosome Organization and Genic Expression" (Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. ... Plant Biology[11]. Plant genome sequencing; epigenetics and stem cell fate; stem cell signaling; plant-environment interactions ...
Their subsequent work shows how the SREBP pathway regulates expression of many genes that control lipid formation and ... Espenshade PJ, Hughes AL (2007). "Regulation of sterol synthesis in eukaryotes". Annu. Rev. Genet. 41: 401-27. doi:10.1146/ ... Consequently all foods containing animal fat contain cholesterol to varying extents.[13] Cholesterol is not present in plant ... of a number of genes to stimulate their transcription. Among the genes transcribed are the LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase. ...
Transcription and mRNA splicing - Gene expression.. Notable cell biologistsEdit. *Jean Baptiste Carnoy ... The theory also states that both plants and animals are composed of cells which was confirmed by plant scientist, Matthias ... Cell signaling - Regulation of cell behavior by signals from outside.. *Division - By which cells reproduce either by mitosis ( ... In the case of eukaryotic cells - which are made up of animal, plant, fungi, and protozoa cells - the shapes are generally ...
Hargrove JL, Berdanier CD (1993). Nutrition and gene expression. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-6961-2. .. [page needed ... "Margarine Regulations". Archived from the original on 2007-10-11.. *^ "Enriched White Bread in Canada". The Canadian Celiac ... Plant-based "milks" and derivatives such as soy milk, rice milk, almond milk, coconut milk, hazelnut milk, oat milk, hemp milk ... "Gene-culture coevolution between cattle milk protein genes and human lactase genes". Nature Genetics. 35 (4): 311-3. doi: ...
The promoter of the provirus DNA can also cause over expression of regulatory genes. ... "Impact of transposable elements on the evolution of mammalian gene regulation". Cytogenet Genome Res. 110 (1-4): 342-52. doi: ... Gene therapy[edit]. Gammaretroviral and lentiviral vectors for gene therapy have been developed that mediate stable genetic ... For example, the gag gene is translated into molecules of the capsid protein, the pol gene is translated into molecules of ...
The gap genes act at the top of this regulatory hierarchy. Expression of the gap genes occurs in discrete domains along the ... Farley, Brian M.; Ryder, Sean P. (January 2008). "Regulation of Maternal mRNAs in Early Development". Critical Reviews in ... For the development of plant embryos, see Sporophyte.. 1 - morula, 2 - blastula ... Zygotic expression of the gap genes is thought to be required for the subdivision of the embryo into several units of adjacent ...
... expressions associated with the translator Eugene Nida and originally coined to describe ways of translating the Bible; but the ... W.S. Merwin: To Plant a Tree: one-hour documentary shown on PBS. ... performed by someone authorized to do so by local regulations. ... The most prominent among them was al-Muqtataf... [It] was the popular expression of a translation movement that had begun ... Eugene Eoyang and Lin Yao-fu, Translating Chinese Literature, Indiana University Press, 1995, pp. 42-43. ...
"The expression of different superoxide dismutase forms is cell-type dependent in olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves". Plant & Cell ... The genes are located on chromosomes 21, 6, and 4, respectively (21q22.1, 6q25.3 and 4p15.3-p15.1). ... "SOD1 Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Regulation and Its Potential Implications in ALS". Neurology Research ... Plants[edit]. In higher plants, superoxide dismutase enzymes (SODs) act as antioxidants and protect cellular components from ...
Riboswitches have been found to act as regulators of gene expression, particularly in bacteria, but also in plants and archaea ... Such enzyme targeting is also responsible for gene down regulation though RNA interference (RNAi), where an enzyme-associated ... Bocobza SE, Aharoni A (2008). "Switching the light on plant riboswitches". Trends Plant Sci. 13 (10): 526-33. doi:10.1016/j. ... RNA thermometers regulate gene expression in response to temperature changes.[44] Support and difficulties[edit]. The RNA world ...
Regulation of gene expression. *Gene regulatory network. *Developmental-genetic toolkit. *Evolutionary developmental biology ... When the nutrition of a host plant is abundant, aphids may not grow wings, remaining on the host plant for the duration of ... Hall, B.K., Hallgrímsson, B. Monroe, W.S. (2008). Strickberger's evolution: the integration of genes, organisms and populations ... their offspring may develop wings in order to disperse to other host plants.[34] ...
... family and induces ARF-directed gene expression.[82] The cellular consequences of ARF activation depend on the plant type and ... Regulation of plant growthEdit. In plants, signaling by auxins, or phytohormones that order the direction and tropism of plant ... the regulation of gene expression, and responses to oxidative stress. The importance of proteolytic degradation inside cells ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-Jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ...
"Resistance" (R) proteins, encoded by R genes, are widely present in plants and detect pathogens. These proteins contain domains ... Neural regulation[edit]. The innate immune response to infectious and sterile injury is modulated by neural circuits that ... although indispensable for expression of SAR, is not the translocated signal responsible for the systemic response. Recent ... a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q IMMUNOLOGY - CHAPTER ONE - INNATE (NON-SPECIFIC) IMMUNITY Gene Mayer, Ph.D. Immunology ...
Bulley S, Laing W (October 2016). "The regulation of ascorbate biosynthesis". Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 33: 15-22. doi: ... l-gulonolactone oxidase coding gene.[185] In 2008, researchers at the University of Montpellier discovered that in humans and ... so that enzyme expression peaks in the morning to support biosynthesis later on when mid-day sunlight intensity demands high ... Plant sources[edit]. While plant foods are generally a good source of vitamin C, the amount in foods of plant origin depends on ...
One study suggested that this was possible through the up-regulation of PTEN gene expression in those breast cancer cells.[11] ... Mitchell, John; Rook, Arthur (1979). Botanical Dermatology: Plants and Plant Products Injurious to the Skin. Vancouver: ... "Bergapten drives autophagy through the up-regulation of PTEN expression in breast cancer cells". Molecular Cancer. 14. doi: ... Contact with plant parts containing bergapten (and other linear furanocoumarins) followed by exposure to ultraviolet light may ...
The first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase. Both ... 2. In botany, the property of a plant or plant part that is attached directly by its base to an object or another plant part, i ... The study of populations of organisms, especially the regulation of population size, life history traits such as clutch size, ... gene pool. A set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.. generation. genetic ...
"Expression in Escherichia coli of chemically synthesized genes for human insulin". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Zohary D, Hopf M, Weiss E (2012). Domestication of Plants in the Old World: The origin and spread of plants in the old world. ... Staff (28 November 2005) Health Canada - The Regulation of Genetically Modified Food Glossary definition of Genetically ... "Artificial Genes". TIME. 15 November 1982. Diakses tanggal 17 July 2010.. *^ Bratspies, Rebecca (2007). "Some Thoughts on the ...
Bulley S, Laing W (October 2016). "The regulation of ascorbate biosynthesis". Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 33: 15-22. doi: ... He later developed the theory that humans possess a mutated form of the L-gulonolactone oxidase coding gene.[185] ... so that enzyme expression peaks in the morning to support biosynthesis later on when mid-day sunlight intensity demands high ... Plant sources[edit]. While plant foods are generally a good source of vitamin C, the amount in foods of plant origin depends on ...
Regulation of gene expression during plant embryogenesis.. Goldberg RB1, Barker SJ, Perez-Grau L. ... Gene. *Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) Database *Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) Datasets. *Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) Profiles ...
... it is recognized worldwide that plant nutrients can affect the level of expression of human genes and gut microbiome regulation ... The impact of ingested RNA from vegetable food sources on gene expression in nematodes and insects is something that has been ... The types of approaches used are multidisciplinary and can span from gene- and nutrient-specific investigations to large-scale ... Keywords: plant ncRNAs, gut microbiome, gene expression, nutrition, nutrigenetics, plant miRNAs Important Note: All ...
Positive regulation of minichromosome maintenance gene expression, DNA replication, and cell transformation by a plant ... Positive regulation of minichromosome maintenance gene expression, DNA replication, and cell transformation by a plant ... Positive regulation of minichromosome maintenance gene expression, DNA replication, and cell transformation by a plant ... Positive regulation of minichromosome maintenance gene expression, DNA replication, and cell transformation by a plant ...
UEA. All rights reserved. University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, Norfolk, NR4 7TJ, UK , +44 (0) 1603 456161 ...
Regulation of CLV3 Expression by Two Homeobox Genes in Arabidopsis Ulrike Brand, Margit Grünewald, Martin Hobe, Rüdiger Simon ... Regulation of CLV3 Expression by Two Homeobox Genes in Arabidopsis Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Regulation of gene expression by manipulating transcriptional repressor activity using a novel CoSRI technology ... FIE and CURLY LEAF polycomb proteins interact in the regulation of homeobox gene expression during sporophyte development ...
Developmental Stage-Specific and Nitrate-Independent Regulation of Nitrate Reductase Gene Expression in Rapeseed. H. Fukuoka, T ... Developmental Stage-Specific and Nitrate-Independent Regulation of Nitrate Reductase Gene Expression in Rapeseed ... Developmental Stage-Specific and Nitrate-Independent Regulation of Nitrate Reductase Gene Expression in Rapeseed ... Developmental Stage-Specific and Nitrate-Independent Regulation of Nitrate Reductase Gene Expression in Rapeseed ...
Inter-organ signaling in plants: regulation of ATP sulfurylase and sulfate transporter genes expression in roots mediated by ... This report presents the first evidence for the regulation of root genes involved in nutrient acquisition and assimilation by a ... Plant J. 1999 Apr;18(1):89-95. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313x.1999.00416.x. ... The abundance of AST68 (a gene encoding an SO4(2-) transporter) was similarly affected by altered sulfur status. ...
mitochondrial gene expression, redox, respiratory complex II, NDPK, protein interactions, heat-stress, Växtbiokemi, Plant ... The first part of this thesis is focused in the study of redox regulation of mitochondrial gene expression. By using inhibitors ... The first part of this thesis is focused in the study of redox regulation of mitochondrial gene expression. By using inhibitors ... The first part of this thesis is focused in the study of redox regulation of mitochondrial gene expression. By using inhibitors ...
Resistance gene / Transgenic plant / Transient assay / Signal transduction / Elicitor / Suppressor / DNA cloning / Gene ... the sequentially deleted promoter fragment of PSPAL1 connected to a plant expression vector containing the reporter gene (CAT) ... into these plants were performed at UCD, Davis. Cytological studies showed that plants with Lux or GUS gene connected to 35S ... The integration of the chimeric DNA into the plant chromosomes are currently under investigation. Gene transfer by using a ...
1996) Carbohydrate-modulated gene expression in plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 47:509-540. ... Sugar Control of the Plant Cell Cycle: Differential Regulation of Arabidopsis D-Type Cyclin Gene Expression. Catherine Riou- ... Sugar Control of the Plant Cell Cycle: Differential Regulation of Arabidopsis D-Type Cyclin Gene Expression ... Sugar Control of the Plant Cell Cycle: Differential Regulation of Arabidopsis D-Type Cyclin Gene Expression ...
The study shows that the extracts of EW regulate the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat ... The study shows that the extracts of EW regulate the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat ... Our data collectively suggested that EW contains active fractions that regulate the expression of genes involved in oxidative ... Our data collectively suggested that EW contains active fractions that regulate the expression of genes involved in oxidative ...
Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant Cell Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant Cell web ... Regulation of gene expression programs during Arabidopsis seed development: roles of the ABI3 locus and of endogenous abscisic ... Regulation of gene expression programs during Arabidopsis seed development: roles of the ABI3 locus and of endogenous abscisic ... Regulation of gene expression programs during Arabidopsis seed development: roles of the ABI3 locus and of endogenous abscisic ...
Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic ... "The serine acetyltransferase gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana and the regulation of its expression by cadmium, ... The serine acetyltransferase gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana and the regulation of its expression by cadmium. Howarth, ... The serine acetyltransferase gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana and the regulation of its expression by cadmium. The serine ...
Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic ... "Cloning and expression analysis of a gene that shows developmental regulation upon tuberization in potato, ... Cloning and expression analysis of a gene that shows developmental regulation upon tuberization in potato. Jackson, Stephen; ... Gene expression during tuber development in potato plants. Prat, S; Frommer, WB; Höfgen, R; Keil, M; Kossmann, J; Köster-töpfer ...
Developmental Regulation of the GA4 and GA4H Genes. To investigate the roles of the GA4 and GA4H genes during plant development ... 1997). Gibberellin biosynthesis: Enzymes, genes and their regulation. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 48, 431-460. ... In this study, we show that the GA4 gene in imbibed seeds is under feedback regulation as occurs in rosette plants (Figures 8 ... Phytochrome Regulation of GA4 and GA4H Expression. We have shown that GA4 and GA4H expression in dark-imbibed wild-type seeds ...
... Login ... Gene expression regulation in the plant growth promoting Bacillus atrophaeus UCMB-5137 stimulated by maize root exudates. Mwita ... It was found that the transcriptional factor DegU also could play an important role in gene regulations during plant ... about specific mechanisms of gene regulation facilitating the effective communication between bacteria and plants during plant ...
Published on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists Volume 40, issue 1, pages 100-103. Published in print January ... Keywords: Gene expression; Liverwort cells; Marchantia (Marchantia); rbcS; RuBisCO (EC ... A eDNA of the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) gene (rbcS) was isolated from cells of ... A eDNA of the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) gene (rbcS) was isolated from cells of ...
... untranslated leader sequence in regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Plant ... The pivotal roles of the plant S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 5′ untranslated leader sequence in regulation of gene ... When compared with other organisms, the plant SAMDC genes possess some distinct features because they are devoid of introns in ... leader sequence plays important roles in transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of SAMDC expression. This sequence ...
"Gene Expression Regulation, Plant" by people in this website by year, and whether "Gene Expression Regulation, Plant" was a ... Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*Gene Expression Regulation, Plant. *Regulation of Gene Expression, Plant ... "Gene Expression Regulation, Plant" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Gene Expression Regulation, Plant" by people in Profiles. ...
Reproductive development modulates gene expression and metabolite levels with possible feedback inhibition of artemisinin in ... Relative expression of genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues of Artemisia annua L. ... Physiological responses and differential gene expression in Prunus rootstocks under iron deficiency conditions. ... The plant produces relatively small amounts of artemisinin and a worldwide shortage of the drug has led to intense research in ...
In summary, my PhD work demonstrated the significance of fine-tuning of gene expression regulation of various genes in plant ... Significance of Gene Expression Regulation for Environmental and Host Adaptation in Plant Pathogenic Fungi. * Mendeley ... My findings clearly demonstrated the significance of gene expression regulation, mediated by the insertion of TEs and SNPs, in ... ZYMOSEPTORIA TRITICI, SEPTORIA LEAF BLOTCH (PLANT PATHOLOGY); GENE EXPRESSION (GENETICS); ADAPTATION; VIRULENCE, PATHOGENICITY ...
We also searched for ABA-responsive cis elements in the upstream regions of the 20 genes. We found that members of the plant- ... while the expression of seven SR and SR-related genes is affected by alterations in key components of the ABA pathway. Finally ... despite pervasiveness of established ABA-responsive promoter elements in Arabidopsis SR and SR-like genes, their expression is ... Using real-time RT-qPCR, we analyzed total steady-state transcript levels of the 18 SR and two SR-like genes from Arabidopsis ...
The genetic manipulation and transcriptional regulation of the pathways are also outlined. ... Phe is used as a protein building block but it is also as a precursor for numerous plant compounds that are crucial for plant ... Phe is used as a protein building block but it is also as a precursor for numerous plant compounds that are crucial for plant ... and the arogenate pathway that possibly evolved later during plant evolution. Additionally, an efficient nitrogen recycling ...
... ... ABA induced the expression of GLN1;1 and GLU2 in whole seedlings, while GA3 enhanced the expression of all tested genes in ... two Fd-GOGAT genes (GLU1 and GLU2) and a GLT1 gene coding for NADH-GOGAT. Even though the regulation of GS and GOGAT isoforms ... on the expression of A. thaliana GS and GOGAT genes. The obtained results indicate that GS and GOGAT genes are differentially ...
Regulation of Gene Expression in Plants by Carole L. Bassett you can find, buy at website. You will find book ... plant genes are generally much smaller with fewer and smaller introns. Regulation of Gene Expression in Plants presents some of ... The advances made in animal gene expression control have benefited plant research, as we continue to find that much of the ... Through comparison, we have learned that certain aspects of gene regulation are shared by plants and animals, i.e. both contain ...
Genic male sterility did not affect its expression in anthers. The expression of the nuclear gene encoding the 20 kDa subunit ... TaFAd is a single copy gene in wheat and maps to the short arm of the group 6 chromosomes. Transient expression of the TaFAd- ... These observations implied that TaFAd is under mitochondrial retrograde regulation in the anthers of CMS plants with ... Nevertheless, its expression was repressed in anthers of CMS plants with timopheevii cytoplasm. ...
Regulation of plant gene expression by alternative splicing. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Plant Gene Expression ... Regulation of plant gene expression by alternative splicing. Craig G. Simpson, Sujatha Manthri, Katarzyna Dorota Raczynska, ... Regulation of plant gene expression by alternative splicing. / Simpson, Craig G.; Manthri, Sujatha; Raczynska, Katarzyna Dorota ... title = "Regulation of plant gene expression by alternative splicing",. abstract = "AS (alternative splicing) is a post- ...
Global expression of genes in the crowns of 3-leaf stage plants cold-acclimated at 6°C for 0, 2, 14, 21, 38, 42, 56 and 70 days ... The levels of expression of these genes were highly influenced by the initial rate and the duration of the genes response to ... Using gene-specific ANOVA we identified 12,901 genes (at p < 0.001) that change in expression with respect to both genotype and ... We compared the expression of genes in winter-habit (winter Norstar and winter Manitou) and spring-habit (spring Manitou and ...
Ueki S, Citovsky V. RNA commutes to work: Regulation of plant gene expression by systemically transported RNA molecules. ... RNA commutes to work : Regulation of plant gene expression by systemically transported RNA molecules. / Ueki, Shoko; Citovsky, ... RNA commutes to work : Regulation of plant gene expression by systemically transported RNA molecules. In: BioEssays. 2001 ; Vol ... Ueki, S., & Citovsky, V. (2001). RNA commutes to work: Regulation of plant gene expression by systemically transported RNA ...
Dr Juri Battilana Visiting ScientistCSIRO Plant Industry "Understanding the regulation of VvDXS gene expression" Some of the ... CSIRO Plant Industry Seminar "Understanding the regulation of VvDXS gene expression". event attachment ... cloned and sequenced to characterize the promoter and several cis-elements putatively involved in the regulation of the gene ... The MEP pathway biosynthetic gene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (VvDXS), maps to a major QTL responsible for ...
  • We show that sugar availability plays a major role during the G 1 phase by controlling the expression of CycD cyclins in Arabidopsis . (
  • Available evidence on expression of CycD genes in Arabidopsis is also consistent with their playing a role in response to external signals, with their major point of action occurring during G 1 . (
  • Regulation of gene expression programs during Arabidopsis seed development: roles of the ABI3 locus and of endogenous abscisic acid. (
  • Gotor, Cecilia 2004-10-07 00:00:00 Expression of the serine acetyltransferase (SAT) gene family from Arabidopsis thaliana was investigated in response to treatment with the heavy metal cadmium (Cd). (
  • Previous studies have indicated that light-induced germination of Arabidopsis seeds is mediated by the hormone gibberellin (GA). Using RNA gel blot analyses, we studied the regulation of two Arabidopsis genes, GA4 and GA4H (for GA4 homolog), both of which encode GA 3β-hydroxylases that catalyze the final biosynthetic step to produce bioactive GAs. (
  • Using real-time RT-qPCR, we analyzed total steady-state transcript levels of the 18 SR and two SR-like genes from Arabidopsis thaliana in seedlings treated with ABA and in genetic backgrounds with altered expression of the ABA-biosynthesis ABA2 and the ABA-signaling ABI1 and ABI4 genes. (
  • We found that members of the plant-specific SC35-Like (SCL) Arabidopsis SR protein subfamily are distinctively responsive to exogenous ABA, while the expression of seven SR and SR-related genes is affected by alterations in key components of the ABA pathway. (
  • Finally, despite pervasiveness of established ABA-responsive promoter elements in Arabidopsis SR and SR-like genes, their expression is likely governed by additional, yet unidentified cis -acting elements. (
  • The Arabidopsis genome contains five cytosolic GS1 genes (GLN1;1 - GLN1;5), one nuclear gene for chloroplastic GS2 isoform (GLN2), two Fd-GOGAT genes (GLU1 and GLU2) and a GLT1 gene coding for NADH-GOGAT. (
  • In addition to lecturing, I am taking a molecular approach to determine the role(s) of each of the five members of the Arabidopsis DRB protein family in the parallel sRNA-directed RNA silencing pathways of plants, specifically determining the 'DRB-dependence' of each sRNA species, and further to study the sRNA levels and sRNA target gene expression during abiotic stress, namely drought and salt stress. (
  • Two genes from Arabidopsis thaliana related to the auxin-inducible Aux28 and Aux22 genes of soybean have been isolated. (
  • Application of auxin to 8-day old Arabidopsis plants, 4-day old etiolated seedlings, and suspension culture cells all resulted in enhanced Aux transcript levels. (
  • however, three regions of near sequence identity are present between the two Arabidopsis Aux genes. (
  • Transposons and DNA repair in maize, Arabidopsis and yeast The Genetics of Genetics: genes controlling meiotic recombination in plants Identifying Genetic networks by Mutant-Assisted Gene Identification and Characterization (MAGIC) Mutational redesign of maize starch: better health and biofuels The Maize TILLING Project: reverse genetics for crop functional genomicsTransposons and DNA repair in maize, Arabidopsis and yeast. (
  • We are using this difference in a comparative genomics study of NHEJ repair in plants, using Arabidopsis, maize, the maize progenitor teosinte, rice, tomato, barley and other species. (
  • As part of two collaborative efforts involving six other institutions, we have employed a forward genetic screen to identify over 100 mutants in maize that increase the frequency of recombination events, that decrease recombination, and that reduce crossover interference, a well as a reverse genetic screen to look at mutations in maize and Arabidopsis homologs of known recombination genes. (
  • The Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor MYB59 is induced by cadmium (Cd) and plays a key role in the regulation of cell cycle progression and root elongation, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. (
  • HFR1 is crucial for transcriptome regulation in the cryptochrome 1-mediated early response to blue light in Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • During the past decade almost all of the carotenogenic genes have been identified by molecular, genetic and biochemical approaches in the Arabidopsis thaliana model system. (
  • Durante la última década aproximadamente todos los genes carotenogénicos han sido identificados como resultado de estudios moleculares, geneticos y bioquímicos usando Arabidopsis thaliana como modelo vegetal. (
  • Cloning and expression of an Arabidopsis gene encoding a putative peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase. (
  • DNA blot analysis indicates that APX3 is encoded by a single-copy gene in the Arabidopsis genome. (
  • The activity of APX3 in Arabidopsis may be controlled in two ways: its enzymatic activity through protein-protein interactions and its transcription by transcriptional or posttranscriptional regulation. (
  • Alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated decay modulate expression of important regulatory genes in Arabidopsis. (
  • The function of Lhca4, a gene encoding the photosystem 1 type IV chlorophyll a/b-binding protein complex in Arabidopsis, was investigated using antisense technology. (
  • Evening expression of arabidopsis GIGANTEA is controlled by combinatorial interactions among evolutionarily conserved regulatory motifs. (
  • Retinoblastoma-related (RBR) proteins are negative cell cycle regulators conserved in animals and plants ( 1 - 5 ). (
  • RBR proteins repress cell cycle progression primarily through the inhibition of E2 promoter binding factor (E2F)-dependent transcription, which is required to express many genes involved in S-phase and cell cycle progression, including the minichromosome maintenance 2-7(MCM2-7) family of DNA replication factors ( 4 , 6 - 11 ). (
  • Thus, repression or expression of E2F targets, such as MCM2-7 genes, is a good indicator of the activity of RBR and E2F proteins. (
  • In overexpression studies, all 3 mammalian pocket proteins inhibit E2F-dependent gene expression, recruit chromatin remodeling complexes, actively repress transcription, and arrest cell growth ( 3 , 12 , 13 ). (
  • However, gene knockouts in mice have shown that, in addition to having overlapping functions, individual pocket proteins have unique properties ( 14 ). (
  • The plant CycD cyclins have highest homology to mammalian D-type cyclins and have a highly conserved Rb-binding motif that is functional in binding plant and human Rb proteins ( 1 , 20 ). (
  • Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are major modulators of alternative splicing, a key generator of proteomic diversity and flexible means of regulating gene expression likely to be crucial in plant environmental responses. (
  • In the present paper, we describe the current applications and development of the AS RT - PCR panel in investigating the roles of splicing factors, cap-binding proteins and nonsense-mediated decay proteins on AS, and examining the extent of AS in genes involved in the same developmental pathway or process. (
  • Not surprisingly, genes encoding transcription factors, cell wall remodeling proteins, and proteins involved in signal transduction were differentially regulated during asexual development. (
  • Louise and I, using a number of innovative molecular biology techniques, identified and characterised two new machinery proteins involved in the endogenous gene regulatory pathway of plants, the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway. (
  • We went on to show that these two plant-specific RdDM machinery proteins are also required to mount an effective defence response against invading nucleic acids, namely those derived from viruses (Eamens et al . (
  • These genes belong to a small multi-gene family and are similar to the soybean Aux gene family in the sequence of the predicted proteins, intron/exon locations, and auxin-enhanced expression of their transcripts. (
  • Based on the phenotype of the pkl mutant and the function of proteins that are similar to PKL, our working model is that PKL regulates the transcription of genes in response to GA. Specifically, we propose that PKL establishes transcriptional repression of embryonic genes during germination by altering the structure of chromatin. (
  • This model will be tested by the following experimental strategies: examination of the expression of PKL, identification of genes that exhibit PKL-dependent transcription by microarray analysis, analysis of the promoters of those genes, identification of proteins that interact with PKL, and genetic screens for mutations that affect the phenotype of pkl plants. (
  • Catala C, Rose JKC, Bennett AB (2000) Auxin-regulated genes encoding cell wall-modifying proteins are expressed during early tomato fruit growth. (
  • To create a universal system for the control of gene expression, we have studied methods for the construction of novel polydactyl zinc finger proteins that recognize extended DNA sequences. (
  • We demonstrate that both gene repression and activation can be achieved by targeting designed proteins to a single site within the transcribed region of a gene. (
  • Since Jacob and Monod questioned the chemical nature of the repressor and proposed a scheme by which the synthesis of individual proteins within a cell might be "provoked" or "repressed," specific experimental control of gene expression has been a tantalizing prospect ( 1 ). (
  • Whereas genes might be readily controlled by directing transcription factors to particular sites within a genome, the design of DNA-binding proteins that might be fashioned to bind any given sequence has been a daunting challenge. (
  • This course provides an introduction to the structure of the gene and the relationship between genes and proteins with an in depth discussion of the processes of replication, transcription, translation, regulation of gene expression, mutation and DNA repair and recombination. (
  • To elucidate their mechanisms of action some of the plant SR proteins and cyclophilins are currently characterized in greater detail in terms of their RNA targets, interacting proteins and their impact on flowering and UV-stress response. (
  • Genome-wide gene expression analysis supports a developmental model of low temperature tolerance gene regulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. (
  • To identify the genes involved in the development of low temperature (LT) tolerance in hexaploid wheat, we examined the global changes in expression in response to cold of the 55,052 potentially unique genes represented in the Affymetrix Wheat Genome microarray. (
  • We identified 2641 genes that were differentially expressed during development, which represents ∼25% of the predicted genes in the genome of this model fungus. (
  • K asuga and G lass (2008) tracked gene expression across defined sections from a growing colony that also exhibited asexual development using the same full genome microarray used in this study. (
  • 1) comparisons among datasets and with those from other plant species show that maize genome rearrangement and DNA repair have features unlike any other eukaryote. (
  • In maize, most recombination events ("crossovers") occur within or very near genes rather than in the repetitive retroelements that comprise 80% of the maize genome. (
  • In multicellular organisms, gene regulation drives cellular differentiation and morphogenesis in the embryo, leading to the creation of different cell types that possess different gene expression profiles from the same genome sequence. (
  • This course examines reproduction in plants, genome organization, organelle and polyploid genetics, and analyses of mutations, genetic variation and linkage with classical and modern approaches. (
  • 3.5 Expression of the plant genome II. (
  • 3.6 Expression of the plant genome III. (
  • The Genetics of Genetics: genes controlling meiotic recombinationMeiotic recombination is another important aspect of DNA breaking and rejoining. (
  • Forward Genetics Approach Reveals a Mutation in bHLH Transcription Factor-Encoding Gene as the Best Candidate for the Root Hairless Phenotype in Barley. (
  • This course will develop an understanding of the fundamental concepts in genetics, including patterns of inheritance, allelic variation, gene interaction, linkage, gene mapping and changes in chromosome structure and number. (
  • The course includes discussion of the genetic basis of human individual differences, gene frequencies in human populations, human behavioral genetics, human cytogenetics, biochemical genetics and developmental genetics, medical genetics and other aspects of human heredity. (
  • Fundamental aspects of genetics including the chromosomal basis of inheritance, cytogenetics, genes in populations and quantitative traits will be introduced. (
  • Topics will include functional genomics, advances in forward and reverse genetics, hormone signaling, plant-microbe and plant-environment interactions. (
  • A Mendelian genetics, mechanisms of evolution, molecular and chromosomal bases of inheritance, and gene regulation and expression. (
  • Her research expertise is in plant genetics and genomics, with emphasis on epigenetic regulation of gene expression in maize. (
  • Nowadays, thanks to the advent of omics studies and the application of bioinformatics and computational biology approaches, it is recognized worldwide that plant nutrients can affect the level of expression of human genes and gut microbiome regulation. (
  • In this volume, several world leaders in plant biology provide insight into stress signaling in plants with a special emphasis on functional genomics aspect. (
  • Coverage of the latest methods of light and electron microscopy and modern biochemical procedures for the isolation and identification of organelles help to provide a thorough and up-to-date companion text to the field of plant cell and subcellular biology. (
  • It provides up to date information, technologies, and their applications that can be adopted and applied easily for deeper understanding plant biology and therefore will be helpful in developing the strategy for generating cost-effective superior plants for various purposes. (
  • Shiregu Hanano and Seth Davis, Department of Plant Developmental Biology, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Cologne, Germany. (
  • Abeles FB, Morgan PW, Saltveit ME Jr (1992) Ethylene in plant biology, 2nd edn. (
  • Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways , respond to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources. (
  • The roles of genes and inheritance in the biology of humans and the organisms with which we interact. (
  • Bachelor, master, PhD students of Agronomy or Plant Biology and buckwheat researchers seeking a comprehensive overview of present knowledge about the molecular breeding and food nutrition of Buckwheat. (
  • Plant science : an international journal of experimental plant biology. (
  • Lectures, discussions and student seminars on topics of current interest in plant biology. (
  • A Students should have a basic understanding of plant biology, plant ecology and/or plant physiology. (
  • Plant molecular biology, control of gene expression and ion transport. (
  • The amino acid phenylalanine (Phe) is a critical metabolic node that plays an essential role in the interconnection between primary and secondary metabolism in plants. (
  • One such dietary amino acid, phenylalanine (Phe), is a critical metabolic node that plays an essential role in the interconnection between the primary and secondary metabolism of plants. (
  • The other gene, OsGA2ox3, was expressed in every tissue examined and was enhanced by the application of biologically active GA. Recombinant OsGA2ox3 protein catalyzed the metabolism of GA(1) to GA(8) and GA(20) to GA(29)-catabolite. (
  • Recent work provides insight into the central role played by the circadian system in the regulation of many aspects of metabolism. (
  • Brummell DA, Harpster MH (2001) Cell wall metabolism in fruit softening and quality and its manipulation in transgenic plants. (
  • It has recently been discovered that internal signals arising from primary carbon metabolism directly influence photoassimilate production and utilization through the control of gene expression in source and sink tissues. (
  • In this context, a recent study showed that plant-derived exosome-like nanoparticles (ELNs) are adsorbed by the gut microbiota and contain RNAs that alter microbiome composition and host physiology. (
  • Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Plant Physiology. (
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant Physiology web site. (
  • Plant Physiology 138 (1) : 276-286. (
  • Oliver Bläsing and Mark Stitt, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Potsdam, Germany. (
  • Physiology, biochemistry, molecular and cellular aspects of plant growth and development. (
  • Proteinfosforylering innebär att en fosfatgrupp binds till ett protein. (
  • Protein kinase activity of CycD2- and CycD3-containing cyclin-dependent kinases is consistent with the observed regulation of their mRNA levels. (
  • This indicates that the ABI3 protein directly participates in the regulation of several developmental programs and that multiple regulatory pathways can lead to the simultaneous expression of distinct mRNA markers. (
  • Precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing is an essential step in gene expression mediated by the spliceosome, a large protein complex in the cell nucleus that interacts with specific intronic sequences in the pre-mRNA called splice sites for the proper removal of introns and correct joining of exons. (
  • Alternative splicing (AS) occurs when splice sites are differentially recognized, allowing for the production of multiple transcripts from a single gene that can potentially result in different protein isoforms. (
  • Phe is used as a protein building block but it is also as a precursor for numerous plant compounds that are crucial for plant reproduction, growth, development, and defense against different types of stresses. (
  • AS (alternative splicing) is a post-transcriptional process which regulates gene expression through increasing protein complexity and modulating mRNA transcript levels. (
  • Regulation of AS depends on interactions between trans-acting protein factors and cis-acting signals in the pre-mRNA (precursor mRNA) transcripts, termed 'combinatorial' control. (
  • Whereas the SR protein family of splicing factors is well-studied in plants, relatively little is known about other factors influencing the regulation of AS or the consequences of AS on mRNA levels and protein function. (
  • 2011). The functional characterisation of DRB1 with the amiRNA plant transformation vector marked my entry into the DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA BINDING (DRB) protein world of plants (see Curtin et al . (
  • A polydactyl protein specifically recognizing an 18-bp sequence in the 5′-untranslated region of this gene was converted into a transcriptional repressor by fusion with Krüppel-associated box (KRAB), ERD, or SID repressor domains. (
  • Often these protein factors act in a complex combinatorial manner allowing temporal, spatial, and environmentally responsive control of gene expression ( 2 ). (
  • Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products ( protein or RNA ), and is informally termed gene regulation . (
  • Virtually any step of gene expression can be modulated, from transcriptional initiation , to RNA processing , and to the post-translational modification of a protein. (
  • Gene regulation is essential for viruses , prokaryotes and eukaryotes as it increases the versatility and adaptability of an organism by allowing the cell to express protein when needed. (
  • Any step of gene expression may be modulated, from the DNA-RNA transcription step to post-translational modification of a protein. (
  • The GBSSI expression was higher at the low temperature (15/10 °C), and the transcript level decreased at temperatures higher than 30 °C. Protein phosphorylation was involved in the low temperature-stimulated signal transduction of GBSSI regulation. (
  • Cohen, P.: The structure and regulation of protein phosphatase. (
  • We also found that cry1 was required for maintaining the HFR1 protein level in blue light, and that the HFR1 protein level is strongly correlated with the global gene expression pattern. (
  • Under conditions restrictive for initiation, the translation of nonstructural BMV genes was suppressed, but coat protein synthesis proceeded at a high rate. (
  • Reduced transcription of two endo-Pel genes, pelD and pelL , was found in Ech137 using a green fluorescence protein-based fluorescence-activated cell sorter promoter activity assay. (
  • In addition, the transcription of T3SS genes dspE (an effector), hrpA (a structural protein of the T3SS pilus), and hrpN (a T3SS harpin) was reduced in Ech137. (
  • Characterization of a gene encoding a DNA binding protein with specificity for a light-responsive element. (
  • The newly isolated GA4H gene was expressed predominantly during seed germination. (
  • Our data demonstrate that expression of GA 3β-hydroxylase genes is elevated by R light, which may result in an increase in biosynthesis of active GAs to promote seed germination. (
  • Furthermore, our results suggest that each GA 3β-hydroxylase gene plays a unique physiological role during light-induced seed germination. (
  • The present Research Topic focuses on studies and methodological approaches that can shed light on the molecular mechanisms and biological processes of a possible cross-kingdom genetic interaction between plant RNA and human genes or the microbiome. (
  • Our current findings are discussed in relation to their general implications for the mechanisms controlling gene expression programs in seed. (
  • Despite successful use of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agriculture, little is known about specific mechanisms of gene regulation facilitating the effective communication between bacteria and plants during plant colonization. (
  • I identified nucleotide mutations in the promoter region and an insertion of transposable elements (TEs) upstream of the promoter region as two mechanisms responsible for this observed differential expression of Zmr1. (
  • The advances made in animal gene expression control have benefited plant research, as we continue to find that much of the machinery and mechanisms controlling gene expression have been preserved in all eukaryotes. (
  • This study provides novel insight into the underlying mechanisms that regulate the expression of cold-responsive genes in wheat. (
  • During my time at CSIRO Plant Industry, I became highly interested in the ground breaking research conducted in the neighbouring Laboratory of Prof. Peter Waterhouse and Dr. Ming-Bo Wang on the mechanisms of RNA silencing in plants. (
  • We are interested in characterizing the factors and mechanisms that govern the flexible nature of plant cell identity. (
  • Insights into Barley Root Transcriptome under Mild Drought Stress with an Emphasis on Gene Expression Regulatory Mechanisms. (
  • Armstrong W, Bundle R, Jackson MB (1994) Mechanisms of flood tolerance in plants. (
  • In this work, we review the mechanisms involved in the light-mediated regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis and the effect of light on the levels of expression of carotenogenic genes in higher plants. (
  • First, using a candidate gene approach, I explore in parallel the molecular mechanisms involved in petal cell shape differentiation of sister species with contrasting cell shape N. cordifolia and N. solanifolia (Section Paniculatae) and N. bonariensis and N. forgetiana (Section Alatae). (
  • The molecular nature of the gene and general mechanisms of gene and general mechanisms of gene expression will be introduced but not covered in detail. (
  • It looks at the processes and mechanisms that underlie each stage of plant life and describes the intricate network of cellular, molecular, biochemical and physiological events through which plants make life on land possible. (
  • In the present study, sodA (encoding manganese-cofactored superoxide dismutase [Mn-SOD]) and Mn-SOD were used as a reporter gene and endogenous reporter enzyme, respectively, to reexamine control mechanisms that govern the oxidative stress response and to better understand how QS and a nutrient stress response interact or overlap in this bacterium. (
  • Mechanisms by which interferons and other cytokines activate the transcription of early response genes. (
  • Mechanisms regulating gene expression and cell differentiation during development. (
  • Using genetic mapping, I was able to demonstrate that variability in melanization levels between two Swiss strains of Z. tritici was mediated by differential expression of the transcription factor Zmr1 (Zymoseptoria melanin regulation 1). (
  • Using computational genetic methods, I also analyzed nucleotide data sets of the peptidase genes for evolutionary signatures of genetic adaptation. (
  • The genetic manipulation and transcriptional regulation of the pathways are also outlined. (
  • Analysis of variance of gene expression separated the samples by genetic background and by the developmental stage before or after vernalization saturation was reached. (
  • Recently, thanks to a fellowship cofounded by EU research framework program Marie Curie Actions and Provincia Autonoma di Trento, he has been working in collaboration with Dr Paul Boss on the metabolic and genetic regulation of the biosynthesis of flavors and aromas in grape. (
  • Identifying Genetic Networks by Mutant-Assisted Gene Identification and Characterization (MAGIC)Geneticists have long noticed that a mutation crossed into different genetic backgrounds show a range of expression levels. (
  • He concluded that a gene that controls the development of a mammalian eye can be transplanted to control the development of the insect eye, demonstrating how the "genetic toolkit" remains constant throughout most animal groups. (
  • Dr. Khan has made colossal contributions in the field of Chloroplast Genetic Engineering and is a pioneer in expressing GFP in plant chloroplasts, developing transplastomic rice and sugarcane. (
  • Abiotic stress response in plants - physiological, biochemical and genetic perspectives (pp. 113-136). (
  • Manipulation of light signaling is also a genetic tool for altering color and nutritional value in plants, leading to the production of novel functional foods. (
  • With detailed information on buckwheat regeneration, genetic transformation, gene function analysis, and the metabolic engineering of bioactive compounds, the book guides readers through a variety of buckwheat varietal adaptations, providing foundation information on which additional research should be conducted. (
  • Over the last decades, genetic studies in breeding material have identified a large number of functional resistance genes at the Mla locus. (
  • This discovery brought on what has been called the "xenomiR hypothesis," which give rise to a new research field in nutrition based on the concept that plant miRNAs can target and regulate the expression of animal genes. (
  • Different published studies have provided evidence that plant-derived miRNAs could survive the digestive system, be absorbed and transferred into the blood, circulate through the body, regulate animal gene expression as endogenous RNAs, and induce different phenotypes. (
  • The study shows that the extracts of EW regulate the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells. (
  • Our data collectively suggested that EW contains active fractions that regulate the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress and cell apoptosis, which may contribute to the neural protection effect of EW. (
  • Our data indicate that the cold-sensitive lines can up-regulate known cold-responsive genes comparable to that of cold-hardy lines. (
  • Three pathways converge in the regulation of glycogen synthase: cAMP/PKA and GSK-3β are negative regulators, whereas ISPK/PP1G positively regulate the activity of glycogen synthase. (
  • sRNAs are then loaded onto effector complexes that use the sRNA as a sequence specificity determinant to regulate the expression of complementary target sequences at either the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. (
  • 2012). I went on to show, once again via the use of amiRNA technology, that DRB3 and DRB5 regulate the expression of DRB2-dependent miRNA target genes independently of target gene mRNA cleavage-based RNA silencing, the predominant mode of sRNA-directed RNA silencing in plants (Eamens et al . (
  • Jasmonates, i.e., jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are signaling hormones that regulate a large number of defense responses in plants which in turn affect the plants' interactions with herbivores and their natural enemies. (
  • Hence these modifications may up or down regulate the expression of a gene. (
  • Some of these modifications that regulate gene expression are inheritable and are referred to as epigenetic regulation . (
  • Such controls therefore regulate carbohydrate allocation and utilization in important sink organs such as tubers, roots, fruits and seeds, and so directly determine plant productivity. (
  • Km^R-transgenic tobacco plants were regenerated from the callus. (
  • GUS activities were induced by the treatment with pathogen or elicitors in some of the transgenic plants. (
  • The ABI3 gene is specifically expressed in seed, but ectopic expression of ABI3 conferred the ability to accumulate several seed-specific mRNA markers in response to ABA in transgenic plantlets. (
  • By transferring the mouse Pax6 gene and switching out the fly eyeless gene, Gehring observed that the eyes developed at different sites on the transgenic flies. (
  • Atkinson RG, Bolitho KM, Wright MA, Iturriagagoitia-Bueno T, Reid SG, Ross GS (1998) Apple ACC-oxidase and polygalacturonase: ripening-specific gene expression and promoter analysis in transgenic tomato. (
  • Carey AT, Smith DL, HalTison E, Bird CR, Gross KC, Seymour GB, Tucker GA (2001) Down-regulation of a ripening-related α-galactosidase gene (TBG1) in transgenic tomato fruits. (
  • We anticipate that gene-specific transcriptional regulators of the type described here will find diverse applications in gene therapy, functional genomics, and the generation of transgenic organisms. (
  • Plants respond similarly to ACC deaminase regardless of whether the enzyme is expressed in the roots of transgenic plants or as part of a root-associated bacterium. (
  • Metabolic regulation of α-amylase gene expression in transgenic cell cultures of rice (Oryza sativa L. (
  • Titration of endogenous RBR3 activity through expression of a dominant-negative allele with a compromised pocket domain suggests that these RBR3 functions require an activity distinct from its pocket domain. (
  • Although long-distance movement of endogenous mRNAs in plants is well established, the functional contributions of these transported RNA molecules has remained unclear. (
  • These results indicate that OsGA2ox3 is involved in the homeostatic regulation of the endogenous level of biologically active GA in rice. (
  • This book provides a contemporary overview of endogenous plant rhythms for researchers and professionals in the plant sciences. (
  • The integration of the chimeric DNA into the plant chromosomes are currently under investigation. (
  • TaF A d is a single copy gene in wheat and maps to the short arm of the group 6 chromosomes. (
  • Structure of genes and chromosomes. (
  • Our work examines how plant cells repair DNA breaks, a question that also addresses how genes introduced into plants can be targeted to their homologous chromosomal sites and how chromosomes recombine during meiosis. (
  • This indicates the unique regulation of NR in embryogenesis in which NR mRNA transcription is activated in a developmental stage-specific manner that is independent of nitrate induction. (
  • The abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive abi3-4 mutation modified the expression pattern of several but not all members of each of these wild-type temporal mRNA classes. (
  • In addition to largely expanding the coding capacity of genomes, AS represents an important means of regulating gene expression, for instance by introducing premature termination codons (PTCs) that then target these transcripts for degradation by a process known as nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) [ 1 ]. (
  • Regulation of the accumulation of mRNA for alpha-amylase in barley aleurone. (
  • RNA elicitors of post-transcriptional gene silencing and RNA genomes of plant viruses, and its possible regulation are discussed. (
  • Among the genes differentially expressed in aerial tissues the majority were unclassified and tended to be unique to ascomycete genomes. (
  • We are interested in better understanding how plants organize, maintain and express their genomes. (
  • Methylation Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism Sequencing (MSAP-Seq)-A Method for High-Throughput Analysis of Differentially Methylated CCGG Sites in Plants with Large Genomes. (
  • With respect to the development of a universal system for gene control, an 18-bp address can be sufficient to specify a single site within all known genomes. (
  • Some major topics covered are: regulation of gene expression, analysis of bacterial and phage genomes, plasmids, transposable elements, and mutation studies. (
  • 3.3 Organization of plant genomes II. (
  • Functional assignments using GO annotations showed that genes involved in transport, oxidation-reduction, and stress response were highly represented. (
  • He was also involved in the functional characterization of candidate genes by enzymatic assay experiments. (
  • On the basis of the distribution of functional annotations of 1102 of these genes, we identified gene expression patterns that define key physiological events during conidial development. (
  • Herbaceous perennial plants selected as potential biofuel feedstocks had been understudied at the genomic and functional genomic levels. (
  • Agius F, Amaya I, Botella MA, Valpuesta V (2005) Functional analysis of homologous and heterologous promoters in strawberry fruits using transient expression. (
  • In plants and algae, these lipophilic molecules exert functional roles inhormonesynthesis, photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis and photoprotection. (
  • Positive correlation between expression of these two CAMTAs and fiber strength confirmed their functional relevance in fiber development. (
  • The ultrastructural and functional aspects of the cell, tissue, and organ systems of vascular plants. (
  • These marker mRNAs could be grouped in distinct classes according to their coordinate temporal expression in the wild type and provided a basis for further characterization of the corresponding regulatory pathways. (
  • Here, we report the characterization of two JA-responsive AP2 family transcription factors--AaERF1 and AaERF2--from A. annua L. Both genes were highly expressed in inflorescences and strongly induced by JA. (
  • SAT and its product O-acetylserine have previously been shown to be implicated in the control of sulphate reduction and cysteine biosynthesis in plants. (
  • Based on their function in GA biosynthesis, expression of GA 3β-hydroxylase genes is likely to play a key regulatory role in controlling the appropriate levels of active GAs during plant growth. (
  • They represent an ideal comparison to identify rare alleles of genes controlling the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds. (
  • Consistent with the relationship between carbon availability and lignin accumulation, analysis of dark-grown wild-type A. thaliana seedlings uncovered a role for sugars in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis. (
  • Carotenoid biosynthesis in plants is highly regulated, although all of the processes involved have not yet been identified. (
  • The molecular insight gained into the light-regulated expression of carotenoid genes will facilitate our understanding of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis. (
  • The observed expression patterns are discussed in relation to physiological roles of investigated plant growth regulators and N-assimilating enzymes. (
  • The abiotic and biotic stresses in the environment trigger the synthesis of ethylene, a gaseous plant hormone that leads to many physiological changes in plants that inhibit plant growth and development. (
  • The third Work Area will concentrate on biochemical and physiological approaches to analysing plants created in Work Areas 1 and 2, and to examining the signal transduction systems in-vitro. (
  • Regulation of Gene Expression in Plants presents some of the most recent, novel and fascinating examples of transcriptional and posttranscriptional control of gene expression in plants and, where appropriate, provides comparison to notable examples of animal gene regulation. (
  • Northern blot analyses revealed that several genes encoding enzymes involved in the synthesis of lignin monomers displayed significant changes in transcript abundance over a diurnal cycle. (
  • Dickeya dadantii ( Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937) secretes exoenzymes, including pectin-degrading enzymes, leading to the loss of structural integrity of plant cell walls. (
  • Ascorbate peroxidases are important defense enzymes that protect plant cells from oxidative stress damage. (
  • Retinoblastoma-related (RBR) genes inhibit the cell cycle primarily by repressing adenovirus E2 promoter binding factor (E2F) transcription factors, which drive the expression of numerous genes required for DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression. (
  • Maize RBR1 represses expression of RBR3 through a mechanism that most likely involves inhibition of E2F transcription factors ( 19 ), and can be circumvented by expression of RepA ( 19 , 29 ), which inhibits RBR1 through a pocket-dependent mechanism ( 17 , 18 , 30 ). (
  • Rb keeps genes responsive to the E2F transcription factors inactive during G 1 , so that the phosphorylation of Rb results in activation of genes under E2F control and hence in S-phase entry ( 10 , 57 , 58 ). (
  • Strains containing deletions of several differentially expressed genes encoding transcription factors exhibited asexual development-associated phenotypes. (
  • The CAMTAs are a family of well-characterized Calmodulin (CaM) binding transcription factors that are reported to be evolutionarily conserved from plants to animals 1 . (
  • Expression of the pickle root phenotype is dependent on gibberellin (GA), a plant growth regulator known to promote such diverse processes as germination, cell elongation, and initiation of flowering. (
  • We have cloned two genes for gibberellin (GA) 2-oxidase from rice ( Oryza sativa L.). Expression of OsGA2ox2 was not observed. (
  • ABA induced the expression of GLN1;1 and GLU2 in whole seedlings, while GA3 enhanced the expression of all tested genes in shoots, except GLU2. (
  • The survival and growth of planted seed or seedlings are affected by a variety of factors, including competition, herbivory, site preparation, precipitation, planting stock quality, and planting. (
  • Effects of temperature (15/10, 25/20, 30/25, and 35/30 °C) and drought stresses on the expression of granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) gene were examined in rice ( Oryza sativa L.) seedlings. (
  • There are several factors, which act as nodes and hubs in the signaling pathways, also serving as master-control switches in regulating myriad stress signaling pathways by affecting diverse target genes or gene products to finally bring-about a stress tolerance response. (
  • CycD3, but not CycD2, expression responds to hormones, for which we show that the presence of sugars is required. (
  • Seed dormancy and germination in higher plants are partially controlled by the plant hormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA). ABA establishes dormancy during embryo maturation, whereas GA breaks dormancy and induces germination. (
  • Preliminary results suggest chromatin modification differs within the coding region or promoters of the VvDXS gene depending on grapevine variety and on the stage of berry development. (
  • Furthermore, a project has been started to investigate the influence of chromatin and DNA modifications on alternative splicing in plants. (
  • Barry CS, Blume B, Bouzayen M, Cooper W, Hamilton AJ, Grierson D (1996) Differential expression of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase gene family of tomato. (
  • Brummell DA, Harpster MH, Dunsmuir P (1999c) Differential expression of expansin gene family members during growth and ripening of tomato fruit. (
  • Differential expression of subgroup 9 R2R3 MYBs in petals of the sister species, rather than sequence differences in these genes, might be explaining the contrasting cell morphologies. (
  • resistance loci to root-knot nematodes (RKN) have been mapped and a transformation method is needed to validate candidate genes. (
  • The structure and the organization of three major CHS genes were determined from 38 CHS-cDNAs prepared from elicitor treated pea epicotyl tissues. (
  • Prat, Salomé 2004-09-29 00:00:00 Differential screening of a potato leaf cDNA library with cDNA probes made from tuberizing and non-tuberizing Solanum demissum plants led to the identification of a clone that is upregulated in leaves and other tissues upon tuberization. (
  • Differential screening of a potato leaf cDNA library with cDNA probes made from tuberizing and non-tuberizing Solanum demissum plants led to the identification of a clone that is upregulated in leaves and other tissues upon tuberization. (
  • Maximum production of AN occurs during full flower stage within floral tissues, but that changes in the leafy bracts and nonbolt leaves as the plant shifts from budding to full flower. (
  • The text focuses on subcellular organelles while also providing relevant background on plant cells, tissues and organs. (
  • Principles and practice of preparation of plant tissues for light microscope study. (
  • Bouquin T, Lasserre E, Paradier J, Pech JC, Balague C (1997) Wound and ethylene induction of the ACC oxidase melon gene CM-ACO1 occurs via two direct and independent transduction pathways. (
  • The aim of this research is to investigate sensing and signal transduction pathways and their components which mediate carbohydrate regulation of gene expression in source and sink organs, and so control carbohydrate production, utilization and plant yield potential. (
  • In so doing we shall subsequently be able to manipulate these sensing and signalling pathways with the aim of beneficially modifying plant productivity. (
  • Our knowledge of the circadian clock in plants has advanced considerably in recent years and we now have a clearer view of the biochemical processes making up its mechanism. (
  • This suggests that the cellulase acts as an elicitor molecule that is detected by the plant and triggers the defense machinery that will hinder the growth of the pathogen. (
  • Although the role of RsmA, rsmB , and RsmC in D. dadantii is not clear, from the regulatory pathway revealed in E. carotovora , the lower expression of dspE , hrpA , and hrpN in Ech137 may be due to a posttranscriptional regulation of hrpL through the Gac-Rsm regulatory pathway. (
  • Alternative splicing is one of the posttranscriptional events to expand the repertoire of genes and it has been exploited for various differentiation processes. (
  • Plants respond flexibly to the environment, modulating both their growth rate and developmental pattern in response to external conditions ( 8 , 13 , 31 ). (
  • Gibberellins (GAs) are a group of diterpenoids, some of which are growth regulators in higher plants. (
  • My findings clearly demonstrated the significance of gene expression regulation, mediated by the insertion of TEs and SNPs, in optimizing the growth and adaptation of the fungus under variable environments. (
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of representative plant growth regulators, kinetin (KIN), abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellic acid (GA3) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), on the expression of A. thaliana GS and GOGAT genes. (
  • The obtained results indicate that GS and GOGAT genes are differentially regulated by growth regulators in shoots and roots. (
  • Gene expression patterns during asexual development suggested that cAMP signaling plays a critical role in the transition from aerial growth to proconidial chain formation. (
  • Extreme temperature adversely affects plant growth, development, and productivity. (
  • KEY MESSAGE: Transcription factor MYB59 is involved in plant growth and stress responses by acting as negative regulator of Ca signalling and homeostasis. (
  • Carpita NC, Gibeaut DM (1993) Structural models of primary cell walls in flowering plants: consistency of molecular structure with the physical properties of the walls during growth. (
  • Plant growth inhibition that accrues from the stress can be overcome to a large extent by lowering the amount of ethylene that is synthesized in response to stress by the application of ACC deaminase-producing bacteria. (
  • The plant growth-promoting bacteria also give other multifacet benefits as they promote plant growth through enhancing nutrient uptake and hormone production and acting as a biocontrol agent. (
  • The enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase present in bacterium cleaves ACC, the precursor of ethylene, and thereby lowers the ethylene level and facilitates plant growth. (
  • Ait Bakra E, Nowak J, Clément C (2006) Enhancement of chilling resistance of inoculated grapevine plantlets with a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN. (
  • Ali S, Charles TC, Glick BR (2014) Amelioration of high salinity stress damage by plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes that contain ACC deaminase. (
  • Plant growth and productivity is determined not only by the photosynthetic activity of the plant, but by the way in which the products of photosynthesis are allocated and utilised during plant growth and development. (
  • Finally, in Work Area 4, those genes which we expect to be capable of directly modifying source-sink relations, initially from Work Area 1 but subsequently from Work Area 2, will be introduced into commercially important crop plants (potato and sugar beet) to evaluate their effects on source-sink relations, plant growth, yield potential and harvest index. (
  • This programme will bring together laboratories with complementing skills, knowledge and resources to address a research area which is beginning to have a very great impact upon our understanding of plant growth, through new research being carried out particularly in the USA, Japan and Europe. (
  • Plant Growth Regul. (
  • Reporter gene studies indicated that sodA transcription could be variably induced in iron-starved cells of all three strains, depending on growth stage. (
  • A method for promoting plant growth and/or disease resistance comprising applying a purified polypeptide that is a bacteriocin and that possesses plant growth and/or disease resistance promoting activity to a plant or plant seed, or to the growing environment thereof. (
  • 2. The method according to claim 1, wherein said purified polypeptide is obtained from or obtainable from a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). (
  • and (c) a polypeptide which is a fragment of the polypeptide of (a) or (b), said fragment possessing the bacteriocin and plant growth and/or disease promoting activities of the polypeptide of (a). 14. (
  • By contrast, the obvious effect of nitrate on NR expression that has been reported in many plant species was also confirmed in rapeseed leaf. (
  • Therefore, GA 3β-hydroxylase catalyzes the final step of the biosynthetic pathway to produce active GAs in these plant species. (
  • Even though the regulation of GS and GOGAT isoforms has been extensively studied in response to various environmental and metabolic cues in many plant species, little is known about the effects of phytohormones on their regulation. (
  • The ability to survive freezing within each of these species differs significantly - some cultivars can survive winter (cold-hardy winter cultivars) in temperate climates while others cannot (cold-sensitive spring cultivars) - making members of the Triticeae tribe an excellent system in which to study LT adaptation in plants. (
  • pl. ectomycorrhizas or ectomycorrhizae, abbreviated EcM) is a form of symbiotic relationship that occurs between a fungal symbiont and the roots of various plant species. (
  • Ectomycorrhizas form between fungi and the roots of around 2% of plant species. (
  • My PhD focused on the development of a plant transformation vector for the generation of random insertion knockout mutants in rice, the model monocotyledonous plant species (Eamens et al . (
  • Several oak species are frequently planted for reforestation projects in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV), but the success of these plantings has been variable. (
  • Our comprehensive analysis of this gene family in cotton resulted in the identification of 6, 7 and 9 CAMTAs in three sequenced cotton species, i.e. (
  • Our present study thus contributes to broad probing into the structure and probable function of CAMTA genes in Gossypium species. (
  • I was able to show that the peptidases belonging to MEROPS families A1 and G1 were significantly up regulated during the asymptomatic phase of infection and displayed signatures of accelerated evolution, suggesting their key role in suppression of plant defenses and host specialization. (
  • Therefore, in-depth understanding of these master-control switches and key-components in signal transduction pathway will be highly beneficial for designing crop plants tolerant to multiple stresses in the field. (
  • The RBR-E2F pathway is conserved in plants, but cereals such as maize are characterized by having a complex RBR gene family with at least 2 functionally distinct members, RBR1 and RBR3. (
  • Our results indicate a cell cycle pathway in maize, in which 2 RBR genes have specific and opposing functions. (
  • This suggested that expression of these marker mRNAs might be controlled by an ABI3-dependent and ABA-dependent pathway(s) in seed. (
  • In the major GA biosynthetic pathway in higher plants, GA 3β-hydroxylase catalyzes the conversion of both GA 9 to GA 4 and GA 20 to GA 1 ( Hedden and Kamiya, 1997 ). (
  • Two alternative routes have been identified: the ancient phenylpyruvate pathway that is present in microorganisms, and the arogenate pathway that possibly evolved later during plant evolution. (
  • Primary and secondary ammonium assimilation is catalyzed by the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase (GS-GOGAT) pathway in plants. (
  • Dr Juri Battilana Visiting ScientistCSIRO Plant Industry "Understanding the regulation of VvDXS gene expression" Some of the most relevant wine odor constituents are monoterpenoids which have been demonstrated to be produced via the plastid-located methyl-erythritol-phosphate (MEP) pathway in grapevine. (
  • The MEP pathway biosynthetic gene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (VvDXS), maps to a major QTL responsible for monoterpenoid accumulation in Muscat grape varieties. (
  • Even though exogenous ABA played a role to reduce the GBSSI transcript accumulation under non-stress condition, the reducing of GBSSI expression by drought stress appeared to be mediated by an ABA-independent pathway. (
  • the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in plants. (
  • Similar responses occurred in split-root experiments where only a portion of the root system was S-deprived, suggesting that the regulation involves inter-organ signaling. (
  • This work contributes to our understanding of mitochondrial responses to changing environmental conditions in plants. (
  • PICKLE plays a role in GA-dependent responses and acts throughout the plant to repress expression of embryonic traits. (
  • Thus overcoming stress responses in plants through ACC deaminase-producing bacteria has come up as an effective tool, when the agricultural practices worldwide are seeking a sustainable approach to the issues of food security under the changing climatic conditions. (
  • The present review discusses the role of ACC deaminase-producing bacteria in ameliorating the various abiotic stress responses in plants induced by ethylene. (
  • Comparison of circadian changes in transcript abundance of lignin biosynthetic genes between wild-type plants and the sex1 mutant, which is impaired in starch turnover, suggested that carbon availability related to starch turnover might determine the capacity to synthesize lignins. (
  • 2. Pseudo-response regulator genes""tell"" the time of day: multiple feedbacks in the circadian system of higher plants? (
  • Mérida, A., Rodríguez-Galán, J.M., Vincent, C., Romero, J.M.: Expression of the granule-bound starch synthase I ( Waxy ) gene from snapdragon is developmentally and circadian clock regulated. (
  • Northern blot analysis also suggested that some of the changes in diurnal transcript abundance were likely to be attributable to circadian regulation, whereas others were likely to be attributable to light perception. (
  • Cryptochromes are blue light photoreceptors involved in development and circadian clock regulation. (
  • Gene expression regulation in roots under drought. (
  • No Time to Waste: Transcriptome Study Reveals that Drought Tolerance in Barley May Be Attributed to Stressed-Like Expression Patterns that Exist before the Occurrence of Stress. (
  • The expression of GBSSI in rice seedling was reduced under a drought stress. (
  • 0.001) that change in expression with respect to both genotype and the duration of cold-treatment. (
  • The results support the developmental model of LT tolerance gene regulation and demonstrate the complex genotype by environment interactions that determine LT adaptation in winter annual cereals. (
  • The types of approaches used are multidisciplinary and can span from gene- and nutrient-specific investigations to large-scale analyses at the genomic, transcriptomic, epigenomic, and microbiome level. (
  • No matter what the approach, the con genes remain among the most highly expressed genes in all analyses, including the present study. (
  • article{Buchel1999MutationOG, title={Mutation of GT-1 binding sites in the Pr-1A promoter influences the level of inducible gene expression in vivo}, author={Annemarie S. Buchel and Frans Th. (
  • In Biochemistry of Storage Carbohydrates in Green Plants. (
  • This report presents the first evidence for the regulation of root genes involved in nutrient acquisition and assimilation by a signal that is translocated from shoot to root. (
  • Many plant cells arrest in G 1 in response to nutrient limitation or differentiation ( 12 ). (
  • Plants of both genotypes were submitted to different treatments using a hydroponic system that permitted removal of Fe from the nutrient solution. (
  • This hyphal network aids in water and nutrient uptake often helping the host plant to survive adverse conditions, and in exchange, the fungal symbiont is provided with access to carbohydrates. (
  • the damage they cause in yeast is also repaired by NHEJ, and we use yeast NHEJ genes and mutants to better understand the process in plants. (
  • Previous attempts to identify GA response genes were confounded because GA mutants are not expected to germinate and, unlike GA auxotrophs, should fail to be rescued by exogenous GA. Here, we describe a screen for suppressors of the ABA-insensitive mutant ABI1-1 that enriches for GA auxotrophs and GA-insensitive mutants. (
  • Further mutants will be isolated using different approaches so that we can ultimately isolate more genes encoding components of the sensing and signalling system for subsequent manipulation. (
  • By uncoupling RBR3 from the negative regulation of RBR1 in cultured maize embryos through a combination of approaches, we demonstrate that RBR3 has a positive and critical role in the expression of E2F targets required for the initiation of DNA synthesis, DNA replication, and the efficiency with which transformed plants can be obtained. (
  • however, although many plants appear to possess only 1 RBR gene, maize and related cereals have at least 2 distinct types, RBR1 and RBR3 ( 19 , 27 , 28 ). (
  • For example, unlike animal genes, plant genes are generally much smaller with fewer and smaller introns. (
  • In most plants, sucrose is the major transported carbon source. (
  • One possible mediator of these events is sucrose, the major transported product of photosynthesis, which is involved in the regulation of a large number of genes ( 25 , 59 ). (
  • No sucrose or hormonal regulation of the expression of this clone was observed and it did not respond to wounding or heat stress. (
  • Transient expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase promoter in electroporated pea protoplasts. (
  • Transient expression of the TaF A d-GFP fusion in onion epidermal cells demonstrated TaF A d's mitochondrial location. (
  • This information was then used to screen a transcription factor library using a transient-expression, dual-luciferase assay in tobacco. (
  • We present evidence that SYD is recruited to the WUS promoter and that it is involved in regulation of the stem cell pool maintenance via direct transcriptional control of this master regulator. (
  • KEY MESSAGE: OsHIRP1 is an E3 ligase that acts as a positive regulator in the plant response to heat stress, thus providing important information relating to adaptation and regulation under heat stress in plant. (
  • Often, one gene regulator controls another, and so on, in a gene regulatory network . (
  • Long Hypocotyl in Far-Red 1 (HFR1) has been identified as a positive regulator and a possible transcription factor in both blue and far-red light signaling in plants. (
  • Two of the major pea CHS genes (PSCHS1, PSCHS2) from a cluster in a tandem repeat with a spacer, and an identical 31 bp sequence containing the consensus motif of box I located 5'-upstream from the putative TATA box of both CHS genes. (
  • This finding is consistent with the view that these genes evolved for asexual development in the Pezizomycotina. (
  • KEY MESSAGE: The CmTFL1c gene of Chrysanthemum morifolium inhibits flowering, regulates inflorescence architecture and floral development. (
  • Seed dormancy and germination in higher plants resemble these systems as germination is responsive to environmental cues, but they differ in that seed dormancy is an integral stage of embryo development. (
  • Hirano, H.Y., Sano, Y.: Enhancement of Wx gene expression and the accumulation of amylose in response to cool temperature during seed development in rice. (
  • It has been shown that light induces the expression of carotenogenic genes during leaf and flower development and during fruit ripening. (
  • In plants, the significance of alternative splicing was long underestimated, but we and others have shown that it greatly impacts on development and response to the environment. (
  • Expression profiles of GhCAMTAs revealed that GhCAMTA2A.2 and GhCAMTA7A express profoundly in different stages of cotton fiber development. (
  • Emphasis on the co-ordinated regulation of gene expression, cell-cell communication, and signalling during development. (
  • RNA sequencing profiles were generated in experiments where root exudate stimulations were used to mimic interactions between bacteria and plants. (
  • Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 23(4):497-509. (
  • Similar to other pathogens and gram-negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa has a global regulatory system known as quorum sensing (QS) that controls expression of numerous genes, many of which are associated with virulence ( 11 , 37 ). (
  • A homologous recombination mechanism also works at very low levels in plants (though at higher levels in other organisms). (
  • Recombination/gene conversion events were frequent in the first half of the gene, but positive selection was also found when this region was excluded. (
  • This cellulase was only expressed during the final necrotrophic phase of Z. tritici infection and the nucleotide sequences of the gene showed signatures of diversifying selection. (
  • Multiple cases of conflicted gene regulations showed scantiness of our knowledge on the regulatory network in Bacillus. (
  • Consequently, the reduced exoenzyme production and Pel gene expression in the mutant may be partially due to the regulatory role of rsmB -RsmA on exoenzyme expression. (
  • In another line of research, we are developing a genomic method to select for riboswitches (these are regulatory RNA elements which can bind metabolites) in plants, as they are implicated in regulating alternative splicing and gene expression. (
  • Previous studies revealed that EW regulates brain gene expression in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). (
  • Infection of Nicotiana tabacum Samsun NN with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) results in a hypersensitive plant response and leads to systemic acquired resistance (SAR). (
  • Resistance activity was detected for 13 candidate MLA cDNAs in a transient gene expression assay. (