Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (fos) originally isolated from the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses. The proto-oncogene protein c-fos codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. The insertion of c-fos into FBJ-MSV or FBR-MSV induces osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The human c-fos gene is located at 14q21-31 on the long arm of chromosome 14.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.

Inducible NO synthase: role in cellular signalling. (1/16452)

The discovery of endothelium-derived relaxing factor and its identification as nitric oxide (NO) was one of the most exciting discoveries of biomedical research in the 1980s. Besides its potent vasodilatory effects, NO was found under certain circumstances to be responsible for the killing of microorganisms and tumour cells by activated macrophages and to act as a novel, unconventional type of neurotransmitter. In 1992, Science picked NO as the 'Molecule of the Year', and over the past years NO has become established as a universal intercellular messenger that acutely affects important signalling pathways and, on a more long-term scale, modulates gene expression in target cells. These actions will form the focus of the present review.  (+info)

An overview of the evolution of overproduced esterases in the mosquito Culex pipiens. (2/16452)

Insecticide resistance genes have developed in a wide variety of insects in response to heavy chemical application. Few of these examples of adaptation in response to rapid environmental change have been studied both at the population level and at the gene level. One of these is the evolution of the overproduced esterases that are involved in resistance to organophosphate insecticides in the mosquito Culex pipiens. At the gene level, two genetic mechanisms are involved in esterase overproduction, namely gene amplification and gene regulation. At the population level, the co-occurrence of the same amplified allele in distinct geographic areas is best explained by the importance of passive transportation at the worldwide scale. The long-term monitoring of a population of mosquitoes in southern France has enabled a detailed study to be made of the evolution of resistance genes on a local scale, and has shown that a resistance gene with a lower cost has replaced a former resistance allele with a higher cost.  (+info)

Overexpression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase under the control of mouse metallothionein I promoter in transgenic mice: evidence for a striking post-transcriptional regulation of transgene expression by a polyamine analogue. (3/16452)

We recently generated a transgenic mouse line overexpressing spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) gene under its own promoter. The tissue polyamine pools of these animals were profoundly affected and the mice were hairless from early age. We have now generated another transgenic-mouse line overexpressing the SSAT gene under the control of a heavy-metal-inducible mouse metallothionein I (MT) promoter. Even in the absence of heavy metals, changes in the tissue polyamine pools indicated that a marked activation of polyamine catabolism had occurred in the transgenic animals. As with the SSAT transgenic mice generated previously, the mice of the new line (MT-SSAT) suffered permanent hair loss, but this occurred considerably later than in the previous SSAT transgenic animals. Liver was the most affected tissue in the MT-SSAT transgenic animals, revealed by putrescine overaccumulation, significant decrease in spermidine concentration and >90% reduction in the spermine pool. Even though hepatic SSAT mRNA accumulated to massive levels in non-induced transgenic animals, SSAT activity was only moderately elevated. Administration of ZnSO4 further elevated the level of hepatic SSAT message and induced enzyme activity, but not more than 2- to 3-fold. Treatment of the transgenic animals with the polyamine analogue N1,N11-diethylnorspermine (DENSPM) resulted in an immense induction, more than 40000-fold, of enzyme activity in the liver of transgenic animals, and minor changes in the SSAT mRNA level. Liver spermidine and spermine pools were virtually depleted within 1-2 days in response to the treatment with the analogue. The treatment also resulted in a marked mortality (up to 60%) among the transgenic animals which showed ultrastructural changes in the liver, most notably mitochondrial swelling, one of the earliest signs of cell injury. These results indicated that, even without its own promoter, SSAT is powerfully induced by the polyamine analogue through a mechanism that appears to involve a direct translational and/or heterogenous nuclear RNA processing control. It is likewise significant that overexpression of SSAT renders the animals extremely sensitive to polyamine analogues.  (+info)

Identification of a cAMP response element within the glucose- 6-phosphatase hydrolytic subunit gene promoter which is involved in the transcriptional regulation by cAMP and glucocorticoids in H4IIE hepatoma cells. (4/16452)

The expression of a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the human glucose 6-phosphatase gene promoter was stimulated by both dexamethasone and dibutyryl cAMP in H4IIE hepatoma cells. A cis-active element located between nucleotides -161 and -152 in the glucose 6-phosphatase gene promoter was identified and found to be necessary for both basal reporter-gene expression and induction of expression by both dibutyryl cAMP and dexamethasone. Nucleotides -161 to -152 were functionally replaced by the consensus sequence for a cAMP response element. An antibody against the cAMP response element-binding protein caused a supershift in gel-electrophoretic-mobility-shift assays using an oligonucleotide probe representing the glucose 6-phosphatase gene promoter from nucleotides -161 to -152. These results strongly indicate that in H4IIE cells the glucose 6-phosphatase gene-promoter sequence from -161 to -152 is a cAMP response element which is important for the regulation of transcription of the glucose 6-phosphatase gene by both cAMP and glucocorticoids.  (+info)

Regulation and function of family 1 and family 2 UDP-glucuronosyltransferase genes (UGT1A, UGT2B) in human oesophagus. (5/16452)

Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are expressed in a tissue-specific fashion in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues [Strassburg, Manns and Tukey (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 8719-8726]. Previous work suggests that these enzymes play a protective role in chemical carcinogenesis [Strassburg, Manns and Tukey (1997) Cancer Res. 57, 2979-2985]. In this study, UGT1 and UGT2 gene expression was investigated in human oesophageal epithelium and squamous-cell carcinoma in addition to the characterization of individual UGT isoforms using recombinant protein. UGT mRNA expression was characterized by duplex reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis and revealed the expression of UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A9 and UGT1A10 mRNAs. UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A5 and UGT1A6 transcripts were not detected. UGT2 expression included UGT2B7, UGT2B10 and UGT2B15, but UGT2B4 mRNA was absent. UGT2 mRNA was present at significantly lower levels than UGT1 transcripts. This observation was in agreement with the analysis of catalytic activities in oesophageal microsomal protein, which was characterized by high glucuronidation rates for phenolic xenobiotics, all of which are classical UGT1 substrates. Whereas UGT1A9 was not regulated, differential regulation of UGT1A7 and UGT1A10 mRNA was observed between normal oesophageal epithelium and squamous-cell carcinoma. Expression and analysis in vitro of recombinant UGT1A7, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 demonstrated that UGT1A7, UGT1A9 and UGT1A10 catalysed the glucuronidation of 7-hydroxybenzo(alpha)pyrene, as well as other environmental carcinogens, such as 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-(4, 5-beta)-pyridine. Although UGT1A9 was not regulated in the carcinoma tissue, the five-fold reduction in 7-hydroxybenzo(alpha)pyrene glucuronidation could be attributed to regulation of UGT1A7 and UGT1A10. These data elucidate an individual regulation of human UGT1A and UGT2B genes in human oesophagus and provide evidence for specific catalytic activities of individual human UGT isoforms towards environmental carcinogens that have been implicated in cellular carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Regulation of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:dolichyl-phosphate N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase by retinoic acid in P19 cells. (6/16452)

UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:dolichyl-phosphate N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase (GPT) is the first enzyme in the dolichol pathway of protein N-glycosylation, and is implicated in the developmental programmes of a variety of eukaryotes. In the present study we describe the effects of all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) on the levels of GPT protein and enzymic activity, and on the transcription rate of the GPT gene, in mouse P19 teratocarcinoma cells. RA caused a dose-dependent and protein-synthesis-dependent induction of enzyme activity. The maximum induction of GPT activity (about 3-fold) required 2 days of exposure to 1 microM RA. Induced GPT activity also resulted in an increase in the rate of incorporation of [3H]mannose into Glc3Man9GlcNAc2. Enzymic activities paralleled GPT gene expression. The GPT gene was induced (2-fold) after 7 h of RA treatment. An approx. 3-fold increase in a 48 kDa GPT protein and approx. 4-fold increases in the levels of three GPT transcripts (1.8, 2.0 and 2.2 kb) were observed after 2 days of RA treatment. The enhanced levels of GPT protein and mRNAs began to decline 3 days after the initiation of differentiation, and GPT expression was down-regulated during cellular differentiation. GPT activity decreased about 2. 8-fold to a constant level in differentiated P19 cells. The results indicate that the RA-induced enzyme activity was mainly determined by increased transcription of the GPT gene. RA-treated P19 cells were about 4-fold more resistant to tunicamycin, a fungal antibiotic which inhibits GPT, than were control cells. In addition, GPT activity in membranes from RA-treated P19 cells exhibited approx. 4-fold increased resistance to tunicamycin compared with activity in membranes from untreated control cells, demonstrating that resistance to tunicamycin is correlated with induced GPT activity. Furthermore, increased GPT activity had regulatory significance with regard to the rate of incorporation of [3H]mannose into Glc3Man9GlcNAc2-P-P-dolichol and into glycoproteins. Together, the data provide additional insights into the hormonal regulation of GPT and present evidence that the RA-mediated induction of GPT has a regulatory impact on the dolichol pathway.  (+info)

Glutathione-independent prostaglandin D2 synthase in ram and stallion epididymal fluids: origin and regulation. (7/16452)

Microsequencing after two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed a major protein, glutathione-independent prostaglandin D2 synthase (PGDS) in the anterior epididymal region fluid of the ram and stallion. In this epididymal region, PGDS was a polymorphic compound with a molecular mass around 30 kDa and a range of pI from 4 to 7. PGDS represented 15% and 8% of the total luminal proteins present in this region in the ram and stallion, respectively. The secretion of the protein as judged by in vitro biosynthesis, and the presence of its mRNA as studied by Northern blot analysis, were limited to the proximal caput epididymidis. Using a specific polyclonal antibody raised against a synthetic peptide, PGDS was found throughout the epididymis, decreasing in concentration toward the cauda region. PGDS was also detected in the testicular fluid and seminal plasma by Western blotting. Castration and efferent duct ligation in the ram led to a decrease in PGDS mRNA and secretion. PGDS mRNA was not detected in the stallion 1 mo after castration, and it was restored by testosterone supplementation. This study showed that PGDS is present in the environment of spermatozoa throughout the male genital tract. Its function in the maturation and/or protection of spermatozoa is unknown.  (+info)

Down-regulation of oxytocin-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin F synthase expression by interferon-tau in bovine endometrial cells. (8/16452)

Oxytocin (OT) is responsible for the episodic release of luteolytic prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha from the uterus in ruminants. The attenuation of OT-stimulated uterine PGF2alpha secretion by interferon-tau (IFN-tau) is essential for prevention of luteolysis during pregnancy in cows. To better understand the mechanisms involved, the effect of recombinant bovine IFN-tau (rbIFN-tau) on OT-induced PG production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and PGF synthase (PGFS) expression in cultured endometrial epithelial cells was investigated. Cells were obtained from cows at Days 1-3 of the estrous cycle and cultured to confluence in RPMI medium supplemented with 5% steroid-free fetal calf serum. The cells were then incubated in the presence or absence of either 100 ng/ml OT or OT+100 ng/ml rbIFN-tau for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. OT significantly increased PGF2alpha and PGE2 secretion at all time points (p < 0.01), while rbIFN-tau inhibited the OT-induced PG production and reduced OT receptor binding in a time-dependent manner. OT increased the steady-state level of COX-2 mRNA, measured by Northern blot, which was maximal at 3 h (9-fold increase) and then decreased with time (p < 0.01). OT also caused an increase in COX-2 protein, which peaked at 12 h (11-fold increase), as measured by Western blot. Addition of rbIFN-tau suppressed the induction of COX-2 mRNA (89%, p < 0.01) and COX-2 protein (50%, p < 0.01) by OT. OT also increased PGFS mRNA, and this stimulation was attenuated by rbIFN-tau (p < 0.01). To ensure that the decrease in COX-2 was not solely due to down-regulation of the OT receptor, cells were stimulated with a phorbol ester (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; PMA) in the presence and absence of rbIFN-tau. The results showed that rbIFN-tau also decreased PMA-stimulated PG production and COX-2 protein. It can be concluded that rbIFN-tau inhibition of OT-stimulated PG production is due to down-regulation of OT receptor, COX-2, and PGFS.  (+info)

Reactive oxygen species play an important role in the cytotoxic effect of inflammatory cytokines on pancreatic beta-cells in type 1 diabetes mellitus. The antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is part of the cellular defenses against these deleterious radicals. MnSOD gene express …
A novel role of interleukin-1-converting enzyme in cytokine-mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression: Implications for neuroinflammatory disease
Arterial baroreflex sensitivity is attenuated in chronic heart failure (CHF) state, which is associated with cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in patients with CHF. Our previous study showed that CHF-induced sodium channel dysfunction in the baroreceptor neurons was involved in the blunted baroreflex sensitivity in CHF rats. Mitochondria-derived superoxide overproduction decreased expression and activation of the sodium channels in the baroreceptor neurons from CHF rats. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the sodium channel dysfunction in the baroreceptor neurons from CHF rats remain unknown. We tested the involvement of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) in the sodium channel dysfunction and evaluated the effects of in vivo transfection of manganese superoxide dismutase gene and NFκB shRNA on the baroreflex function in CHF rats. CHF was developed at 6 to 8 weeks after left coronary artery ligation in adult rats. Western blot and chromatin immunoprecipitation data showed that ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [F Cournarie, D Azzout-Marniche, M Foretz, C Guichard, P Ferre, F Foufelle].
The present study highlights the following novel findings on the mechanisms responsible for the normalization of endothelial dysfunction by calcium antagonists. (1) The calcium antagonist nifedipine indirectly upregulates SOD activity and expression in ECs through activation of adjacent VSMCs. (2) VEGF released from VSMCs is involved in the mechanism underlying the upregulation of endothelial SOD activity by nifedipine. (3) Nifedipine stimulates the release of VEGF from VSMCs through activation of the bradykinin B2 receptor. (4) Upregulation of endothelial SOD by nifedipine results in the enhancement of NO production from ECs.. Calcium antagonists are widely used in the treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris. Recent evidence suggests that these drugs improve clinical outcome in patients with certain cardiovascular diseases.12,13⇓ It is noteworthy that calcium antagonists have been shown to normalize endothelial dysfunction in many cardiovascular diseases,14 because endothelial ...
5 important points on What role do enzymes play in metabolism. The roles include 1. Formation of macro-molecules 2. Breakdown of macro-molecules 3. Molecular inter-conversion 4. Enhancement of solubility 5. Minimizing toxicity
The Drosophila nitric-oxide synthase gene (dNOS) encodes a family of proteins that can modulate NOS activity by acting as dominant negative regulators ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insulin inhibition of glucose-6-phosphatase gene expression is dependent on the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase(pi-3-k) pathway, not the ras/map kinase pathway. AU - Baik, S. H.. AU - Trinh, K.. AU - Garcia, I.. AU - Nguyen, K.. AU - Kurland, I. J.. PY - 1997/12/1. Y1 - 1997/12/1. N2 - Glucose-6-phosphatase(G6Pase) is a key enzyme of hepatic gluconeogenesis. The expression of this gene is well known to be inhibited by insulin. but the pathway by which insulin influences this inhibition is not known. Insulin activates a signahng cascade involving the stimulation of insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity, tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates(IRS-1/2), RasRaf-+p42/p44 Mitogen activated protein(MAP) kinase kinase(MEK)p42/p44 MAP kinase. The sociation of the p85 subunit of PI-3-K with IRS-1/2 confers an increase in the activity of the pl].0 catalytic subunit of PI-3-K which activates Akt/Rac and p70 6 kinase (pT0 S6K). The aim of this study was to evaluate the ...
Recently we have shown that in vitro binding of the proximal part of the human tyrosine hydroxylase gene to the nuclear matrix is correlated with its transcriptional activity. The strongest binding potential was predicted by computing for the first intron sequence (Lenartowski & Goc, 2002, Neurosci Lett.; 330 : 151-154). In this study a 16 kb fragment of the bovine genomic DNA containing the tyrosine hydroxylase gene was investigated for its affinity to the nuclear matrix. Only a 950 bp fragment encoding the distal part of the first intron, second exon and a few nucleotides of the second intron bound to the nuclear matrix. The binding was independent of the tissue-specific tyrosine hydroxylase gene activation. The fragment was subcloned and sequenced. Computer search pointed to one potential intronic matrix attachment region with two AP1-like sites embedded in the sequence. We conclude that even if the position of the matrix binding region is conserved among the tyrosine hydroxylase genes in ...
Cyclopropane fatty acid synthase genes and polypeptides are described. Plants are transformed with such genes to produce such polypeptides.
Cyclopropane fatty acid synthase genes and polypeptides are described. Plants are transformed with such genes to produce such polypeptides.
in Experimental Cell Research (2001), 265(1), 114-24. Hypoxia is an important pathophysiological stress that occurs during blood vessel injuries and tumor growth. It is now well documented that hypoxia leads to the activation of several transcription factors ... [more ▼]. Hypoxia is an important pathophysiological stress that occurs during blood vessel injuries and tumor growth. It is now well documented that hypoxia leads to the activation of several transcription factors which participate in the adaptive response of the cells to hypoxia. Among these transcription factors, AP-1 is rapidly activated by hypoxia and triggers bFGF, VEGF, and tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression. However, the mechanisms of AP-1 activation by hypoxia are not well understood. In this report, we studied the events leading to AP-1 activation in hypoxia. We found that c-jun protein accumulates in hypoxic HepG2 cells. This overexpression is concomitant with c-jun phosphorylation and JNK activation. Moreover, we showed ...
Renalase山羊多克隆抗体(ab31291)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, IHC实验严格验证,被3篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Curcumin inhibits nitric oxide synthase gene expression. Curcumin is a naturally occurring, dietary polyphenolic phytochemical that has been shown to inhibit cancer among other things. With respect to inflammation, it inhibits the activation of free radical activated transcription factors, and reduces the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), interleukin-1 and interleukin-8). Upon inflammation, an enzyme is induced (nitric oxide synthase) that catalyzes the production of nitric oxide (NO), a molecule that may lead to carcinogenesis. In this study in mouse immune cells curcumin reduced the production of nitric oxide in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, curcumin reduced nitric oxide expression in the livers of mice by 50-70%. Investigators were able to obtain potency at nanomoles per gram of body weight, even though it is believed that curcumin needs to be given at dosages that are unattainable through diet to produce an in vivo effect. ...
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Background: In diabetic retinopathy, the vascular endothelium is damaged due to oxidative stress and inflammation, and vitreous VEGF concentration becomes elevated. The association of diabetic retinopathy with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was studied on two genes: VEGF, an important mediator of neovascularisation, and MnSOD, a major antioxidant enzyme.. Methods: The study population was 755 individuals consisting of 131 diabetic (type 1 or type 2) patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR group), 98 diabetic controls without retinopathy (DC group) and 526 non-diabetic controls. VEGF SNPs rs699947, rs2010963, rs2146232, rs3025033, rs3025039 and Ala16Val polymorphism of the MnSOD gene were genotyped.. Results: The frequencies of allele and genotype of the single genotyped VEGF SNPs or reconstructed haplotypes of these single SNPs did not differ between DR and DC groups. A higher frequency of the AlaAla genotype (p = 0.03) and Ala16 allele (p = 0.04) of the MnSOD gene in the DR group was ...
The irreversible destruction of the tissues that comprise synovial joints is the hallmark of both rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. In both diseases, inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β, stimulate the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of enzymes that collectively degrade all components of the extra-cellular matrix. The collagenases, a subgroup of the MMP family, have the unique ability to cleave the collagen fibrils that comprise cartilage, tendon, and bone, and thereby provide the rate-limiting step in the degradation of many joint structures. In the arthritides, MMP-1 and MMP-13 (collagenase-1 and collagenase-3, respectively) are key mediators of joint destruction, and therefore represent potential therapeutic targets. In this thesis, we identified the rexinoid LG100268 (LG268), a ligand for the nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) RXR, as a novel, selective inhibitor of MMP-1 and -13 expression, and investigated the molecular mechanisms behind its ...
The irreversible destruction of the tissues that comprise synovial joints is the hallmark of both rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. In both diseases, inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β, stimulate the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of enzymes that collectively degrade all components of the extra-cellular matrix. The collagenases, a subgroup of the MMP family, have the unique ability to cleave the collagen fibrils that comprise cartilage, tendon, and bone, and thereby provide the rate-limiting step in the degradation of many joint structures. In the arthritides, MMP-1 and MMP-13 (collagenase-1 and collagenase-3, respectively) are key mediators of joint destruction, and therefore represent potential therapeutic targets. In this thesis, we identified the rexinoid LG100268 (LG268), a ligand for the nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) RXR, as a novel, selective inhibitor of MMP-1 and -13 expression, and investigated the molecular mechanisms behind its ...
Aromatase cytochrome P450, the key enzyme of estrogen biosynthesis from androgens, is encoded by CYP19. Its structure shows some peculiarities: exons II to X encode the protein, while multiple alternative exons I encode unique 5-untranslated regions of the aromatase mRNA transcripts. Immunohistochemistry studies in the rat have shown that pituitary aromatase expression is sex-dependent and varies across the estrous cycle, suggesting that estrogens might be involved in the regulation of aromatase activity and might act locally as a paracrine or autocrine factor in the pituitary. In the present study, we used RT-PCR to characterize aromatase transcripts and real-time PCR to quantify the expression of the total aromatase mRNA at the different stages of the estrous cycle and from an ovariectomy and estradiol replacement model. We identified the two previously described aromatase transcripts with a specific 5untranslated region of the brain 1f and the gonadal PII transcripts. Total aromatase mRNA
TY - CONF. T1 - Thrombin induces inducible nitric oxide synthase expression via Ras, Raf-1, ERK, and NF-B signaling pathways in NR8383 lung macrophages. AU - Chen, Bing-Chang. AU - Chi, C.Y.. AU - Lin, Chien-Huang. PY - 2010/6/26. Y1 - 2010/6/26. M3 - Poster. Y2 - 26 June 2010 through 1 July 2010. ER - ...
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Sucrose synthase, an important enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism, catalyzes the reversible conversion of sucrose and UDP to UDP-glucose and fructose in vitro. To investigate the in vivo function of sucrose synthase, both the gene (Asus1) and a corresponding cDNA from roots of Arabidopsis were isolat …
Bioactive Human MMP-2 (QP10790). Host: HEK 293. Available Tags: His. Purity: Greater than 95% as determined by SDS-PAGE.. From: 89.
Accepted name: 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (NAD+). Reaction: (5Z,13E,15S)-11α,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-5,13-dienoate + NAD+ = (5Z,13E)-11α-hydroxy-9,15-dioxoprost-5,13-dienoate + NADH + H+. Other name(s): NAD+-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (type I); PGDH; 11α,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-enoate:NAD+ 15-oxidoreductase; 15-OH-PGDH; 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase; 15-hydroxyprostanoic dehydrogenase; NAD-specific 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase; prostaglandin dehydrogenase; 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (NAD). Systematic name: (5Z,13E,15S)-11α,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-5,13-dienoate:NAD+ 15-oxidoreductase. Comments: Acts on prostaglandin E2, F2α and B1, but not on prostaglandin D2. cf. EC 15-hydroxyprostaglandin-D dehydrogenase (NADP+) and EC 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (NADP+).. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9030-87-9. References:. 1. Änggård, E. and Samuelsson, ...
Profacgen provides professional enzyme activity assay service for the determination of enzyme activities and kinetics, facilitating better understanding of various roles enzymes play in physiological processes.
Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression and Luteal Cell DNA Fragmentation of Porcine Cyclic Corpora Lutea - Nitric Oxide Synthase;Corpora Lutea;Apoptosis;Estrous Cycle;
Although the evolution of multigene families involves multiple mechanisms, comprehensive analysis of phylogenetic tree and exon/intron gene structures, to a certain extent, allow us to make some generalizations and predictions about the possible origin of and relationships between different isoforms of Sus, as well as their possible function. Plant Sus proteins have been historically divided into at least three major groups (Sus1, SusA and New Group/NG) on the basis of phylogenetic tree and molecular structures analysis of their sequences [24, 29]. Phylogenetic analysis of cotton GaSus genes and other plant homologues in our work corroborated this classification (for unification and simplification, in this study, we renamed them as Sus I, II and III, respectively), and further support the idea that higher plant species may have at least one gene for each of the three groups [24]. The presence of five cotton Sus genes, GaSus1 to 5, in the Sus I group that cluster together with other dicot genes ...
Animal, Base-Sequence, Chromosome-Mapping, Crosses-Genetic, Enzyme-Induction, Genes-Structural, Human, Hybridization, Mice: ge, Mice-Inbred-C57BL, Mice-Inbred-NOD: ge, Molecular-Sequence-Data, Muridae: ge, Rats, Rats-Wistar, SUPPORT-NON-U-S-GOVT, SUPPORT-U-S-GOVT-P-H-S. ...
Prostaglandin inactivation. Contributes to the regulation of events that are under the control of prostaglandin levels. Catalyzes the NAD-dependent dehydrogenation of lipoxin A4 to form 15-oxo-lipoxin A4 (By similarity).
Jung, A., Schlegel, W., Jackisch, R., Friedrich, E.J., Wendel, A., Rückrich, M.F.: Hoppe-Seylers Z. Physiol. Chem., 356, 787-798 (1975)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
... gene expression regulation, developmental MeSH G05.315.320 - gene expression regulation, enzymologic MeSH G05.315.320.200 - ... gene expression regulation, leukemic MeSH G05.315.375 - gene expression regulation, plant MeSH G05.315.385 - gene expression ... gene amplification MeSH G05.315.290 - gene expression regulation, archaeal MeSH G05.315.300 - gene expression regulation, ... gene expression regulation, fungal MeSH G05.315.370 - gene expression regulation, neoplastic MeSH G05.315.370.500 - ...
... of metabolic pathways reaches its most complex expression in the synthesis of huge amounts of kinetic and gene expression data ... Fisher PA (1994). Enzymologic mechanism of replicative DNA polymerases in higher eukaryotes. Progress in Nucleic Acid Research ... Helmstaedt K, Krappmann S, Braus GH (September 2001). "Allosteric regulation of catalytic activity: Escherichia coli aspartate ... Northrop DB (1981). "The expression of isotope effects on enzyme-catalyzed reactions". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 50: 103- ...
Regulation of Vibrio anguillarum empA Metalloprotease Expression and Its Role in Virulence Steven M. Denkin, David R. Nelson ... Regulation of Peroxidase Transcript Levels in Liquid Cultures of the Ligninolytic Fungus Pleurotus eryngii Francisco Javier ... Lignocellulose Affects Mn2+ Regulation of Peroxidase Transcript Levels in Solid-State Cultures of Pleurotus ostreatus Roni ...
"Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic" by people in this website by year, and whether "Gene Expression Regulation, ... Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic*Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. *Regulation of Gene Expression, Enzymologic ... "Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic" by people in Profiles. ...
Enzymologic gene expression regulation‎ (54 F). G. *. ► Glycolysis enzymes‎ (1 C, 23 F) ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic* * Humans * Inflammation Mediators / physiology * Matrix Metalloproteinases, Secreted ... Collagenase gene regulation by pro-inflammatory cytokines in cartilage Front Biosci. 2007 Jan 1;12:536-50. doi: 10.2741/2080. ... we still know relatively little about how these mediators regulate collagenase gene expression in chondrocytes. Inflammatory ...
Genes of 15 AAPs were overexpressed in different strains, and the ability to take up one or more of the 20 common L-alpha-amino ... Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic * Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal * Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins ... Substrate specificity and gene expression of the amino-acid permeases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Curr Genet. 1999 Dec;36(6): ... Genes of 15 AAPs were overexpressed in different strains, and the ability to take up one or more of the 20 common L-alpha-amino ...
Expression of OsGA2ox2 was not observed. The other gene, OsGA2ox3, was expressed in every tissue examined and was enhanced by ... We have cloned two genes for gibberellin (GA) 2-oxidase from rice ( Oryza sativa L.). ... Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic* * Gene Expression Regulation, Plant* * Gibberellins / metabolism* * Mixed Function ... Expression of novel rice gibberellin 2-oxidase gene is under homeostatic regulation by biologically active gibberellins J Plant ...
Here, we report cloning and expression analysis of a novel cyp26 gene (cyp26d1) isolated from zebrafish. The predicted protein ... Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental* * Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic * Molecular Sequence Data * Morphogenesis ... Molecular cloning and expression of a novel CYP26 gene (cyp26d1) during zebrafish early development Gene Expr Patterns. 2005 ... At 3-somite stage, cyp26d1 gene is expressed in r6 and pharyngeal arch (pa) one in addition to its expression at r2 and r4. At ...
For synthesis of the Rubisco holoenzyme, both genes need to be expressed coordinately. To ... of eight small subunits coded for by the nuclear RBCS multigene family and eight large subunits coded for by the rbcL gene in ... Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*. Genes, Plant*. Holoenzymes / genetics, metabolism* ... These results demonstrate that the availability of RBCS protein up-regulates the gene expression of rbcL primarily at the ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic*. Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*. Genes, Plant. Mixed Function Oxygenases / ... The sorghum mesocotyls represent a good system for investigation of differential regulation of F3H genes/alleles responding to ... In sorghum mesocotyls, SbF3H1 expression was involved in light-specific anthocyanin accumulation while SbF3H2 expression was ... Differential expression of two flavonoid 3-hydroxylase cDNAs involved in biosynthesis of anthocyanin pigments and 3- ...
Enzymologic Gene Expression Regulation. *Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme. *RTPCR. *Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2 ... METHODS: Gene expression analysis by qPCR was performed for 14 genes in TART tissue (n = 12) and compared with the expression ... The H295R steroidogenesis assay, regulation of steroidogenic gene expression and reporter gene assays (RGAs) for the detection ... Expression of prioritized genes emphasized in multiple studies were often validated on both the gene and protein levels. Genes/ ...
Cancer Gene Expression Regulation. *Breast Cancer. *Retinoic Acid. *Chromosome 2. *Enzymologic Gene Expression Regulation ... To study on invasion and metastasis-associated genes of lung cancer related with NM23-H1 gene.. METHODS: Human gene expression ... RESULTS: Gene expression profiling chips of differently expressed genes in human large cell lung cancer cell line L9981 and ... CONCLUSION: NM23-H1 gene may be the upstream regulator of metastasis-associated genes, which can regulate the downstream genes ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. 1. 2014. 1347. 0.100. Why? Body Composition. 1. 2018. 2269. 0.100. Why? ... Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. 1. 2015. 8380. 0.010. Why? Gene Deletion. 1. 2007. 2921. 0.010. Why? ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. 2. 2011. 1343. 0.160. Why? Oligopeptides. 1. 2001. 1297. 0.150. Why? ...
Gene Expression Regulation; Bacterial, Gene Expression Regulation; Enzymologic, Genes; Bacterial, RNA; Bacterial/*genetics, RNA ... Growth rate regulation of 4.5 S RNA and M1 RNA the catalytic subunit of Escherichia coli RNase P.. Dong, H Uppsala universitet ... Endoribonucleases/*genetics, Escherichia coli/enzymology/*genetics/growth & development, Escherichia coli Proteins, Gene ...
This is a "connection" page, showing publications James Reid Gilmore has written about Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic ... James Reid Gilmore to Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic ...
Differential regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase in the basal ganglia of mice lacking the dopamine transporter. - M Jaber, B ... Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. *In Situ Hybridization. *Male. *Membrane Glycoproteins (analysis, genetics) ... Differential regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase in the basal ganglia of mice lacking the dopamine transporter.. Abstract. Mice ... In order to determine the anatomical and functional integrity of the dopaminergic system, we examined the expression of ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic Glucose Humans Mannitol Monocytes Sirtuin 1 Stilbenes Substances Stilbenes ... Both 5 and 15mM mannitol medium did not significantly alter basic gene expression and 10μM resveratrol-induced gene expression ... gene expression in human monocytes (THP1) cells. We examined the gene expression of THP1 cells using real-time polymerase chain ... and that high glucose medium could inhibit the basic gene expression, but not powerful resveratrol-induced gene expression, in ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic Glucuronosyltransferase Hypolipidemic Agents Liver Male PPAR alpha RNA, Messenger Rats ... Ciprofibrate regulation of PPARα and UGT1A5 mRNA expression was also investigated in rat hepatocytes. Bilirubin conjugation ... Ciprofibrate regulation of rat hepatic bilirubin glucuronidation and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases expression. Jean-Marie Heydel ... Ciprofibrate regulation of rat hepatic bilirubin glucuronidation and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases expression. European journal ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. *Glucose (metabolism) *Ischemia (pathology) *Mice. *Mice, Inbred C57BL ... To identify genes involved in astrocyte function during ischemia, we performed mRNA differential display in astrocytes after ... OGD-induced apoptosis was increased by the combined deletion of S6K1 and S6K2 genes, as well as by treatment with rapamycin ... Rescue of either S6K1 or S6K2 expression by adenoviral infection revealed that protective functions were specifically mediated ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic*. *MAP Kinase Signaling System*. *Microglia/metabolism*. *p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein ... We confirmed that 4d and 4e regulate the expression of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, and IL-6 at the mRNA level and the expression of TNF ... We confirmed that 4d and 4e regulate the expression of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, and IL-6 at the mRNA level and the expression of TNF ... which are key transcription factors for inflammatory gene expression in microglial cells (Figure 9B). To confirm an involvement ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. *Gene Expression Regulation, Plant. *Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology. *Oxidative Stress ... Expression patterns of various stress responsive genes were enhanced, and the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes were ... Expression patterns of various stress responsive genes were enhanced, and the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes were ... Expression of AtIpk2β is driven by the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter. Ocs, ocs terminator; RB and LB, right and left ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. MESH. Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase/metabolism. MESH. ... Surprisingly, the lack of IDO expression had no noticeable impact on overall male fertility but did induce highly significant ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial. MESH. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. MESH. Histidine/metabolism. MESH. ... Regulation of the hetero-octameric ATP phosphoribosyl transferase complex from Thermotoga maritima by a tRNA synthetase-like ... Regulation of the hetero-octameric ATP phosphoribosyl transferase complex from Thermotoga maritima by a tRNA synthetase-like ...
Gene Expression Regulation; Enzymologic/radiation effects, Genes, Hydroxyurea/pharmacology, Methyl Methanesulfonate/ ... Induction of the mouse ribonucleotide reductase R1 and R2 genes in response to DNA damage by UV light.. Filatov, D ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*. *Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. *Humans. *Intramolecular Oxidoreductases/ ... Home Genes / Markers / Clones BLAST GBrowse Expression Antibodies Mutants / Knockdowns / Tg Constructs Anatomy / GO / Human ... Disclaimer, limitations, copyright © University of Oregon, 1994-, Eugene, Oregon. ZFIN logo design by Kari Pape, University of ... Here we describe the cloning and expression of an early zebrafish melanoblast marker, dopachrome tautomerase. We used this ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic; Humans; Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy/*enzymology/etiology/genetics/pathology; ... whereas LoxL2 and LoxL3 expression was elevated in laser-capture microdissected vascular lesions. Lox expression was hypoxia- ... Lox expression was increased in lungs from hypoxia-exposed mice and in lungs and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells of ... Lox, LoxL1, LoxL2, and LoxL4 expression was elevated in lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic*. *Male. *Molecular Sequence Data. *Phylogeny. *Polymerase Chain Reaction ... Home Genes / Markers / Clones BLAST GBrowse Expression Antibodies Mutants / Knockdowns / Tg Constructs Anatomy / GO / Human ... Disclaimer, limitations, copyright © University of Oregon, 1994-, Eugene, Oregon. ZFIN logo design by Kari Pape, University of ... In vivo experiments showed that expression level was highest at testicular mature stage indicating that 20β-HSD could play an ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal. Hyphae. Magnaporthe. Molecular Sequence Data. ... gene expression regulation. genetics. growth, development and aging. metabolism. microbiology. molecular genetics. mutagenesis ... Based on data from cAMP measurements and Real-Time RTPCR, we uncover a PdeH-dependent biphasic regulation of cAMP levels during ... We propose that PdeHmediated sustenance and dynamic regulation of cAMP signaling during M. oryzae development is crucial for ...
... gene expression regulation, developmental MeSH G05.315.320 - gene expression regulation, enzymologic MeSH G05.315.320.200 - ... gene expression regulation, leukemic MeSH G05.315.375 - gene expression regulation, plant MeSH G05.315.385 - gene expression ... gene amplification MeSH G05.315.290 - gene expression regulation, archaeal MeSH G05.315.300 - gene expression regulation, ... gene expression regulation, fungal MeSH G05.315.370 - gene expression regulation, neoplastic MeSH G05.315.370.500 - ...
Gene Expression Profiling, Gene Expression Regulation, Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic, Genetic Predisposition to ... Body Temperature Regulation, Body Weight, Bone and Bones, Brain, Brain Chemistry, Brain Diseases, Breath Tests, Bridged ... Up-Regulation, Vagina, Ventral Tegmental Area, Veterans, Vietnam, Visual Perception, Water Pollutants, Chemical, Weight Gain, ... Down-Regulation, Drinking, Drinking Behavior, Drive, Drug Administration Schedule, Drug Antagonism, Drug Combinations, Drug ...
  • The other gene, OsGA2ox3, was expressed in every tissue examined and was enhanced by the application of biologically active GA. Recombinant OsGA2ox3 protein catalyzed the metabolism of GA(1) to GA(8) and GA(20) to GA(29)-catabolite. (
  • Thirteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in folate uptake and metabolism, including folate hydrolase (FOLH1), folate polyglutamate synthase (FPGS), gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH), methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR), proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT), and reduced folate carrier (RFC1), were studied in a cohort of 991 individuals. (
  • Nrf2 heterodimerizes with small Maf proteins, but the role of such dimers in gene induction is controversial, and other partners may exist. (
  • We are currently identifying maturation-specific lactase gene cis elements and characterizing the nuclear proteins interacting with those elements in cell culture and transgenic animals. (
  • Unlike the positive regulatory mechanism found in E. coli , carbon catabolite regulation in gram-positive bacteria appears to be mediated by transcriptional repression, requiring trans -acting CcpA (catabolite control protein A), a member of the LacI-GalR family of bacterial regulatory proteins ( 16 ), and a cis -acting consensus sequence, designated cre ( 20 , 51 ). (
  • Transcriptional activation of CYP gene expression by xenobiotics may have fundamental effects on body physiology. (
  • In addition, 4d and 4e inhibited the DNA binding activities of NF-κB and AP-1, which are key transcription factors for inflammatory gene expression in microglial cells (Figure 9B). (
  • Use of reporter genes to measure xenobiotic-mediated activation of CYP gene transcription. (
  • Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to analyze theeffects of beta25-35, morphine, and SNAP treatments upon BACE-1 and BACE-2 mRNA expression semi-quantitativeRT-PCR. (
  • Actually, pregnant rats develop resistance to the anorectic effects of central FAS inhibition, which is associated with a reduction of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression and its transcription factors phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and phospho-forkhead box O1. (
  • Because beta4GalTs are ubiquitous in most cells, PLN expression is generally ascribed to the tissue-specific transcription of eight known beta3GnT genes in mice. (
  • Prox1, an early specific marker for developing liver and pancreas in foregut endoderm has recently been shown to interact with alpha-fetoprotein transcription factor and repress cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene transcription. (
  • physiological concentrations of insulin rapidly inhibit FoxO1 activity leading to stimulation of the human CYP7A1 gene, whereas prolonged insulin treatment induces SREBP-1c, which inhibits human CYP7A1 gene transcription. (
  • Assay of expression of nested deletions in the 5' regulatory sequences of the LPL gene in the Hep G2 cell line and in BWTG3 cells localized sequences involved in the suppression of LPL production to a region between -591 and -288 relative to the transcription initiation site. (
  • Several major regulatory regions have been identified in the MCK gene, including a 206-bp enhancer located from −1256 to −1050 bp upstream of the transcription start site. (
  • Northern blotting showed that transcription of the protease genes was suppressed due to increased sigma factor B (SigB)-dependent expression of the protease repressor SarA. (
  • Inactivation of sarA in three protease-negative strains resulted in increased transcription of all protease genes and increased protease production, while overexpression of sarA in a strain producing protease at high levels repressed protease production. (
  • Concentrations of actinomycin D previously used in experiments that suggested that de novo transcription was not needed for zoosporogenesis or encystment only partially inhibited transcription of the kinase gene, probably due to poor uptake into sporangia. (
  • Expression of the C. albicans secretory aspartyl proteinase ( SAP ) and phospholipase B ( PLB ) virulence genes was determined by reverse transcription-PCR after the addition of caspofungin to cells grown for 15 h in Sabouraud dextrose broth. (
  • Differential expression of two flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase cDNAs involved in biosynthesis of anthocyanin pigments and 3-deoxyanthocyanidin phytoalexins in sorghum. (
  • This gene encodes the rate-limiting enzyme of the polyamine biosynthesis pathway which catalyzes ornithine to putrescine. (
  • The levels of gene expression of the three most important monoterpene synthases in sage were investigated, 1,8-cineole synthase leading directly to 1,8-cineole, (+)-sabinene synthase responsible for the first step in the formation of alpha- and beta-thujone, and (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, the first step in camphor biosynthesis. (
  • Differential regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase in the basal ganglia of mice lacking the dopamine transporter. (
  • Lox expression was increased in lungs from hypoxia-exposed mice and in lungs and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells of monocrotaline-treated rats, which developed PH. (
  • Coordinated regulation of hepatic phase I and II drug-metabolizing genes and transporters using AhR-, CAR-, PXR-, PPARα-, and Nrf2-null mice. (
  • Expression of galectins-1, -3 and -4 varies with strain and type of experimental colitis in mice. (
  • Mice were generated with a targeted disruption of the homeobox-containing gene hoxb-9. (
  • To address the expression and function of Hoxb13, the 5' most Hox gene in the HoxB cluster, we have generated mice with loss-of-function and beta-galactosidase reporter insertion alleles of this gene. (
  • In vivo experiments showed that expression level was highest at testicular mature stage indicating that 20β-HSD could play an important role in testicular developmental maturation in yellow catfish. (
  • Retinoic acid is synthesized mainly by three retinaldehyde dehydrogenases, We show here where the retinaldehyde dehydrogenases for the developing telencephalon are expressed and how their expression patterns change over developmental time. (
  • Developmental regulation of DNA cytosine methylation at the immunoglobulin heavy chain constant locus. (
  • Although we have identified the enzymes capable of effecting such destructive proteolysis, and considerable evidence indicates that tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 are major pro-inflammatory mediators in joint destruction, we still know relatively little about how these mediators regulate collagenase gene expression in chondrocytes. (
  • Expression patterns of various stress responsive genes were enhanced, and the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes were elevated in transgenic plants, suggesting a possible involvement of AtIpk2beta in plant stress responses. (
  • Nrf2 regulates expression of genes encoding enzymes with antioxidant (e.g. heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)) or xenobiotic detoxification (e.g. (
  • In the present study, the changes in gene expression of the catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-â-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) and protein levels in the right and left heart auricles of naive control and long-term (12 weeks) socially isolated rats were investigated by Taqman RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. (
  • Additional 2-h immobilization of individually housed rats did not affect gene expression of these enzymes in either the right or left auricle. (
  • Altered gene expression of folate enzymes in adjacent mucosa is associated with outcome of colorectal cancer patients. (
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze whether gene expression levels of folate enzymes in adjacent mucosa were associated with outcome of colorectal cancer patients. (
  • This study is the first to show that distinct mutations in a gene coding for a shared subunit of two RNA polymerases lead to selective modification of the enzymes' availability leading to two different clinical conditions and to shed some light on the pathophysiological mechanism of one of the most common hypomyelinating leukodystrophies, POLR3-related leukodystrophy. (
  • The greater production and levels of polymerisation of PCs in Es524 can be explained by the up-regulation of genes encoding for key enzymes involved in the synthesis of PCs. (
  • Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis. (
  • Henion TR, Schwarting GA. N-linked polylactosamine glycan synthesis is regulated by co-expression of ß3GnT2 and GCNT2. (
  • For synthesis of the Rubisco holoenzyme, both genes need to be expressed coordinately. (
  • To investigate this molecular mechanism, the protein synthesis of two subunits of Rubisco was characterized in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) plants with overexpression or antisense suppression of the RBCS gene. (
  • In sorghum mesocotyls, SbF3'H1 expression was involved in light-specific anthocyanin accumulation while SbF3'H2 expression was involved in pathogen-specific 3-deoxyanthocyanidin synthesis. (
  • This highly specific co-expression suggests that GCNT2 and beta3GnT2 function cooperatively in PLN synthesis. (
  • Using a yeast two-hybrid assay, we found that Prox1 strongly and specifically interacted with hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)4alpha, an important transactivator of the human CYP7A1 gene in bile acid synthesis and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene in gluconeogenesis. (
  • Knock down of the endogenous Prox1 by small interfering RNA resulted in significant increase of CYP7A1 and PEPCK mRNA expression and the rate of bile acid synthesis in HepG2 cells. (
  • These results suggest that Prox1 is a novel co-regulator of HNF4alpha that may play a key role in the regulation of bile acid synthesis and gluconeogenesis in the liver. (
  • Insulin may play a major role in the regulation of bile acid synthesis and dyslipidemia in diabetes. (
  • Reintroduction of a functional PGS1 gene under control of the ADH1 promoter restored phosphatidylglycerol synthesis and expression of mtGFP. (
  • Lysine produced a stronger growth stimulating effect than glutamic acid consistent with an upregulated expression of the IDP3 gene for peroxisomal synthesis of the glutamate precursor alpha-ketoglutarate. (
  • Cloning and transcriptional regulation of genes responsible for synthesis of gangliosides. (
  • Although the echinocandin caspofungin primarily inhibits the synthesis of cell wall 1,3-β- d -glucan, its fungicidal activity could also potentially perturb the expression of virulence factors involved in the ability of Candida albicans to cause infection. (
  • Virulence genes of iceA, vacA, babA2, cagA 3' repeat region, and hrgA failed to show any association with the disease status and COX-2 expression. (
  • Distribution of the type III DNA methyltransferases modA, modB and modD among Neisseria meningitidis genotypes: implications for gene regulation and virulence. (
  • Reporter gene assays provide a simple, high-throughput methodology for examining the transcriptional activation of CYP gene expression by xenobiotics. (
  • Transcriptional activation of the Bacillus subtilis ackA gene, encoding acetate kinase, was previously shown to require catabolite control protein A (CcpA) and sequences upstream of the ackA promoter. (
  • Patterns of Apf expression in Drosophila tissues show Apf mRNA levels to be highest in embryos and adult females. (
  • Overexpression of the adenine nucleotide translocase encoded by the stress-sensitive B gene in Drosophila mitochondria increases proton conductance, and underexpression decreases it, even when the carrier is fully inhibited using carboxyatractylate. (
  • Molecular genetic analysis of the Drosophila JNK gene has started to provide answers to these questions, confirming the role of this molecule in development and stress responses and suggesting a conserved function for JNK signalling in processes such as wound healing. (
  • We examined the effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide and several recombinant human cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and granulocyte-, macrophage-, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors) on the expression of the genes for the phagocyte cytochrome b, an essential component of the superoxide-generating oxidase. (
  • OGD-induced apoptosis was increased by the combined deletion of S6K1 and S6K2 genes, as well as by treatment with rapamycin that inhibits S6K1 activity by acting on the upstream regulator mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin ). (
  • A Prospero-related homeodomain protein is a novel co-regulator of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha that regulates the cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene. (
  • Our results are consistent with Six4 being a key regulator of muscle gene expression in adult skeletal muscle and in developing striated muscle. (
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • The objective of this study is to elucidate the mechanism of insulin regulation of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene expression in human hepatocytes. (
  • Endocrine disruption in human placenta: expression of the dioxin-inducible enzyme, CYP1A1, is correlated with that of thyroid hormone-regulated genes. (
  • Originally localized to both chromosomes 2 and 7, the gene encoding this enzyme has been determined to be located on 2p25, with a pseudogene located on 7q31-qter. (
  • The expression of PLN on glycoprotein core structures minimally requires enzyme activities for beta1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) and beta1,3-N-acetylglucosminyltransferase (beta3GnT). (
  • 2009. Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury upregulates histone-modifying enzyme systems and alters histone expression at proinflammatory/profibrotic genes. . (
  • Catechol-o-methyltransferase enzyme activity and protein expression in human prefrontal cortex across the postnatal lifespan. (
  • The TMPRSS2 gene may be co-expressed with SARS-CoV-2 cell receptor genes angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Basigin (BSG), but only TMPRSS2 demonstrates tissue-specific expression in alveolar cells according to single-cell RNA sequencing data. (
  • Gene cloning, sequence, stage-specific expression and chromosome localization. (
  • The sorghum mesocotyls represent a good system for investigation of differential regulation of F3'H genes/alleles responding to different external stimuli. (
  • Two mutant alleles of the CYP2A6 gene have been found, i.e. (
  • Each mod gene has distinct alleles, defined by their Mod DNA recognition domain, and these target and methylate different DNA sequences, thereby regulating distinct gene sets. (
  • In vitro regulation of human phagocyte cytochrome b heavy and light ch" by Peter E. Newburger, Qun Dai et al. (
  • The same agents, except for macrophage colony-stimulating factor, induced the expression of the cytochrome b heavy chain gene 2- to 12-fold and light chain gene 2- to 6-fold in human granulocytes. (
  • The expression of the cytochrome b heavy and light chain genes was coordinated in both macrophages and neutrophils with regard to stimulus specificity and dose-response pattern. (
  • These results show that a variety of physiological regulators modulate the coordinated expression of the cytochrome b genes. (
  • DNA samples were extracted from the feces of triatomines used for xenodiagnosis, and the nontranscribed spacer of the mini-exon gene and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) were amplified by PCR and sequenced. (
  • Here we report eight of these cases carrying recessive mutations in POLR1C, a gene encoding a shared POLR1 and POLR3 subunit, also mutated in some Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) cases. (
  • Using HIS3 and lacZ as reporters, extragenic spontaneous recessive mutations that allowed expression of His3p and beta-galactosidase were isolated, which appeared to be loss-of-function mutations, suggesting that the genes mutated may encode the trans factors that bind to the cis element in pgs1Delta cells. (
  • Differential expression of APE1 and APE2 in germinal centers promotes error-prone repair and A:T mutations during somatic hypermutation. (
  • Genome content is highly conserved between carriage and disease isolates, and differential gene expression has been proposed as a major determinant of the hyperinvasive phenotype. (
  • Genes of 15 AAPs were overexpressed in different strains, and the ability to take up one or more of the 20 common L-alpha-amino acids was studied in order to obtain a complete picture of the substrate specificity for these permeases. (
  • Despite sharing some common features, other aspects of the biochemistry, substrate specificity, regulation and signaling mechanisms differ between initiator apoptotic caspases. (
  • These results demonstrate that the availability of RBCS protein up-regulates the gene expression of rbcL primarily at the transcript level in a quantitative manner for stoichiometric assembly of Rubisco holoenzyme. (
  • Morphine down regulates the expression of BACE-1 and up regulates the expression ofBACE-2 in a naloxone antagonizable manner. (
  • These results indicate that ATF4 regulates basal and CdCl(2)-induced expression of the ho-1 gene in a cell-specific manner and possibly in a complex with Nrf2. (
  • In the olfactory epithelium (OE), beta3GnT2 regulates expression of extended PLN chains that are essential for axon guidance and neuronal survival. (
  • The RNA-binding protein HuD binds acetylcholinesterase mRNA in neurons and regulates its expression after axotomy. (
  • Taken together, our results show that CYR61 up-regulates BMP-2 mRNA and protein expression, resulting in enhanced cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation through activation of the α(v)β(3) integrin/integrin-linked kinase/ERK signaling pathway. (
  • Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) regulates expression of genes involved in adaptation to hypoxia and ischemia. (
  • We have investigated the organ distribution of the PHDs in the rat, their regulation by hypoxia and changes in local expression after experimental myocardial infarction using RNase protection assays, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. (
  • What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in? (
  • Very little is known about the inducibility and regulation of CYP2A6, but studies on the mouse orthologue, CYP2A5, have revealed novel pathways for induction. (
  • Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression. (
  • A small proportion of 4H (Hypomyelination, Hypodontia and Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism) or RNA polymerase III (POLR3)-related leukodystrophy cases are negative for mutations in the previously identified causative genes POLR3A and POLR3B. (
  • Using shotgun proteomics and ChIP sequencing, we demonstrate that leukodystrophy-causative mutations, but not TCS mutations, in POLR1C impair assembly and nuclear import of POLR3, but not POLR1, leading to decreased binding to POLR3 target genes. (
  • Transfer RNA (tRNA) suppression of nonsense mutations in prokaryotic systems has been widely used to study the structure and function of different prokaryotic genes. (
  • In the present study we examined resistant clinical P. aeruginosa strains and several resistant variants isolated from in vivo and in vitro biofilms for mutations in ampD to find evidence for the genetic changes leading to high-level expression of chromosomal β-lactamase. (
  • A recoding test sequence is cloned in between the renilla and firefly luciferase reporter genes and the two luciferase activities are subsequently measu. (
  • To identify genes regulated by the hypoxic response and not other effects of chronic anemia, we compared expression variation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 13 SCD subjects with hemoglobin SS genotype and 15 Chuvash polycythemia subjects (VHLR200W homozygotes with constitutive up-regulation of hypoxia inducible factors in the absence of anemia or hypoxia). (
  • Isolation of resistant mutants followed by whole-genome sequencing showed an unusual gene amplification of a 40 gene region spanning from Rv3371 to Rv3411c and in one case a potential promoter mutation upstream of guaB2 (Rv3411c) encoding inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). (
  • Identification and expression analysis of CBF/DREB1 and COR15 genes in mutants of Brassica oleracea var. (
  • The mutants of TLR2 and TLR9, but not TLR4, inhibited H. pylori-induced COX-2 promoter activity, and neutralizing antibodies for TLR2 and TLR9 abolished H. pylori-induced COX-2 expression. (
  • Previous results indicated that translation of four mitochondrion-encoded genes and one nucleus-encoded gene (COX4) is repressed in mutants (pgs1Delta) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin. (
  • Finally, "in vivo" effects of S6K suppression were analyzed in the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model of ischemia , in which absence of S6K expression increased mortality and infarct volume. (
  • Ciprofibrate regulation of rat hepatic bilirubin glucuronidation and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases expression. (
  • Hepatic gene body hypermethylation is a shared epigenetic signature of murine longevity. (
  • We confirmed that 4d and 4e regulate the expression of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, and IL-6 at the mRNA level and the expression of TNF-α at the post-transcriptional level. (
  • A number of microRNAs have been predicted to regulate TMPRSS2 and BSG expression levels, but none of them is enriched in lung or respiratory tract cells. (
  • AC overexpression increased the expression of anti-apoptotic Mcl-1, significantly increased S1P and decreased ceramide. (
  • A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling. (
  • Projects focused on gene expression profiling of ageing and of dietary manipulations of ageing, such as caloric restriction. (
  • The Trex/MEF3 composite sequence ([C/A]ACC[C/T]GA) allowed us to identify novel putative Six-binding sites in six other muscle genes. (
  • Spurred by these findings, a survey of putative protein kinase genes was performed to identify any that were up-regulated during zoosporogenesis. (
  • Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that 20β-HSD has widespread tissue distribution, with expression being abundant in tissues with high metabolic rates like gonads, liver, intestine, stomach and gill. (
  • Expression of 11betaHSD-1 mRNA in the fetal liver increased significantly between 125 days (7.4+/-0.8) and 141-145 days gestation (27+/-5.3). (
  • There is also a specific increase in the expression of 11betaHSD-1 mRNA in the liver of growth-restricted fetuses in late gestation. (
  • The molecular mechanism underlying the extinction of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) expression in rat liver during development was investigated. (
  • In contrast to neonatal animals, in adult animals an additional protein complex (RF-2-LPL), was formed on the NF-1-like site, suggesting that this sequence might recruit a trans-acting factor involved in the extinction of LPL gene expression in adult rat liver. (
  • CYP2A6 gene polymorphism and risk of liver cancer and cirrhosis. (
  • Prox1 strongly inhibited HNF4alpha and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha co-activation of the CYP7A1 and PEPCK genes. (
  • The insulin-regulated forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) and steroid regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) strongly inhibited hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha trans-activation of the CYP7A1 gene. (
  • In NF-kappaB activation, H. pylori acts through TLR2/TLR9 to activate both the cascade of PI-PLCgamma/PKCalpha/c-Src/IKKalpha/beta and the cascade of NIK/IKKalpha/beta, resulting in the IkappaBalpha degradation and the expression of COX-2 gene. (
  • To identify small molecule enhancers of CREB activation of gene expression, we screened approximately 73,000 compounds, each at 7-15 concentrations in a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) format, for activity in cells by assaying CREB mediated beta-lactamase reporter gene expression. (
  • Their activities are tightly regulated in a number of ways, such as transcriptional regulation, proteolytic activation and interaction with tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). (
  • There was also an approximately 2-fold increase in the ratio of 11betaHSD-1 mRNA/18S rRNA expression in the PR group (53.8+/-7.9) compared with that in control animals at 141-145 days gestation. (
  • Lox, LoxL1, LoxL2, and LoxL4 expression was elevated in lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, whereas LoxL2 and LoxL3 expression was elevated in laser-capture microdissected vascular lesions. (
  • Lox expression was hypoxia-responsive in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and adventitial fibroblasts, whereas LoxL1 and LoxL2 expression was hypoxia-responsive in adventitial fibroblasts. (
  • We postulated that the hypoxic response in sickle cell disease (SCD) contributes to altered gene expression and pulmonary hypertension, a complication associated with early mortality. (
  • The goal of this study was to analyze the expression and regulation of the LPL gene in human adrenals. (
  • Prostate cancer biomarker discovery has been hampered due to subjective analysis of protein expression in tissue sections. (
  • HDAC2 mRNA and protein expression was reduced under hypoxic conditions (1% O2). (
  • CYR61 enhances mRNA and protein expression of BMP-2 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. (
  • Immunostaining of PHD2 and 3 in infarcted hearts showed enhanced protein expression, maximal 7 days after infarction. (
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Real-time PCR was used to quantify expression levels of folate-associated genes including the reduced folate carrier (RFC-1), folylpolyglutamate synthase (FPGS), gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH),and thymidylate synthase (TS) in tumor tissue and adjacent mucosa of patients with primary colorectal cancer (n=102). (
  • RESULTS: Mean gene expression levels of RFC-1, FPGS, GGH, and TS were significantly higher in tumor biopsies compared with mucosa. (
  • Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the FPGS gene expression level in mucosa, but not in tumor, was a prognostic parameter independent of the clinicopathological factors with regard to survival. (
  • Likewise, these interventions had no effect on the expression of Transmembrane Protease Serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and Furin, proteases that facilitate the virus-cell fusion, and the expression or activity of Tumor Necrosis Factor α-Convertase (TACE) that cleaves cell-surface ACE2. (
  • Furthermore, Nrf2.ATF4 dimers bound to an StRE sequence from the ho-1 gene. (
  • Gene expression and genome-wide CpG methylation profiles were obtained from RNA and DNA samples that were extracted from those seven paired tissues. (
  • To test whether constitutive expression of AtIpk2β affects abiotic stress tolerance in plants, we introduced its open reading frame (Fig. 2a) into the genome of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. (
  • Genomic restriction analysis showed that PfLAMMER is encoded by a single copy gene in the parasite genome. (
  • Our analysis of the structural variability of the TMPRSS2 gene based on genome-wide data from 76 human populations demonstrates that a functionally significant missense mutation in exon 6/7 in the TMPRSS2 gene is found in many human populations at relatively high frequencies, with region-specific distribution patterns. (
  • A bold new effort to disrupt every gene in the mouse genome necessitates systematic, interdisciplinary approaches to analyzing patterning defects in the mouse embryo. (
  • Quantitative analysis of BTF3, HINT1, NDRG1 and ODC1 protein over-expression in human prostate cancer tissue. (
  • A real time PCR assay detected Prox1 mRNA expression in human primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. (
  • Insulin regulation of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase expression in human hepatocytes: roles of forkhead box O1 and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c. (
  • Real-time PCR assays showed that physiological concentrations of insulin rapidly stimulated cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) mRNA expression in primary human hepatocytes but inhibited CYP7A1 expression after extended treatment. (
  • FoxO1 binds to an insulin response element in the rat CYP7A1 promoter, which is not present in the human CYP7A1 gene. (
  • Insulin rapidly phosphorylates and inactivates FoxO1, whereas insulin induces nuclear SREBP-1c expression in human primary hepatocytes. (
  • A curated database of candidate human ageing-related genes and genes associated with longevity and/or ageing in model organisms. (
  • Characterisation of a sexual stage-specific gene encoding ORC1 homologue in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. (
  • A novel gene encoding a Cdk-like protein, Pfmrk, has been isolated from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. (
  • Several well-studied drugs can downregulate the expression of TMPRSS2 in human cells, including acetaminophen (paracetamol) and curcumin. (
  • Recently, the detection of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene expression in thyroid FNA samples has been identified as a promising diagnostic marker in distinguishing benign and malignant thyroid tumors. (
  • Lytic infection of human cells by adenovirus proceeds by a temporal expression of genes. (
  • Attempts to identify TrexBF by screening a mouse MM14 skeletal muscle cDNA library and human aortic smooth muscle expression library, as well as yeast one-hybrid screening of a HeLa cDNA library, were unsuccessful (C. Fabre-Suver, C. Rotermund, and S. D. Hauschka, unpublished data). (
  • Promoter structure and transcriptional regulation of human beta-galactoside alpha2, 3-sialyltransferase genes. (
  • The CYP2A6 gene is one of the three members of the human CYP2A gene subfamily, the others being CYP2A7 and CYP2A13. (
  • Involvement of Resveratrol and ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Sirtuin 1 Gene Expression in THP1 Cells. (
  • CdCl(2), a potent inducer of HO-1, increased expression of ATF4 in mouse hepatoma cells, and detectable induction of ATF4 protein preceded that of HO-1 (30 min versus 2 h). (
  • A dominant-negative mutant of ATF4 inhibited basal and CdCl(2)-stimulated expression of a StRE-dependent/luciferase fusion construct (pE1-luc) in hepatoma cells but only basal expression in mammary epithelial MCF-7 cells. (
  • In support of this, beta3GnT2 and GCNT2 co-transfection in HEK293T cells results in high levels of PLN expression on the cell surface and on adenylyl cyclase 3, a major carrier of PLN glycans in the OE. (
  • Innate immune signaling induces high levels of TC-specific deaminase activity in primary monocyte-derived cells through expression of APOBEC3A isoforms. (
  • Transcriptome analysis and enzymatic assay show that primary AML cells have high levels of AC expression and activity. (
  • Biochemical transformation of thymidine-kinase-deficient (TK-) mouse L cells is enhanced 20 to 40 fold when microinjected plasmid DNA contains regions of the genomes of Rous sarcoma virus or simian virus 40 in addition to the complete herpes simplex virus tk gene, irrespective of the orientation and. (
  • Gene targeting in mouse embryo-derived stem cells has been used to disrupt the homeobox gene hox-1.5. (
  • This tRNA gene is expressed when amplified in monkey cells as part of a SV40 recombinant and efficiently suppresses termination at both the ochre codon separ. (
  • In mammalian cells, JNKs are regulated by a wide variety of cellular stresses and growth factors and have been implicated in the regulation of remarkably diverse biological processes, such as cell shape changes, immune responses and apoptosis. (
  • To asses whether the LPL gene is regulated by agents regulating adrenal steroidogenesis, NCI-H295 cells were treated with activators of second messenger systems. (
  • Somatic cell hybrids between LPL-producing hepatoma cells and non-LPL-producing cells, such as adult rat hepatocytes or fibroblasts, exhibited extinction of LPL gene expression. (
  • In cells that remained viable, expression of SAP1 to SAP3 , SAP7 to SAP9, and PLB1 was unaltered after exposure to fungicidal concentrations (4 to 16 μg/ml) of caspofungin over a period of 7 h. (
  • Induction of the mouse ribonucleotide reductase R1 and R2 genes in response to DNA damage by UV light. (
  • The time course for induction of the two genes was parallel in both cell types for all stimuli. (