Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Gene Expression Regulation, Archaeal: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Microarray Analysis: The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mice, Inbred C57BLDNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Genes, Immediate-Early: Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Immediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Microdissection: The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Histone Deacetylases: Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMethylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Genes, Neoplasm: Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Mice, Inbred BALB CViral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Genes, fos: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (fos) originally isolated from the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses. The proto-oncogene protein c-fos codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. The insertion of c-fos into FBJ-MSV or FBR-MSV induces osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The human c-fos gene is located at 14q21-31 on the long arm of chromosome 14.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.

Expression of Bcl-2 protein is decreased in colorectal adenocarcinomas with microsatellite instability. (1/29112)

Bcl-2 is known to inhibit apoptosis and is thought to play a role in colorectal tumour development. Studies of the promoter region of bcl-2 have indicated the presence of a p53 responsive element which downregulates bcl-2 expression. Since p53 is commonly mutated in colorectal cancers, but rarely in those tumours showing microsatellite instability (MSI), the aim of this study was to examine the relationship of bcl-2 protein expression to MSI, as well as to other clinicopathological and molecular variables, in colorectal adenocarcinomas. Expression of bcl-2 was analysed by immunohistochemistry in 71 colorectal cancers which had been previously assigned to three classes depending upon their levels of MSI. MSI-high tumours demonstrated instability in three or more of six microsatellite markers tested, MSI-low tumours in one or two of six, and MSI-null in none of six. Bcl-2 expression in tumours was quantified independently by two pathologists and assigned to one of five categories, with respect to the number of cells which showed positive staining: 0, up to 5%; 1, 6-25%; 2, 26-50%; 3, 51-75%; and 4, > or =76%. Bcl-2 negative tumours were defined as those with a score of 0. Bcl-2 protein expression was tested for association with clinicopathological stage, differentiation level, tumour site, age, sex, survival, evidence of p53 inactivation and MSI level. A significant association was found between bcl-2 expression and patient survival (P = 0.012, Gehan Wilcoxon test). Further, a significant reciprocal relationship was found between bcl-2 expression and the presence of MSI (P = 0.012, Wilcoxon rank sum test). We conclude that bcl-2 expressing colorectal cancers are more likely to be MSI-null, and to be associated with improved patient survival.  (+info)

Growth inhibition of breast cancer cells by Grb2 downregulation is correlated with inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, cells. (2/29112)

Increased breast cancer growth has been associated with increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Upon activation, RTKs may transmit their oncogenic signals by binding to the growth factor receptor bound protein-2 (Grb2), which in turn binds to SOS and activates the Ras/Raf/MEK/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. Grb2 is important for the transformation of fibroblasts by EGFR and ErbB2; however, whether Grb2 is also important for the proliferation of breast cancer cells expressing these RTKs is unclear. We have used liposomes to deliver nuclease-resistant antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (oligos) specific for the GRB2 mRNA to breast cancer cells. Grb2 protein downregulation could inhibit breast cancer cell growth; the degree of growth inhibition was dependent upon the activation and/or endogenous levels of the RTKs. Grb2 inhibition led to MAP kinase inactivation in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, breast cancer cells, suggesting that different pathways might be used by EGFR and ErbB2 to regulate breast cancer growth.  (+info)

The cytoskeletal network controls c-Jun expression and glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity in an antagonistic and cell-type-specific manner. (3/29112)

The physical and functional link between adhesion molecules and the cytoskeletal network suggests that the cytoskeleton might mediate the transduction of cell-to-cell contact signals, which often regulate growth and differentiation in an antagonistic manner. Depolymerization of the cytoskeleton in confluent cell cultures is reportedly sufficient to initiate DNA synthesis. Here we show that depolymerization of the cytoskeleton is also sufficient to repress differentiation-specific gene expression. Glutamine synthetase is a glia-specific differentiation marker gene whose expression in the retinal tissue is regulated by glucocorticoids and is ultimately dependent on glia-neuron cell contacts. Depolymerization of the actin or microtubule network in cells of the intact retina mimics the effects of cell separation, repressing glutamine synthetase induction by a mechanism that involves induction of c-Jun and inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity. Depolymerization of the cytoskeleton activates JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and induces c-Jun expression by a signaling pathway that depends on tyrosine kinase activity. Induction of c-Jun expression is restricted to Muller glial cells, the only cells in the tissue that express glutamine synthetase and maintain the ability to proliferate upon cell separation. Our results suggest that the cytoskeletal network might play a part in the transduction of cell contact signals to the nucleus.  (+info)

Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 by UV irradiation is inhibited by wortmannin without affecting c-iun expression. (4/29112)

Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs)/stress-activated protein kinases is an early response of cells upon exposure to DNA-damaging agents. JNK-mediated phosphorylation of c-Jun is currently understood to stimulate the transactivating potency of AP-1 (e.g., c-Jun/c-Fos; c-Jun/ATF-2), thereby increasing the expression of AP-1 target genes. Here we show that stimulation of JNK1 activity is not a general early response of cells exposed to genotoxic agents. Treatment of NIH 3T3 cells with UV light (UV-C) as well as with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) caused activation of JNK1 and an increase in c-Jun protein and AP-1 binding activity, whereas antineoplastic drugs such as mafosfamide, mitomycin C, N-hydroxyethyl-N-chloroethylnitrosourea, and treosulfan did not elicit this response. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin specifically blocked the UV-stimulated activation of JNK1 but did not affect UV-driven activation of extracellular regulated kinase 2 (ERK2). To investigate the significance of JNK1 for transactivation of c-jun, we analyzed the effect of UV irradiation on c-jun expression under conditions of wortmannin-mediated inhibition of UV-induced stimulation of JNK1. Neither the UV-induced increase in c-jun mRNA, c-Jun protein, and AP-1 binding nor the activation of the collagenase and c-jun promoters was affected by wortmannin. In contrast, the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase inhibitor PD98056, which blocked ERK2 but not JNK1 activation by UV irradiation, impaired UV-driven c-Jun protein induction and AP-1 binding. Based on the data, we suggest that JNK1 stimulation is not essential for transactivation of c-jun after UV exposure, whereas activation of ERK2 is required for UV-induced signaling leading to elevated c-jun expression.  (+info)

Insertion of excised IgH switch sequences causes overexpression of cyclin D1 in a myeloma tumor cell. (5/29112)

Oncogenes are often dysregulated in B cell tumors as a result of a reciprocal translocation involving an immunoglobulin locus. The translocations are caused by errors in two developmentally regulated DNA recombination processes: V(D)J and IgH switch recombination. Both processes share the property of joining discontinuous sequences from one chromosome and releasing intervening sequences as circles that are lost from progeny cells. Here we show that these intervening sequences may instead insert in the genome and that during productive IgH mu-epsilon switch recombination in U266 myeloma tumor cells, a portion of the excised IgH switch intervening sequences containing the 3' alpha-1 enhancer has inserted on chromosome 11q13, resulting in overexpression of the adjacent cyclin D1 oncogene.  (+info)

Molecular mechanisms of thyroid hormone-stimulated steroidogenesis in mouse leydig tumor cells. Involvement of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein. (6/29112)

Using a mouse Leydig tumor cell line, we explored the mechanisms involved in thyroid hormone-induced steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein gene expression, and steroidogenesis. Triiodothyronine (T3) induced a approximately 3.6-fold increase in the steady-state level of StAR mRNA which paralleled with those of the acute steroid response ( approximately 4.0-fold), as monitored by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and progesterone production, respectively. The T3-stimulated progesterone production was effectively inhibited by actinomycin-D or cycloheximide, indicating the requirement of on-going mRNA and protein synthesis. T3 displayed the highest affinity of [125I]iodo-T3 binding and was most potent in stimulating StAR mRNA expression. In accordance, T3 significantly increased testosterone production in primary cultures of adult mouse Leydig cells. The T3 and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) effects on StAR expression were similar in magnitude and additive. Cells expressing steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) showed marginal elevation of StAR expression, but coordinately increased T3-induced StAR mRNA expression and progesterone levels. In contrast, overexpression of DAX-1 markedly diminished the SF-1 mRNA expression, and concomitantly abolished T3-mediated responses. Noteworthy, T3 augmented the SF-1 mRNA expression while inhibition of the latter by DAX-1 strongly impaired T3 action. Northern hybridization analysis revealed four StAR transcripts which increased 3-6-fold following T3 stimulation. These observations clearly identified a regulatory cascade of thyroid hormone-stimulated StAR expression and steroidogenesis that provides novel insight into the importance of a thyroid-gonadal connection in the hormonal control of Leydig cell steroidogenesis.  (+info)

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells is blocked by protein kinase C activation through inhibition of c-myc. (7/29112)

Apoptosis plays a major role in gastrointestinal epithelial cell turnover, ulcerogenesis and tumorigenesis. We have examined apoptosis induction by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in human gastric (AGS) cancer cells and the role of protein kinase C (PKC) and apoptosis-related oncogenes. After treatment with aspirin or indomethacin, cell growth was quantified by MTT assay, and apoptosis was determined by acridine orange staining, DNA fragmentation and flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein of p53, p21waf1/cip1 and c-myc was detected by Northern and Western blotting respectively. The influence of PKC on indomethacin-induced apoptosis was determined by co-incubation of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). The role of c-myc was determined using its antisense oligonucleotides. The results showed that both aspirin and indomethacin inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis of AGS cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, without altering the cell cycle. Indomethacin increased c-myc mRNA and protein, whereas p53 and p21wafl/cip1 were unchanged. Down-regulation of c-myc by its antisense oligonucleotides reduced apoptosis induction by indomethacin. TPA could inhibit indomethacin-induced apoptosis and accumulate cells in G2/M. Overexpression of c-myc was inhibited by TPA and p21waf1/cip1 mRNA increased. In conclusion, NSAIDs induce apoptosis in gastric cancer cells which may be mediated by up-regulation of c-myc proto-oncogene. PKC activation can abrogate the effects of NSAIDs by decreasing c-myc expression.  (+info)

p53 status of newly established acute myeloid leukaemia cell lines. (8/29112)

We analysed the status of the p53 gene and protein in eight newly established acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cell lines representing blast cells of either de novo leukaemia patients in first remission or patients with relapsed and chemotherapy-resistant disease causing their death. There were no mutations in the p53 gene in any of the cell lines as analysed by single-strand conformation polymorphism of amplified exons 5-8. However, the p53 protein was clearly and consistently expressed in all of these cell lines, as shown by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and flow cytometry. The consistently expressed p53 protein was located in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of all the cell lines and, as shown by flow cytometry, it was mostly in a conformation typical of the mutated protein. These AML cell lines offer a tool for studying the production and function of the p53 protein and its possible role in cell cycle regulation and chemoresistance as well as in the regulation of apoptosis in AML.  (+info)

  • Here we report the whole-genome sequencing of probands from several melanoma families, which we performed in order to identify other genes associated with familial melanoma. (edu.au)
  • These data indicate that MITF is a melanoma-predisposition gene and highlight the utility of whole-genome sequencing to identify novel rare variants associated with disease susceptibility. (edu.au)
  • Epigenetic perturbations are increasingly described in cancer cells where they are thought to contribute to deregulated gene expression and genome instability. (cnrs.fr)
  • Tissue type-specific expression of the dsRNA-binding protein 76 and genome-wide elucidation of its target mRNAs. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical significance of the HIWI and HILI expression and its relationship with cancer stem cells markers in 72 patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC). (cancerindex.org)
  • Expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, urokinase receptor and laminin gamma-2 chain is an early coordinated event in incipient oral squamous cell carcinoma. (biomedsearch.com)
  • PAI-1-positive neoplastic cells located at the tip of the putative invasive front of grade 1 (incipient) carcinoma were seen in 16 of the 20 cases (75%), whereas adjacent normal and dysplastic epithelium was PAI-1-negative. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Clusters of putative invasive neoplastic cells located in the lamina propria were PAI-1-positive in areas with grade 2 incipient carcinoma as were invasive cancer cells in areas of grade 3-4 invasive carcinoma. (biomedsearch.com)
  • however, lam-gamma2-positive neoplastic cells were only detected in 11 of the 20 cases (55%) in areas of grade 1 incipient carcinoma. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) beta in endometrioid carcinoma in comparison to non-neoplastic endometrium. (curehunter.com)
  • Although Pae displays anti-neoplastic activity and increases the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs in various cell lines and in animal models, studies related to the effect of Pae on ER stress-induced resistance to chemotherapeutic agents in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are poorly understood. (nih.gov)
  • These cellular changes in gene expression and Akt activation may be an important resistance mechanism against doxorubicin in hepatocellular carcinoma cells undergoing ER stress. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether the hypoxia-associated markers glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 and carbonic anhydrase (CA)-IX expression and preoperative hemoglobin (Hb) levels correlate with presence of inguinofemoral or distant metastases, and disease-free survival (DSS) in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients. (rug.nl)
  • A particular focus is placed on the role of the tumour suppressor Wilms' tumour 1 in the regulation of TPα expression through Prm1 in megakaryoblastic cells of vascular origin and in prostate and breast carcinoma cells. (urotoday.com)
  • Down-regulation of microRNA-101 (miR-101) expression has been linked to bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC) development. (medscimonit.com)
  • In order to gain a better understanding of the cellular interactions that result in the formation of latent metastasis and decreased survival, we have generated an inducible transgenic mouse model of YFP-expressing ductal carcinoma that develops after sexual maturity in immune-competent mice and is driven by consistent, endocrine-independent oncogene expression. (jove.com)
  • Although it is established that LMP1 represses E-cadherin expression and enhances the invasive ability of carcinoma cells, the mechanism underlying this repression remains to be elucidated. (pnas.org)
  • E-cadherin expression is frequently suppressed or reduced in carcinoma tissues of the breast and liver, and many carcinoma cell lines derived from colon, stomach, and prostate ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • In human cancers such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), loss of membranous E-cadherin expression correlates significantly with tumor intracranial invasion ( 3 ), advanced disease stage, and lymph node metastasis ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Ren L, Deng B, Saloura V, Park JH, Nakamura Y. MELK inhibition targets cancer stem cells through downregulation of SOX2 expression in head and neck cancer cells. (uchicago.edu)
  • The expression level of HIWI and HILI and cancer stem cells markers in paired cancerous and non-cancerous tissues was measured by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. (cancerindex.org)
  • Our results suggest that PAI-1 is a novel potential marker of initial invasion in oral SCC, and that the coordinated expression of PAI-1 with uPAR and lam-gamma2 sustain the features of the early invasive cancer cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1. Studies on the regulation of ectopic gene expression in neoplastic breast cells. (stanford.edu)
  • Gastrin-regulated expression of p53 in transformed enterochromaffin-like cells in the African rodent mastomys. (curehunter.com)
  • Gene expression analysis of erlotinib-treated HNSCC cells revealed an upregulation of genes involved in MyD88-dependent signaling compared with their respective vehicle-treated cell lines. (cancerindex.org)
  • Furthermore, induction of ER stress resulted in increasing expression of COX-2 concomitant with inactivation of Akt and up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic transcription factor CHOP (GADD153) in HepG2 cells. (nih.gov)
  • However, co-pretreatment with tunicamycin and Pae decreased the expression of COX-2 and levels of activation of Akt as well as increasing the levels of CHOP in HCC cells. (nih.gov)
  • To examine the functional effect of AMFR and NOTCH1 in miR-139-5p-induced metastasis inhibition in CRC cells, we inhibited AMFR and NOTCH1 expression with siRNA (Fig. S6) and revealed that AMFR- and NOTCH1-depleted LoVo cells showed decreased invasion, which phenocopied the invasion-inhibiting effect of miR-139-5p. (nih.gov)
  • Mitochondria gained center stage in molecular oncology when Otto Warburg observed that tumor cells can ferment glucose to lactate even in the presence of oxygen, proposing that a failure in mitochondrial respiration was the cause of this metabolic trait, called aerobic glycolysis, and that this was in turn required for neoplastic growth ( 2 , 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Knockdown of KSRP expression prevented resveratrol-induced mRNA destabilization in human and murine cells. (jove.com)
  • Little else is known about miRNA expression patterns or function in normal or neoplastic cells. (pnas.org)
  • We have shown previously that miR-15a and miR-16 - 1 are located at chromosome 13q14.3 within a 30-kb region of loss in CLL cells and that both genes are deleted and/or down-regulated in the majority of the analyzed CLL cell samples ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Following growth arrest of T-47D breast cancer cells by serum deprivation restimulation with insulin results in sequential induction of cyclin genes. (garvan.org.au)
  • Neoplastic cells are presented as single cells or cell aggregates, and are able to spread the cancer to other parts of the human body. (termedia.pl)
  • Alteration in gene activation, for instance silencing of tumor suppressors or activation of oncogenes, may occur in the case of cancer cells . (termedia.pl)
  • Dysfunction of cell adhesion (metastasis) is characteristic for tumor cells and is regarded as a result of alternation in E-cadherin expression (encoded by CDH1). (termedia.pl)
  • Zebrafish embryos that are transgenic for mitfa:BRAF(V600E) and lack p53 (also known as tp53) have a gene signature that is enriched for markers of multipotent neural crest cells, and neural crest progenitors from these embryos fail to terminally differentiate. (zfin.org)
  • Interestingly, we demonstrate that the expression of TDRD1, the topmost overexpressed gene of our list of ERG-specific candidate targets, is inversely correlated with the methylation levels of a CpG island found at -66 bp of the transcription start site in PCa and that TDRD1 expression is regulated by direct binding of ERG to the CpG island in VCaP cells. (qub.ac.uk)
  • Pretreatment of tumor cells with PKC inhibitors, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, PKC-α small interfering RNA (siRNA), and short hairpin RNA abrogated phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced down-regulation of LRP and inhibited astrocytic tumor invasion in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • More importantly, SIRT1 overexpression significantly promoted the transcriptional activity and expression of GLUT1, indicating that SIRT1 increases the transcription activity and expression of GLUT1, therefore, promoting the cell proliferation and glycolysis in BC cells. (springer.com)
  • In particular, gradual variations in this single physical control parameter (cell shape distortion) can switch cells between distinct gene programs (e.g. growth, differentiation and apoptosis), and this process can be viewed as a biological phase transition. (biologists.org)
  • These insights teach us that, if we truly want to explain biological regulation and to confront the complexity problem, we must consider how molecular signaling pathways function in the physical context of living cells and tissues. (biologists.org)
  • Signaling Pathways and Development - Intracellular signaling pathways that control cellular behavior in normal cells, including embryologic development, and neoplastic cells. (kucancercenter.org)
  • Cell Proliferation, Differentiation and Death - Mechanisms involved in deregulated cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation, de-differentiation and transdifferentiation in normal and neoplastic cells. (kucancercenter.org)
  • The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5′-Aza-2′dC, restores E-cadherin promoter activity and protein expression in LMP1-expressing cells, which in turn blocks cell migration ability, as demonstrated by the Transwell cell migration assay. (pnas.org)
  • Human epithelial cells expressing LMP1 display significant higher invasive capacity, correlating with decreased E-cadherin expression ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • In addition, LMP1 expression in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells (used as a model in cell migration studies) induces Ets-1 expression and invasive growth (17,18). (pnas.org)
  • Such an approach takes advantage of mechanisms that activate genes known to confer a growth advantage to neoplastic cells. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Subsequent studies indicated that IL-12 could boost the generation of cytotoxic T cells by promoting the transcription of genes encoding cytolytic factors including perforin and granzymes ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • we show that the p53-Hdm2 interaction in unstressed cells is promoted by Siva1, which, like Hdm2, is the product of a p53 target gene. (thebiogrid.org)
  • So far, two genes associated with familial melanoma have been identified, accounting for a minority of genetic risk in families. (edu.au)
  • The main difference between epigenetic abnormalities and genetic abnormalities buy sominex overnight delivery insomnia zopiclone, such as gene mutations, is that epigenetic changes are reversible and do not involve changes in base sequence, which suggests that gene re-expression is possible and that epigenetic data may lead to important molecular targets for treatment. (bdforum.org)
  • Haeberle H, Kuziel W, Dieterich H, Casola A, Gatalica Z, Garofalo R. Inducible expression of inflammatory chemokines in respiratory syncytial virus-infected mice: role of MIP-1alpha in lung pathology. (labome.org)
  • GNAI1 and GNAI3 Reduce Colitis-Associated Tumorigenesis in Mice by Blocking IL6 Signaling and Down-regulating Expression of GNAI2. (uchicago.edu)
  • Mice with endothelial cell-specific loss of G13 showed reduced VEGFR-2 expression at sites of angiogenesis and attenuated VEGF effects, resulting in impaired retinal angiogenesis and tumor vascularization. (mpg.de)
  • Activation of YFP, ablation of p53, and expression of an oncogenic form of K-ras was achieved by the delivery of an adenovirus expressing Cre-recombinase into the mammary duct of sexually mature, virgin female mice. (jove.com)
  • A significant increase in p65 NFkappaB mRNA and protein expression, compared to normal thyroid cultures or tissue, was found in all of the cancer cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclin D1 mRNA increases within 1 h of mitogenic stimulation and is followed by increased expression of cyclins D3 and E in G1 phase, cyclin A in late G1/early S phase and cyclin B1 in G2. (garvan.org.au)
  • As illustrated in Figure 1 , Rex regulates viral mRNA expression at the post-transcriptional level by interacting with a complex stem-loop RNA structure termed the Rex-responsive element (RXRE), present at the 3′ portion of all plus-strand viral transcripts. (frontiersin.org)
  • To study the role and regulation of UGT1A gene products in stomach UGT1A mRNA expression and UGT catalytic activities were investigated in a panel of 14 normal gastric mucosa/adenocarcinoma sample pairs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Polymorphic UGT1A regulation was confirmed in adenocarcinoma samples with the additional observation of differential down-regulation of UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A6, and UGT1A10 and up-regulation of UGT1A7 mRNA. (aspetjournals.org)
  • During this process, environmental conditions can rapidly fluctuate, following local changes in oxygen, pH or nutrient gradients, and can become extremely harsh for the transformed cell, which must become capable of tackling sudden shortages in blood supply or exposure to anti-neoplastic treatments. (frontiersin.org)
  • We based candidate gene selection on bioinformatics, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), bisulfite sequencing, methylation-specific PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • It shall be noted that the changes in gene expression can be regulated by the process of methylation of DNA and histone modification (i.e. methylation, acetylation). (termedia.pl)
  • Manifestations of folate deficiency thereafter, not surprisingly, would involve impairment of cell division, accumulation of possibly toxic metabolites such as homocysteine, and impairment of methylation reactions involved in the regulation of gene expression, thus increasing neoplastic risks. (abcam.com)
  • This results in hypermethylation of the E-cadherin promoter and down-regulation of E-cadherin gene expression, as revealed by methylation-specific PCR, real-time reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting data. (pnas.org)
  • Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression. (cancerindex.org)
  • Mulibrey (MUscle-LIver-BRain-EYe) nanism is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in TRIM37 gene and characterized by growth failure with prenatal onset, dysmorphic features, muscolar hypotonia, veins congestion secondary to constrinctive pericarditis and yellowish dots in fundi. (inist.fr)
  • Two miRNA signatures were associated with the presence or absence of mutations in the expressed Ig variableregion genes or with deletions at 13q14, respectively. (pnas.org)
  • It is unknown to what extent the programs that regulate neural crest development interact with mutations in the BRAF oncogene, which is the most commonly mutated gene in human melanoma. (zfin.org)
  • However, better understanding of the role of increased JAK-STAT signaling [either through activating mutations (JAK2, MPL515L/K) within the signaling pathway, or mutations involving CALR], the role of deregulated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and the impaired bone marrow microenvironment is transforming the treatment approach for MF. (haematologica.org)
  • Mutations of the CDC4 gene were analyzed by PCR-SSCP and sequencing, and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was analyzed by microsatellite marker analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • No relationship was observed between p-Akt protein expression and survival outcome, and the limited amount of data collected for KRAS and BRAF mutations prevented any meaningful evaluation of clinical outcomes in relation to these mutations. (openrepository.com)
  • By comparison of the tobacco-exposed peripheral alveolar lung tissue of smokers with non-smokers and with adenocarcinomas from smokers, it was possible to identify a signature of 27 other differentially expressed genes. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Linearly amplified cDNA from normal and diseased tissues of the original patient and seven others were hybridized to DNA macroarrays containing the candidate gene transcript fragments. (stanford.edu)
  • We found that miR-139-5p was significantly downregulated in 73.8% CRC samples compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues (NCTs), and decreased miR-139-5p was associated with poor prognosis.Furthermore, the protein levels of the two genes were upregulated in CRC samples compared with NCTs, and inversely correlated with the miR-139-5p expression.Increased NOTCH1 protein expression was correlated with poor prognosis of CRC patients. (nih.gov)
  • However, MPM tissues from patients who failed to respond to bortezomib and MPM cell lines selected for resistance to bortezomib conserved BAK expression. (le.ac.uk)
  • NFAR protein isoform- and subcellular distribution in normal and neoplastic tissues. (nih.gov)
  • We performed differential expression analysis on nine normal prostate tissues and 50 PCa enriched for different ETS rearrangements using exon-level expression microarrays, followed by in vitro validation using cell line models. (qub.ac.uk)
  • In the present study, the expression of SIRT1 and GLUT1 was upregulated in BC tissues and cell lines and positively correlated in tissue samples. (springer.com)
  • In 88 samples of BTCC (n=72) and normal tissues (n=16), the expressions of miR-101 were detected by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). (medscimonit.com)
  • However, it is not known how metabolic gene expression in tumors differs from that in normal tissues, or whether different tumor types exhibit similar metabolic changes. (harvard.edu)
  • Overall, the metabolic gene expression program in tumors is similar to that in the corresponding normal tissues. (harvard.edu)
  • Altered subcellular localization and isoform distribution in malignant glioma indicate that tumor-specific changes in DRBP76-related gene products and their regulatory functions may contribute to the formation and/or maintenance of these tumors. (nih.gov)
  • A series of genes of the four HOX gene clusters A, B, C, and D were reported to show aberrant expressions in oncogenesis, particularly in cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). (hindawi.com)
  • We describe the use of PI3Kβ protein and/or its encoding gene for the screening for substances useful in the treatment of cancers, preferably breast cancers, as well as a method for the diagnosis of malignant cell growth comprising the measuring the expression of PI3Kβ. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In NPC, EBV infection is predominantly latent and viral gene expression is restricted, similar to other EBV-associated malignant tumors. (pnas.org)
  • The p53 gene is commonly mutated in human cancers , but the molecular mechanisms regulating this event are not clear. (curehunter.com)
  • Volume I of this book provides a comprehensive discussion of the factors involved in regulation of the cell cycle, the general biological properties of growth factors, and the receptor and postreceptor mechanisms of action of these signaling agents. (routledge.com)
  • Whereas the processes controlling VEGF expression are well described, the mechanisms underlying VEGFR-2 upregulation have remained unclear. (mpg.de)
  • In spite of these observations it is rather unexpected that very few studies have been performed on the molecular mechanisms governing the activity of galectin genes. (springer.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of the T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor family of transcription factors. (cancerindex.org)
  • CIC functions to transduce receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling into gene expression changes through a mechanism termed default repression, wherein CIC is bound to target gene promoters or enhancers and inhibits transcription in the absence of signal. (inist.fr)
  • Transcription of the affected allele was terminated at a cryptic transcription stop signal in the reverse mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat sequence causing the expression of a truncated chimeric RNA that encodes a COOH-terminally deleted product. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This work aimed to evaluate whether ETS transcription factors frequently involved in rearrangements in prostate carcinomas (PCa), namely ERG and ETV1, regulate specific or shared target genes. (qub.ac.uk)
  • We conclude that ETS transcription factors regulate specific and shared target genes and that TDRD1, FKBP10, and GRPR are promising therapeutic targets and can serve as diagnostic markers for molecular subtypes of PCa harboring specific fusion gene rearrangements. (qub.ac.uk)
  • G13-mediated VEGFR-2 expression involved activation of the small GTPase RhoA and transcription factor NF-kappaB, the latter acting via a specific binding site at position -84 of the VEGFR-2 promoter. (mpg.de)
  • The homeobox family and its subset of HOX gene products represent a family of transcription factors directing DNA-protein and protein-protein interactions. (hindawi.com)
  • The homeodomain is a four- -helix helix-loop-helix DNA binding motif, and its flanking sequences provide either activating or repressing functions for target gene transcription [ 18 , 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Any HOX gene is part of a family of DNA sequences involved in a series of transcription factors affecting tissue development and cell differentiation. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that LMP1 induces the expression and activity of the DNA methyltransferases 1, 3a, and 3b, using real-time reverse transcription-PCR and enzyme activity assay. (pnas.org)
  • From a critical evaluation of the pertinent studies the main conclusion that can be drawn is that, although it is not yet clear whether the 14 galectins identified so far have functions in common, a striking common feature of all galectins is the strong modulation of their expression during development, differentiation stages and under different physiological or pathological conditions. (springer.com)
  • An approach emphasizing both principles and methodology provides the scientist with the essential fundamentals needed for gene cloning and for an appreciation of the strategies of recombinant DNA technology as well as other molecular techniques. (faes.org)
  • This text then examines the molecular mechanism by which steroid hormones regulate specific gene expression. (elsevier.com)
  • E-cadherin acts as an invasion-suppressor gene ( 5 - 7 ) and, consequently, knowledge of the molecular mechanism that controls its expression or function is of primary importance in understanding the process of tumor invasion. (pnas.org)
  • dsRNA which is a pathogen-associated molecular pattern, is recognised by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) ( fig 1 ). (bmj.com)
  • These data suggest that miRNA expression patterns have relevance to the biological and clinical behavior of this leukemia. (pnas.org)
  • No significant correlations were observed between GLUT-1 or CA-IX expression patterns and preoperative Hb levels, presence of inguinofemoral or distant metastases and DSS. (rug.nl)
  • Leflunomide exerts these effects by inhibiting the transcriptional elongation of genes that are required for neural crest development and melanoma growth. (zfin.org)
  • MYC/BCL2 protein coexpression contributes to the inferior survival of activated B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and demonstrates high-risk gene expression signatures: a report from The International DLBCL Rituximab-CHOP Consortium Program. (duke.edu)
  • Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is stratified into prognostically favorable germinal center B-cell (GCB)-like and unfavorable activated B-cell (ABC)-like subtypes based on gene expression signatures. (duke.edu)
  • aHCF were associated to aberrant spatial localization and deregulated expression of a novel 2p gene (GMCL1) that was found to have prognostic impact in diffuse large B cell lymphoma. (cnrs.fr)
  • Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) interact with protein factors to regulate different layers of gene expression transcriptionally or posttranscriptionally. (jove.com)
  • Polymorphisms in the kinesin-like factor 1 B gene and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in Eastern Chinese women. (duke.edu)

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