Gene Expression Regulation
Gene Expression Profiling
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
Promoter Regions, Genetic
Molecular Sequence Data
Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
Gene Expression Regulation, Archaeal
Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal
Nucleic Acid Conformation
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
Gene Regulatory Networks
Gene Expression Regulation, Viral
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
3' Untranslated Regions
Sequence Analysis, RNA
5' Untranslated Regions
Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Amino Acid Sequence
In Situ Hybridization
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Reproducibility of Results
Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid
Enhancer Elements, Genetic
Expressed Sequence Tags
RNA, Small Interfering
Green Fluorescent Proteins
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
Disease Models, Animal
Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Gene Transfer Techniques
RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional
Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
Principal Component Analysis
Sp1 Transcription Factor
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Nerve Tissue Proteins
Tumor Markers, Biological
Transforming Growth Factor beta
Gene Knockdown Techniques
Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
Transcription Factor AP-1
Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional
Animals, Genetically Modified
Plants, Genetically Modified
Cooperative binding of heat shock factor to the yeast HSP82 promoter in vivo and in vitro. (1/8596)Previous work has shown that heat shock factor (HSF) plays a central role in remodeling the chromatin structure of the yeast HSP82 promoter via constitutive interactions with its high-affinity binding site, heat shock element 1 (HSE1). The HSF-HSE1 interaction is also critical for stimulating both basal (noninduced) and induced transcription. By contrast, the function of the adjacent, inducibly occupied HSE2 and -3 is unknown. In this study, we examined the consequences of mutations in HSE1, HSE2, and HSE3 on HSF binding and transactivation. We provide evidence that in vivo, HSF binds to these three sites cooperatively. This cooperativity is seen both before and after heat shock, is required for full inducibility, and can be recapitulated in vitro on both linear and supercoiled templates. Quantitative in vitro footprinting reveals that occupancy of HSE2 and -3 by Saccharomyces cerevisiae HSF (ScHSF) is enhanced approximately 100-fold through cooperative interactions with the HSF-HSE1 complex. HSE1 point mutants, whose basal transcription is virtually abolished, are functionally compensated by cooperative interactions with HSE2 and -3 following heat shock, resulting in robust inducibility. Using a competition binding assay, we show that the affinity of recombinant HSF for the full-length HSP82 promoter is reduced nearly an order of magnitude by a single-point mutation within HSE1, paralleling the effect of these mutations on noninduced transcript levels. We propose that the remodeled chromatin phenotype previously shown for HSE1 point mutants (and lost in HSE1 deletion mutants) stems from the retention of productive, cooperative interactions between HSF and its target binding sites. (+info)
Correlation between protein and mRNA abundance in yeast. (2/8596)We have determined the relationship between mRNA and protein expression levels for selected genes expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing at mid-log phase. The proteins contained in total yeast cell lysate were separated by high-resolution two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Over 150 protein spots were excised and identified by capillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Protein spots were quantified by metabolic labeling and scintillation counting. Corresponding mRNA levels were calculated from serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) frequency tables (V. E. Velculescu, L. Zhang, W. Zhou, J. Vogelstein, M. A. Basrai, D. E. Bassett, Jr., P. Hieter, B. Vogelstein, and K. W. Kinzler, Cell 88:243-251, 1997). We found that the correlation between mRNA and protein levels was insufficient to predict protein expression levels from quantitative mRNA data. Indeed, for some genes, while the mRNA levels were of the same value the protein levels varied by more than 20-fold. Conversely, invariant steady-state levels of certain proteins were observed with respective mRNA transcript levels that varied by as much as 30-fold. Another interesting observation is that codon bias is not a predictor of either protein or mRNA levels. Our results clearly delineate the technical boundaries of current approaches for quantitative analysis of protein expression and reveal that simple deduction from mRNA transcript analysis is insufficient. (+info)
Nrg1 is a transcriptional repressor for glucose repression of STA1 gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (3/8596)Expression of genes encoding starch-degrading enzymes is regulated by glucose repression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have identified a transcriptional repressor, Nrg1, in a genetic screen designed to reveal negative factors involved in the expression of STA1, which encodes a glucoamylase. The NRG1 gene encodes a 25-kDa C2H2 zinc finger protein which specifically binds to two regions in the upstream activation sequence of the STA1 gene, as judged by gel retardation and DNase I footprinting analyses. Disruption of the NRG1 gene causes a fivefold increase in the level of the STA1 transcript in the presence of glucose. The expression of NRG1 itself is inhibited in the absence of glucose. DNA-bound LexA-Nrg1 represses transcription of a target gene 10.7-fold in a glucose-dependent manner, and this repression is abolished in both ssn6 and tup1 mutants. Two-hybrid and glutathione S-transferase pull-down experiments show an interaction of Nrg1 with Ssn6 both in vivo and in vitro. These findings indicate that Nrg1 acts as a DNA-binding repressor and mediates glucose repression of the STA1 gene expression by recruiting the Ssn6-Tup1 complex. (+info)
SWM1, a developmentally regulated gene, is required for spore wall assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (4/8596)Meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is followed by encapsulation of haploid nuclei within multilayered spore walls. Formation of this spore-specific wall requires the coordinated activity of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of its components. Completion of late events in the sporulation program, leading to spore wall formation, requires the SWM1 gene. SWM1 is expressed at low levels during vegetative growth but its transcription is strongly induced under sporulating conditions, with kinetics similar to those of middle sporulation-specific genes. Homozygous swm1Delta diploids proceed normally through both meiotic divisions but fail to produce mature asci. Consistent with this finding, swm1Delta mutant asci display enhanced sensitivity to enzymatic digestion and heat shock. Deletion of SWM1 specifically affects the expression of mid-late and late sporulation-specific genes. All of the phenotypes observed are similar to those found for the deletion of SPS1 or SMK1, two putative components of a sporulation-specific MAP kinase cascade. However, epistasis analyses indicate that Swm1p does not form part of the Sps1p-Smk1p-MAP kinase pathway. We propose that Swm1p, a nuclear protein, would participate in a different signal transduction pathway that is also required for the coordination of the biochemical and morphological events occurring during the last phase of the sporulation program. (+info)
The yeast ser/thr phosphatases sit4 and ppz1 play opposite roles in regulation of the cell cycle. (5/8596)Yeast cells overexpressing the Ser/Thr protein phosphatase Ppz1 display a slow-growth phenotype. These cells recover slowly from alpha-factor or nutrient depletion-induced G1 arrest, showing a considerable delay in bud emergence as well as in the expression of the G1 cyclins Cln2 and Clb5. Therefore, an excess of the Ppz1 phosphatase interferes with the normal transition from G1 to S phase. The growth defect is rescued by overexpression of the HAL3/SIS2 gene, encoding a negative regulator of Ppz1. High-copy-number expression of HAL3/SIS2 has been reported to improve cell growth and to increase expression of G1 cyclins in sit4 phosphatase mutants. We show here that the described effects of HAL3/SIS2 on sit4 mutants are fully mediated by the Ppz1 phosphatase. The growth defect caused by overexpression of PPZ1 is intensified in strains with low G1 cyclin levels (such as bck2Delta or cln3Delta mutants), whereas mutation of PPZ1 rescues the synthetic lethal phenotype of sit4 cln3 mutants. These results reveal a role for Ppz1 as a regulatory component of the yeast cell cycle, reinforce the notion that Hal3/Sis2 serves as a negative modulator of the biological functions of Ppz1, and indicate that the Sit4 and Ppz1 Ser/Thr phosphatases play opposite roles in control of the G1/S transition. (+info)
Functional expression of the plant alternative oxidase affects growth of the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (6/8596)We have investigated the extent to which functional expression of the plant alternative oxidase (from Sauromatum guttatum) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe affects yeast growth. When cells are cultured on glycerol, the maximum specific growth rate is decreased from 0.13 to 0.11 h-1 while growth yield is lowered by 20% (from 1. 14 x 10(8) to 9.12 x 10(7) cells ml-1). Kinetic studies suggest that the effect on growth is mitochondrial in origin. In isolated mitochondria we found that the alternative oxidase actively competes with the cytochrome pathway for reducing equivalents and contributes up to 24% to the overall respiratory activity. Metabolic control analysis reveals that the alternative oxidase exerts a considerable degree of control (22%) on total electron flux. Furthermore, the negative control exerted by the alternative oxidase on the flux ratio of electrons through the cytochrome and alternative pathways is comparable with the positive control exerted on this flux-ratio by the cytochrome pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to report a phenotypic effect because of plant alternative oxidase expression. We suggest that the effect on growth is the result of high engagement of the non-protonmotive alternative oxidase in yeast respiration that, consequently, lowers the efficiency of energy conservation and hence growth. (+info)
The genes for the Golgi apparatus N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine transporter are contiguous in Kluyveromyces lactis. (7/8596)The mannan chains of Kluyveromyces lactis mannoproteins are similar to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae except that they lack mannose phosphate and have terminal alpha(1-->2)-linked N-acetylglucosamine. Previously, Smith et al. (Smith, W. L. Nakajima, T., and Ballou, C. E. (1975) J. Biol. Chem. 250, 3426-3435) characterized two mutants, mnn2-1 and mnn2-2, which lacked terminal N-acetylglucosamine in their mannoproteins. The former mutant lacks the Golgi N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity, whereas the latter one was recently found to be deficient in the Golgi UDP-GlcNAc transporter activity. Analysis of extensive crossings between the two mutants led Ballou and co-workers (reference cited above) to conclude that these genes were allelic or tightly linked. We have now cloned the gene encoding the K. lactis Golgi membrane N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase by complementation of the mnn2-1 mutation and named it GNT1. The mnn2-1 mutant was transformed with a 9.5-kilobase (kb) genomic fragment previously shown to contain the gene encoding the UDP-GlcNAc transporter; transformants were isolated, and phenotypic correction was monitored after cell surface labeling with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Griffonia simplicifolia II lectin, which binds terminal N-acetylglucosamine, and a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. The above 9.5-kb DNA fragment restored the wild-type lectin binding phenotype of the transferase mutant; further subcloning of this fragment yielded a smaller one containing an opening reading frame of 1,383 bases encoding a protein of 460 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 53 kDa, which also restored the wild-type phenotype. Transformants had also regained the ability to transfer N-acetylglucosamine to 3-0-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-D-mannopyranoside. The gene encoding the above transferase was found to be approximately 1 kb upstream from the previously characterized MNN2 gene encoding the UDP-GlcNAc Golgi transporter. Each gene can be transcribed independently by their own promoter. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of two Golgi apparatus functionally related genes being contiguous in a genome. (+info)
A phosphonate-induced gene which promotes Penicillium-mediated bioconversion of cis-propenylphosphonic acid to fosfomycin. (8/8596)Penicillium decumbens is able to epoxidize cis-propenylphosphonic acid (cPA) to produce the antibiotic fosfomycin [FOM; also referred to as phosphonomycin and (-)-cis-1,2-epoxypropylphosphonic acid], a bioconversion of considerable commercial significance. We sought to improve the efficiency of the process by overexpression of the genes involved. A conventional approach of isolating the presumed epoxidase and its corresponding gene was not possible since cPA epoxidation could not be achieved with protein extracts. As an alternative approach, proteins induced by cPA were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The observation that a 31-kDa protein (EpoA) was both cPA induced and overaccumulated in a strain which more efficiently converted cPA suggested that it might take part in the bioconversion. EpoA was purified, its amino acid sequence was partially determined, and the corresponding gene was isolated from cosmid and cDNA libraries with oligonucleotide probes. The DNA sequence for this gene (epoA) contained two introns and an open reading frame encoding a peptide of 277 amino acids having some similarity to oxygenases. When the gene was subcloned into P. decumbens, a fourfold increase in epoxidation activity was achieved. epoA-disruption mutants which were obtained by homologous recombination could not convert cPA to FOM. To investigate the regulation of the epoA promoter, the bialaphos resistance gene (bar, encoding phosphinothricin acetyltransferase) was used to replace the epoA-coding region. In P. decumbens, expression of the bar reporter gene was induced by cPA, FOM, and phosphorous acid but not by phosphoric acid. (+info)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. They are typically 18-24 nucleotides in length and are transcribed from endogenous genes. In the medical field, miRNAs have been found to be involved in a wide range of biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Dysregulation of miRNA expression has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurological disorders, and infectious diseases. MiRNAs can act as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors, depending on the target gene they regulate. They can also be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers for various diseases, as well as therapeutic targets for the development of new drugs.
In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.
In the medical field, "RNA, Untranslated" refers to a type of RNA molecule that does not code for a functional protein. These molecules are often referred to as non-coding RNA (ncRNA) and can play important roles in regulating gene expression and other cellular processes. There are several types of untranslated RNA, including microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs). These molecules can interact with messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules to regulate gene expression by blocking the translation of mRNA into protein or by promoting the degradation of the mRNA. Untranslated RNA molecules have been implicated in a wide range of diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and infectious diseases. Understanding the function and regulation of these molecules is an active area of research in the field of molecular biology and has the potential to lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for these diseases.
Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and controlling the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA. They play a crucial role in the development and function of cells and tissues in the body. In the medical field, transcription factors are often studied as potential targets for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, where their activity is often dysregulated. For example, some transcription factors are overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells, and inhibiting their activity may help to slow or stop the growth of these cells. Transcription factors are also important in the development of stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. By understanding how transcription factors regulate gene expression in stem cells, researchers may be able to develop new therapies for diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Overall, transcription factors are a critical component of gene regulation and have important implications for the development and treatment of many diseases.
Chromatin is a complex of DNA, RNA, and proteins that makes up the chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. It plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression and maintaining the structure of the genome. In the medical field, chromatin is studied in relation to various diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions. For example, chromatin remodeling is a process that can alter the structure of chromatin and affect gene expression, and it has been implicated in the development of certain types of cancer. Additionally, chromatin-based therapies are being explored as potential treatments for diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.
DNA-binding proteins are a class of proteins that interact with DNA molecules to regulate gene expression. These proteins recognize specific DNA sequences and bind to them, thereby affecting the transcription of genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) and ultimately the production of proteins. DNA-binding proteins play a crucial role in many biological processes, including cell division, differentiation, and development. They can act as activators or repressors of gene expression, depending on the specific DNA sequence they bind to and the cellular context in which they are expressed. Examples of DNA-binding proteins include transcription factors, histones, and non-histone chromosomal proteins. Transcription factors are proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the transcription of genes by recruiting RNA polymerase and other factors to the promoter region of a gene. Histones are proteins that package DNA into chromatin, and non-histone chromosomal proteins help to organize and regulate chromatin structure. DNA-binding proteins are important targets for drug discovery and development, as they play a central role in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and infectious diseases.
In the medical field, the 3 untranslated regions (3' UTRs) refer to the non-coding regions of messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules that are located at the 3' end of the gene. These regions are important for regulating gene expression, as they can influence the stability, localization, and translation of the mRNA molecule into protein. The 3' UTR can contain a variety of regulatory elements, such as microRNA binding sites, RNA stability elements, and translational repression elements. These elements can interact with other molecules in the cell to control the amount of protein that is produced from a particular gene. Abnormalities in the 3' UTR can lead to a variety of diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and developmental disorders. For example, mutations in the 3' UTR of the TP53 gene, which is a tumor suppressor gene, have been linked to an increased risk of cancer. Similarly, mutations in the 3' UTR of the FMR1 gene, which is involved in the development of Fragile X syndrome, can lead to the loss of function of the gene and the development of the disorder.
In the medical field, the "5 untranslated regions" (5' UTRs) refer to the non-coding regions of messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules that are located at the 5' end (the end closest to the transcription start site) of the gene. These regions play important roles in regulating gene expression, including controlling the stability and translation of the mRNA molecule into protein. The 5' UTR can contain various regulatory elements, such as binding sites for RNA-binding proteins or microRNAs, which can affect the stability of the mRNA molecule and its ability to be translated into protein. Additionally, the 5' UTR can also play a role in determining the subcellular localization of the protein that is produced from the mRNA. Understanding the function of the 5' UTR is important for understanding how genes are regulated and how they contribute to the development and function of cells and tissues in the body.
Histones are proteins that play a crucial role in the structure and function of DNA in cells. They are small, positively charged proteins that help to package and organize DNA into a compact structure called chromatin. Histones are found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and are essential for the proper functioning of genes. There are five main types of histones: H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Each type of histone has a specific role in the packaging and organization of DNA. For example, H3 and H4 are the most abundant histones and are responsible for the formation of nucleosomes, which are the basic unit of chromatin. H1 is a linker histone that helps to compact chromatin into a more condensed structure. In the medical field, histones have been studied in relation to various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. For example, changes in the levels or modifications of histones have been linked to the development of certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer and prostate cancer. Additionally, histones have been shown to play a role in the regulation of gene expression, which is important for the proper functioning of cells.
RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is a type of nucleic acid that is involved in the process of protein synthesis in cells. It is composed of a chain of nucleotides, which are made up of a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are three types of RNA: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). In the medical field, RNA is often studied as a potential target for the development of new drugs and therapies. For example, some researchers are exploring the use of RNA interference (RNAi) to silence specific genes and treat diseases such as cancer and viral infections. Additionally, RNA is being studied as a potential biomarker for various diseases, as changes in the levels or structure of certain RNA molecules can indicate the presence of a particular condition.
DNA primers are short, single-stranded DNA molecules that are used in a variety of molecular biology techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. They are designed to bind to specific regions of a DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of new DNA strands. In PCR, DNA primers are used to amplify specific regions of DNA by providing a starting point for the polymerase enzyme to begin synthesizing new DNA strands. The primers are complementary to the target DNA sequence, and are added to the reaction mixture along with the DNA template, nucleotides, and polymerase enzyme. The polymerase enzyme uses the primers as a template to synthesize new DNA strands, which are then extended by the addition of more nucleotides. This process is repeated multiple times, resulting in the amplification of the target DNA sequence. DNA primers are also used in DNA sequencing to identify the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. In this application, the primers are designed to bind to specific regions of the DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of short DNA fragments. The fragments are then sequenced using a variety of techniques, such as Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing. Overall, DNA primers are an important tool in molecular biology, and are used in a wide range of applications to study and manipulate DNA.
In the medical field, "trans-activators" refer to proteins or molecules that activate the transcription of a gene, which is the process by which the information in a gene is used to produce a functional product, such as a protein. Trans-activators can bind to specific DNA sequences near a gene and recruit other proteins, such as RNA polymerase, to initiate transcription. They can also modify the chromatin structure around a gene to make it more accessible to transcription machinery. Trans-activators play important roles in regulating gene expression and are involved in many biological processes, including development, differentiation, and disease.
Nuclear proteins are proteins that are found within the nucleus of a cell. The nucleus is the control center of the cell, where genetic material is stored and regulated. Nuclear proteins play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including DNA replication, transcription, and gene regulation. There are many different types of nuclear proteins, each with its own specific function. Some nuclear proteins are involved in the structure and organization of the nucleus itself, while others are involved in the regulation of gene expression. Nuclear proteins can also interact with other proteins, DNA, and RNA molecules to carry out their functions. In the medical field, nuclear proteins are often studied in the context of diseases such as cancer, where changes in the expression or function of nuclear proteins can contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Additionally, nuclear proteins are important targets for drug development, as they can be targeted to treat a variety of diseases.
Repressor proteins are a class of proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and preventing the transcription of the associated gene. They are often involved in controlling the expression of genes that are involved in cellular processes such as metabolism, growth, and differentiation. Repressor proteins can be classified into two main types: transcriptional repressors and post-transcriptional repressors. Transcriptional repressors bind to specific DNA sequences near the promoter region of a gene, which prevents the binding of RNA polymerase and other transcription factors, thereby inhibiting the transcription of the gene. Post-transcriptional repressors, on the other hand, bind to the mRNA of a gene, which prevents its translation into protein or causes its degradation, thereby reducing the amount of protein produced. Repressor proteins play important roles in many biological processes, including development, differentiation, and cellular response to environmental stimuli. They are also involved in the regulation of many diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic disorders.
In the medical field, "DNA, Complementary" refers to the property of DNA molecules to pair up with each other in a specific way. Each strand of DNA has a unique sequence of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine), and the nucleotides on one strand can only pair up with specific nucleotides on the other strand in a complementary manner. For example, adenine (A) always pairs up with thymine (T), and guanine (G) always pairs up with cytosine (C). This complementary pairing is essential for DNA replication and transcription, as it ensures that the genetic information encoded in one strand of DNA can be accurately copied onto a new strand. The complementary nature of DNA also plays a crucial role in genetic engineering and biotechnology, as scientists can use complementary DNA strands to create specific genetic sequences or modify existing ones.
Luciferases are enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of luciferin, a small molecule, to produce light. In the medical field, luciferases are commonly used as reporters in bioluminescence assays, which are used to measure gene expression, protein-protein interactions, and other biological processes. One of the most well-known examples of luciferases in medicine is the green fluorescent protein (GFP) luciferase, which is derived from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. GFP luciferase is used in a variety of applications, including monitoring gene expression in living cells and tissues, tracking the movement of cells and proteins in vivo, and studying the dynamics of signaling pathways. Another example of a luciferase used in medicine is the firefly luciferase, which is derived from the firefly Photinus pyralis. Firefly luciferase is used in bioluminescence assays to measure the activity of various enzymes and to study the metabolism of drugs and other compounds. Overall, luciferases are valuable tools in the medical field because they allow researchers to visualize and quantify biological processes in a non-invasive and sensitive manner.
DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries genetic information in living organisms. It is composed of four types of nitrogen-containing molecules called nucleotides, which are arranged in a specific sequence to form the genetic code. In the medical field, DNA is often studied as a tool for understanding and diagnosing genetic disorders. Genetic disorders are caused by changes in the DNA sequence that can affect the function of genes, leading to a variety of health problems. By analyzing DNA, doctors and researchers can identify specific genetic mutations that may be responsible for a particular disorder, and develop targeted treatments or therapies to address the underlying cause of the condition. DNA is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their unique genetic fingerprint. This is because each person's DNA sequence is unique, and can be used to distinguish one individual from another. DNA analysis is also used in criminal investigations to help solve crimes by linking DNA evidence to suspects or victims.
Homeodomain proteins are a class of transcription factors that play a crucial role in the development and differentiation of cells and tissues in animals. They are characterized by a highly conserved DNA-binding domain called the homeodomain, which allows them to recognize and bind to specific DNA sequences. Homeodomain proteins are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including embryonic development, tissue differentiation, and organogenesis. They regulate the expression of genes that are essential for these processes by binding to specific DNA sequences and either activating or repressing the transcription of target genes. There are many different types of homeodomain proteins, each with its own unique function and target genes. Some examples of homeodomain proteins include the Hox genes, which are involved in the development of the body plan in animals, and the Pax genes, which are involved in the development of the nervous system. Mutations in homeodomain proteins can lead to a variety of developmental disorders, including congenital malformations and intellectual disabilities. Understanding the function and regulation of homeodomain proteins is therefore important for the development of new treatments for these conditions.
NF-kappa B (Nuclear Factor kappa B) is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating the immune response, inflammation, and cell survival. It is a complex of proteins that is found in the cytoplasm of cells and is activated in response to various stimuli, such as cytokines, bacterial and viral infections, and stress. When activated, NF-kappa B translocates to the nucleus and binds to specific DNA sequences, promoting the expression of genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses. This includes genes encoding for cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules, which help to recruit immune cells to the site of infection or injury. NF-kappa B is also involved in regulating cell survival and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Dysregulation of NF-kappa B signaling has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease.
Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.
RNA, Small Interfering (siRNA) is a type of non-coding RNA molecule that plays a role in gene regulation. siRNA is approximately 21-25 nucleotides in length and is derived from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules. In the medical field, siRNA is used as a tool for gene silencing, which involves inhibiting the expression of specific genes. This is achieved by introducing siRNA molecules that are complementary to the target mRNA sequence, leading to the degradation of the mRNA and subsequent inhibition of protein synthesis. siRNA has potential applications in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, viral infections, and genetic disorders. It is also used in research to study gene function and regulation. However, the use of siRNA in medicine is still in its early stages, and there are several challenges that need to be addressed before it can be widely used in clinical practice.
Green Fluorescent Proteins (GFPs) are a class of proteins that emit green light when excited by blue or ultraviolet light. They were first discovered in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria and have since been widely used as a tool in the field of molecular biology and bioimaging. In the medical field, GFPs are often used as a marker to track the movement and behavior of cells and proteins within living organisms. For example, scientists can insert a gene for GFP into a cell or organism, allowing them to visualize the cell or protein in real-time using a fluorescent microscope. This can be particularly useful in studying the development and function of cells, as well as in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. GFPs have also been used to develop biosensors, which can detect the presence of specific molecules or changes in cellular environment. For example, researchers have developed GFP-based sensors that can detect the presence of certain drugs or toxins, or changes in pH or calcium levels within cells. Overall, GFPs have become a valuable tool in the medical field, allowing researchers to study cellular processes and diseases in new and innovative ways.
Recombinant fusion proteins are proteins that are produced by combining two or more genes in a single molecule. These proteins are typically created using genetic engineering techniques, such as recombinant DNA technology, to insert one or more genes into a host organism, such as bacteria or yeast, which then produces the fusion protein. Fusion proteins are often used in medical research and drug development because they can have unique properties that are not present in the individual proteins that make up the fusion. For example, a fusion protein might be designed to have increased stability, improved solubility, or enhanced targeting to specific cells or tissues. Recombinant fusion proteins have a wide range of applications in medicine, including as therapeutic agents, diagnostic tools, and research reagents. Some examples of recombinant fusion proteins used in medicine include antibodies, growth factors, and cytokines.
Beta-galactosidase is an enzyme that is involved in the breakdown of lactose, a disaccharide sugar found in milk and other dairy products. It is produced by the lactase enzyme in the small intestine of most mammals, including humans, to help digest lactose. In the medical field, beta-galactosidase is used as a diagnostic tool to detect lactose intolerance, a condition in which the body is unable to produce enough lactase to digest lactose properly. A lactose tolerance test involves consuming a lactose solution and then measuring the amount of beta-galactosidase activity in the blood or breath. If the activity is low, it may indicate lactose intolerance. Beta-galactosidase is also used in research and biotechnology applications, such as in the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and in the development of new drugs and therapies.
Proteins are complex biomolecules made up of amino acids that play a crucial role in many biological processes in the human body. In the medical field, proteins are studied extensively as they are involved in a wide range of functions, including: 1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body, such as digestion, metabolism, and energy production. 2. Hormones: Proteins that regulate various bodily functions, such as growth, development, and reproduction. 3. Antibodies: Proteins that help the immune system recognize and neutralize foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. 4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across cell membranes, such as oxygen and nutrients. 5. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide support and shape to cells and tissues, such as collagen and elastin. Protein abnormalities can lead to various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of proteins is essential for developing effective treatments and therapies for these conditions.
Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase (COT) is an enzyme that is responsible for the metabolism of the antibiotic chloramphenicol. It is found in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants. In the medical field, COT is often studied as a potential target for the development of new antibiotics, as it plays a key role in the resistance of certain bacteria to chloramphenicol. Additionally, COT has been shown to have a number of other functions, including the detoxification of harmful compounds and the regulation of gene expression.
Plant proteins are proteins that are derived from plants. They are an important source of dietary protein for many people and are a key component of a healthy diet. Plant proteins are found in a wide variety of plant-based foods, including legumes, nuts, seeds, grains, and vegetables. They are an important source of essential amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins and are necessary for the growth and repair of tissues in the body. Plant proteins are also a good source of fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and are generally lower in saturated fat and cholesterol than animal-based proteins. In the medical field, plant proteins are often recommended as part of a healthy diet for people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure.
In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.
In the medical field, carrier proteins are proteins that transport molecules across cell membranes or within cells. These proteins bind to specific molecules, such as hormones, nutrients, or waste products, and facilitate their movement across the membrane or within the cell. Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of molecules within cells and between cells. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including nutrient absorption, hormone regulation, and waste elimination. There are several types of carrier proteins, including facilitated diffusion carriers, active transport carriers, and ion channels. Each type of carrier protein has a specific function and mechanism of action. Understanding the role of carrier proteins in the body is important for diagnosing and treating various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, metabolic disorders, and neurological disorders.
Immediate-early proteins (IEPs) are a class of proteins that are rapidly and transiently expressed in response to various cellular signals, such as mitogenic growth factors, stress, and viral infection. They are also known as early response genes or immediate-early genes. IEPs play a crucial role in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. They are involved in various cellular processes, including gene transcription, cell cycle progression, and cell signaling. Some of the well-known IEPs include c-fos, c-jun, and Egr-1. The expression of IEPs is tightly regulated by various signaling pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Dysregulation of IEP expression has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and viral infections. In summary, IEPs are a class of proteins that play a critical role in regulating cellular processes in response to various signals. Their dysregulation has been implicated in various diseases, making them an important area of research in the medical field.
Neoplasm proteins are proteins that are produced by cancer cells. These proteins are often abnormal and can contribute to the growth and spread of cancer. They can be detected in the blood or other body fluids, and their presence can be used as a diagnostic tool for cancer. Some neoplasm proteins are also being studied as potential targets for cancer treatment.
Membrane proteins are proteins that are embedded within the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane. They play a crucial role in regulating the movement of substances across the membrane, as well as in cell signaling and communication. There are several types of membrane proteins, including integral membrane proteins, which span the entire membrane, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are only in contact with one or both sides of the membrane. Membrane proteins can be classified based on their function, such as transporters, receptors, channels, and enzymes. They are important for many physiological processes, including nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and cell growth and division.
RNA, Neoplasm refers to the presence of abnormal RNA molecules in a neoplasm, which is a mass of abnormal cells that grow uncontrollably in the body. RNA is a type of genetic material that plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression and protein synthesis. In neoplasms, abnormal RNA molecules can be produced due to mutations in the DNA that codes for RNA. These abnormal RNA molecules can affect the normal functioning of cells and contribute to the development and progression of cancer. The detection and analysis of RNA in neoplasms can provide important information about the genetic changes that are occurring in the cells and can help guide the development of targeted therapies for cancer treatment.
Cytokines are small proteins that are produced by various cells of the immune system, including white blood cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. They play a crucial role in regulating immune responses and inflammation, and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Cytokines can be classified into different groups based on their function, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines, and regulatory cytokines. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), promote inflammation and recruit immune cells to the site of infection or injury. Anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), help to dampen the immune response and prevent excessive inflammation. Regulatory cytokines, such as interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13), help to regulate the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses. Cytokines play a critical role in many diseases, including autoimmune disorders, cancer, and infectious diseases. They are also important in the development of vaccines and immunotherapies.
Drosophila proteins are proteins that are found in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which is a widely used model organism in genetics and molecular biology research. These proteins have been studied extensively because they share many similarities with human proteins, making them useful for understanding the function and regulation of human genes and proteins. In the medical field, Drosophila proteins are often used as a model for studying human diseases, particularly those that are caused by genetic mutations. By studying the effects of these mutations on Drosophila proteins, researchers can gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of these diseases and potentially identify new therapeutic targets. Drosophila proteins have also been used to study a wide range of biological processes, including development, aging, and neurobiology. For example, researchers have used Drosophila to study the role of specific genes and proteins in the development of the nervous system, as well as the mechanisms underlying age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.
RNA, Plant refers to the type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that is found in plants. RNA is a molecule that plays a crucial role in the expression of genes in cells, and there are several types of RNA, including messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). In plants, RNA plays a critical role in various biological processes, including photosynthesis, growth and development, and defense against pathogens. Plant RNA is also important for the production of proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of plant cells. RNA, Plant can be studied using various techniques, including transcriptomics, which involves the analysis of RNA molecules in a cell or tissue to identify the genes that are being expressed. This information can be used to better understand plant biology and to develop new strategies for improving crop yields, increasing plant resistance to diseases and pests, and developing new plant-based products.
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a cytokine, a type of signaling protein, that plays a crucial role in the immune response and inflammation. It is produced by various cells in the body, including macrophages, monocytes, and T cells, in response to infection, injury, or other stimuli. TNF-alpha has multiple functions in the body, including regulating the immune response, promoting cell growth and differentiation, and mediating inflammation. It can also induce programmed cell death, or apoptosis, in some cells, which can be beneficial in fighting cancer. However, excessive or prolonged TNF-alpha production can lead to chronic inflammation and tissue damage, which can contribute to the development of various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and certain types of cancer. In the medical field, TNF-alpha is often targeted in the treatment of these conditions. For example, drugs called TNF inhibitors, such as infliximab and adalimumab, are used to block the action of TNF-alpha and reduce inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, and other inflammatory conditions.
Arabidopsis Proteins refer to proteins that are encoded by genes in the genome of the plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis is a small flowering plant that is widely used as a model organism in plant biology research due to its small size, short life cycle, and ease of genetic manipulation. Arabidopsis proteins have been extensively studied in the medical field due to their potential applications in drug discovery, disease diagnosis, and treatment. For example, some Arabidopsis proteins have been found to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral properties, making them potential candidates for the development of new drugs. In addition, Arabidopsis proteins have been used as tools for studying human diseases. For instance, researchers have used Arabidopsis to study the molecular mechanisms underlying human diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease. Overall, Arabidopsis proteins have become an important resource for medical research due to their potential applications in drug discovery and disease research.
Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by genetically engineering bacteria, yeast, or other organisms to express a specific gene. These proteins are typically used in medical research and drug development because they can be produced in large quantities and are often more pure and consistent than proteins that are extracted from natural sources. Recombinant proteins can be used for a variety of purposes in medicine, including as diagnostic tools, therapeutic agents, and research tools. For example, recombinant versions of human proteins such as insulin, growth hormones, and clotting factors are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. Recombinant proteins can also be used to study the function of specific genes and proteins, which can help researchers understand the underlying causes of diseases and develop new treatments.
Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the breast tissue. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign breast neoplasms are usually not life-threatening, but they can cause discomfort or cosmetic concerns. Malignant breast neoplasms, on the other hand, can spread to other parts of the body and are considered a serious health threat. Some common types of breast neoplasms include fibroadenomas, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive ductal carcinoma, and invasive lobular carcinoma.
Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear are proteins that are found within the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells. These receptors are responsible for binding to specific molecules, such as hormones or neurotransmitters, and triggering a response within the cell. This response can include changes in gene expression, enzyme activity, or other cellular processes. In the medical field, understanding the function and regulation of these receptors is important for understanding how cells respond to various stimuli and for developing treatments for a wide range of diseases.
Proto-oncogenes are normal genes that are involved in regulating cell growth and division. When these genes are mutated or overexpressed, they can become oncogenes, which can lead to the development of cancer. Proto-oncogenes are also known as proto-oncogene proteins.
The Sp1 transcription factor is a protein that plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression in the medical field. It is a member of the Sp family of transcription factors, which are involved in the regulation of a wide range of genes, including those involved in cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Sp1 is a zinc finger protein that binds to specific DNA sequences called GC-rich boxes, which are found in the promoter regions of many genes. When Sp1 binds to these sequences, it recruits other proteins and helps to activate the transcription of the gene. This process is essential for the proper functioning of many biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In the medical field, Sp1 is often studied in the context of cancer, as it has been implicated in the regulation of genes involved in cell proliferation and survival. Dysregulation of Sp1 activity has been linked to the development and progression of many types of cancer, including breast cancer, prostate cancer, and lung cancer. As such, understanding the role of Sp1 in gene regulation is an important area of research in cancer biology.
Dexamethasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid hormone that is used in the medical field as an anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and antipyretic agent. It is a potent corticosteroid that has a wide range of therapeutic applications, including the treatment of allergic reactions, inflammatory diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer. Dexamethasone is available in various forms, including tablets, injections, and inhalers, and is used to treat a variety of conditions, such as asthma, COPD, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. It is also used to treat severe cases of COVID-19, as it has been shown to reduce inflammation and improve outcomes in patients with severe illness. However, dexamethasone is a potent drug that can have significant side effects, including weight gain, fluid retention, high blood pressure, increased risk of infection, and mood changes. Therefore, it is typically prescribed only when other treatments have failed or when the potential benefits outweigh the risks.
Proto-oncogene proteins c-fos are a group of proteins that play a role in cell growth and differentiation. They are encoded by the c-fos gene and are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. In normal cells, c-fos proteins are expressed at low levels and play a role in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. However, in cancer cells, the expression of c-fos proteins is often increased, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and the development of cancer. Proto-oncogene proteins c-fos are therefore considered to be oncogenes, which are genes that have the potential to cause cancer.
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of enzymes that remove acetyl groups from the lysine residues of histone proteins. Histones are proteins that help package and organize DNA into chromatin, which is the complex structure that makes up chromosomes. The addition or removal of acetyl groups to histones can affect the accessibility of DNA to the enzymes that read and write genetic information, and thus play a role in regulating gene expression. In the medical field, HDACs have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory conditions. Some HDAC inhibitors have been developed as potential therapeutic agents for these diseases, as they can alter gene expression in ways that may be beneficial for treating the disease. For example, HDAC inhibitors have been shown to have anti-cancer effects by blocking the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, and to have anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the production of pro-inflammatory molecules.
Nerve tissue proteins are proteins that are found in nerve cells, also known as neurons. These proteins play important roles in the structure and function of neurons, including the transmission of electrical signals along the length of the neuron and the communication between neurons. There are many different types of nerve tissue proteins, each with its own specific function. Some examples of nerve tissue proteins include neurofilaments, which provide structural support for the neuron; microtubules, which help to maintain the shape of the neuron and transport materials within the neuron; and neurofilament light chain, which is involved in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, which are a hallmark of certain neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Nerve tissue proteins are important for the proper functioning of the nervous system and any disruption in their production or function can lead to neurological disorders.
Inflammation is a complex biological response of the body to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is a protective mechanism that helps to eliminate the cause of injury, remove damaged tissue, and initiate the healing process. Inflammation involves the activation of immune cells, such as white blood cells, and the release of chemical mediators, such as cytokines and prostaglandins. This leads to the characteristic signs and symptoms of inflammation, including redness, heat, swelling, pain, and loss of function. Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response that lasts for a few days to a few weeks and is usually beneficial. Chronic inflammation, on the other hand, is a prolonged response that lasts for months or years and can be harmful if it persists. Chronic inflammation is associated with many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and autoimmune disorders.
Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) is a family of cytokines that play a crucial role in regulating cell growth, differentiation, and migration. TGF-βs are secreted by a variety of cells, including immune cells, fibroblasts, and epithelial cells, and act on neighboring cells to modulate their behavior. TGF-βs have both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects, depending on the context in which they are released. They can promote the differentiation of immune cells into effector cells that help to fight infections, but they can also suppress the immune response to prevent excessive inflammation. In addition to their role in immune regulation, TGF-βs are also involved in tissue repair and fibrosis. They can stimulate the production of extracellular matrix proteins, such as collagen, which are essential for tissue repair. However, excessive production of TGF-βs can lead to fibrosis, a condition in which excessive amounts of connective tissue accumulate in the body, leading to organ dysfunction. Overall, TGF-βs are important signaling molecules that play a critical role in regulating a wide range of cellular processes in the body.
Basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factors are a family of proteins that play important roles in regulating gene expression in a variety of biological processes, including development, differentiation, and cell cycle control. These proteins are characterized by a specific DNA-binding domain, known as the bHLH domain, which allows them to bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the transcription of target genes. bHLH transcription factors are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including the development of the nervous system, the formation of muscle tissue, and the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. They are also involved in the regulation of various diseases, including cancer, and are being studied as potential therapeutic targets. In the medical field, bHLH transcription factors are important for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying various diseases and for developing new treatments. They are also being studied as potential biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis.
Transcription factor AP-1 (Activator Protein 1) is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression in various biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. It is composed of two subunits, Jun and Fos, which can form homo- or heterodimers depending on the specific cellular context. In the medical field, AP-1 is often studied in the context of cancer, as its dysregulation has been implicated in the development and progression of various types of tumors. For example, overexpression of AP-1 has been observed in many human cancers, including breast, lung, and colon cancer, and is associated with increased cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. AP-1 can also be targeted for therapeutic intervention in cancer. For instance, small molecule inhibitors of AP-1 have been developed and shown to have anti-cancer activity in preclinical studies. Additionally, AP-1 has been identified as a potential biomarker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis, as its expression levels can be used to predict patient outcomes and response to treatment.
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are a class of proteins that interact with RNA molecules, either in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus of cells. These proteins play important roles in various cellular processes, including gene expression, RNA stability, and RNA transport. In the medical field, RBPs are of particular interest because they have been implicated in a number of diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and viral infections. For example, some RBPs have been shown to regulate the expression of genes that are involved in cell proliferation and survival, and mutations in these proteins can contribute to the development of cancer. Other RBPs have been implicated in the regulation of RNA stability and turnover, and changes in the levels of these proteins can affect the stability of specific mRNAs and contribute to the development of neurological disorders. In addition, RBPs play important roles in the regulation of viral infections. Many viruses encode proteins that interact with host RBPs, and these interactions can affect the stability and translation of viral mRNAs, as well as the overall pathogenesis of the infection. Overall, RBPs are an important class of proteins that play critical roles in many cellular processes, and their dysfunction has been implicated in a number of diseases. As such, they are an active area of research in the medical field, with the potential to lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for a variety of diseases.
Viral proteins are proteins that are synthesized by viruses during their replication cycle within a host cell. These proteins play a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including attachment to host cells, entry into the cell, replication of the viral genome, assembly of new viral particles, and release of the virus from the host cell. Viral proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, non-structural proteins, and regulatory proteins. Structural proteins are the building blocks of the viral particle, such as capsid proteins that form the viral coat. Non-structural proteins are proteins that are not part of the viral particle but are essential for viral replication, such as proteases that cleave viral polyproteins into individual proteins. Regulatory proteins are proteins that control the expression of viral genes or the activity of viral enzymes. Viral proteins are important targets for antiviral drugs and vaccines, as they are essential for viral replication and survival. Understanding the structure and function of viral proteins is crucial for the development of effective antiviral therapies and vaccines.
DNA probes are a specific segment of DNA that is labeled with a fluorescent or radioactive marker. They are used in medical research and diagnostics to detect and identify specific DNA sequences in a sample. DNA probes are commonly used in genetic testing to diagnose genetic disorders, such as cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and Huntington's disease. They can also be used to detect the presence of specific genes or genetic mutations in cancer cells, to identify bacteria or viruses in a sample, and to study the evolution and diversity of different species. DNA probes are created by isolating a specific DNA sequence of interest and attaching a fluorescent or radioactive label to it. The labeled probe is then hybridized to a sample of DNA, and the presence of the probe can be detected by fluorescence or radioactivity. The specificity of DNA probes allows for accurate and sensitive detection of specific DNA sequences, making them a valuable tool in medical research and diagnostics.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins are proteins that are produced by the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This yeast is commonly used in the production of bread, beer, and wine, as well as in scientific research. In the medical field, S. cerevisiae proteins have been studied for their potential use in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. Some S. cerevisiae proteins have also been shown to have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, making them of interest for the development of new therapies.
Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein (CREB) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression in response to various stimuli, including hormones, growth factors, and neurotransmitters. In the medical field, CREB is often studied in the context of various diseases and disorders, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and mood disorders. CREB is activated by the binding of cyclic AMP (cAMP), a second messenger molecule that is produced in response to various signaling pathways. Once activated, CREB translocates to the nucleus and binds to specific DNA sequences called cyclic AMP response elements (CREs), which are located in the promoter regions of target genes. This binding leads to the recruitment of other transcription factors and coactivators, which help to promote the transcription of target genes. In cancer, CREB has been shown to play a role in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival, and migration. In neurodegenerative diseases, CREB has been implicated in the regulation of neuroplasticity and the maintenance of cognitive function. In mood disorders, CREB has been shown to play a role in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and the expression of genes involved in mood regulation. Overall, CREB is a key regulator of gene expression in various physiological and pathological processes, and its dysregulation has been implicated in a wide range of diseases and disorders.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are a type of complex carbohydrate found on the surface of gram-negative bacteria. They are composed of a lipid A moiety, a core polysaccharide, and an O-specific polysaccharide. LPS are important components of the bacterial cell wall and play a role in the innate immune response of the host. In the medical field, LPS are often studied in the context of sepsis, a life-threatening condition that occurs when the body's response to an infection causes widespread inflammation. LPS can trigger a strong immune response in the host, leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other mediators that can cause tissue damage and organ failure. As a result, LPS are often used as a model for studying the pathophysiology of sepsis and for developing new treatments for this condition. LPS are also used in research as a tool for studying the immune system and for developing vaccines against bacterial infections. They can be purified from bacterial cultures and used to stimulate immune cells in vitro or in animal models, allowing researchers to study the mechanisms of immune responses to bacterial pathogens. Additionally, LPS can be used as an adjuvant in vaccines to enhance the immune response to the vaccine antigen.
Cycloheximide is a synthetic antibiotic that is used in the medical field as an antifungal agent. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of proteins in fungal cells, which ultimately leads to their death. Cycloheximide is commonly used to treat fungal infections of the skin, nails, and hair, as well as systemic fungal infections such as candidiasis and aspergillosis. It is usually administered orally or topically, and its effectiveness can be enhanced by combining it with other antifungal medications. However, cycloheximide can also have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and allergic reactions, and it may interact with other medications, so it should be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Protein isoforms refer to different forms of a protein that are produced by alternative splicing of the same gene. Alternative splicing is a process by which different combinations of exons (coding regions) are selected from the pre-mRNA transcript of a gene, resulting in the production of different protein isoforms with slightly different amino acid sequences. Protein isoforms can have different functions, localization, and stability, and can play distinct roles in cellular processes. For example, the same gene may produce a protein isoform that is expressed in the nucleus and another isoform that is expressed in the cytoplasm. Alternatively, different isoforms of the same protein may have different substrate specificity or binding affinity for other molecules. Dysregulation of alternative splicing can lead to the production of abnormal protein isoforms, which can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of alternative splicing and the functional consequences of protein isoforms is an important area of research in the medical field.
Early Growth Response Protein 1 (EGR1) is a transcription factor that plays a role in regulating gene expression in response to various stimuli, including growth factors, cytokines, and stress. It is also known as Zif268, Krox24, and NGFI-A. EGR1 is involved in a wide range of biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. It has been implicated in the regulation of genes involved in inflammation, immune response, and neurodegeneration. In the medical field, EGR1 has been studied in various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders. For example, EGR1 has been shown to be upregulated in many types of cancer and may play a role in tumor progression and metastasis. It has also been implicated in the regulation of genes involved in the development of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. Overall, EGR1 is a key regulator of gene expression that plays a critical role in various biological processes and has important implications for human health and disease.
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a type of cytokine, which is a signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. IL-1 is produced by various types of immune cells, including macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells, in response to infection, injury, or inflammation. IL-1 has multiple functions in the immune system, including promoting the activation and proliferation of immune cells, enhancing the production of other cytokines, and regulating the inflammatory response. It can also stimulate the production of fever, which helps to fight off infections. In the medical field, IL-1 is often studied in the context of various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. It is also being investigated as a potential target for the development of new treatments for these conditions.
Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that are secreted by cells and act as messengers to communicate with other cells. These molecules can be hormones, growth factors, cytokines, or other signaling molecules that are capable of transmitting information between cells. They play a crucial role in regulating various physiological processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, as well as immune responses and inflammation. In the medical field, understanding the function and regulation of intercellular signaling peptides and proteins is important for developing new treatments for various diseases and disorders, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and neurological disorders.
CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins (C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors that play important roles in regulating gene expression in various biological processes, including cell differentiation, metabolism, and inflammation. They are characterized by the presence of a conserved DNA-binding domain called the CCAAT/enhancer-binding domain (C/EBP) that allows them to bind to specific DNA sequences in the promoter regions of target genes. C/EBPs are involved in the regulation of a wide range of genes, including those involved in lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, and the inflammatory response. They are also important in the differentiation of various cell types, including adipocytes, hepatocytes, and immune cells. In the medical field, C/EBPs have been implicated in a number of diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and inflammatory disorders. For example, dysregulation of C/EBP expression has been linked to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, while overexpression of certain C/EBP family members has been associated with the development of inflammation and cancer. As such, C/EBPs are an important area of research in the development of new therapeutic strategies for these and other diseases.
In the medical field, neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors of cells that can occur in any part of the body. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or difficulty moving the affected area. Examples of benign neoplasms include lipomas (fatty tumors), hemangiomas (vascular tumors), and fibromas (fibrous tumors). Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. They can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the location and stage of the cancer. Examples of malignant neoplasms include carcinomas (cancers that start in epithelial cells), sarcomas (cancers that start in connective tissue), and leukemias (cancers that start in blood cells). The diagnosis of neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy (the removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope). Treatment options for neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine, a type of signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is produced by a variety of cells, including immune cells such as macrophages, monocytes, and T cells, as well as non-immune cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. IL-6 has a wide range of functions in the body, including regulating the immune response, promoting inflammation, and stimulating the growth and differentiation of immune cells. It is also involved in the regulation of metabolism, bone metabolism, and hematopoiesis (the production of blood cells). In the medical field, IL-6 is often measured as a marker of inflammation and is used to diagnose and monitor a variety of conditions, including autoimmune diseases, infections, and cancer. It is also being studied as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these conditions, as well as for the management of chronic pain and other conditions.
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in cellular signaling pathways. They are involved in regulating various cellular processes such as cell growth, differentiation, proliferation, survival, and apoptosis. MAPKs are activated by extracellular signals such as growth factors, cytokines, and hormones, which bind to specific receptors on the cell surface. This activation leads to a cascade of phosphorylation events, where MAPKs phosphorylate and activate downstream effector molecules, such as transcription factors, that regulate gene expression. In the medical field, MAPKs are of great interest due to their involvement in various diseases, including cancer, inflammatory disorders, and neurological disorders. For example, mutations in MAPK signaling pathways are commonly found in many types of cancer, and targeting these pathways has become an important strategy for cancer therapy. Additionally, MAPKs are involved in the regulation of immune responses, and dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in various inflammatory disorders. Finally, MAPKs play a role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system, and dysfunction of these pathways has been linked to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.
Upstream open reading frame
List of MeSH codes (G05)
Fleming Prize Lecture
Scientific research on the International Space Station
Gene regulatory circuit
Chemical defenses in Cannabis
Meiotic recombination checkpoint
Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal | Broad Institute
Sre1, an iron-modulated GATA DNA-binding protein of iron-uptake genes in the fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum
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New and Reemerging Infectious Diseases - Volume 9, Number 8-August 2003 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
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- Interestingly, trapping device simplification was accompanied by expansion of gene families encoding adhesion proteins and their increasing adhesiveness on trap surfaces. (mcmaster.ca)
- Several molecular mechanisms with antifungal agents have been reported for C. albicans where insertions, deletions, and point mutations in genes codifying target proteins are frequently related to the antifungal drug resistance. (intechopen.com)
- Furthermore, gene overexpression is also frequently associated to antifungal resistance as well as an increase in the activity of proteins that reduce oxidative damage. (intechopen.com)
- We report here that SRE1, a gene encoding a GATA-type protein, bound to promoter sequences of genes involved in siderophore biosynthesis. (nih.gov)
- Sre1 had sequence similarity to the fungal negative regulators of siderophore biosynthesis. (nih.gov)
- Our analysis of metabolic regulation shows that UV activates DNA repair, aromatic amino acid and carotenoid biosynthesis and represses central carbon metabolism and the fungal-like apoptotic pathway. (biorxiv.org)
- BPSE changed the gene expressions mainly responsible for central carbon metabolism and the cellular oxidative stress. (bvsalud.org)
- Down-regulation of Spds in the mutant altered overall nitrogen metabolism and significantly reduced fungal growth, pathogenicity, and the production of aflatoxins during maize seed infection. (usda.gov)
- Re-expression of PLIN5 S155A in the liver of Plin5 liver-specific null mice reduced lipolysis compared with wild-type PLIN5 re-expression, but was not associated with other changes in hepatic lipid metabolism. (uci.edu)
- Using genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics we have identified two fungal symbiosis factors that act synergistically in the apoplast, the enzymatically active ecto-5-nucleotidase ( Si E5NT) and nuclease A ( Si NucA). (mpg.de)
- Bioinformatics Plant genomics and genome evolution, transposable elements, and regulatory gene evolution. (uga.edu)
- Mary Goll Associate Professor Genetics Epigenetic regulation in the context of development and cancer. (uga.edu)
- In senju mutants, reduced expression of galactose-containing glycans resulted in hyperactivation of the Toll signaling pathway in the absence of immune challenges. (sdbonline.org)
- This paper explores the involvement of the Toll/NF-kappaB pathway in the localized activation of wound repair genes around epidermal breaks. (sdbonline.org)
- Fungal plant pathogens can be classified as biotrophs, necrotrophs or hemibiotrophs based on their life-style and interaction with the host. (nature.com)
- Phytohormone signaling involving JA, ET or SA is an integral component of multilayered host-defense system against plethora of fungal pathogens. (nature.com)
- Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitous polycations that influence normal growth, development, and stress responses in living organisms and have been shown to play a significant role in fungal pathogenesis. (usda.gov)
- This chapter summarizes the main molecular mechanisms to C. albicans antifungal drug resistance, besides offering an overview of new antifungal agents and new antifungal targets to combat fungal infections. (intechopen.com)
- In this project, we propose to dissect plant immunity and cell death mechanisms induced by dAdo during fungal accommodation and the associated signalling pathways by genome mining and manipulation of host and fungal pathways. (mpg.de)
- In particular, exposure to CAS resulted in the upregulation of hypha-specific genes known to play a role in biofilm formation, such as ALS3 and HWP1. (who.int)
- Less ROS accumulation, upregulation of ROS signaling genes and higher antioxidant enzyme activities post BNS resulted in resistance. (nature.com)
- There was greater accumulation of secondary metabolites and upregulation of secondary metabolite-related genes after BNS. (nature.com)
- Our results suggest that the expansion of adhesion genes in NTF genomes and consequential increase in trap surface adhesiveness are likely the key drivers of fungal adaptation in trapping nematodes, providing new insights into understanding mechanisms underlying infection and adaptation of pathogenic fungi. (mcmaster.ca)
- This modification is associated with genome stability by preventing either expression of transposable elements or mitotic recombination. (biomedcentral.com)
- We then define a modular cloning system, including antibiotic selections, integration sites, and reporter genes, and use the transcriptomics to derive strong constitutive and regulated promoters. (biorxiv.org)
- A single transcript chosen for a gene which is the most conserved, most highly expressed, has the longest coding sequence and is represented in other key resources, such as NCBI and UniProt. (ensembl.org)
- PEM in children is frequently associated with an increased incidence of bacterial, Patients fungal and viral infections [ 2 ] and is the The current study was performed on 42 in- most common cause of secondary immu- fants recruited from the Children's Hospital, nodeficiency [ 3-5 ]. (who.int)
- Selective gene silencing is key to development. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our findings support a conserved function of the PRC2 complex in fungal development. (biomedcentral.com)
- In participating UK research institutions, investigators can publish open access in Genome Research, Genes & Development, RNA, and Learning & Memory without article publication charges and all staff can read the entire renowned Cold Spring Harbor journal collection. (cshlpress.com)
- A purified bamboo polysaccharide (BPSE) with an average molecular weight of 34.2 kDa was found to be the most effective elicitor to enhance fungal HA production and characterized as a polysaccharide fraction mainly composed of arabinose and galactose (53.7: 36.9). (bvsalud.org)
- Notably, we discover a novel promoter from a hypothetical gene that has 9-fold activation upon UV exposure. (biorxiv.org)
- Expression of the AMP gene drosomycin (a Toll target) was blocked when expression of the Toll ligand Spätzle was knocked down in haemocytes. (cnrs.fr)
- Suppression of the degalactosylation by senju overexpression resulted in reduced induction of Toll-dependent expression of an antimicrobial peptide, Drosomycin , and increased susceptibility to infection with Gram-positive bacteria. (sdbonline.org)
- Our results indicated the roles of plant polysaccharides in host-fungal interactions and provided a new elicitation technique to improve fungal perylenequinone production in mycelium cultures. (bvsalud.org)
- We established genome-wide patterns of H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 modifications, and found these marks mutually exclusive within gene-rich regions but not within repeats. (biomedcentral.com)
- In contrast, the 'facultative' heterochromatin corresponds to the deposition of H3K27me3 on gene-rich regions, whose silencing is transient and dynamic across developmental processes, allowing cell type-specific differentiation and rapid adaptation of gene expression [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- (B) Expressions of RNASET2 in human tissues were analyzed in the Human Protein Atlas database, and the resulting transcript expression values, denoted normalized expression (NX), were calculated for each gene in every sample. (frontiersin.org)
- Malnutrition, both protein-energy mal- aimed to assess the use of CD95 expression nutrition (PEM) and micronutrient defi- as a marker for following up these patients ciencies, continues to be a major health during their nutritional rehabilitation and burden in developing countries. (who.int)
- In planta dAdo induces activation of plant cell death marker genes, electrolyte leakage and 26S proteasome activity. (mpg.de)
- With the advances in BMT and gene therapy, patients now have a better likelihood of developing a functional immune system in a previously lethal genetic disease. (medscape.com)
- While traditional breeding techniques are often used to improve aflatoxin resistance in maize, 'Host Induced Gene Silencing' (HIGS) through RNA interference (RNAi) is being evaluated as a potential alternative. (usda.gov)
- Hypocrellin A (HA), a fungal perylenequinone from bambusicolous Shiraia species, is a newly developed photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy in cancer and other infectious diseases. (bvsalud.org)
- Ruderfer DM, Roberts DC, Schreiber SL, Perlstein EO, Kruglyak L. Using expression and genotype to predict drug response in yeast. (broadinstitute.org)
- dAdo also triggers cell death in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha , suggesting that this fungal-elicited cell death is conserved across plant lineages. (mpg.de)
- The plant stress-signalling metabolite MEcPP (methylerythritol cyclodiphosphate) additionally accumulates in the apoplast which is involved in the regulation of expression of stress-responsive genes. (mpg.de)
- A total of twenty genes functioning in different aspects of plant defense that were monitored over a time course during the changing infection phases showed a coordinated response. (nature.com)
- The results presented here show that targeting A. flavus Spds gene through RNAi approach in future might be effective in reducing both fungal growth and aflatoxin contamination in maize. (usda.gov)
- X-rays are a work of eggs in characteristics Wondering from Not fungal finished job results been by compounds to free ideal times related by agents optoelectronic as Candida problems, or Cryptococcus applications. (plywoodskyscraper.com)
- CD18 deficiency results in loss of expression of LFA-1, CR3 (CD11b/CD18), and CR4 (CD11c/CD18) (see Table 3). (medscape.com)
- SCID results from mutations in any of more than 15 known genes. (medscape.com)
- This host cell death is required for fungal accommodation and the establishment of a long-lasting beneficial interaction in barley and Arabidopsis. (mpg.de)
- Beyond this protective role, Mrr can inflict chromosomal DNA damage that elicits the SOS response in the host cell upon heterologous expression of specific methyltransferases such as M.HhaII, or after exposure to high pressure (HP). (uci.edu)
- The expression and secretion of RNase T2 can be induced in response to a variety of tissue injury stimuli or oxidative stress ( 10 , 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
- After epidermal injury, barrier repair requires activation of many wound response genes in epidermal cells surrounding wound sites. (sdbonline.org)
- Small and Large Ribosomal Subunit Deficiencies Lead to Distinct Gene Expression Signatures that Reflect Cellular Growth Rate. (broadinstitute.org)
- To implement effective RNAi against A. flavus requires identification of suitable gene target/s that are critical for fungal growth and aflatoxin production. (usda.gov)
- To investigate the role of Spds in A. flavus growth and toxin production, we disrupted the Spds gene (knockout). (usda.gov)
- Inactivation of Spds significantly reduced mycelial growth and sporulation in vitro and addition of exogenous Spd was required to restore fungal growth and sporulation. (usda.gov)
- Expression of SRE1 was reduced under iron-starving conditions, underscoring its role as a negative regulator of genes involved in iron uptake. (nih.gov)
- Research interest: Fungal gene regulatory and biochemical networks, and biological clocks. (uga.edu)
- Moreover, resveratrol appears to attenuate spinal microglia activation, regulate primary receptors in dorsal root sensory neurons, inhibit pertinent voltage-gated ion channels, and curb the expression of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress responses. (bvsalud.org)
- To characterise the signals with which infection might be communicated between blood cells and fat body, we ablated circulating haemocytes and defined the parameters of AMP gene activation in larvae. (cnrs.fr)
- This data not only reveals novel photobiology and metabolic regulation, it also allows derivation of constitutive and regulated gene expression parts. (biorxiv.org)
- In the current study we evaluated the importance of a polyamine (nitrogenous compound) biosynthetic gene, spermidine synthase (Spds) that is required to produce the polyamine spermidine (Spd), which is critical for living cells to survive. (usda.gov)
- We found that targeted ablation of blood cells influenced the levels of AMP gene expression in the fat body following both septic injury and oral infection. (cnrs.fr)
- (C) Expressions of RNASET2 in 18 types of human blood cells and total peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were analyzed in the Blood Atlas database. (frontiersin.org)
- Expression of phosphorylation-defective PLIN5 S155A in Plin5 null cells resulted in decreased rates of lipolysis and triglyceride-derived fatty acid oxidation. (uci.edu)
- L-783,281, an antidiabetic fungal metabolite that has previously been shown to activate insulin signaling in CHO cells, was tested for its effect on intracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and insulin secretion in single mouse pancreatic β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Liu S, Li J, Tan D, Beuerman R. Expression and Function of Muscarinic Receptor Subtypes on Human Cornea and Conjunctiva. (iu.edu)
- One important strategy for studying these dynamic but highly regulated host defenses is to observe gene expression patterns in the host 5 . (nature.com)
- Complementation of the 'spds mutant with a wild type (WT) A. flavus Spds gene restored the WT phenotype. (usda.gov)
- Are BALB/c mice relevant models for understanding sex-related differences in gene expression in the human meibomian gland? (iu.edu)
- Gene/transcipt that contains an open reading frame (ORF). (ensembl.org)