Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (fos) originally isolated from the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses. The proto-oncogene protein c-fos codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. The insertion of c-fos into FBJ-MSV or FBR-MSV induces osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The human c-fos gene is located at 14q21-31 on the long arm of chromosome 14.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.

Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. (1/31686)

The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants.  (+info)

FGF8 induces formation of an ectopic isthmic organizer and isthmocerebellar development via a repressive effect on Otx2 expression. (2/31686)

Beads containing recombinant FGF8 (FGF8-beads) were implanted in the prospective caudal diencephalon or midbrain of chick embryos at stages 9-12. This induced the neuroepithelium rostral and caudal to the FGF8-bead to form two ectopic, mirror-image midbrains. Furthermore, cells in direct contact with the bead formed an outgrowth that protruded laterally from the neural tube. Tissue within such lateral outgrowths developed proximally into isthmic nuclei and distally into a cerebellum-like structure. These morphogenetic effects were apparently due to FGF8-mediated changes in gene expression in the vicinity of the bead, including a repressive effect on Otx2 and an inductive effect on En1, Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression. The ectopic Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression domains formed nearly complete concentric rings around the FGF8-bead, with the Wnt1 ring outermost. These observations suggest that FGF8 induces the formation of a ring-like ectopic signaling center (organizer) in the lateral wall of the brain, similar to the one that normally encircles the neural tube at the isthmic constriction, which is located at the boundary between the prospective midbrain and hindbrain. This ectopic isthmic organizer apparently sends long-range patterning signals both rostrally and caudally, resulting in the development of the two ectopic midbrains. Interestingly, our data suggest that these inductive signals spread readily in a caudal direction, but are inhibited from spreading rostrally across diencephalic neuromere boundaries. These results provide insights into the mechanism by which FGF8 induces an ectopic organizer and suggest that a negative feedback loop between Fgf8 and Otx2 plays a key role in patterning the midbrain and anterior hindbrain.  (+info)

Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. (3/31686)

Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain.  (+info)

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (4/31686)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (5/31686)

The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates.  (+info)

The cardiac homeobox gene Csx/Nkx2.5 lies genetically upstream of multiple genes essential for heart development. (6/31686)

Csx/Nkx2.5 is a vertebrate homeobox gene with a sequence homology to the Drosophila tinman, which is required for the dorsal mesoderm specification. Recently, heterozygous mutations of this gene were found to cause human congenital heart disease (Schott, J.-J., Benson, D. W., Basson, C. T., Pease, W., Silberbach, G. M., Moak, J. P., Maron, B. J., Seidman, C. E. and Seidman, J. G. (1998) Science 281, 108-111). To investigate the functions of Csx/Nkx2.5 in cardiac and extracardiac development in the vertebrate, we have generated and analyzed mutant mice completely null for Csx/Nkx2.5. Homozygous null embryos showed arrest of cardiac development after looping and poor development of blood vessels. Moreover, there were severe defects in vascular formation and hematopoiesis in the mutant yolk sac. Interestingly, TUNEL staining and PCNA staining showed neither enhanced apoptosis nor reduced cell proliferation in the mutant myocardium. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated that, among 20 candidate genes examined, expression of ANF, BNP, MLC2V, N-myc, MEF2C, HAND1 and Msx2 was disturbed in the mutant heart. Moreover, in the heart of adult chimeric mice generated from Csx/Nkx2.5 null ES cells, there were almost no ES cell-derived cardiac myocytes, while there were substantial contributions of Csx /Nkx2.5-deficient cells in other organs. Whole-mount &bgr;-gal staining of chimeric embryos showed that more than 20% contribution of Csx/Nkx2. 5-deficient cells in the heart arrested cardiac development. These results indicate that (1) the complete null mutation of Csx/Nkx2.5 did not abolish initial heart looping, (2) there was no enhanced apoptosis or defective cell cycle entry in Csx/Nkx2.5 null cardiac myocytes, (3) Csx/Nkx2.5 regulates expression of several essential transcription factors in the developing heart, (4) Csx/Nkx2.5 is required for later differentiation of cardiac myocytes, (5) Csx/Nkx2. 5 null cells exert dominant interfering effects on cardiac development, and (6) there were severe defects in yolk sac angiogenesis and hematopoiesis in the Csx/Nkx2.5 null embryos.  (+info)

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (7/31686)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Ultrabithorax function in butterfly wings and the evolution of insect wing patterns. (8/31686)

BACKGROUND: . The morphological and functional evolution of appendages has played a critical role in animal evolution, but the developmental genetic mechanisms underlying appendage diversity are not understood. Given that homologous appendage development is controlled by the same Hox gene in different organisms, and that Hox genes are transcription factors, diversity may evolve from changes in the regulation of Hox target genes. Two impediments to understanding the role of Hox genes in morphological evolution have been the limited number of organisms in which Hox gene function can be studied and the paucity of known Hox-regulated target genes. We have therefore analyzed a butterfly homeotic mutant 'Hindsight', in which portions of the ventral hindwing pattern are transformed to ventral forewing identity, and we have compared the regulation of target genes by the Ultrabithorax (Ubx) gene product in Lepidopteran and Dipteran hindwings. RESULTS: . We show that Ubx gene expression is lost from patches of cells in developing Hindsight hindwings, correlating with changes in wing pigmentation, color pattern elements, and scale morphology. We use this mutant to study how regulation of target genes by Ubx protein differs between species. We find that several Ubx-regulated genes in the Drosophila haltere are not repressed by Ubx in butterfly hindwings, but that Distal-less (Dll) expression is regulated by Ubx in a unique manner in butterflies. CONCLUSIONS: . The morphological diversification of insect hindwings has involved the acquisition of different sets of target genes by Ubx in different lineages. Changes in Hox-regulated target gene sets are, in general, likely to underlie the morphological divergence of homologous structures between animals.  (+info)

Transgenic analysis of Dlx regulation in fish tooth development reveals evolutionary retention of enhancer function despite organ loss Journal Article ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Suppressors of Hedgehog signaling: Linking aberrant development of neural progenitors and tumorigenesis. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
GENSCAN predictions and expression of predicted genes: GENSCAN predicted a total of 135 genes to lie within the 760 kb of sequence analyzed. Of these, 17 correspond to genes that have previously been characterized and another 22 are at least partially homologous to mobile genetic elements such as transposons and retroviruses (Table 5). To test these gene predictions and to determine the expression patterns of predicted genes, probes were designed for 121 known and predicted genes, and developmental Northern blots containing mRNA from six different stages and tissues were probed. The chosen stages reflect most of the fly life cycle plus isolated ovaries. In total, these experiments allowed us to determine the expression pattern for an additional 64 of the 96 potential new transcription units (in addition to the previously published ones and the mobile elements). GENSCAN predictions, the autoradiographs of Northern blots, and a summary table of their developmental expression profile can be seen on ...
How is self renewal and differentiation precisely balanced to accommodate growth? Unlike the externally developing zebrafish embryo, amniotes such as mice and chickens undergo vast amounts of growth concomitantly with the formation of the embryonic body axis. The posterior body of the mouse embryo increases by approximately 65 times its initial volume during somitogenesis, this is…
Mechanisms that direct human development from conception to birth. Conserved molecular and cellular pathways regulate tissue and organ development; errors in these pathways result in congenital anomalies and human diseases. Topics: molecules regulating development, cell induction, developmental gene regulation, cell migration, programmed cell death, pattern formation, stem cells, cell lineage, and development of major organ systems. Emphasis on links between development and clinically significant topics including infertility, assisted reproductive technologies, contraception, prenatal diagnosis, multiparity, teratogenesis, inherited birth defects, fetal therapy, adolescence, cancer, and aging ...
Transcriptional regulation is achieved by the coordinated interplay of numerous protein factors with regulatory control sequences coded in the genome. At present, many of the major components of the machinery regulating transcription in eukaryotes are well known. However, mechanisms by which this complex machinery achieves precise control of cell and tissue-specific programs of gene expression observed in multi-cellular organisms is poorly understood. Our laboratory is interested in deciphering mechanisms of gene expression patterns critical for proper organ development and function in mammals. Using the mouse as a rich genetic and developmental system, we plan to probe the biological function of various components of the transcriptional apparatus to uncover novel pathways of cell type specification. In addition to characterizing basic mechanisms of differentiation and development, we will utilize developmental defects in the mouse to model human disease states as potential avenues of ...
A previously unknown oncogenic feature of an embryonic transcription factor was uncovered from transcriptomic analysis of tumors that lack functional Polycomb silencing.
each of the following were suppose to be rounded to two sig figs. mark then correct or incorrect. if incorrect state the correct answer 1) 1.249 103 to 1.3 103 i know its wrong but i dont know the correct answer 2)7.999 102 to 80 ...
Some days ago, I had a talk with a colleague from another development organization about web2fordev. We were asking whether web2.0 can...
Spatial expression pattern of MBC in wild-type embryos. Anterior is to the left and dorsal to the top in all except A. (A) Stage 13 embryos from the progeny of
Embryonic gene expression is strongly influenced by maternal genetic variation and by embryonic variation that acts in cis but not in trans.
Mech Commander Omnitech is standalone game. There is no need for Mech Commander 2 installation nor disk. There is no need for XNA installation any more for Mission Editor. Improved stability. Many bugfixes. Editor is finally free of XNA.
These OVE#2489A mice harbor a mutation created by random insertion of the SB-sa-IRES-rtTA-pA-SB-Tyro-WPRE-FUGW lentiposon transgene (LV2223). The donating investigator reports the phenotype of homozygous mice as: embryonic day (E)8 lethal.
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Study Flashcards On top 300 #1 mech at Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. makes it easy to get the grade you want!
J:122405 Kemp CR, Willems E, Wawrzak D, Hendrickx M, Agbor Agbor T, Leyns L, Expression of Frizzled5, Frizzled7, and Frizzled10 during early mouse development and interactions with canonical Wnt signaling. Dev Dyn. 2007 Jul;236(7):2011-9 ...
General Specification Of Vibrating Screen Vibrating screen technical specification with drawing. Blocks and Details in Autocad Form14 Vibrating Screen Specification Form, Gold Vibrating or Trommel Screen vibrating screen pdf drawings.Perforated Vi
How is Product Specification abbreviated? C-SPEC stands for Product Specification. C-SPEC is defined as Product Specification somewhat frequently.
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Avhandlingar om DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES. Sök bland 78317 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet på
Returns the number of columns occupied by this cell accessible. This is 1 if the specified cell is only in one column, or more than 1 if the specified cell spans multiple columns. ...
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Detailing the technical specifications, development, and operational history of the Rheinmetall Landsysteme Marder including pictures.
TBX3, a member of the T-box family of transcription factors, is essential in development and has emerged as an important player in the oncogenic process. TBX3 is overexpressed in several cancers and has been shown to contribute directly to tumour formation, migration and invasion. However, little is known about the molecular basis for its role in development and oncogenesis because there is a paucity of information regarding its target genes. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1 plays a pivotal role in a myriad of processes including cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis and here we provide a detailed mechanism to show that it is a direct and biologically relevant target of TBX3. Using a combination of luciferase reporter gene assays and in vitro and in vivo binding assays we show that TBX3 directly represses the p21WAF1 promoter by binding a T-element close to its initiator. Furthermore, we show that the TBX3 DNA binding domain is required for the transcriptional repression of p21WAF1
The Drosophila pan-neural genes deadpan (dpn) and scratch (scrt) are expressed in most or all developing neural precursor cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). We have identified a cis-acting enhancer element driving full pan-neural expression of the dpn gene which is composed of independent CNS- and PNS-specific subelements. We have also identified CNS- and PNS-specific subelements of the scrt enhancer. Deletion analysis of the dpn and scrt PNS-specific subelements reveals that PNS specificity of these two evolutionarily unrelated enhancers is achieved in part by repression of CNS expression. We discuss the implications of the striking organizational similarities of the dpn, scrt, and sna pan-neural enhancers.. ...
In undifferentiated ES cells, many Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) target genes carry not only repressive H3K27me3 but are also enriched for conventional indicators of active chromatin including methylated H3K4. This so-called bivalent domain structure is thought to silence key developmental regulators while keeping them poised for future activation (or repression). Consistent with this hypothesis, bivalent genes assemble RNAP II preferentially phosphorylated on Serine 5 residues (poised RNAP II) and are transcribed at low levels. Productive expression is, however, prevented by the action of PRC1. Here, I have focused on the pre-implantation stage of mouse development to evaluate whether bivalent or poised chromatin signatures are indeed specific attributes of emerging pluripotent cells and investigate how the fate of key developmental genes is specified while the first lineage decision event (extra-embryonic lineage formation) occurs. Using blastocyst-derived stem cells and chromatin ...
Developmental Gene Expression And Apoptotic Changes, 978-620-0-45929-9, This book is aimed at giving comprehensive knowledge to the students about simple and solid surface vitrification techniques on in-vitro produced caprine pre-implantation embryos with respect to development and apoptosis. It also gives a comprehensive idea about the expression pattern of panel of genes related to cellular metabolism, cellular division process and effective fusion with maternal epithelial cells in caprine pre-implantation embryos.
Downloadable! March 1997 Arrows ``impossibility and similar classical theorems are usually proved for an unrestricted domain of preference profiles. Recent work extends Arrows theorem to various restricted but ``saturating domains of privately oriented, continuous, (strictly) convex, and (strictly) monotone ``economic preferences for private and/or public goods. For strongly saturating domains of more general utility profiles, this paper provides similar extensions of Wilsons theorem and of the strong and weak ``welfarism results due to dAspremont and Gevers and to Roberts. Hence, for social welfare functionals with or without interpersonal comparisons of utility, most previous classification results in social choice theory apply equally to strongly saturating economic domains. Journal of Economic Literature classification: D71. Keywords: social welfare functionals, Arrows theorem, Wilsons theorem, welfarism, neutrality, restricted domains, economic domains, economic environments.
Highlights calls attention to exciting advances in developmental biology that have recently been reported in Developmental Dynamics. Development is a broad field encompassing many important areas. To reflect this fact, the section spotlights significant discoveries that occur across the entire spectrum of developmental events and problems: from new experimental approaches, to novel interpretations of results, to noteworthy findings utilizing different developmental organisms.. Joining forces (Fusion of Uniluminal Vascular Spheroids: A Model for Assembly of Blood Vessels by Paul A. Fleming, W. Scott Argraves, Carmine Gentile, Adrian Neagu, Gabor Forgacs, and Christopher J. Drake, Dev Dyn 239:398-406). In a process common among large caliber blood vessels, the descending aorta is formed upon fusion of two smaller vessels, in this case, the bilateral dorsal aortae. Fleming et al. use an in vitro system they previously developed, uniluminar vascular spheroids, to understand physical aspects of ...
To create your own CA1 cluster, first filter the spots to select for only the ones that are highly expressive of the Fibcd1 gene. Based on the coloring of spots and the Log2 Max Count scale at the bottom of the Gene Expression panel, we will set a threshold of 3. Enter 3 into the Select By Count field above the Log2 Max Count scale and click on the filter button. This gives us the option to create a new cluster that contains only those spots. The spots which were selected by the filter are highlighted in purple in the background. You can create a new Category name called Subfields and a new Cluster name called CA1. Once this is saved, you are taken to Category mode. The Subfields category is displayed along with the new Cluster, CA1, that we just created.. ...
Establishment of the body axes is an early event during vertebrate development, which provides positional information for development of later structures (Dale et al., 2002). Although asymmetric gene expression patterns are evident before the onset of gastrulation, the body axes are not morphologically obvious until formation of the primitive streak during gastrulation, closely followed by formation of the neural tube during neurulation in an anterior-to-posterior progression. Along the anteroposterior axis, members of the Hox gene family play important roles in conferring positional identity of the neural tube (Lumsden and Krumlauf, 1996), whereas BMPs/WNTs and SHH are thought to establish the dorsal and ventral axes, respectively (Harland et al., 2002). A properly patterned neural tube then relays positional information to adjacent tissues and organs. For example, cranial neural crest cells deriving from different segments of the hindbrain contribute to morphologically distinct structures and ...
Learn more about the Cerebellum Development Pathway from related diseases, pathways, genes and PTMs with the Novus Bioinformatics Tool.
The ability to discern spatial gene expression differences in complex biological systems is critical to our understanding of developmental biology and the progression of disease. The upcoming Visium Spatial Gene Expression Solution analyzes total mRNA in intact tissue sections, allowing you to discover genes and markers relevant to your research, without having to rely on known targets. Join us for a live webinar to learn more about data analysis and visualization tools for the Visium Spatial Gene Expression Solution.
Hox complex genes are key developmental regulators highly conserved throughout evolution. They encode transcription factors that initiate genetic programs of diversified morphogenesis along the anteroposterior embryonic axis. We report the characterization of the novel Drosophila Hox target gene dlarp, isolated from a further screen of a previously described library of genomic DNA fragments associated in vivo with Ultrabithorax proteins. The dlarp spatio-temporal pattern of transcription in wild-type and homeotic mutant embryos is consistent with a positive regulation by Sex combs reduced and Ultrabithorax in the parasegment 2 ectoderm and the abdominal mesoderm, respectively. The teashirt gene product, thought to act in concert with Hox proteins, is also required for the transcriptional control of this target. Search in databases revealed that dlarp has been highly conserved during evolution. The embryonic expression pattern of the mouse orthologue does not support a function downstream of Hox ...
Characterization of a gene trap insertion into a novel gene, cordon-bleu, expressed in axial structures of the gastrulating mouse embryo.. We have used a gene trap (GT) vector and embryonic stem (ES) cell chimeras to screen for insertions of the lacZ reporter gene into transcription units that are spatially and temporally regulated during early mouse embryogenesis. GT vectors which can act as both a reporter and a mutagen have been previously used to isolate new genes that are essential for mouse development. In this paper we describe a GT insertion which displays a very restricted pattern of expression in the gastrulating embryo. beta-Galactosidase activity was first detected at 7.5 days post-coitum (E7.5) in the node region of the embryo and extended to the midline structures at E8.0. At E9.5 expression was restricted to the floor plate, the notochord, the roof of the gut, and the liver anlage. Expression appeared in the somites at E10.0 and later became more widespread. We used rapid ...
The phenomenon of renin producing cells having a different plasticity in the immature and the adult kidney is known for a long time. However, it is unknown what factors are responsible for this typical switch on and off of renin expression and for the disappearance of renin producing cells during nephrogenesis and after chronic stimulation. To determine these factors, the 3-dimensional pattern of renin expressing cells as well as the development of the arterial vasculature in a normal mouse kidney during nephrogenesis was characterized. For the 3-dimensional reconstructions, we used serial slices of mouse kidneys of embryonic day E13 up to postpartal day 10 as well as adult kidneys, on which we marked the expression of renin and smooth muscle actin as marker for the vascular tree by immunofluorescence. Renin was detected for the first time in the media of arcuate main arteries at embryonic day E15. Based on this initial expression we on the one hand observed a retrograde expansion to the ...
BACKGROUND: Maturity of intestinal functions is critical for neonatal health and survival, but comprehensive description of mechanisms underlying intestinal maturation that occur during late gestation still remain poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate biological processes specifically involved in intestinal maturation by comparing fetal jejunal transcriptomes of two representative porcine breeds (Large White, LW; Meishan, MS) with contrasting neonatal vitality and maturity, at two key time points during late gestation (gestational days 90 and 110). MS and LW sows inseminated with mixed semen (from breed LW and MS) gave birth to both purebred and crossbred fetuses. We hypothesized that part of the differences in neonatal maturity between the two breeds results from distinct developmental profiles of the fetal intestine during late gestation. Reciprocal crossed fetuses were used to analyze the effect of parental genome. Transcriptomic data and 23 phenotypic variables known to be
TBS 19, TBX19, FLJ26302, TPIT, dJ747L4.1, T-box protein 19, TBS19, T-box transcription factor TBX19, T-box factor, pituitary, FLJ34543, dj747L4.1, T-box 19 ...
J:96466 Singh MK, Petry M, Haenig B, Lescher B, Leitges M, Kispert A, The T-box transcription factor Tbx15 is required for skeletal development. Mech Dev. 2005 Feb;122(2):131-44 ...
The different cell types of the vertebrate pancreas arise asynchronously during organogenesis. Beta-cells producing insulin, alpha-cells producing glucagon, and exocrine cells secreting digestive enzymes differentiate sequentially from a common primordium. Notch signaling has been shown to be a major mechanism controlling these cell-fate choices. So far, the pleiotropy of Delta and Jagged/Serrate genes has hindered the evaluation of the roles of specific Notch ligands, as the phenotypes of knock-out mice are lethal before complete pancreas differentiation. Analyses of gene expression and experimental manipulations of zebrafish embryos allowed us to determine individual contributions of Notch ligands to pancreas development. We have found that temporally distinct phases of both endocrine and exocrine cell type specification are controlled by different delta and jagged genes. Specifically, deltaA knock-down embryos lack alpha cells, similarly to mib (Delta ubiquitin ligase) mutants and embryos ...
The prevalence of sleep apnea is much higher in patients with heart failure, and intermittent hypoxia (IH) relevant to sleep apnea might induce left ventricular (LV) remodeling. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repetitive hypoxi
Progressive lung fibrosis, particularly the idiopathic form, causes severe pulmonary dysfunction with limited treatment options. While it is known that a combination of epithelial injury, accumulation of activated fibroblasts, and deposition of cellular matrix contribute to this disease, the underlying molecular mechanisms and cellular components remain incompletely characterized. In particular, fibroblast accumulation plays a central role in tissue fibrosis, but the regulation and cellular origins of this facet of disease are unclear. Ting Xie and colleagues of Cedars-Sinai Medical Center have discovered that the embryonic transcription factor TBX4 contributes to lung fibrosis by facilitating fibroblast accumulation. Using in vivo lineage tracing, cell surface marker analysis, and gene expression profiling, the group demonstrated that TBX4-expressing progenitors give rise to a variety of lung cell types, and importantly, are a major source of activated fibroblasts. In a mouse model, ...
In zebrafish, as in other vertebrates, an initially singular eye field within the neural plate has to split during morphogenesis to allow the development of two separated eyes. It has been suggested that anterior progression of midline tissue within the neural plate is involved in the bilateralization of the eye field. Mutations in the recently identified silberblick (slb) gene cause an incomplete separation of the eyes. During gastrulation and early somitogenesis, the ventral midline of the central nervous system (CNS) together with the underlying axial mesendoderm is shortened and broadened in slb embryos. While in wild-type embryos the ventral CNS midline extends to the anterior limit of the neural plate at the end of gastrulation, there is a gap between the anterior tip of the ventral CNS midline and the anterior edge of the neural plate in slb. To investigate the cause for the shortening of the ventral CNS midline in slb we determined the fate of labeled ventral CNS midline cells in ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Full triplicate expression dataset of AtGenExpress plant developmental tissues, combined with LDSS sequence analysis of regulatory (8mer) motif calculations (PPDB). MotifExpress tool allows the plloting of all triplicate data points during the design process, so the user has some idea of the experimental variation in the measurements ...
Alfonso Martnez-Arias lab Investigating the structure and function of Living Matter, with a special focus on the processes that generate tissues and organs from single cells through interactions between protein and gene regulatory networks. Scott Fraser lab: The Translational Imaging Center at USC Developing new technologies for the imaging of biological structure and function…
With the enormous development of human and mouse genomics and the availability of a variety of transgenic techniques, the mouse has become the most widely used animal for basic studies of brain development and as a model for human developmental disorders. The topics are addressed using a diversity of techniques, from genetic, biochemical and cell biological to morphological and functional. The conceptual approaches also provide a framework for studies of other problems and point the way towards future research.
TL 5.56-8.48; HL 1.16-1.64; HW 0.93-1.32; EL 0.37-0.49; SL 0.51-0.73; SW 0.17-0.22; WL 1.40-2.20; PeL 0.55-0.96; PeW 0.51-0.84; HFeL 0.67-1.02; HFeW 0.25-0.34; HTiL 0.65-1.04; HTiW 0.19-0.26; HBaL 0.53-0.83; HBaW 0.09-0.12; CI 78.1-80.5; SI 30.7-34.4; HFeI 33.3-37.3; HTiI 25.0-29.2; HBaI 14.4-15.1. Head about 1/5 longer than broad, with subparallel sides. Occiput low. Vertexal angles round. Frontal carinae about half broad as the maximum head width. Anterior third of the frontal carinae diverging backward, and reaching the middle of the eyes posteriorly. Dorsum of the frontal carinae with an impressed, short, median sulcus anteriorly. Frontal carinae not reaching the anterior border of the clypeus. Compound eyes large, slightly convex and behind the mid line of the head. Ocelli developed. Scapes surpassing the anterior border of the eyes. Proximal fifth of the scapes about 1/2 narrower than the remaining parts. Mandibles weakly convex dorsally. Mandibles laterally angulate at the base. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential patterns of expression of Eps15 and Eps15R during mouse embryogenesis. AU - Offenhäuser, Nina. AU - Santolini, Elisa. AU - Simeone, Antonio. AU - Di Fiore, Pier Paolo. PY - 2000/7/1. Y1 - 2000/7/1. N2 - Eps15 and Eps15R are related tyrosine kinase substrates, which have been implicated in endocytosis and synaptic vesicle recycling. Through the protein:protein interaction abilities of their EH domains, they establish a complex network of interactions with several proteins, including Numb, a protein necessary for neuronal cell fate specification. We analyzed the expression of Eps15 and Eps15R during murine development, at the time of active neurogenesis. The most striking difference was at the level of subcellular localization, with Eps15 present in the cytosol and on the plasma membrane, while Eps15R exhibited mainly a nuclear localization. Interesting topographical differences also emerged. In the 12.5 days post coitum neuroepithelium, Eps15 was expressed in the ...
LSM2102 - Molecular Biology. This module teaches the structure, organization and function of genes and genomes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes (e.g.: DNA topology, hierarchy of packaging of DNA in chromosomes and relationship to gene activity and genome dynamics). The functional roles of DNA regulatory ciselements and transcription factors involved in gene expression will be examined extensively. The molecular events of transcription; post-transcriptional modifications and RNA processing; temporal and spatial gene expression, control and regulation, signals of gene expression will be dealt with in detail. The cause and/or effect of dysfunction of gene expression and diseases will be discussed.
An international team of researchers that pooled genetic samples from developmentally disabled patients from around the world has identified dozens of new mutations in a single gene that appears to be critical for brain development.
第五节 神经系统对内脏 活动调节 Visceral Activity Control By Nervous System. 一、自主神经系统的功能 Function of autonomic nervous system. 又称植物神经系统或内脏神经系统. 传入神经 Afferent 传出神经 Efferent. 自主神经系统 Autonomic...
We know that in the phase of development, there is a genetic cascade that leads to the proper placement of organs. If that cascade is disrupted, the results can lead to major problems or be fatal, said Salk Professor Juan Carlos Izpisúa Belmonte, who published the findings in the January 8 issue of Nature. Still, scientists did not have a clear understanding of what triggers the genetic cascade that defines organ placement. Izpisúa Belmonte s group focused on the activity of the Notch pathway, an important player during embryo development and also during tumorigenesis, and a key factor for proper left-right asymmetry, as the same group and others had learned earlier this year ...
Origin of lungs, liver, and pancreas in the chick. The mesoderm is shaded; the endoderm dark. lg., One of the lungs; St., stomach; l., liver; p., pancreas. -Thomson, 1916. ...
Embryonic structures Information on IEEEs Technology Navigator. Start your Research Here! Embryonic structures-related Conferences, Publications, and Organizations.
Used to switch pumps, lights and fans etc, this high quality timer has a number of options for more accurate control in your grow room. If using to control HID grow lights / horticultural lighting it must be used in conjunction with a Contactor rated to the appropriate number of grow lights ...
Cells develop and thrive by turning genes on and off as needed in a precise pattern, a process known as regulated gene transcription. In a paper published in the November 9 issue of the journal Cell, researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine say this process is even more complex than previously thought, with regulated genes actually relocated to other, more conducive places in the cell nucleus.. When regulated gene transcription goes awry, many human diseases result, such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer and growth defects in children, said Michael G. Rosenfeld, MD, a professor in the UC San Diego Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator and senior author of the study. Weve shown that rather than being activated at certain, random locations within the cell nucleus, regulated genes can dynamically relocate. The discovery provides a more comprehensive picture of the interaction between regulated genes and human ...
Sidebars or Text Boxes. Sidebars include cer-tain technical information judged essential to supplement the information provided in the article. A sidebar provides information in a framed box that is visu-ally separated (highlighted) from the main text. The sidebar should be submitted as a separate Word file, which may include tables, line art and photographs. Sidebars generally provide information to the in-terested specialist without detracting from the main message directed to the general reader.. Tables. Presentation of large quantities of data in tabular form in articles is discouraged because it detracts from the flow of the text. Small, concise tables that comple-ment the text are acceptable. Tables must be constructed in plain text using only tabs, with no bars, lines, grids or color. Do not use the Word table tool. Tabular ma-terial must be submitted as copy separate from the text. Carefully consider the appropriate number of significant figures for each table entry.. Notes. Immediately ...
Please estimate applicants ability level in each daily living area, check appropriate number and explain your answer. 1= Can complete task independently with no assistance. 2= Can perform this task with some limited support. (please explain) 3= Can only partially perform this task and/or needs much assistance. (please explain) 4= Cannot perform this task at the present time ...
Here I have upload all the question papers of semester 3rd to 8th for mechanical department (MECH) of anna university for regulation 2004,2005, 2007, 2008 and 2010. You can download it in the PDF format. If you have any queries or doubt feel free to ask or just leave a comment here. This question papers were obtained from other sources, if any thing is not correct please forgive me ...
Read Genetic and molecular control of folate-homocysteine metabolism in mutant mice, Mammalian Genome on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Summary: Embryonic cells that transiently express the transcription factor, Tbx6, during the process of gastrulation have been tracked in later development in wild-type and Tbx6 homozygous mutant embryos, where they give rise to the ectopic neural tubes characteristic of the mutant phenotype. ...
Schnittger, S.; Rao, V. V. N. G.; Deutsch, U.; Gruss, P.; Balling, R.; Hansmann, I.: Pax1, a member of the paired box-containing class of developmental control genes, is mapped to human chromosome 20p11.2 by in situ hybridization (ISH and FISH). Genomics 14 (3), S. 740 - 744 (1992 ...
Are both of these computers un-upgradeable after the initial specifications are selected? Im considering buying a MBA,13, base model, and only...
Even though FLASH mutant mice have been claimed to die in the early embryonic stage , FLASH KO ES cells was revealed to proliferate and differentiate commonly
This INSPIRE Interactive Data specification site offers INSPIRE data providers with all resources/tools related to the implementation of the INSPIRE data specifications.
Developmental regulation of murine mammary progesterone receptor gene expression. Endocrinology 126:2882-89. ... "Estrogenic regulation of murine uterine 90-kilodalton heat shock protein gene expression". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 9 (8 ... "Cellular expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in mammary glands: Regulation by hormones, development and aging", ... whose work in isolating and characterizing the progesterone receptor gene stimulated advances in breast biology and oncology.[2 ...
"Regulation of gene expression via the core promoter and the basal transcriptional machinery". Developmental Biology. 339 (2): ... ends of the genes in a bidirectional gene pair.[14] A "bidirectional gene pair" refers to two adjacent genes coded on opposite ... Altered expressions of microRNAs also silence or activate many genes in progression to cancer (see microRNAs in cancer). ... Not listed here are the many kinds of cancers involving aberrant transcriptional regulation owing to creation of chimeric genes ...
1996). "Differential developmental and tissue-specific regulation of expression of the genes encoding three members of the ... 1999). "Two novel mutations of the FMO3 gene in a proband with trimethylaminuria". Hum. Mutat. 13 (5): 376-9. doi:10.1002/(SICI ... 1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library". Gene. 200 (1-2): 149- ... "Entrez Gene: FMO3 flavin containing monooxygenase 3". "Trimethylamine monooxygenase (Homo sapiens)". BRENDA. Technische ...
... may also be defined as sequence-specific regulation of gene expression triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA).[ ... regulation of developmental, neuronal cell fate, cell death, proliferation, fat storage, haematopoietic cell fate, insulin ... Down-regulation of genes[edit]. For a detailed explanation of the down-regulation of genes, see RNAi:downregulation of genes ... Up-regulation of genes[edit]. For a detailed explanation of the up-regulation of genes, see RNAi:upregulation of genes ...
Gene Regulation and Expression; Cell and Developmental Biology; Molecular Physiology; Environmental and Applied Biology; MRC ... Developmental Biology Cell Signalling and Immunology Computational Biology Drug Discovery Unit Gene Regulation and Expression ... The building originally housed the Divisions of Gene expression, Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Parasitology that were ...
Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, ... "Gene modulation" redirects here. For information on therapeutic regulation of gene expression, see therapeutic gene modulation. ... Main article: Gene regulatory network. Up-regulation and down-regulation[edit]. Up-regulation is a process that occurs within a ... Regulated stages of gene expression[edit]. Any step of gene expression may be modulated, from the DNA-RNA transcription step to ...
Co-expression of proneural genes in brain neuroblasts is transient and varies with the developmental stage. Proneural gene ... Skeath, J. B.; Carroll, S. B. (1992). "Regulation of proneural gene expression and cell fate during neuroblast segregation in ... not only drive neurogenesis by activating the expression of a cascade of neuronal genes, but they inhibit the expression of ... "The ventral nervous system defective gene controls proneural gene expression at two distinct steps during neuroblast formation ...
... revealed a downgrade in the expression level of both of the genes. Down regulation of such genes has caused Drosophila to ... In the research conducted in 2009, "A Recent Adaptive Transposable Element Insertion Near Highly Conserved Developmental Loci ... "Gene group: Transposable element derived genes". HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee. Retrieved 4 March 2019.. ... Because interspersed repeats block gene conversion, they protect novel gene sequences from being overwritten by similar gene ...
... revealed a downgrade in the expression level of both of the genes. Down regulation of such genes has caused Drosophila to ... In the research conducted in 2009, "A Recent Adaptive Transposable Element Insertion Near Highly Conserved Developmental Loci ... Because interspersed repeats block gene conversion, they protect novel gene sequences from being overwritten by similar gene ... transposable elements can be relocated adjacent to their targeted genes, and control the expression levels of the gene, ...
Hop regulation of cardiac gene expression". Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine. 13 (7): 261-4. doi:10.1016/S1050-1738(03)00107-5 ... "A Common Embryonic Origin of Stem Cells Drives Developmental and Adult Neurogenesis". Cell. 177 (3): 654-668.e15. doi:10.1016/j ... "Association between gene expression profile and tumor invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma". Cancer Genetics and ... and modulate SRF-dependent cardiac-specific gene expression and cardiac development. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript ...
"Regulation of gene expression via the core promoter and the basal transcriptional machinery". Developmental Biology. 339 (2): ... The B recognition element (BRE) is a DNA sequence found in the promoter region of most[clarification needed] genes in ... Genes & Development. 12 (1): 34-44. doi:10.1101/gad.12.1.34. PMC 316406. PMID 9420329. Littlefield O, Korkhin Y, Sigler PB ( ... Genes & Development. 19 (20): 2418-23. doi:10.1101/gad.342405. PMC 1257396. PMID 16230532. Tsai, FT; Sigler, PB (4 January 2000 ...
"Regulation of gene expression via the core promoter and the basal transcriptional machinery". Developmental Biology. 339 (2): ... a key component in the regulation of gene expression". Genes & Development. 16 (20): 2583-2592. doi:10.1101/gad.1026202. PMID ... The promoters of nearly all Hox genes of D. melanogaster, with the exception of the evolutionarily most recent genes, Ubx and ... Gene. 389 (1): 52-65. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2006.09.029. PMC 1955227. PMID 17123746. Kutach, Alan K; Kadonaga, James T (1 July ...
"Regulation of osteocalcin gene expression by a novel Ku antigen transcription factor complex". The Journal of Biological ... Developmental Dynamics. 218 (2): 300-15. doi:10.1002/(sici)1097-0177(200006)218:2.;2-k. PMID 10842358. Willis DM, Loewy ... "Serological identification and expression analysis of gastric cancer-associated genes". Br. J. Cancer. 86 (11): 1824-30. doi: ... Gene. 371 (2): 291-5. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2005.12.008. PMID 16507339. Vinarová E, Vinar O, Zvolský P (July 1977). "Predictors of ...
Alternative splicing is crucial for tissue-specific and developmental regulation in gene expression. Alternative splicing can ... The effect of alternative splicing in gene expression can be seen in complex eukaryotes which have a fixed number of genes in ... Furthermore, primary transcript processing provides a control for gene expression as well as a regulatory mechanism for the ... These variables create a wide range of viral gene expression. For example, tissue culture cells actively producing infectious ...
The RNA analysis from adult and fetal tissues revealed developmental regulation of expression, however, the exact function of ... Laminin subunit alpha-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAMA4 gene.[5][6] ... regulation of cell adhesion. • cell adhesion. • extracellular matrix organization. • regulation of cell migration. • regulation ... Expression in wound repair". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (36): 22779-87. PMID 8077230.. ...
"Developmental regulation and asymmetric expression of the gene encoding Cx43 gap junctions in the mouse limb bud". ... Shh expression has been shown in many, but not all circumstances, to be heavily connected with Hox gene expression. Shh also ( ... HOXA and HOXD genes for the most part follow nested expression domains, in which they are activated uniformly along the ... The position of the limb bud, and hence the AER, is specified by the expression boundaries of Hox genes in the embryonic trunk ...
T-box genes encode transcription factors, which control gene expression, involved in the regulation of developmental processes ... Eomesodermin/Tbr2 controls the expression of cardiac specific genes Mesp1, Myl7, Myl2, Myocardin, Nkx2.5 and Mef2c. ... Tbr2 Expression and Coordinate Regulation of Neuronal Output". The Journal of Neuroscience. 28 (14): 3707-3717. doi:10.1523/ ... The Eomesodermin/Tbr2 gene, EOMES, encodes a member of a conserved protein family that shares a common DNA-binding domain, the ...
... a paradigm for RNA-mediated regulation of gene expression". BioEssays. 24 (2): 119-29. doi:10.1002/bies.10046. PMID 11835276. v ... Banerjee D, Slack F (February 2002). "Control of developmental timing by small temporal RNAs: ... Small temporal RNA (abbreviated stRNA) regulates gene expression during roundworm development by preventing the mRNAs they bind ... stRNAs exert negative post-transcriptional regulation by binding to complementary sequences in the 3' untranslated regions of ...
He focused much of his research in the next decade on the regulation of MHC gene expression. He showed that the different class ... mapping of its chromosomal location and assessment of its developmental expression". Immunology. 106 (2): 173-81. doi:10.1046/j ... Enhanced MHC class I heavy-chain gene expression in pancreatic islets". Diabetes. 37 (10): 1411-8. doi:10.2337/diabetes.37.10. ... March 2005). "IFN-gamma gene expression is controlled by the architectural transcription factor HMGA1". International ...
Karsenty G, Park RW (1995). "Regulation of type I collagen genes expression". International Reviews of Immunology. 12 (2-4): ... Biol. Current Topics in Developmental Biology. 69. pp. 215-237. doi:10.1016/S0070-2153(05)69008-4. ISBN 9780121531690. . PMID ... "Mechanoregulation of gene expression in fibroblasts". Gene. 391 (1-2): 1-15. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2007.01.014. PMC 2893340. PMID ... Effect on gene expression[edit]. Differing mechanical properties in ECM exert effects on both cell behaviour and gene ...
1997). "Skeletal morphogenesis in the sea urchin embryo: regulation of primary mesenchyme gene expression and skeletal rod ... "Conserved regulatory state expression controlled by divergent developmental gene regulatory networks in echinoids". Development ... It has also been found that the msp130 gene exhibits a complex pattern of spatial regulation within the PMC syncytium during ... the evolution of the sea urchin clade in spatiotemporal gene expression of several transcription factors comprising the gene ...
The main type of DNAm is at cytosines within CpG dinucleotides which is known to be involved in gene expression regulation. ... DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns change over time, and vary between developmental stage and tissue type. ... The array still only covers less than 2% of the CpG sites in the genome, but does attempt to cover all known genes with a high ... In the past, the 27k Illumina array covered on average two CpG sites in the promoter regions of approximately 14,000 genes and ...
"Regulated expression of FLRT genes implies a functional role in the regulation of FGF signalling during mouse development". ... Developmental Biology. 297 (1): 14-25. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2006.04.004. PMID 16872596. "Entrez Gene: FLRT2 fibronectin leucine ... Fibronectin leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein FLRT2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FLRT2 gene. This gene ... Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (September 1996). "Normalization and subtraction: two approaches to facilitate gene discovery ...
"Negative regulation of the Wnt signal by MM-1 through inhibiting expression of the wnt4 gene". Experimental Cell Research. 314 ... These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate ... Lastly, the absence of WNT4 also affects the expression of other genes that function in lung development such as Sox9 and FGF9 ... One important example is the stabilization of β catenin, which increases the expression of target genes. For instance, TAFIIs ...
Exercise helps to reduce their activity, especially at promoters, which affects gene expression. In mice, this regulation of ... Developmental Biology. 21 (2): 186-93. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2009.09.015. PMID 19815087. Werner C, Hanhoun M, Widmann T, Kazakov ... Ntanasis-Stathopoulos J, Tzanninis JG, Philippou A, Koutsilieris M (June 2013). "Epigenetic regulation on gene expression ... The study found 43 genes having significant changes in DNA methylation. Of the 43 genes, 3 of the genes experiencing reduced ...
"Differential expression and developmental regulation of a novel alpha-dystrobrevin isoform in muscle". Gene. 238 (2): 479-88. ... Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression. 19 (2): 89-108. doi:10.1615/critreveukargeneexpr.v19.i2.10. PMID 19392646. Ahn ... The location and expression pattern of β-dystrobrevin was observed by using Northern blots of mouse RNAs. A single 2.5-kb ... The human α-dystrobrevin gene is localized to chromosome 18 and consists of 23 coding exons. α-Dystrobrevin is known to be ...
The expression of many thousands of genes are regulated by ncRNAs. This regulation can occur in trans or in cis. There is ... Dahm R (February 2005). "Friedrich Miescher and the discovery of DNA". Developmental Biology. 278 (2): 274-88. doi:10.1016/j. ... act to promote gene expression.[citation needed] In higher eukaryotes microRNAs regulate gene expression. A single miRNA can ... 2012). Non-coding RNAs and Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression: Drivers of Natural Selection. Caister Academic Press. ISBN ...
... chromosome segregation and the regulation of developmental gene expression. Defects in these functions are theorised to ... HDAC8 is an X-linked gene, meaning it is located on the X chromosome. Individuals with CdLS who have the gene change in HDAC8 ... identified a gene (NIPBL) on chromosome 5 that causes CdLS when it is mutated. Since then, additional genes have been found ( ... The latter two genes seem to correlate with a milder form of the syndrome. In 2004, researchers at the Children's Hospital of ...
Willis DM, Loewy AP, Charlton-Kachigian N, Shao JS, Ornitz DM, Towler DA (Oct 2002). "Regulation of osteocalcin gene expression ... Developmental Brain Research. 130 (2): 217-30. doi:10.1016/S0165-3806(01)00239-5. PMID 11675124. Sasaki A, Masuda Y, Iwai K, ... or DLX5 gene. DLX5 is a member of DLX gene family. This gene encodes a member of a homeobox transcription factor gene family ... Mutation in this gene, which is located in a tail-to-tail configuration with another member of the family on the long arm of ...
... appearance-observable traits caused by the expression of a condition's genes. The features of craniosynostosis' particular ... bulging eyes • flat face • hernias • long, thin fingers • developmental delay • mental retardation 182212 FBN1 ... the involvement of OSA as a causative agent for elevated intracranial pressure suggests an association with the auto-regulation ... in FGFR genes) and mutations that lead to loss of function (in TWIST genes).[38][39] Craniosynostosis is therefore likely the ...
These five proteins directly control the timing of expression of over 200 genes. The five master regulatory proteins are ... Cell polarity regulationEdit. In C. crescentus, cell polarity is readily apparent by the assembly of polar organelles and by ... Its use as a model originated with developmental biologist Lucy Shapiro.[3][4] ... Cell cycle regulation includes feedback signals that pace progression of the cell cycle engine to match progress of events at ...
NRL expression leads to the rod fate. NR2E3 further restricts cells to the rod fate by repressing cone genes. RORbeta is needed ... L cones are present in primates, however there is not much known for their developmental program due to use of rodents in ... Swaroop, Anand; Douglas Kim; Douglas Forrest (August 2010). "Transcriptional Regulation of Photoreceptor Development and ... photoreceptor gene expression; and lastly axonal growth, synapse formation and outer segment growth. ...
... mechanical modulation of cell shape and gene expression". Tissue Eng Part A. 14 (9): 1573-80. doi:10.1089/ten.tea.2008.0113. ... "Developmental Biology. 321 (2): 303-309. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2008.03.046. PMC 3378386. PMID 18684439.. ... "Loss of Smad3-Mediated Negative Regulation of Runx2 Activity Leads to an Alteration in Cell Fate Determination". Molecular ... General Trsp gene deletion is lethal to the embryo. The results of this research was used as a model for Kashin-Beck disease. ...
Down regulation of the PAX gene expression inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis. This could be a possible avenue for ... "Pax genes in renal development, disease and regeneration". Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. Paramutation & Pax ... it is possible that it regulates expression of genes other than thyroid-specific. Several known tumor suppressor genes like ... Paired box gene 8, also known as PAX8, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PAX8 gene.[5] ...
Pays, E. (2005). "Regulation of antigen gene expression in Trypanosoma brucei". Trends Parasitol. 21 (11): 517-20. doi:10.1016/ ... According to this model, new genes are created by non-adaptive processes, such as by random gene duplication. These novel ... All changes in the gene frequencies of populations--and quite often in the traits those genes influence--are by definition ... how new alternative spliced isoforms of genes arise, how gene scrambling in ciliates evolved, and how pervasive pan-RNA editing ...
"Recruitment of the androgen receptor via serum response factor facilitates expression of a myogenic gene". The Journal of ... Developmental Biology (6th ed.). Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates. ISBN 0-87893-243-7.. [page needed] ... Early regulation[edit]. Before the production of the pituitary hormone luteinizing hormone (LH) by the embryo starting at about ... Androgen regulation decreases the likelihood of depression in males. In preadolescent male rats, neonatal rats treated with ...
... the types of pollen that an ear of corn will accept through expression of certain forms of the Gametophyte Factor 1 gene. Many ... 2007). "How pollen tubes grow". Developmental Biology. 303 (2): 405-420. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2006.12.003. CS1 maint: Explicit ... regulations can cause their product to be rejected as organic corn, and for which they have no recourse against GMO growers. ... The popcorn remains free to donate its genes via its own pollen to other types of corn. The effectiveness of this restriction ...
regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of gene expression. • transcription, ... "Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Developmental Biology. 1 (4): 533-57. doi:10.1002/wdev.35. PMC 3404495. PMID 22844349.. ... In humans, PR is encoded by a single PGR gene residing on chromosome 11q22,[5][6][7] it has two isoforms, PR-A and PR-B, that ..., Gene: ESR1 (ENSG00000091831) *^ Gadkar-Sable S, Shah C, Rosario G, Sachdeva G, Puri C (2005). "Progesterone ...
Regulation of gene expression. *Gene regulatory network. *Developmental-genetic toolkit. *Evolutionary developmental biology ... Such a gene that exhibits multiple phenotypic expression is called a pleiotropic gene . Therefore mutation in a pleiotropic ... developmental pleiotropy, and selectional pleiotropy. Gene pleiotropy occurs when a gene product interacts with multiple other ... One basic model of pleiotropy's origin describes a single gene locus to the expression of a certain trait. The locus affects ...
For example, increased maternal licking and grooming has been shown to alter expression of the glutocorticoid receptor gene ... Horton TH (Jan 2005). "Fetal origins of developmental plasticity: animal models of induced life history variation". Am. J. Hum ... Exposure to mild or moderate stressors early in life has been shown to enhance HPA regulation and promote a lifelong resilience ... de Kloet ER, Sibug RM, Helmerhorst FM, Schmidt MV, Schmidt M (April 2005). "Stress, genes and the mechanism of programming the ...
This affects their function of gene regulation. In general, genes that are active have less bound histone, while inactive genes ... In budding yeast, the candidate gene for activation of histone gene expression is SBF. SBF is a transcription factor that is ... "A bivalent chromatin structure marks key developmental genes in embryonic stem cells". Cell. 125 (2): 315-26. doi:10.1016/j. ... "NPAT links cyclin E-Cdk2 to the regulation of replication-dependent histone gene transcription". Genes & Development. 14 (18): ...
Transcription and mRNA splicing - Gene expression.. Notable cell biologistsEdit. *Jean Baptiste Carnoy ... Cell signaling - Regulation of cell behavior by signals from outside.. *Division - By which cells reproduce either by mitosis ( ... Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology ...
Hargrove JL, Berdanier CD (1993). Nutrition and gene expression. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-6961-2. .. [page needed ... "Margarine Regulations". Archived from the original on 2007-10-11.. *^ "Enriched White Bread in Canada". The Canadian Celiac ... developmental, and congenital.[1] Primary lactose intolerance occurs as the amount of lactase declines as people age.[1] ... "Gene-culture coevolution between cattle milk protein genes and human lactase genes". Nature Genetics. 35 (4): 311-3. doi: ...
"Seizures and the regulation of neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide gene expression in brain". Epilepsy Research. Supplement. 4 ... Although BDNF is needed in the developmental stages, BDNF levels have been shown to decrease in tissues with aging.[90] Studies ... positive regulation of receptor binding. • regulation of protein localization to cell surface. • regulation of receptor ... Expression[edit]. The BDNF protein is encoded by a gene that is also called BDNF, found in humans on chromosome 11.[7][8] ...
The gap genes act at the top of this regulatory hierarchy. Expression of the gap genes occurs in discrete domains along the ... developmental biology emerged as a field of study which attempts to correlate the genes with morphological change, and so tries ... Farley, Brian M.; Ryder, Sean P. (January 2008). "Regulation of Maternal mRNAs in Early Development". Critical Reviews in ... Zygotic expression of the gap genes is thought to be required for the subdivision of the embryo into several units of adjacent ...
People with developmental disabilitiesEdit. Advocates for the rights of people with developmental disabilities focus their ... The protesters demanded the signing of regulations for Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.The successful sit-in was ... that autism is caused by a genetic defect and should be addressed by targeting the autism gene(s), and fringe theories that ... neurodiversity advocates believe that the autism spectrum is primarily genetic and should be accepted as a natural expression ...
Eugene Paul Wigner; Andrew Szanton (1992). Andrew Szanton, ed. The Recollections of Eugene P. Wigner As Told to Andrew Szanton ... nor even with an expression of emotional antipathy, for he loved to use religious expressions and metaphors, but simply by ... PZ Myers (1957-): American evolutionary developmental biologist at the University of Minnesota and a blogger via his blog, ... a liberal who advocated state regulation, an individualist who championed social cooperation, and a very private public ...
Regulation of gene expression. *Gene regulatory network. *Developmental-genetic toolkit. *Evolutionary developmental biology ... Hall, B.K., Hallgrímsson, B. Monroe, W.S. (2008). Strickberger's evolution: the integration of genes, organisms and populations ... Such retention is important in evolutionary biology, domestication, and evolutionary developmental biology. ... the fitness of the individual because the female is producing more offspring and therefore passing on more of her genes.[33] In ...
... the regulation of gene expression, and responses to oxidative stress. The importance of proteolytic degradation inside cells ... The cellular consequences of ARF activation depend on the plant type and developmental stage, but are involved in directing ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-Jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ... Certain transcription factors regulating the expression of specific genes, including one component of the mammalian complex NF- ...
Regulation of gene expression. *Gene regulatory network. *Developmental-genetic toolkit. *Evolutionary developmental biology ... then gene A is epistatic and gene B is hypostatic. For example, the gene for total baldness is epistatic to the gene for brown ... Epistasis within genes[edit]. Just as mutations in two separate genes can be non-additive if those genes interact, mutations in ... The hair-colour genes are hypostatic to the baldness gene. The baldness phenotype supersedes genes for hair colour and so the ...
However, the specific genes and gene interactions that contribute to its cause-and how they may influence the developmental and ... The brain regions identified in the above studies are associated with empathy, compassion, emotional regulation, and cognitive ... effective expression, empathy, discussion and problem solving/conflict resolution".[citation needed] Marital/relationship ... Masterson, James F (June 1981). The Narcissistic and Borderline Disorders: An Integrated Developmental Approach (First ed.). ...
"Structure and function of the DNA ligases encoded by the mammalian LIG3 gene". Gene. 531 (2): 150-157. doi:10.1016/J.GENE. ... "DNA ligase IV mutations identified in patients exhibiting developmental delay and immunodeficiency". Mol. Cell 8 (6): 1175-85. ... "Up-regulation of WRN and DNA ligase III-alpha in chronic myeloid leukemia: consequences for the repair of DNA double-strand ... "Molecular cloning and expression of human cDNAs encoding a novel DNA ligase IV and DNA ligase III, an enzyme active in DNA ...
The first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase. Both ... developmental biology. The branch of biology that studies the processes by which living organisms grow and develop over time. ... The study of populations of organisms, especially the regulation of population size, life history traits such as clutch size, ... gene pool. A set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.. generation. genetic ...
Downstream effects of this include regulation of gene expression and the cell cycle. The role of PI3K has been investigated by ... PDGFs are mitogenic during early developmental stages, driving the proliferation of undifferentiated mesenchyme and some ... and gene expression and significantly augmented the influx of inflammatory cells and fibroblasts, accelerating extracellular ... It has been shown that the sis oncogene is derived from the PDGF B-chain gene. PDGF-BB is the highest-affinity ligand for the ...
More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • phospholipase binding. • GTPase regulator activity. • SH3 ... negative regulation of cell motility. • blood coagulation. • positive regulation of Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation. • ... "Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. 24 (4): 258-66. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2012.12.005. PMC 3656410. PMID 23291261.. ... regulation of stress fiber assembly. • negative regulation of stress fiber assembly. • cellular response to interferon-gamma. ...
"Tissue expression and developmental regulation of chicken cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides". Journal of Animal Science and ... "Entrez Gene: CAMP cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide".. *^ a b c d e Zanetti M (January 2004). "Cathelicidins, multifunctional ... positive regulation of interleukin-8 secretion. • defense response. • negative regulation of growth of symbiont on or near host ... "The expression of the gene coding for the antibacterial peptide LL-37 is induced in human keratinocytes during inflammatory ...
However, this effect is not a direct result of PrP's absence, and rather arises from increased Doppel gene expression.[28] ... negative regulation of T cell receptor signaling pathway. • regulation of protein localization. • negative regulation of ... Initial attempts produced two strains of PrP-null mice that shows no physiological or developmental differences when subjected ... regulation of glutamate receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of neuron death. • negative regulation of amyloid- ...
"Entrez Gene: PDHA1 pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) alpha 1".. *↑ Giribaldi G, Doria-Lamba L, Biancheri R, Severino M, Rossi ... regulation of acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process from pyruvate. • pyruvate metabolic process. • glucose metabolic process. • ... Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 54 (5): 472-6. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2011.04151.x. PMID 22142326.. ... More reference expression data. هستی‌شناسی ژن. عملکرد ملکولی. • pyruvate dehydrogenase activity. • oxidoreductase activity. • ...
Besides these effects, it has also been shown that "...a developmental down-regulation of GABAA receptor mediated ... Such diseases are caused by an error in a single DNA gene. Because the disease is autosomal, the defective gene is found on an ... proved that repeated exposure of GHB to MAP kinase affected myelin expression. This is a critical finding since myelin is the ... It is believed that the genetic basis for SSADH deficiency resides in the SSADH human ALDH5A1 gene which maps to chromosome ...
  • Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways , respond to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources. (
  • Louise and I, using a number of innovative molecular biology techniques, identified and characterised two new machinery proteins involved in the endogenous gene regulatory pathway of plants, the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway. (
  • Developmental biology studies how organisms grow and develop and is closely aligned with stem cell biology research. (
  • You will undertake research to answer some of the most basic questions in biology - how genes are maintained, organised, inherited, copied and controlled to underpin complex life. (
  • Oregon Health & Science University / Cell and Developmental Biology Graduate Program is located in Portland, OR, in an urban setting. (
  • Developmental Biology 2008;316:6-20. (
  • How specificity is maintained between stimulus and transcription of specific genes is a fundamental problem in cell biology. (
  • The roles of genes and inheritance in the biology of humans and the organisms with which we interact. (
  • Human evolutionary developmental biology or informally human evo-devo is the human-specific subset of evolutionary developmental biology. (
  • Evolutionary developmental biology is the study of the evolution of developmental processes across different organisms. (
  • Evolutionary developmental biology is primarily concerned with the ways in which evolution affects development, and seeks to unravel the causes of evolutionary innovations. (
  • Brian Hall traces the roots of evolutionary developmental biology in his 2012 paper on its past present and future. (
  • Many of the human evolutionary developmental biology studies have been modeled after primate studies and consider the two together in a comparative model. (
  • Some of the work on human evolutionary developmental biology has centered around the neotenous features that present in humans, but are not shared across the primate spectrum. (
  • The Program in Cell and Molecular Biology at the University of Virginia offers comprehensive graduate training in modern biological sciences, emphasizing cellular, molecular, and developmental biology. (
  • The research interests of the faculty span the spectrum of modern cell and molecular biology, from studies on the intricate structure of biological molecules to the complex unfolding of developmental pathways in multicellular organisms. (
  • The building originally housed the Divisions of Gene expression, Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Parasitology that were affiliated with the Department of Biochemistry, while the Division of Cell and Development Biology was affiliated with the Department of Anatomy and Physiology. (
  • Maria Barna is an Assistant Professor in the Departments of Developmental Biology and Genetics at Stanford University. (
  • She completed her thesis work in the lab of Dr. Lee Niswander in the Developmental Biology Department at Sloan Kettering Institute in 2007. (
  • In 2013, she received a dual appointment as an Assistant Professor in the Departments of Developmental Biology and Genetics at Stanford University. (
  • She has also received the inaugural Elizabeth Hay award from the Society of Developmental Biology, the H.W. Mossman Award in Developmental Biology and the Tsuneko and Reiji Okazaki Award, among others. (
  • This research is opening a new field of study in which we apply sophisticated mass spectrometry, computational biology, genomics, and developmental genetics, to characterize a ribosome code to gene expression. (
  • Attendees can expect exciting sessions on RNA polymerase structural biology, mechanisms that control initiation, elongation, and termination, regulation of transcription in pathogens, RNA-based control, transcriptional networks, and connections between cell topology and gene expression. (
  • The genetics of expression of an allotype. (
  • The course aims to give students a level of understanding of concepts and experimental techniques in the areas of gene regulation, developmental genetics and human genetics that would enable them to develop competencies expected of a university graduate in Genetics. (
  • This course will develop an understanding of the fundamental concepts in genetics, including patterns of inheritance, allelic variation, gene interaction, linkage, gene mapping and changes in chromosome structure and number. (
  • The course includes discussion of the genetic basis of human individual differences, gene frequencies in human populations, human behavioral genetics, human cytogenetics, biochemical genetics and developmental genetics, medical genetics and other aspects of human heredity. (
  • Fundamental aspects of genetics including the chromosomal basis of inheritance, cytogenetics, genes in populations and quantitative traits will be introduced. (
  • Single embryo RNA-seq combined with mouse genetics provides a comprehensive view on the roles of Rlim and Xist for the regulation of X-linked gene expression during early mouse embryogenesis. (
  • Developmental genetics is the study of how genes control the growth and development of an organism throughout its life-cycle. (
  • Therefore, expression of 42 transcripts annotated as tubulin or MTs associated proteins (MAPs) was validated in the same RNA samples. (
  • This course provides an introduction to the structure of the gene and the relationship between genes and proteins with an in depth discussion of the processes of replication, transcription, translation, regulation of gene expression, mutation and DNA repair and recombination. (
  • Furthermore, myxobacteria contain a large number of proteins involved in signal transduction pathways and transcriptional regulation ( 10 - 12 ). (
  • The only significant annotation cluster containing an overrepresentation of genes regulated by CSF2 in TE was for secreted or extracellular proteins. (
  • [7] In humans RNAP II consists of seventeen protein molecules (gene products encoded by POLR2A-L, where the proteins synthesized from 2C-, E-, and F-form homodimers). (
  • The LIM domain is a zinc-binding amino acid motif that characterizes various proteins which function in protein-protein interactions and transcriptional regulation. (
  • Expression patterns of several LIM protein genes are compatible with roles in vertebrate CNS development, but little is known about the expression, regulation, or function of LIM proteins in the mature CNS. (
  • The specific combination of proteins synthesized varies with developmental, metabolic and environmental circumstances. (
  • The function of genes is to pass on the information necessary to build proteins - and bodies - from one generation to the next. (
  • Genes contain the information a cell needs to make proteins - a bit like a recipe for a living thing. (
  • Different genes contain the information needed to make different proteins, and different proteins do different jobs in the cell. (
  • The answer lies in special control genes that produce proteins that control the activity of other genes. (
  • One way in which genes can influence the activity of other genes is through the production of proteins called transcription factors , which stick to special control sites in the DNA at the start of a gene to switch them on and off. (
  • In addition to lecturing, I am taking a molecular approach to determine the role(s) of each of the five members of the Arabidopsis DRB protein family in the parallel sRNA-directed RNA silencing pathways of plants, specifically determining the 'DRB-dependence' of each sRNA species, and further to study the sRNA levels and sRNA target gene expression during abiotic stress, namely drought and salt stress. (
  • The aim is to give students an appreciation, at an advanced level, of the mechanisms that control gene expression, the genetic determination of developmental pathways, the various types of human genetic mutation that lead to disease and the pathogenic pathways from genotype to phenotype. (
  • These observations show that temporal features of action potentials (and associated Ca 2+ transients) regulate expression of neuronal genes by activating specific intracellular signaling pathways with appropriate temporal dynamics. (
  • Although there is considerable information on the multiple signal transduction pathways leading from membrane depolarization to gene transcription, it is not fully understood how these reactions operate as a system to extract and transmit information from temporally varying stimulation. (
  • The objective of the current experiment was to identify genes regulated by CSF2 in the ICM and trophectoderm (TE) of the bovine blastocyst with the goal of identifying possible molecular pathways by which CSF2 increases developmental competence for survival. (
  • Genes downregulated by CSF2 in ICM were overrepresented in several pathways including those for ERK and AKT signaling. (
  • In addition, genes downregulated in TE were overrepresented in TGFβ and Nanog pathways. (
  • Caenorhabditis elegans daf-11 and daf-21 mutants share defects in specific chemosensory responses mediated by several classes of sensory neurons, indicating that these two genes have closely related functions in an assortment of chemosensory pathways. (
  • We use functional mouse genetic approaches, organ and cell culture, genome wide screen, in situ hybridization and other strategies to study the role of specific pathways in the developmental programs of the lung. (
  • Additional factors that alter initiation, elongation, or termination of transcription program an amazing variety of developmental pathways. (
  • 2012). I went on to show, once again via the use of amiRNA technology, that DRB3 and DRB5 regulate the expression of DRB2-dependent miRNA target genes independently of target gene mRNA cleavage-based RNA silencing, the predominant mode of sRNA-directed RNA silencing in plants (Eamens et al . (
  • GSE10341), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 target genes are induced to a greater extent in null fetuses than in wt siblings, supporting the notion that mutants experience lower oxygen tension or have an enhanced response to hypoxia. (
  • Blumenfeld , M. , Maury , M. , Chouard , T. , Yaniv , M. & Condamine , H. (1991) Hepatic nuclear factor 1 (HNF1) shows a wider distribution than products of its known target genes in developing mouse. (
  • Different combinations of microRNAs are expressed in different cell types and may coordinately regulate cell-specific target genes. (
  • Via specific mRNA complementary pairing of target genes, miRNAs are able to regulate the expression of mRNA levels or inhibit protein translation following transcription. (
  • Whole-mount in situ hybridization experiments demonstrate that the mRNA accumulation is developmental stage specific. (
  • This indicates the unique regulation of NR in embryogenesis in which NR mRNA transcription is activated in a developmental stage-specific manner that is independent of nitrate induction. (
  • Although previous work demonstrates that maturation of I Kv depends on general mRNA synthesis, it is not known whether increases in K + channel gene transcripts direct maturation of the current. (
  • Detection of a coexpressed housekeeping gene along with the potassium channel gene controlled for successful aspiration of cellular mRNA and allowed scoring of cells in which Kv gene transcripts were not detected. (
  • The developmental regulation of rat brain-derived/Hep G2 glucose transporter gene expression was studied by means of Northern blot hybridization, using a rat brain glucose transporter cDNA probe, in order to directly quantify steady state glucose transporter mRNA levels. (
  • The relative expression of the glucose transporter mRNA in the different tissues, at both fetal and adult stages, was analyzed using a solution hybridization-RNase protection assay. (
  • The Kebaara lab is interested in regulation of gene expression at the messenger RNA level (mRNA). (
  • Thus, NMD plays dual roles, one in mRNA surveillance and a second in regulation of gene expression. (
  • Our results demonstrate that mRNA levels of all transcription factors tested are significantly above background in the whole embryo and are either reduced or enhanced in expression during subsequent development. (
  • There is no lactose to inhibit the repressor , so the repressor binds to the operator , which obstructs the RNA polymerase from binding to the promoter and making the mRNA encoding the lactase gene. (
  • This study provides novel insight into the underlying mechanisms that regulate the expression of cold-responsive genes in wheat. (
  • Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products ( protein or RNA ), and is informally termed gene regulation . (
  • In particular, such mechanisms can influence the expression of hepatic ADME genes. (
  • It is reasonable to assume that those elements that develop independently (e.g., appear in different temporal or spatial sequences in the two taxa) are elements that are not mechanistically linked or integrated, whereas those that are consistently associated in the two taxa, despite changes in other structures, may be linked by developmental mechanisms. (
  • Fourth, what are the developmental mechanisms underlying these evolutionary changes? (
  • Specific patterns of neural impulses regulate genes controlling nervous system development and plasticity, but it is not known how intracellular signaling cascades and transcriptional activation mechanisms can regulate specific genes in response to specific patterns of action potentials. (
  • Student will get an overview about the developmental mechanisms at the organism, cell and particularly molecular levels. (
  • The molecular nature of the gene and general mechanisms of gene and general mechanisms of gene expression will be introduced but not covered in detail. (
  • Thus, it is much of interest to define the mechanisms by which early embryonic development is regulated by ROS.Recently, it has become clear that ROS have additional functions besides oxidative stress as second messengers for regulation of cell growth and differentiation. (
  • The division supports research to understand the structure and function of cells and cellular components and the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie inheritance, gene expression, and development. (
  • In the present study, sodA (encoding manganese-cofactored superoxide dismutase [Mn-SOD]) and Mn-SOD were used as a reporter gene and endogenous reporter enzyme, respectively, to reexamine control mechanisms that govern the oxidative stress response and to better understand how QS and a nutrient stress response interact or overlap in this bacterium. (
  • However, an extensive analysis of the molecular mechanisms that modulate axial Hox gene expression strongly suggests that coordinated expression is achieved through a variety of species-dependent mechanisms. (
  • We have been studying mechanisms that regulate Fgf10 expression at the onset of lung development and during branching morphogenesis. (
  • However, the mechanisms whereby distinct mutations in the βMHC gene cause two kinds of cardiomyopathy are still unclear. (
  • In multicellular organisms, gene regulation drives cellular differentiation and morphogenesis in the embryo, leading to the creation of different cell types that possess different gene expression profiles from the same genome sequence. (
  • Although investigation of specific lncRNAs revealed their role in the metabolism of cellular RNA, our understanding of their contribution to post-transcriptional regulation is relatively limited. (
  • The first is investigating ribosome-mediated control of gene expression genome-wide in space and time during cellular differentiation and organismal development. (
  • miR‑26b is an miRNA of 22 nt and is important in the regulation of cellular processes. (
  • Here, we show that the expression of genes associated with glycolysis and glutamate metabolism in astrocytes and the coverage of excitatory synapses by astrocytic processes undergo significant decreases in the CA1 field of the monkey hippocampus during postnatal development. (
  • Given the established role of astrocytes in the regulation of glutamate concentration in the synaptic cleft, our findings suggest that a developmental decrease in astrocytic processes could underlie the selective vulnerability of CA1 during hypoxic-ischemic episodes in adulthood, its decreased susceptibility to febrile seizures with age, as well as contribute to the emergence of selective, adultlike memory function. (
  • In vivo knockdown of the DCLK gene by in utero electroporation significantly reduced cell numbers in the inner proliferative zones and dramatically disrupted most radial processes. (
  • Steroid hormones are key regulators of numerous physiological and developmental processes, including metastasis of breast and ovarian cancer. (
  • My current focus is on the relation between evolutionary and developmental processes, with particular focus on the evolutionary, functional and developmental consequences of heterochronies in the morphogenesis of cranial nerves, muscles, bones and sensory structures in eutherian and metatherian mammals. (
  • Plays also a role in various processes in adults such as regulation of blood vessel formation, blood pressure, heart contractility and heart failure (By similarity). (
  • Student will be able to identify basic differences and common developmental principles of organisms and (s)he will be able to demonstrate them on the basic developmental processes of insects, amphibians, mammals and plants. (
  • This branch supports studies on the mechanism and regulation of basic molecular processes and the interactions among these processes. (
  • miRNA expression has a time‑ and space specificity, and it is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, development, tumor metastasis occurrence and other biological processes. (
  • Genes play a vital role in controlling all of these processes. (
  • Real-time quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the developmental regulation and tissue-specificity of mtp expression. (
  • sRNAs are then loaded onto effector complexes that use the sRNA as a sequence specificity determinant to regulate the expression of complementary target sequences at either the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. (
  • We observed that meQTL were more stable between tissues than eQTL and a very strong tissue-specificity for the identified associations between CpG methylation and gene expression. (
  • 1997. Specificity, tolerance and developmental regulation of natural killer cells defined by expression of class I-specific Ly49 receptors. (
  • In tandem, the functions annotated to the genes affected by alternative splicing across each lncRNA knockdown also displayed cell-type specificity. (
  • Shukunami C, Takimoto A, Oro M, Hiraki Y. Scleraxis positively regulates the expression of tenomodulin, a differentiation marker of tenocytes. (
  • Our study indicates that, in addition to its role in preventing premature differentiation of early endocrine cells, Rbp-j regulates epithelial growth, Pdx1 expression, and acinar cell differentiation during mid-pancreatic development. (
  • A developmental increase in density of delayed rectifier potassium current ( I Kv ) in embryonic Xenopus spinal neurons shortens action potential durations and limits calcium influx governing neuronal differentiation. (
  • These mammals are characterized by different developmental trajectories, extending back to some of the earliest events of differentiation, largely as a result of their different life history adaptations. (
  • Frank Grosveld is a molecular biologist whose research interests are in the regulation of transcription during development with a particular emphasis on mammalian erythroid differentiation. (
  • Brn3a regulates neuronal subtype specification in the trigeminal ganglion by promoting Runx expression during sensory differentiation. (
  • Brn3a and Islet1 act epistatically to regulate the gene expression program of sensory differentiation. (
  • The role of retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) in hematopoiesis is very important, as the fusion of RARα gene with PML gene initiates acute promyelocytic leukemia where differentiation of the myeloid lineage is blocked, followed by an uncontrolled proliferation of leukemic blasts. (
  • Essential for the coupling of ERK cascade activation with the expression of ETS family genes in megakaryocytic differentiation. (
  • Lmo1, Lmo2, and Lmo3 are LIM-only genes originally identified as putative oncogenes that have been implicated in the control of cell differentiation and are active during CNS development. (
  • Parent of origin imprints on the genome have been implicated in the regulation of neural cell type differentiation. (
  • Analysis of imprinting in hpESCs and in hpNSCs revealed that maternal-specific gene expression patterns and imprinting marks were generally maintained in PG cells upon differentiation. (
  • Our results demonstrate that despite the lack of a paternal genome, hpESCs generate proliferating NSCs that are capable of differentiation into physiologically functional neuron-like cells and maintain allele-specific expression of imprinted genes. (
  • We discovered that regulation of VDR expression in humans is different from in mice. (
  • Finally, have the specific developmental patterns of marsupial and placental mammals had an impact on the evolutionary diversity and success of these organisms? (
  • 8. P.-C. Peng , Quantifying the functional and evolutionary relationships among sequences, transcription factor binding and gene expression. (
  • Araki T, Kusakabe M, Nishida E. Expression of estrogen induced gene 121-like (EIG121L) during early Xenopus development. (
  • Satoh G, Wang Y, Zhang P, Satoh N. Early development of amphioxus nervous system with special reference to segmental cell organization and putative sensory cell precursors: a study based on the expression of pan-neuronal marker gene Hu/elav. (
  • GnRH gene expression is limited to a discrete population of neurons that migrate through the nasal region into the hypothalamus during embryonic development. (
  • MSX and DLX are members of the Antennapedia class of non-Hox homeodomain transcription factors that regulate gene expression and influence development of the craniofacial structures and anterior forebrain. (
  • Here, we report that expression patterns of the Msx and Dlx families of homeodomain transcription factors largely coincide with the migratory route of GnRH neurons and co-express with GnRH in neurons during embryonic development. (
  • These findings strongly support a role for MSX and DLX in contributing to spatiotemporal regulation of GnRH transcription during development. (
  • The GnRH gene is expressed in a complex spatiotemporal manner during embryonic development and into postnatal life with several populations of GnRH -expressing neurons originating at different developmental stages and locations. (
  • To identify the genes involved in the development of low temperature (LT) tolerance in hexaploid wheat, we examined the global changes in expression in response to cold of the 55,052 potentially unique genes represented in the Affymetrix Wheat Genome microarray. (
  • Accordingly, the developmental appearance of specific Kv potassium channel genes was determined using single-cell reverse transcription-PCR techniques after whole-cell recording of I Kv during the period of its development. (
  • To examine this hypothesis, we identified potassium channel genes expressed during the period of current development. (
  • If potassium channel mRNAs initiate development of I Kv , the frequency of expression of Kv1.1 and Kv2.2 genes in spinal neurons should increase during current development. (
  • Moreover, we demonstrate that NF-M expression in song control nuclei changes during postembryonic development, peaking during an early phase of the song-learning period that coincides with the maturation of the song system. (
  • The Simmons lab investigates the regulation of calcium signaling during inner ear development, hearing loss, and nerve regeneration using transgenic murine models. (
  • The Simmons laboratory investigates how the regulation of calcium signaling contributes to hearing loss, development and maturation of sensory organs, and peripheral nerve regeneration. (
  • Rearrangement of T cell receptor ß chain genes during T cell development. (
  • The material taught in this courses is organised around the theme of genes how genes function and their roles in development and disease. (
  • Environmental control of gene expression can occur early or late during development, and this is relevant to understanding species differences in cortical specification. (
  • A developmental and genetic classification for malformations of cortical development: update 2012. (
  • Regulation of the development of tectal neurons and their axonal projections by transcription factors Brn3a and Pax7. (
  • This is why we decided to examine the effects of the combination of 1,25D and all- trans -retinoic acid (ATRA) on VDR gene expression in normal human and murine blood cells at various steps of their development. (
  • This is an important question, considering the fundamental role of action potential-dependent gene regulation in brain function and nervous system development. (
  • The levels of regulation of gene expression in development of animals and plants, RNA interference. (
  • The biochemical and molecular bases of cell structure, energy metabolism, gene regulation, heredity, and development in living organisms from bacteria to man are discussed. (
  • In vitro development of mammalian embryos during preimplantation period from the 1-cell to the blastocyst stages is known to be arrested at a stage characteristics for the species when zygotic gene activation (ZGA) occurs. (
  • In the present studies, attempts were made to define the redox regulation in i … More n vitro development of early mouse embryos. (
  • Thus, it is indicated that the development and gene expression of embryos during preimplantation stages, especially at periods of ZGA and blastocyst formation are regulated under redox controls. (
  • Emphasis on the co-ordinated regulation of gene expression, cell-cell communication, and signalling during development. (
  • The earlier paper contained data from control embryos only and the current report details additional information about differences in gene expression between control embryos and embryos treated with CSF2 from Day 6 to 8 of development. (
  • Publications] Taniguchi,M.: 'Essential requirement of an invariant Vα14 T cell antigen receptor expression in the development of natural killer T cells' Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA. (
  • This review aims to bring together recent findings that have advanced our understanding of the regulation of the Hox genes during mouse embryonic development. (
  • In all organisms, controlling the process of transcription is fundamental to gene expression, gene regulation, and development. (
  • Numerous studies have observed that miR‑26b is involved in early embryonic development, cell proliferation regulation, pituitary hormone secretion and other physiological activities. (
  • Some of these modifications that regulate gene expression are inheritable and are referred to as epigenetic regulation . (
  • However, there is substantial inter-individual variation in hepatic gene expression, and although numerous genetic factors have been identified, less is known about the epigenetic factors. (
  • Our analyses generated a comprehensive resource of factors involved in the regulation of hepatic gene expression, and allowed us to estimate the proportion of variation in gene expression that could be attributed to genetic and epigenetic variation, both crucial to understanding differences in drug response and the etiology of liver diseases. (
  • Interestingly, the epigenetic state of ADME genes, at least in rodent livers, can change in response to xenobiotic exposure [ 16 , 17 ], thus opening the perspective for epigenetics-mediated drug-drug interactions. (
  • More examples on epigenetic regulation of ADME genes have been reviewed by Kacevska et al. (
  • The contribution of epigenetic modifications of the ZTRE to age-associated changes in the regulation of zinc transporter gene expression. (
  • Changes in DNA methylation and subsequent changes in gene expression regulation are the hallmarks of age- and tissue-dependent epigenetic drift and plasticity resulting from the combinatorial integration of genetic determinants and environmental cues. (
  • Previous studies have indicated that light-induced germination of Arabidopsis seeds is mediated by the hormone gibberellin (GA). Using RNA gel blot analyses, we studied the regulation of two Arabidopsis genes, GA4 and GA4H (for GA4 homolog), both of which encode GA 3β-hydroxylases that catalyze the final biosynthetic step to produce bioactive GAs. (
  • Gene Expr Patterns. (
  • Furthermore, we provide evidence that Ta.Vrn-A1 and Ta.Vrt1 originally hypothesized to encode for the same gene showed different patterns of expression and therefore are distinct. (
  • These projects include a study of heterochronies in the earliest morphological and genetic events in the head of marsupial and placental mammals, a study of neural crest in marupial mammals, and a study of patterns of Hox gene expression along the developing body axis, relations between the brain and cranial skeleton. (
  • How do their expression patterns coordinate with tung oil biosynthesis in the seeds? (
  • Quantitative real-time PCR, along with northern and western blotting, were used to study the expression patterns of the three DGAT genes in tung tree tissues. (
  • These kinetics limited the fidelity with which P-CREB could follow different patterns of action potentials, and P-CREB levels were not well correlated with c-fos expression. (
  • The objective of the present study was to investigate whether differences in the temporal dynamics of the second messenger Ca 2+ and integration by downstream signaling elements could contribute to specific activation of genes in response to specific patterns of neuronal firing. (
  • All axial and paraxial tissues between the middle of the hindbrain and the tip of the tail acquire differential and combinatorial Hox expression patterns, irrespective of whether they are segmented. (
  • In the hippocampal formation, Lmo1, Lmo2 , and Lmo3 show different combinatorial patterns of expression levels in CA pyramidal and dentate granule neurons, and Lmo1 is present in topographically restricted subpopulations of astrocytes. (
  • The complex network of DNA protein and protein-protein interactions determines the degree of transcription of a specific sequence and defines particular expression patterns. (
  • Maternally-derived signals called embryokines can alter developmental phenotype of the preimplantation embryo immediately or later during pre-natal or post-natal life [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • The Hox genes confer positional information to the axial and paraxial tissues as they emerge gradually from the posterior aspect of the vertebrate embryo. (
  • In wild type, expression was detected in both cotyledons (c), the embryo axis (a) and endosperm cell layer (e). (
  • A newly fertilised egg cell has a collection of genes that contains all information needed to transform it from a single cell into an embryo and then an adult. (
  • So, for example, homeotic or homeobox genes control whole sets of other genes to set out the basic body plan of the embryo, separating the front from the back, and producing the right body structure in the right place. (
  • Kv1.1 and 2.2 are thus candidates for generation of I Kv , and spinal neurons are a heterogeneous population with respect to potassium channel gene expression. (
  • Moreover, correlation of gene expression with current properties shows that neurons lacking Kv2.2 have a characteristic voltage dependence of activation of I Kv . (
  • Here we show that the expression of the gene encoding the middle-weight neurofilament (NF-M), an important component of the neuronal cytoskeleton and a useful tool for studying the cytarchitectonic organization of mammalian cortical areas, is highly enriched in large neurons within pallial song control nuclei (nucleus HVC, robustus nucleus of the arcopallium, and lateral magnocellular nucleus of the nidopallium) of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). (
  • daf-11 and daf-21 mutants have similar defects in several of these responses (reviewed in R iddle and A lbert 1997 ), suggesting that the daf-11 and daf-21 gene products (DAF-11 and DAF-21) act at the same step to regulate chemosensory transduction in several types of sensory neurons. (
  • 0.001, 1623 additional CpG sites were differentially methylated in female hippocampus, corresponding to 117 unique genes. (
  • Using a gene editing technique, the CRISPR-CAS9 system, we are generating mutations in candidate genes and characterizing genetic or biochemical links to integrin. (
  • Mutations in 3 genes (MKS3, CC2D2A and RPGRIP1L) cause COACH syndrome (Joubert syndrome with congenital hepatic fibrosis). (
  • More than 3800 gene mutations are linked to inherited cardiomyopathies (ICs) and identification of underlying gene mutations continues to expand ( ). (
  • abi3, fus3 and lec2 mutations affect At2S3 expression in seeds. (
  • Methylation of DNA is a common method of gene silencing. (
  • Often, DNA methylation and histone deacetylation work together in gene silencing . (
  • Of the 526 unique eQTL associated genes, 293 correlated significantly not only with genetic variation but also with methylation levels. (
  • It is essential to have a better understanding on inter-individual variation of gene expression, methylation and genetic effects specific to liver, and on different conditions, e.g. developmental stages. (
  • His research group has carried out pioneering work in many aspects of gene regulation from concluding that DNA methylation inhibits gene expression via an indirect mechanism, to the first description of an LCR, visualizing the primary transcription process in the nucleus and most recently the decription of 3D interactions in the nucleus. (
  • Concurrently, we examined DNA methylation and expression status of imprinted genes. (
  • 1995. Allelic exclusion of Ly49 family genes encoding class I-MHC-specific receptors on NK cells. (
  • abstract = "The human aromatase (hCYP19) gene is controlled by tissue-specific promoters that lie upstream of tissue-specific first exons. (
  • During this Postdoctoral Fellowship (2006-2009), I developed an artificial microRNA (amiRNA) plant transformation vector that directs highly efficient and specific RNA silencing of a researcher's gene(s) of interest (Eamens and Waterhouse, Methods Mol Biol . (
  • In particular, we experimentally validate common regulation of Mtpn by miR-375 , miR-124 and let-7b and thus provide evidence for coordinate microRNA control in mammals. (
  • Expression of microRNA‑26b and identification of its target gene EphA2 in pituitary tissues in Yanbian cattle. (
  • RNA polymerase II is recruited to the promoters of protein-coding genes in living cells. (
  • A major step of gene expression regulation is the control of transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II. (
  • The present study used reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect the relative expression levels of miR‑26b in the pituitary tissue of Yanbian cattle at different developmental stages. (
  • Lactose is inhibiting the repressor, allowing the RNA polymerase to bind with the promoter and express the genes, which synthesize lactase. (
  • For transcription to take place, the enzyme that synthesizes RNA, known as RNA polymerase , must attach to the DNA near a gene. (
  • Gene regulation is essential for viruses , prokaryotes and eukaryotes as it increases the versatility and adaptability of an organism by allowing the cell to express protein when needed. (
  • Despite the extrahepatic expression of these transcription factors, expression of albumin remains confined to the liver at all developmental stages. (
  • Biochemical and genetic investigations of transcription regulation have a long history of revealing the myriad ways that gene expression can be controlled. (
  • DGAT genes have been identified in numerous organisms. (
  • Our lab studies how intricate control of gene expression and cell signaling is regulated on a minute-by-minute basis to give rise to the remarkable diversity of cell types and tissue morphology that form the living blueprints of developing organisms. (
  • The miRNA target gene database TargetScan and RNA22 were used for prediction of the miR‑26b target gene and selective recognition was also performed. (
  • expression was observed as early as embryonic d 7.5 (E7.5) in several cells of the trophoblast ectoderm, on E8.5 in some trophoblast giant cells, and by E9.5 in giant cells and the labyrinthine layer. (
  • Given the substantial inter-individual variation seen in metabolism, regulation of nutrients, protein synthesis, and detoxification of xenobiotics. (
  • We and others have studied how these SNPs affect liver gene expression levels by mapping expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) [ 7 - 11 ], and several genetic variants that regulate genes involved in the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs (ADME genes) have also been identified. (
  • These results suggest that DGAT2 is probably the major TAG biosynthetic isoform in tung seeds and that DGAT3 gene likely plays a significant role in TAG metabolism in other tissues. (
  • Cao , Z. , Umek , R. M. & McKnight , S. L. (1991) Regulated expression of three C/EBP isoforms during adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells. (
  • The combination of Hox genes expressed in a specific AP region has been called its `Hox code' ( Kessel and Gruss, 1991 ). (
  • In this review, we introduce physiological and molecular features of the neoblast, and discuss how germline genes regulate planarian neoblasts and what differences exist between neoblasts and germline cells. (
  • These findings from transgenic experiments together with deletion mapping studies using transfected human placental cells indicate that the concerted interaction of strong placenta-specific enhancers and silencers within this 501-bp region mediate labyrinthine and syncytiotrophoblast-specific CYP19 gene expression. (
  • RARα takes part in regulation of VDR transcription, and unliganded RARα acts as a transcriptional repressor to VDR gene in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. (
  • We tested the expression of VDR and regulation of this gene in response to 1,25D or ATRA, as well as transcriptional activities of nuclear receptors VDR and RARs in human and murine blood cells. (
  • Major hallmarks of terminally differentiated epithelial cells are expression of junctional complexes and apical-basal polarization. (
  • 1995. Evidence that productive rearrangements of TCRg genes influence the fate of developing T cells. (
  • 1994. Multiple natural killer cell-activating signals are inhibited by major histocompatibility complex class I expression in target cells. (
  • Reporter gene studies indicated that sodA transcription could be variably induced in iron-starved cells of all three strains, depending on growth stage. (
  • Bacterial QS, or cell-to-cell communication, is a process in gram-negative and some gram-positive bacteria where low-molecular-weight diffusible molecules synthesized by one cell trigger gene activation in other cells ( 17 ). (
  • Lateral plate mesoderm and spinal cord cells, for example, also express a differential combination of Hox genes depending on their ultimate axial level. (
  • By inactivating gene components of the Notch pathway in the mouse lung, we found that airways no longer formed secretory Clara cells and became populated almost exclusively by ciliated cells and neuroendocrine cells. (
  • These findings provide insights into the regulation of progenitor cell fate that can be criticial in the pathogenesis of conditions, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), in which airways have overabundance of secretory cells and paucity of ciliated cells. (
  • Interaction of miR-26b with the candidate target gene EphA2 was indicated by a decrease in luciferase expression of the cells. (
  • Cells change into different types of cell because of changes in the way their genes work. (
  • But how do cells switch their genes on and off? (
  • Taguchi S, Tagawa K, Humphreys T, Satoh N. Group B sox genes that contribute to specification of the vertebrate brain are expressed in the apical organ and ciliary bands of hemichordate larvae. (
  • Publications] Akasaka,T.: 'A role for mel-18,a Polycomb group-releted vertebrate gene,during the anteroposteior specification of the axial skeleton. (
  • Northern blotting was used to confirm the expression pattern of DGATs in tung tissues. (
  • In addition, these transcription factors and many liver-specific structural genes rise concomitantly in intestine and kidney just before birth, suggesting the expression of hepatogenic factors in these tissues as well. (
  • Furthermore, in mammals and in short germ-band insects, which, unlike Drosophila , extend their axis progressively by adding new tissues from their posterior end, 3′ Hox genes are expressed first, whereas more 5′ Hox genes are expressed later and sequentially. (
  • We evaluate the importance of the early transcriptional activation of these genes in the posterior primitive streak, as well as the role of the node region in modulating the Hox gene expression domain during the laying down of axial and paraxial tissues. (
  • Expression of α-fetoprotein, carbamoylphosphate synthase and albumin, that are generally accepted markers for the hepatic phenotype, require a distinct set of transcription factors. (
  • Interestingly, cardiac mesoderm, which induces prehepatic endoderm to liver formation, is temporarily permissive to its own signals, showing enhanced expression of these transcription factors and, as a result, the hepatocyte-specific genes α-fetoprotein and carbamoylphosphate synthase. (
  • In recent years this work has been augmented by the availability of atomic-level structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNA polymerases and transcription factors in combination with systems-wide profiling of gene regulatory events. (
  • These transcription factors have specific activator or repressor sequences of corresponding nucleotides that attach to specific promoters and regulate gene expression. (
  • Bioinformatics programs usually allow for alternate start codons when searching for protein coding genes. (
  • Similar to other pathogens and gram-negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa has a global regulatory system known as quorum sensing (QS) that controls expression of numerous genes, many of which are associated with virulence ( 11 , 37 ). (
  • QS is viewed as a cell density-dependent phenomenon that allows bacteria to communicate, sense population density, and ultimately coordinate transcription of many genes. (
  • 9. P.-C. Peng , Gene Regulatory Network Inference and Complex Phenotype Prediction from Genetical Genomics Data. (
  • By analyzing the methylomes and transcriptomes of 14 fetal and 181 adult livers, we identified 657 differentially methylated genes with adult-specific expression, these genes were enriched for transcription factor binding sites of HNF1A and HNF4A. (
  • We survey recent work on how the signalling molecules that have a crucial role in the onset of patterning in the neural tube and mesoderm influence Hox gene transcription. (
  • The strategy by which these genes are expressed in a correct spatiotemporal pattern at the molecular level appears not to matter too much, providing that the proper Hox protein distribution is achieved ( Kmita and Duboule, 2003 ). (
  • These findings suggest that TeM is a late marker of tendon formation and that Scx positively regulates TeM expression in a tendon cell lineage-dependent manner. (
  • La Torre A, Georgi S, Reh T (2013) Conserved miRNA pathway regulates developmental timing of retinal neurogenesis. (
  • High expression of c-fos was dependent on the combined activation of the MAPK pathway and phosphorylation of CREB. (
  • In addition to daf-11 and daf-21 , several other genes regulate dauer formation, and most of these genes have been ordered into a genetic pathway by analysis of double mutants (reviewed in R iddle and A lbert 1997 ). (
  • Clustering the expression profiles revealed that the time after excision contributed to expression differences more than the age or auxin. (
  • Second, how do the differences in the developmental pattern reflect the necessities of the marsupial reproductive strategy? (
  • What is the adaptive significance of the developmental differences and what constraints might be operating? (
  • We examined in more detail a subset of these genes (2,771) where expression was highly influenced by the interaction between these two main factors. (
  • [2] approximately 24% of human genes contain a TATA box within the core promoter. (
  • Also, cmr1Delta mutants do not express the melanin biosynthetic structural genes SCD1 and THR1 during mycelial melanization, although the expression of these two genes was not affected during appressorial melanization. (
  • As little as 246 bp of hCYP19 exon I.1 5′-flanking sequence was sufficient to direct placenta-specific expression in transgenic mice. (
  • Acute one-hour treatment of Pik3ca mutant mice with a novel anti-epilepsy drug suppresses seizures despite continued developmental brain dysmorphology, promising a new therapeutic strategy for patients with intractable pediatric epilepsy. (
  • Genetic analysis using mel-18 and bmi-1 deficient mice revealed that these gene products were synergically required for the establishment of anterior-posterior axis. (
  • Next, we generated six lines of transgenic mice carrying a p.Met532Arg mutant αMHC gene, which was identical with the p.Met531Arg mutation in the human βMHC. (
  • Furthermore, our results suggest that each GA 3β-hydroxylase gene plays a unique physiological role during light-induced seed germination. (

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