Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (fos) originally isolated from the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses. The proto-oncogene protein c-fos codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. The insertion of c-fos into FBJ-MSV or FBR-MSV induces osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The human c-fos gene is located at 14q21-31 on the long arm of chromosome 14.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.

Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. (1/31686)

The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants.  (+info)

FGF8 induces formation of an ectopic isthmic organizer and isthmocerebellar development via a repressive effect on Otx2 expression. (2/31686)

Beads containing recombinant FGF8 (FGF8-beads) were implanted in the prospective caudal diencephalon or midbrain of chick embryos at stages 9-12. This induced the neuroepithelium rostral and caudal to the FGF8-bead to form two ectopic, mirror-image midbrains. Furthermore, cells in direct contact with the bead formed an outgrowth that protruded laterally from the neural tube. Tissue within such lateral outgrowths developed proximally into isthmic nuclei and distally into a cerebellum-like structure. These morphogenetic effects were apparently due to FGF8-mediated changes in gene expression in the vicinity of the bead, including a repressive effect on Otx2 and an inductive effect on En1, Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression. The ectopic Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression domains formed nearly complete concentric rings around the FGF8-bead, with the Wnt1 ring outermost. These observations suggest that FGF8 induces the formation of a ring-like ectopic signaling center (organizer) in the lateral wall of the brain, similar to the one that normally encircles the neural tube at the isthmic constriction, which is located at the boundary between the prospective midbrain and hindbrain. This ectopic isthmic organizer apparently sends long-range patterning signals both rostrally and caudally, resulting in the development of the two ectopic midbrains. Interestingly, our data suggest that these inductive signals spread readily in a caudal direction, but are inhibited from spreading rostrally across diencephalic neuromere boundaries. These results provide insights into the mechanism by which FGF8 induces an ectopic organizer and suggest that a negative feedback loop between Fgf8 and Otx2 plays a key role in patterning the midbrain and anterior hindbrain.  (+info)

Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. (3/31686)

Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain.  (+info)

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (4/31686)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (5/31686)

The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates.  (+info)

The cardiac homeobox gene Csx/Nkx2.5 lies genetically upstream of multiple genes essential for heart development. (6/31686)

Csx/Nkx2.5 is a vertebrate homeobox gene with a sequence homology to the Drosophila tinman, which is required for the dorsal mesoderm specification. Recently, heterozygous mutations of this gene were found to cause human congenital heart disease (Schott, J.-J., Benson, D. W., Basson, C. T., Pease, W., Silberbach, G. M., Moak, J. P., Maron, B. J., Seidman, C. E. and Seidman, J. G. (1998) Science 281, 108-111). To investigate the functions of Csx/Nkx2.5 in cardiac and extracardiac development in the vertebrate, we have generated and analyzed mutant mice completely null for Csx/Nkx2.5. Homozygous null embryos showed arrest of cardiac development after looping and poor development of blood vessels. Moreover, there were severe defects in vascular formation and hematopoiesis in the mutant yolk sac. Interestingly, TUNEL staining and PCNA staining showed neither enhanced apoptosis nor reduced cell proliferation in the mutant myocardium. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated that, among 20 candidate genes examined, expression of ANF, BNP, MLC2V, N-myc, MEF2C, HAND1 and Msx2 was disturbed in the mutant heart. Moreover, in the heart of adult chimeric mice generated from Csx/Nkx2.5 null ES cells, there were almost no ES cell-derived cardiac myocytes, while there were substantial contributions of Csx /Nkx2.5-deficient cells in other organs. Whole-mount &bgr;-gal staining of chimeric embryos showed that more than 20% contribution of Csx/Nkx2. 5-deficient cells in the heart arrested cardiac development. These results indicate that (1) the complete null mutation of Csx/Nkx2.5 did not abolish initial heart looping, (2) there was no enhanced apoptosis or defective cell cycle entry in Csx/Nkx2.5 null cardiac myocytes, (3) Csx/Nkx2.5 regulates expression of several essential transcription factors in the developing heart, (4) Csx/Nkx2.5 is required for later differentiation of cardiac myocytes, (5) Csx/Nkx2. 5 null cells exert dominant interfering effects on cardiac development, and (6) there were severe defects in yolk sac angiogenesis and hematopoiesis in the Csx/Nkx2.5 null embryos.  (+info)

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (7/31686)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Ultrabithorax function in butterfly wings and the evolution of insect wing patterns. (8/31686)

BACKGROUND: . The morphological and functional evolution of appendages has played a critical role in animal evolution, but the developmental genetic mechanisms underlying appendage diversity are not understood. Given that homologous appendage development is controlled by the same Hox gene in different organisms, and that Hox genes are transcription factors, diversity may evolve from changes in the regulation of Hox target genes. Two impediments to understanding the role of Hox genes in morphological evolution have been the limited number of organisms in which Hox gene function can be studied and the paucity of known Hox-regulated target genes. We have therefore analyzed a butterfly homeotic mutant 'Hindsight', in which portions of the ventral hindwing pattern are transformed to ventral forewing identity, and we have compared the regulation of target genes by the Ultrabithorax (Ubx) gene product in Lepidopteran and Dipteran hindwings. RESULTS: . We show that Ubx gene expression is lost from patches of cells in developing Hindsight hindwings, correlating with changes in wing pigmentation, color pattern elements, and scale morphology. We use this mutant to study how regulation of target genes by Ubx protein differs between species. We find that several Ubx-regulated genes in the Drosophila haltere are not repressed by Ubx in butterfly hindwings, but that Distal-less (Dll) expression is regulated by Ubx in a unique manner in butterflies. CONCLUSIONS: . The morphological diversification of insect hindwings has involved the acquisition of different sets of target genes by Ubx in different lineages. Changes in Hox-regulated target gene sets are, in general, likely to underlie the morphological divergence of homologous structures between animals.  (+info)

Transgenic analysis of Dlx regulation in fish tooth development reveals evolutionary retention of enhancer function despite organ loss Journal Article ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Suppressors of Hedgehog signaling: Linking aberrant development of neural progenitors and tumorigenesis. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
GENSCAN predictions and expression of predicted genes: GENSCAN predicted a total of 135 genes to lie within the 760 kb of sequence analyzed. Of these, 17 correspond to genes that have previously been characterized and another 22 are at least partially homologous to mobile genetic elements such as transposons and retroviruses (Table 5). To test these gene predictions and to determine the expression patterns of predicted genes, probes were designed for 121 known and predicted genes, and developmental Northern blots containing mRNA from six different stages and tissues were probed. The chosen stages reflect most of the fly life cycle plus isolated ovaries. In total, these experiments allowed us to determine the expression pattern for an additional 64 of the 96 potential new transcription units (in addition to the previously published ones and the mobile elements). GENSCAN predictions, the autoradiographs of Northern blots, and a summary table of their developmental expression profile can be seen on ...
How is self renewal and differentiation precisely balanced to accommodate growth? Unlike the externally developing zebrafish embryo, amniotes such as mice and chickens undergo vast amounts of growth concomitantly with the formation of the embryonic body axis. The posterior body of the mouse embryo increases by approximately 65 times its initial volume during somitogenesis, this is…
Mechanisms that direct human development from conception to birth. Conserved molecular and cellular pathways regulate tissue and organ development; errors in these pathways result in congenital anomalies and human diseases. Topics: molecules regulating development, cell induction, developmental gene regulation, cell migration, programmed cell death, pattern formation, stem cells, cell lineage, and development of major organ systems. Emphasis on links between development and clinically significant topics including infertility, assisted reproductive technologies, contraception, prenatal diagnosis, multiparity, teratogenesis, inherited birth defects, fetal therapy, adolescence, cancer, and aging ...
Transcriptional regulation is achieved by the coordinated interplay of numerous protein factors with regulatory control sequences coded in the genome. At present, many of the major components of the machinery regulating transcription in eukaryotes are well known. However, mechanisms by which this complex machinery achieves precise control of cell and tissue-specific programs of gene expression observed in multi-cellular organisms is poorly understood. Our laboratory is interested in deciphering mechanisms of gene expression patterns critical for proper organ development and function in mammals. Using the mouse as a rich genetic and developmental system, we plan to probe the biological function of various components of the transcriptional apparatus to uncover novel pathways of cell type specification. In addition to characterizing basic mechanisms of differentiation and development, we will utilize developmental defects in the mouse to model human disease states as potential avenues of ...
A previously unknown oncogenic feature of an embryonic transcription factor was uncovered from transcriptomic analysis of tumors that lack functional Polycomb silencing.
each of the following were suppose to be rounded to two sig figs. mark then correct or incorrect. if incorrect state the correct answer 1) 1.249 103 to 1.3 103 i know its wrong but i dont know the correct answer 2)7.999 102 to 80 ...
Some days ago, I had a talk with a colleague from another development organization about web2fordev. We were asking whether web2.0 can...
Spatial expression pattern of MBC in wild-type embryos. Anterior is to the left and dorsal to the top in all except A. (A) Stage 13 embryos from the progeny of
Embryonic gene expression is strongly influenced by maternal genetic variation and by embryonic variation that acts in cis but not in trans.
Mech Commander Omnitech is standalone game. There is no need for Mech Commander 2 installation nor disk. There is no need for XNA installation any more for Mission Editor. Improved stability. Many bugfixes. Editor is finally free of XNA.
These OVE#2489A mice harbor a mutation created by random insertion of the SB-sa-IRES-rtTA-pA-SB-Tyro-WPRE-FUGW lentiposon transgene (LV2223). The donating investigator reports the phenotype of homozygous mice as: embryonic day (E)8 lethal.
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J:122405 Kemp CR, Willems E, Wawrzak D, Hendrickx M, Agbor Agbor T, Leyns L, Expression of Frizzled5, Frizzled7, and Frizzled10 during early mouse development and interactions with canonical Wnt signaling. Dev Dyn. 2007 Jul;236(7):2011-9 ...
General Specification Of Vibrating Screen Vibrating screen technical specification with drawing. Blocks and Details in Autocad Form14 Vibrating Screen Specification Form, Gold Vibrating or Trommel Screen vibrating screen pdf drawings.Perforated Vi
How is Product Specification abbreviated? C-SPEC stands for Product Specification. C-SPEC is defined as Product Specification somewhat frequently.
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Here you will find a selection of Worksheets to help with the delivery of this specification. There were few changes from the previous Specification (8360) to the new one (8365). Therefore, the first six are new or updated and the remaining seven are identical to those from the previous Specification ...
Avhandlingar om DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES. Sök bland 78317 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet på
Returns the number of columns occupied by this cell accessible. This is 1 if the specified cell is only in one column, or more than 1 if the specified cell spans multiple columns. ...
The following database provides access to SFF TA TWG published and draft documents. The following explains the fields of the database.
The following database provides access to SFF TA TWG published and draft documents. The following explains the fields of the database.
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Detailing the technical specifications, development, and operational history of the Rheinmetall Landsysteme Marder including pictures.
TBX3, a member of the T-box family of transcription factors, is essential in development and has emerged as an important player in the oncogenic process. TBX3 is overexpressed in several cancers and has been shown to contribute directly to tumour formation, migration and invasion. However, little is known about the molecular basis for its role in development and oncogenesis because there is a paucity of information regarding its target genes. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1 plays a pivotal role in a myriad of processes including cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis and here we provide a detailed mechanism to show that it is a direct and biologically relevant target of TBX3. Using a combination of luciferase reporter gene assays and in vitro and in vivo binding assays we show that TBX3 directly represses the p21WAF1 promoter by binding a T-element close to its initiator. Furthermore, we show that the TBX3 DNA binding domain is required for the transcriptional repression of p21WAF1
The Drosophila pan-neural genes deadpan (dpn) and scratch (scrt) are expressed in most or all developing neural precursor cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). We have identified a cis-acting enhancer element driving full pan-neural expression of the dpn gene which is composed of independent CNS- and PNS-specific subelements. We have also identified CNS- and PNS-specific subelements of the scrt enhancer. Deletion analysis of the dpn and scrt PNS-specific subelements reveals that PNS specificity of these two evolutionarily unrelated enhancers is achieved in part by repression of CNS expression. We discuss the implications of the striking organizational similarities of the dpn, scrt, and sna pan-neural enhancers.. ...
In undifferentiated ES cells, many Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) target genes carry not only repressive H3K27me3 but are also enriched for conventional indicators of active chromatin including methylated H3K4. This so-called bivalent domain structure is thought to silence key developmental regulators while keeping them poised for future activation (or repression). Consistent with this hypothesis, bivalent genes assemble RNAP II preferentially phosphorylated on Serine 5 residues (poised RNAP II) and are transcribed at low levels. Productive expression is, however, prevented by the action of PRC1. Here, I have focused on the pre-implantation stage of mouse development to evaluate whether bivalent or poised chromatin signatures are indeed specific attributes of emerging pluripotent cells and investigate how the fate of key developmental genes is specified while the first lineage decision event (extra-embryonic lineage formation) occurs. Using blastocyst-derived stem cells and chromatin ...
Developmental Gene Expression And Apoptotic Changes, 978-620-0-45929-9, This book is aimed at giving comprehensive knowledge to the students about simple and solid surface vitrification techniques on in-vitro produced caprine pre-implantation embryos with respect to development and apoptosis. It also gives a comprehensive idea about the expression pattern of panel of genes related to cellular metabolism, cellular division process and effective fusion with maternal epithelial cells in caprine pre-implantation embryos.
Downloadable! March 1997 Arrows ``impossibility and similar classical theorems are usually proved for an unrestricted domain of preference profiles. Recent work extends Arrows theorem to various restricted but ``saturating domains of privately oriented, continuous, (strictly) convex, and (strictly) monotone ``economic preferences for private and/or public goods. For strongly saturating domains of more general utility profiles, this paper provides similar extensions of Wilsons theorem and of the strong and weak ``welfarism results due to dAspremont and Gevers and to Roberts. Hence, for social welfare functionals with or without interpersonal comparisons of utility, most previous classification results in social choice theory apply equally to strongly saturating economic domains. Journal of Economic Literature classification: D71. Keywords: social welfare functionals, Arrows theorem, Wilsons theorem, welfarism, neutrality, restricted domains, economic domains, economic environments.
Highlights calls attention to exciting advances in developmental biology that have recently been reported in Developmental Dynamics. Development is a broad field encompassing many important areas. To reflect this fact, the section spotlights significant discoveries that occur across the entire spectrum of developmental events and problems: from new experimental approaches, to novel interpretations of results, to noteworthy findings utilizing different developmental organisms.. Joining forces (Fusion of Uniluminal Vascular Spheroids: A Model for Assembly of Blood Vessels by Paul A. Fleming, W. Scott Argraves, Carmine Gentile, Adrian Neagu, Gabor Forgacs, and Christopher J. Drake, Dev Dyn 239:398-406). In a process common among large caliber blood vessels, the descending aorta is formed upon fusion of two smaller vessels, in this case, the bilateral dorsal aortae. Fleming et al. use an in vitro system they previously developed, uniluminar vascular spheroids, to understand physical aspects of ...
To create your own CA1 cluster, first filter the spots to select for only the ones that are highly expressive of the Fibcd1 gene. Based on the coloring of spots and the Log2 Max Count scale at the bottom of the Gene Expression panel, we will set a threshold of 3. Enter 3 into the Select By Count field above the Log2 Max Count scale and click on the filter button. This gives us the option to create a new cluster that contains only those spots. The spots which were selected by the filter are highlighted in purple in the background. You can create a new Category name called Subfields and a new Cluster name called CA1. Once this is saved, you are taken to Category mode. The Subfields category is displayed along with the new Cluster, CA1, that we just created.. ...
Establishment of the body axes is an early event during vertebrate development, which provides positional information for development of later structures (Dale et al., 2002). Although asymmetric gene expression patterns are evident before the onset of gastrulation, the body axes are not morphologically obvious until formation of the primitive streak during gastrulation, closely followed by formation of the neural tube during neurulation in an anterior-to-posterior progression. Along the anteroposterior axis, members of the Hox gene family play important roles in conferring positional identity of the neural tube (Lumsden and Krumlauf, 1996), whereas BMPs/WNTs and SHH are thought to establish the dorsal and ventral axes, respectively (Harland et al., 2002). A properly patterned neural tube then relays positional information to adjacent tissues and organs. For example, cranial neural crest cells deriving from different segments of the hindbrain contribute to morphologically distinct structures and ...
Latest 2021 September VU MA in Economics with Rural Development Results 2021 Result Vidyasagar University Exam Result Vidyasagar
Learn more about the Cerebellum Development Pathway from related diseases, pathways, genes and PTMs with the Novus Bioinformatics Tool.
The ability to discern spatial gene expression differences in complex biological systems is critical to our understanding of developmental biology and the progression of disease. The upcoming Visium Spatial Gene Expression Solution analyzes total mRNA in intact tissue sections, allowing you to discover genes and markers relevant to your research, without having to rely on known targets. Join us for a live webinar to learn more about data analysis and visualization tools for the Visium Spatial Gene Expression Solution.
Hox complex genes are key developmental regulators highly conserved throughout evolution. They encode transcription factors that initiate genetic programs of diversified morphogenesis along the anteroposterior embryonic axis. We report the characterization of the novel Drosophila Hox target gene dlarp, isolated from a further screen of a previously described library of genomic DNA fragments associated in vivo with Ultrabithorax proteins. The dlarp spatio-temporal pattern of transcription in wild-type and homeotic mutant embryos is consistent with a positive regulation by Sex combs reduced and Ultrabithorax in the parasegment 2 ectoderm and the abdominal mesoderm, respectively. The teashirt gene product, thought to act in concert with Hox proteins, is also required for the transcriptional control of this target. Search in databases revealed that dlarp has been highly conserved during evolution. The embryonic expression pattern of the mouse orthologue does not support a function downstream of Hox ...
Characterization of a gene trap insertion into a novel gene, cordon-bleu, expressed in axial structures of the gastrulating mouse embryo.. We have used a gene trap (GT) vector and embryonic stem (ES) cell chimeras to screen for insertions of the lacZ reporter gene into transcription units that are spatially and temporally regulated during early mouse embryogenesis. GT vectors which can act as both a reporter and a mutagen have been previously used to isolate new genes that are essential for mouse development. In this paper we describe a GT insertion which displays a very restricted pattern of expression in the gastrulating embryo. beta-Galactosidase activity was first detected at 7.5 days post-coitum (E7.5) in the node region of the embryo and extended to the midline structures at E8.0. At E9.5 expression was restricted to the floor plate, the notochord, the roof of the gut, and the liver anlage. Expression appeared in the somites at E10.0 and later became more widespread. We used rapid ...
The phenomenon of renin producing cells having a different plasticity in the immature and the adult kidney is known for a long time. However, it is unknown what factors are responsible for this typical switch on and off of renin expression and for the disappearance of renin producing cells during nephrogenesis and after chronic stimulation. To determine these factors, the 3-dimensional pattern of renin expressing cells as well as the development of the arterial vasculature in a normal mouse kidney during nephrogenesis was characterized. For the 3-dimensional reconstructions, we used serial slices of mouse kidneys of embryonic day E13 up to postpartal day 10 as well as adult kidneys, on which we marked the expression of renin and smooth muscle actin as marker for the vascular tree by immunofluorescence. Renin was detected for the first time in the media of arcuate main arteries at embryonic day E15. Based on this initial expression we on the one hand observed a retrograde expansion to the ...
BACKGROUND: Maturity of intestinal functions is critical for neonatal health and survival, but comprehensive description of mechanisms underlying intestinal maturation that occur during late gestation still remain poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate biological processes specifically involved in intestinal maturation by comparing fetal jejunal transcriptomes of two representative porcine breeds (Large White, LW; Meishan, MS) with contrasting neonatal vitality and maturity, at two key time points during late gestation (gestational days 90 and 110). MS and LW sows inseminated with mixed semen (from breed LW and MS) gave birth to both purebred and crossbred fetuses. We hypothesized that part of the differences in neonatal maturity between the two breeds results from distinct developmental profiles of the fetal intestine during late gestation. Reciprocal crossed fetuses were used to analyze the effect of parental genome. Transcriptomic data and 23 phenotypic variables known to be
TBS 19, TBX19, FLJ26302, TPIT, dJ747L4.1, T-box protein 19, TBS19, T-box transcription factor TBX19, T-box factor, pituitary, FLJ34543, dj747L4.1, T-box 19 ...
J:96466 Singh MK, Petry M, Haenig B, Lescher B, Leitges M, Kispert A, The T-box transcription factor Tbx15 is required for skeletal development. Mech Dev. 2005 Feb;122(2):131-44 ...
The different cell types of the vertebrate pancreas arise asynchronously during organogenesis. Beta-cells producing insulin, alpha-cells producing glucagon, and exocrine cells secreting digestive enzymes differentiate sequentially from a common primordium. Notch signaling has been shown to be a major mechanism controlling these cell-fate choices. So far, the pleiotropy of Delta and Jagged/Serrate genes has hindered the evaluation of the roles of specific Notch ligands, as the phenotypes of knock-out mice are lethal before complete pancreas differentiation. Analyses of gene expression and experimental manipulations of zebrafish embryos allowed us to determine individual contributions of Notch ligands to pancreas development. We have found that temporally distinct phases of both endocrine and exocrine cell type specification are controlled by different delta and jagged genes. Specifically, deltaA knock-down embryos lack alpha cells, similarly to mib (Delta ubiquitin ligase) mutants and embryos ...
The prevalence of sleep apnea is much higher in patients with heart failure, and intermittent hypoxia (IH) relevant to sleep apnea might induce left ventricular (LV) remodeling. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repetitive hypoxi
Progressive lung fibrosis, particularly the idiopathic form, causes severe pulmonary dysfunction with limited treatment options. While it is known that a combination of epithelial injury, accumulation of activated fibroblasts, and deposition of cellular matrix contribute to this disease, the underlying molecular mechanisms and cellular components remain incompletely characterized. In particular, fibroblast accumulation plays a central role in tissue fibrosis, but the regulation and cellular origins of this facet of disease are unclear. Ting Xie and colleagues of Cedars-Sinai Medical Center have discovered that the embryonic transcription factor TBX4 contributes to lung fibrosis by facilitating fibroblast accumulation. Using in vivo lineage tracing, cell surface marker analysis, and gene expression profiling, the group demonstrated that TBX4-expressing progenitors give rise to a variety of lung cell types, and importantly, are a major source of activated fibroblasts. In a mouse model, ...
In zebrafish, as in other vertebrates, an initially singular eye field within the neural plate has to split during morphogenesis to allow the development of two separated eyes. It has been suggested that anterior progression of midline tissue within the neural plate is involved in the bilateralization of the eye field. Mutations in the recently identified silberblick (slb) gene cause an incomplete separation of the eyes. During gastrulation and early somitogenesis, the ventral midline of the central nervous system (CNS) together with the underlying axial mesendoderm is shortened and broadened in slb embryos. While in wild-type embryos the ventral CNS midline extends to the anterior limit of the neural plate at the end of gastrulation, there is a gap between the anterior tip of the ventral CNS midline and the anterior edge of the neural plate in slb. To investigate the cause for the shortening of the ventral CNS midline in slb we determined the fate of labeled ventral CNS midline cells in ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Full triplicate expression dataset of AtGenExpress plant developmental tissues, combined with LDSS sequence analysis of regulatory (8mer) motif calculations (PPDB). MotifExpress tool allows the plloting of all triplicate data points during the design process, so the user has some idea of the experimental variation in the measurements ...
Alfonso Martnez-Arias lab Investigating the structure and function of Living Matter, with a special focus on the processes that generate tissues and organs from single cells through interactions between protein and gene regulatory networks. Scott Fraser lab: The Translational Imaging Center at USC Developing new technologies for the imaging of biological structure and function…
With the enormous development of human and mouse genomics and the availability of a variety of transgenic techniques, the mouse has become the most widely used animal for basic studies of brain development and as a model for human developmental disorders. The topics are addressed using a diversity of techniques, from genetic, biochemical and cell biological to morphological and functional. The conceptual approaches also provide a framework for studies of other problems and point the way towards future research.
TL 5.56-8.48; HL 1.16-1.64; HW 0.93-1.32; EL 0.37-0.49; SL 0.51-0.73; SW 0.17-0.22; WL 1.40-2.20; PeL 0.55-0.96; PeW 0.51-0.84; HFeL 0.67-1.02; HFeW 0.25-0.34; HTiL 0.65-1.04; HTiW 0.19-0.26; HBaL 0.53-0.83; HBaW 0.09-0.12; CI 78.1-80.5; SI 30.7-34.4; HFeI 33.3-37.3; HTiI 25.0-29.2; HBaI 14.4-15.1. Head about 1/5 longer than broad, with subparallel sides. Occiput low. Vertexal angles round. Frontal carinae about half broad as the maximum head width. Anterior third of the frontal carinae diverging backward, and reaching the middle of the eyes posteriorly. Dorsum of the frontal carinae with an impressed, short, median sulcus anteriorly. Frontal carinae not reaching the anterior border of the clypeus. Compound eyes large, slightly convex and behind the mid line of the head. Ocelli developed. Scapes surpassing the anterior border of the eyes. Proximal fifth of the scapes about 1/2 narrower than the remaining parts. Mandibles weakly convex dorsally. Mandibles laterally angulate at the base. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential patterns of expression of Eps15 and Eps15R during mouse embryogenesis. AU - Offenhäuser, Nina. AU - Santolini, Elisa. AU - Simeone, Antonio. AU - Di Fiore, Pier Paolo. PY - 2000/7/1. Y1 - 2000/7/1. N2 - Eps15 and Eps15R are related tyrosine kinase substrates, which have been implicated in endocytosis and synaptic vesicle recycling. Through the protein:protein interaction abilities of their EH domains, they establish a complex network of interactions with several proteins, including Numb, a protein necessary for neuronal cell fate specification. We analyzed the expression of Eps15 and Eps15R during murine development, at the time of active neurogenesis. The most striking difference was at the level of subcellular localization, with Eps15 present in the cytosol and on the plasma membrane, while Eps15R exhibited mainly a nuclear localization. Interesting topographical differences also emerged. In the 12.5 days post coitum neuroepithelium, Eps15 was expressed in the ...
LSM2102 - Molecular Biology. This module teaches the structure, organization and function of genes and genomes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes (e.g.: DNA topology, hierarchy of packaging of DNA in chromosomes and relationship to gene activity and genome dynamics). The functional roles of DNA regulatory ciselements and transcription factors involved in gene expression will be examined extensively. The molecular events of transcription; post-transcriptional modifications and RNA processing; temporal and spatial gene expression, control and regulation, signals of gene expression will be dealt with in detail. The cause and/or effect of dysfunction of gene expression and diseases will be discussed.
An international team of researchers that pooled genetic samples from developmentally disabled patients from around the world has identified dozens of new mutations in a single gene that appears to be critical for brain development.
第五节 神经系统对内脏 活动调节 Visceral Activity Control By Nervous System. 一、自主神经系统的功能 Function of autonomic nervous system. 又称植物神经系统或内脏神经系统. 传入神经 Afferent 传出神经 Efferent. 自主神经系统 Autonomic...
We know that in the phase of development, there is a genetic cascade that leads to the proper placement of organs. If that cascade is disrupted, the results can lead to major problems or be fatal, said Salk Professor Juan Carlos Izpisúa Belmonte, who published the findings in the January 8 issue of Nature. Still, scientists did not have a clear understanding of what triggers the genetic cascade that defines organ placement. Izpisúa Belmonte s group focused on the activity of the Notch pathway, an important player during embryo development and also during tumorigenesis, and a key factor for proper left-right asymmetry, as the same group and others had learned earlier this year ...
Origin of lungs, liver, and pancreas in the chick. The mesoderm is shaded; the endoderm dark. lg., One of the lungs; St., stomach; l., liver; p., pancreas. -Thomson, 1916. ...
Embryonic structures Information on IEEEs Technology Navigator. Start your Research Here! Embryonic structures-related Conferences, Publications, and Organizations.
Used to switch pumps, lights and fans etc, this high quality timer has a number of options for more accurate control in your grow room. If using to control HID grow lights / horticultural lighting it must be used in conjunction with a Contactor rated to the appropriate number of grow lights ...
Cells develop and thrive by turning genes on and off as needed in a precise pattern, a process known as regulated gene transcription. In a paper published in the November 9 issue of the journal Cell, researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine say this process is even more complex than previously thought, with regulated genes actually relocated to other, more conducive places in the cell nucleus.. When regulated gene transcription goes awry, many human diseases result, such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer and growth defects in children, said Michael G. Rosenfeld, MD, a professor in the UC San Diego Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator and senior author of the study. Weve shown that rather than being activated at certain, random locations within the cell nucleus, regulated genes can dynamically relocate. The discovery provides a more comprehensive picture of the interaction between regulated genes and human ...
Sidebars or Text Boxes. Sidebars include cer-tain technical information judged essential to supplement the information provided in the article. A sidebar provides information in a framed box that is visu-ally separated (highlighted) from the main text. The sidebar should be submitted as a separate Word file, which may include tables, line art and photographs. Sidebars generally provide information to the in-terested specialist without detracting from the main message directed to the general reader.. Tables. Presentation of large quantities of data in tabular form in articles is discouraged because it detracts from the flow of the text. Small, concise tables that comple-ment the text are acceptable. Tables must be constructed in plain text using only tabs, with no bars, lines, grids or color. Do not use the Word table tool. Tabular ma-terial must be submitted as copy separate from the text. Carefully consider the appropriate number of significant figures for each table entry.. Notes. Immediately ...
Please estimate applicants ability level in each daily living area, check appropriate number and explain your answer. 1= Can complete task independently with no assistance. 2= Can perform this task with some limited support. (please explain) 3= Can only partially perform this task and/or needs much assistance. (please explain) 4= Cannot perform this task at the present time ...
Here I have upload all the question papers of semester 3rd to 8th for mechanical department (MECH) of anna university for regulation 2004,2005, 2007, 2008 and 2010. You can download it in the PDF format. If you have any queries or doubt feel free to ask or just leave a comment here. This question papers were obtained from other sources, if any thing is not correct please forgive me ...
Read Genetic and molecular control of folate-homocysteine metabolism in mutant mice, Mammalian Genome on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Summary: Embryonic cells that transiently express the transcription factor, Tbx6, during the process of gastrulation have been tracked in later development in wild-type and Tbx6 homozygous mutant embryos, where they give rise to the ectopic neural tubes characteristic of the mutant phenotype. ...
Schnittger, S.; Rao, V. V. N. G.; Deutsch, U.; Gruss, P.; Balling, R.; Hansmann, I.: Pax1, a member of the paired box-containing class of developmental control genes, is mapped to human chromosome 20p11.2 by in situ hybridization (ISH and FISH). Genomics 14 (3), S. 740 - 744 (1992 ...
Are both of these computers un-upgradeable after the initial specifications are selected? Im considering buying a MBA,13, base model, and only...
Even though FLASH mutant mice have been claimed to die in the early embryonic stage , FLASH KO ES cells was revealed to proliferate and differentiate commonly
This INSPIRE Interactive Data specification site offers INSPIRE data providers with all resources/tools related to the implementation of the INSPIRE data specifications.
Regulation of gene expression Mitteroecker, Philipp; Bookstein, Fred (2008-04-01). "The Evolutionary Role of Modularity and ... Evolutionary developmental biology is the study of the evolution of developmental processes across different organisms. It is ... Evolutionary developmental biology is primarily concerned with the ways in which evolution affects development, and seeks to ... Human evolutionary developmental biology or informally human evo-devo is the human-specific subset of evolutionary ...
Gene Regulation and Expression; Cell and Developmental Biology; Molecular Physiology; Environmental and Applied Biology; MRC ... Developmental Biology Cell Signalling and Immunology Computational Biology Drug Discovery Unit Gene Regulation and Expression ... The building originally housed the Divisions of Gene expression, Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Parasitology that were ...
Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, ... Regulation of gene expression, or gene regulation, includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or ... Conversely, down-regulation is a process resulting in decreased gene and corresponding protein expression. Up-regulation occurs ... Often, one gene regulator controls another, and so on, in a gene regulatory network. Gene regulation is essential for viruses, ...
"Regulation of gene expression via the core promoter and the basal transcriptional machinery". Developmental Biology. 339 (2): ... The B recognition element (BRE) is a DNA sequence found in the promoter region of most[clarification needed] genes in ... Genes & Development. 12 (1): 34-44. doi:10.1101/gad.12.1.34. PMC 316406. PMID 9420329. Littlefield O, Korkhin Y, Sigler PB ( ... Genes & Development. 19 (20): 2418-23. doi:10.1101/gad.342405. PMC 1257396. PMID 16230532. Tsai, FT; Sigler, PB (4 January 2000 ...
"Regulation of gene expression via the core promoter and the basal transcriptional machinery". Developmental Biology. 339 (2): ... a key component in the regulation of gene expression". Genes & Development. 16 (20): 2583-2592. doi:10.1101/gad.1026202. PMID ... The promoters of nearly all Hox genes of D. melanogaster, with the exception of the evolutionarily most recent genes, Ubx and ... Gene. 389 (1): 52-65. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2006.09.029. PMC 1955227. PMID 17123746. Kutach, Alan K; Kadonaga, James T (1 July ...
Vidal M (2009-01-01). "Role of polycomb proteins Ring1A and Ring1B in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression". The ... "Altered retinoic acid sensitivity and temporal expression of Hox genes in polycomb-M33-deficient mice". Developmental Biology. ... M33 is a gene. It is a mammalian homologue of Drosophila Polycomb. It localises to euchromatin within interphase nuclei, but it ... In mice, the official symbol of M33 gene styled Cbx2 and the official name chromobox 2 are maintained by the MGI. Also known as ...
Developmental regulation of murine mammary progesterone receptor gene expression. Endocrinology 126:2882-89. Shyamala, G; ... "Estrogenic regulation of murine uterine 90-kilodalton heat shock protein gene expression". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 9 (8 ... "Cellular expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in mammary glands: Regulation by hormones, development and aging", ... Her work in the isolation and characterization of the progesterone receptor gene in mice changed research on the hormone- ...
"Regulation of gene expression via the core promoter and the basal transcriptional machinery". Developmental Biology. 339 (2): ... Activator (genetics) Enhancer (genetics) Glossary of gene expression terms Operon Regulation of gene expression Repressor ... There are also studies that measured gene expression in synthetic genes or from one to a few genes controlled by bidirectional ... Promoters control gene expression in bacteria and eukaryotes. RNA polymerase must attach to DNA near a gene for transcription ...
Arnold PR, Wells AD, Li XC (2019). "Diversity and Emerging Roles of Enhancer RNA in Regulation of Gene Expression and Cell Fate ... December 2010). "Histone H3K27ac separates active from poised enhancers and predicts developmental state". Proceedings of the ... The expression of a given eRNA correlates with the activity of its corresponding enhancer in target genes. Increasing evidence ... This would explain even tissue-specific eRNA expression as open sites are tissue-specific as well. RNA Pol II-mediated gene ...
"Developmental regulation and asymmetric expression of the gene encoding Cx43 gap junctions in the mouse limb bud". ... Shh expression has been shown in many, but not all circumstances, to be heavily connected with Hox gene expression. Shh also ( ... HOXA and HOXD genes for the most part follow nested expression domains, in which they are activated uniformly along the ... The position of the limb bud, and hence the AER, is specified by the expression boundaries of Hox genes in the embryonic trunk ...
Alternative splicing is crucial for tissue-specific and developmental regulation in gene expression. Alternative splicing can ... The effect of alternative splicing in gene expression can be seen in complex eukaryotes which have a fixed number of genes in ... Furthermore, primary transcript processing provides a control for gene expression as well as a regulatory mechanism for the ... These variables create a wide range of viral gene expression. For example, tissue culture cells actively producing infectious ...
The main type of DNAm is at cytosines within CpG dinucleotides which is known to be involved in gene expression regulation. ... DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns change over time, and vary between developmental stage and tissue type. ... The array still only covers less than 2% of the CpG sites in the genome, but does attempt to cover all known genes with a high ... In the past, the 27k Illumina array covered on average two CpG sites in the promoter regions of approximately 14,000 genes and ...
T-box genes encode transcription factors, which control gene expression, involved in the regulation of developmental processes ... Eomesodermin/Tbr2 controls the expression of cardiac specific genes Mesp1, Myl7, Myl2, Myocardin, Nkx2.5 and Mef2c. ... Tbr2 Expression and Coordinate Regulation of Neuronal Output". The Journal of Neuroscience. 28 (14): 3707-3717. doi:10.1523/ ... The Eomesodermin/Tbr2 gene, EOMES, encodes a member of a conserved protein family that shares a common DNA-binding domain, the ...
... a paradigm for RNA-mediated regulation of gene expression". BioEssays. 24 (2): 119-29. doi:10.1002/bies.10046. PMID 11835276. v ... Banerjee D, Slack F (February 2002). "Control of developmental timing by small temporal RNAs: ... Small temporal RNA (abbreviated stRNA) regulates gene expression during roundworm development by preventing the mRNAs they bind ... stRNAs exert negative post-transcriptional regulation by binding to complementary sequences in the 3' untranslated regions of ...
"Regulation of osteocalcin gene expression by a novel Ku antigen transcription factor complex". The Journal of Biological ... Developmental Dynamics. 218 (2): 300-15. doi:10.1002/(sici)1097-0177(200006)218:2.;2-k. PMID 10842358. Willis DM, Loewy ... "Serological identification and expression analysis of gastric cancer-associated genes". Br. J. Cancer. 86 (11): 1824-30. doi: ... Gene. 371 (2): 291-5. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2005.12.008. PMID 16507339. Vinarová E, Vinar O, Zvolský P (July 1977). "Predictors of ...
In the regulation of gene expression, studied in evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), both activators and repressors ... boundless-biology-textbook/gene-expression-16/regulation-of-gene-expression-111/prokaryotic-versus-eukaryotic-gene-expression- ... A regulator gene, regulator, or regulatory gene is a gene involved in controlling the expression of one or more other genes. ... An example of a regulator gene is a gene that codes for a repressor protein that inhibits the activity of an operator (a gene ...
"Regulated expression of FLRT genes implies a functional role in the regulation of FGF signalling during mouse development". ... Developmental Biology. 297 (1): 14-25. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2006.04.004. PMID 16872596. "Entrez Gene: FLRT2 fibronectin leucine ... Fibronectin leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein FLRT2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FLRT2 gene. This gene ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 14, All stub articles, ...
... is an abnormal gene expression in a cell type, tissue type, or developmental stage in which the gene is not ... it is uncommonly seen in nature because it is a product of defects in gene regulation. In fact, ectopic expression is more ... Artificially induced gene expression helps to determine the function of a gene of interest. Common techniques such as ... Here they found relatively low OR gene expression compared to the olfactory tissue, which result indicates that the OR gene in ...
Hop regulation of cardiac gene expression". Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine. 13 (7): 261-4. doi:10.1016/S1050-1738(03)00107-5 ... "A Common Embryonic Origin of Stem Cells Drives Developmental and Adult Neurogenesis". Cell. 177 (3): 654-668.e15. doi:10.1016/j ... "Association between gene expression profile and tumor invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma". Cancer Genetics and ... and modulate SRF-dependent cardiac-specific gene expression and cardiac development. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript ...
He focused much of his research in the next decade on the regulation of MHC gene expression. He showed that the different class ... mapping of its chromosomal location and assessment of its developmental expression". Immunology. 106 (2): 173-81. doi:10.1046/j ... Enhanced MHC class I heavy-chain gene expression in pancreatic islets". Diabetes. 37 (10): 1411-8. doi:10.2337/diabetes.37.10. ... March 2005). "IFN-gamma gene expression is controlled by the architectural transcription factor HMGA1". International ...
"Differential expression and developmental regulation of a novel alpha-dystrobrevin isoform in muscle". Gene. 238 (2): 479-88. ... Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression. 19 (2): 89-108. doi:10.1615/critreveukargeneexpr.v19.i2.10. PMID 19392646. Ahn ... Genes on human chromosome 18, Genes on human chromosome 2). ... The location and expression pattern of β-dystrobrevin was ... The human α-dystrobrevin gene is localized to chromosome 18 and consists of 23 coding exons. α-Dystrobrevin is known to be ...
The expression of many thousands of genes are regulated by ncRNAs. This regulation can occur in trans or in cis. There is ... Dahm R (February 2005). "Friedrich Miescher and the discovery of DNA". Developmental Biology. 278 (2): 274-88. doi:10.1016/j. ... act to promote gene expression.[citation needed] In higher eukaryotes microRNAs regulate gene expression. A single miRNA can ... 2012). Non-coding RNAs and Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression: Drivers of Natural Selection. Caister Academic Press. ISBN ...
... chromosome segregation and the regulation of developmental gene expression. Defects in these functions are theorised to ... HDAC8 is an X-linked gene, meaning it is located on the X chromosome. Individuals with CdLS who have the gene change in HDAC8 ... identified a gene (NIPBL) on chromosome 5 that causes CdLS when it is mutated. Since then, additional genes have been found ( ... The latter two genes seem to correlate with a milder form of the syndrome.[citation needed] In 2004, researchers at the ...
His research included mechanisms of gene expression and regulation, especially with experiments on mosaic genomes, with the ... Hadorn was one of the founders of the journal Developmental Biology. He died at Wohlen near Bern. Nöthiger, Rolf (2002). "Ernst ... Ernst Hadorn (May 31, 1902 - April 4, 1976) was a Swiss developmental biologist. He worked on fate maps in Drosophila imaginal ... In 1955 he published Developmental Genetics and Lethal Factors which was translated to English in 1961. This earned him the ...
One of the major players in cellular regulation are transcription factors, proteins that regulate the expression of genes. ... developmental stage, and pathological state. ... of the cell to the activation of the expression of a gene. High ... Modeling can handle the data and allow to test a hypothesis (for example, gene A is regulated by protein B) that can be ... Those components can be regulatory elements, genes, mRNAs, proteins, and metabolites. The description includes the interplay of ...
... which in the last decade has been recognized to be important in the regulation of gene expression, development and genetic ... Changes in the methylation pattern and level have been shown to contribute to cancer and various developmental diseases. For ... These genes include RefSeq genes from the NCBI CCDS Database, cancer genes that show differential methylation patterns during ... Allows integration of data between other platforms such as gene expression and microRNA profiling. The method looks at ~2 CpG ...
1996). "Differential developmental and tissue-specific regulation of expression of the genes encoding three members of the ... "Gene expression changes in progression of cervical neoplasia revealed by microarray analysis of cervical neoplastic ... FMO3 gene has been observed progressively downregulated in Human papillomavirus-positive neoplastic keratinocytes derived from ... Shephard EA, Dolphin CT, Fox MF, Povey S, Smith R, Phillips IR (June 1993). "Localization of genes encoding three distinct ...
... studies the regulation of gene expression in response to developmental or environmental stimuli to learn how ... Alexander Stark (born 1974) is a biochemist and computational biologist working on the regulation of gene expression in ... Heintzman, Nathaniel (7 May 2009). "Histone modifications at human enhancers reflect global cell-type-specific gene expression ... and Histone modifications at human enhancers reflect global cell-type-specific gene expression. Alexander Stark was selected ...
Regulation of gene expression is the control of the amount and timing of appearance of the functional product of a gene. ... Spitz F, Furlong EE (September 2012). "Transcription factors: from enhancer binding to developmental control". Nat Rev Genet. ... A facultative gene is a gene only transcribed when needed as opposed to a constitutive gene. An inducible gene is a gene whose ... Regulation of gene expression gives control over the timing, location, and amount of a given gene product (protein or ncRNA) ...
... expression and up-regulation of caudal-type homeobox 2 (Cdx2) gene expression. Sall4 is part of the transcriptional regulatory ... The various SALL4-null mouse models mimic human mutations in the SALL4 gene, which were shown to cause developmental problems ... Kühnlein RP, Brönner G, Taubert H, Schuh R (Aug 1997). "Regulation of Drosophila spalt gene expression". Mechanisms of ... SALL4 can alter gene expression changes through its interaction with many co-factors and epigenetic complexes. It is also known ...
"Cloning and expression of primate Daxx cDNAs and mapping of the human gene to chromosome 6p21.3 in the MHC region". DNA Cell ... and has been implicated in many nuclear processes including transcription and cell cycle regulation. This gene encodes a ... TGF-β regulates a variety of different cellular developmental processes including growth, differentiation, proliferation, and ... No expression of Daxx leads to malfunction of S phase and cells with two nuclei are formed. Another centromeric component, CENP ...
Environmental prenatal stress exposure, for example, alters glucocorticoid receptor gene expression, gene function, and future ... Gene regulation as it relates to the HPA axis has been implicated in transgenerational stress effects. ... Developmental stress exposure has been shown to alter brain structure and behavioral functions in adulthood. Evidence of ... Epigenetic re-programming of gene expression alters stress response in offspring later in life when exposed to decreased ...
... elements in gene promoters. Type I IFNs can induce expression of genes with either ISRE or GAS elements, but gene induction by ... IFNs belonging to all three classes are important for fighting viral infections and for the regulation of the immune system. ... Developmental and Comparative Immunology. 84 (1): 94-108. doi:10.1016/j.dci.2018.02.008. PMID 29432791. S2CID 3455413. Archived ... Gene cloning also confirmed that IFN-α was encoded by a family of many related genes. The type II IFN (IFN-γ) gene was also ...
... multiplicity of selenoprotein genes and expression of a protein containing 17 selenocysteine residues". Genes Cells. 5 (12): ... Binds to heparin in a pH-dependent manner Mostert V (April 2000). "Selenoprotein P: properties, functions, and regulation". ... and may also have a developmental function. The N-terminal region always contains one Sec residue, and this is separated from ... Burk RF; Hill KE (2009). "Selenoprotein P-expression, functions, and roles in mammals". Biochim Biophys Acta. 1790 (11): 1441-7 ...
June 1990). "Expression of the CD34 gene in vascular endothelial cells". Blood. 75 (12): 2417-2426. doi:10.1182/blood.V75.12. ... "Differential regulation of the human and murine CD34 genes in hematopoietic stem cells". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Developmental changes and kinetic alterations". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 938 (1): 139-145. Bibcode:2001NYASA ... "Entrez Gene: CD34 CD34 molecule". Simmons DL, Satterthwaite AB, Tenen DG, Seed B (January 1992). "Molecular cloning of a cDNA ...
Colocation for redox regulation of gene expression". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... Animal populations of mitochondria avoid this through a developmental process known as the mtDNA bottleneck. The bottleneck ... Interestingly, while the expression of protein-encoding genes was stimulated by ACTH, the levels of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA ... As demonstrated by the effect of the trophic hormone ACTH on adrenal cortex cells, the expression of the mitochondrial genes ...
The Beginning of Broadcast Regulation in the Twentieth Century by Marvin R. Bensman, 2000, pages 159-160. "Federal Regulation ... Eugene O. Sykes (Mississippi) served the entire time the FRC existed and was appointed to the FCC in 1934. Henry Adams Bellows ... Despite McDonald's initial expression of satisfaction with a schedule of just two hours per week, his tone soon changed. At ... "Class D Developmental" licenses that were free from normal restrictions. However, the actual outcome was sweeping. On April 16 ...
Aberrant splicing and de novo heterozygous LoF mutations in SON gene disrupts the process of gene expression and can result in ... of SON can impact the regulation of mitotic regulator transcripts and cause defects in cell survival and the developmental ... The SON gene is known to be a major cause of severe intellectual disability and consequent developmental disorders. The first ... De novo LoF mutations and haploinsufficiency for the SON gene are shown to cause profound developmental malformations during ...
"Ras in Cancer and Developmental Diseases". Genes & Cancer. 2 (3): 344-358. doi:10.1177/1947601911411084. ISSN 1947-6019. PMC ... "Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins in food and feed in 2003". Coulombe R. A. (1993). "Biological action of mycotoxins". J ... Impairment of the cell-mediated response to vaccine antigen and modulation of cytokine expression". Toxicology and Applied ... a tumor suppressing gene, and at several guanine residues in the 12th and 13th codons of the ras gene, a gene whose product ...
Several gene expression studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified 800-1200 genes that change expression over the ... Regulation of the cell cycle involves processes crucial to the survival of a cell, including the detection and repair of ... Developmental Biology. 30: 174-80. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2014.03.013. PMID 24641889. Baserga R (June 1965). "The Relationship of ... In general, the binding of pRb to E2F inhibits the E2F target gene expression of certain G1/S and S transition genes including ...
They seem to play a particularly important role in the regulation of gene expression and the creation of RNA genes. This ... Kiefer JC (April 2007). "Epigenetics in development". Developmental Dynamics. 236 (4): 1144-56. doi:10.1002/dvdy.21094. PMID ... increased SINE activity is correlated with certain gene-expression profiles and post-transcription regulation of certain genes ... Changes in chromosome structure influence gene expression primarily by affecting the accessibility of genes to transcriptional ...
... entirely understood but given that conserved non-coding sequences play a major developmental role through regulation of genes, ... by fusion of mouse constructs fused to basal promoter with LacZ expression for hCONDELs near the androgen receptor (AR) locus ... The loss of this gene is evident in the undetectable levels of sialic acid in humans but highly present in mouse, pig, ... An hCONDEL located near the locus of the androgen receptor (AR) gene may be responsible for the loss of whiskers and penile ...
... mechanical modulation of cell shape and gene expression". Tissue Engineering Part A. 14 (9): 1573-80. doi:10.1089/ten.tea. ... List of human cell types derived from the germ layers Brian Keith Hall (2005). Bones and cartilage: developmental and ... "Loss of Smad3-Mediated Negative Regulation of Runx2 Activity Leads to an Alteration in Cell Fate Determination". Molecular Cell ... General Trsp gene deletion is lethal to the embryo. The results of this research was used as a model for Kashin-Beck disease. ...
Huguet EL, McMahon JA, McMahon AP, Bicknell R, Harris AL (May 1994). "Differential expression of human Wnt genes 2, 3, 4, and ... Hocevar BA, Mou F, Rennolds JL, Morris SM, Cooper JA, Howe PH (June 2003). "Regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway by disabled ... Developmental Cell. 4 (3): 395-406. doi:10.1016/s1534-5807(03)00055-8. PMID 12636920. Nakaya MA, Biris K, Tsukiyama T, Jaime S ... Similarly, the WNT3 gene occurs in the genome beside the WNT9B gene. WNT9A and WNT9B signal through the beta-catenin/Tcf ...
Wagner obtained his PhD with a thesis on "Regulation of gene expression after virus infection" in 1978. In 1979, Erwin Wagner ... He is a member of the Editorial Board for Developmental Cell. Erwin Wagner's studies are focused in the area of gene function ... working to develop techniques allowing the micro-injection of DNA into fertilized eggs as well as the development of gene ... "Genes and Disease Group - Erwin Wagner". ...
The protein encoded by this gene localizes to the cytoplasm and activates patched Drosophila homolog (PTCH) gene expression. It ... Oro AE, Higgins K (March 2003). "Hair cycle regulation of Hedgehog signal reception". Developmental Biology. 255 (2): 238-48. ... from the intron of GLI2 gene act as tissue-specific enhancers and reporter gene expression induced by these elements correlates ... Wnt genes involved in morphogenesis, Brachyury genes involved in tissue specification and Xhox3 genes involved in positional ...
"Recruitment of the androgen receptor via serum response factor facilitates expression of a myogenic gene". The Journal of ... Androgen regulation decreases the likelihood of depression in males. In preadolescent male rats, neonatal rats treated with ... Scott F. Gilbert; with a chapter on plant development by Susan R. Singer (2000). Scott F. Gilbert (ed.). Developmental Biology ... Social isolation has a hindering effect in AHN whereas normal regulation of androgens increases AHN. A study using male rats ...
Alpha II-spectrin gene expression has been shown to be upregulated in cardiac fibroblasts in response to Angiotensin II-induced ... Chow CW (1999). "Regulation and intracellular localization of the epithelial isoforms of the Na+/H+ exchangers NHE2 and NHE3". ... Du A, Sanger JM, Sanger JW (Jun 2008). "Cardiac myofibrillogenesis inside intact embryonic hearts". Developmental Biology. 318 ... Alpha II-spectrin, also known as Spectrin alpha chain, brain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPTAN1 gene. Alpha ...
... the types of pollen that an ear of corn will accept through expression of certain forms of the Gametophyte Factor 1 gene. Many ... 2007). "How pollen tubes grow". Developmental Biology. 303 (2): 405-420. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2006.12.003. PMID 17214979. ... regulations can cause their product to be rejected as organic corn, and for which they have no recourse against GMO growers. ... The popcorn remains free to donate its genes via its own pollen to other types of corn. The effectiveness of this restriction ...
"Transient and stable expression of the firefly luciferase gene in plant cells and transgenic plants". Science. American ... Communication in the form of quorum sensing plays a role in the regulation of luminescence in many species of bacteria. Small ... Wilson, Thérèse; Hastings, J. Woodland (1998). "Bioluminescence". Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. 14 (1): 197- ... The gene that makes the tails of fireflies glow has been added to mustard plants. The plants glow faintly for an hour when ...
Developmental Cell. 15: 309-21. PMID 18694569 Rogulja D, Irvine KD. Regulation of cell proliferation by a morphogen gradient. ... Rogulja created a method for controlled gene expression where she could show that signalling between neighboring cells exposed ... In her first author paper published in Cell in 2005, Rogulja showed, for the first time, that the regulation of wing growth in ... She joined the lab of Kenneth D. Irvine to study intercellular signalling and regulation of tissue growth by morphogen ...
Rosette C, Karin M (March 1995). "Cytoskeletal control of gene expression: depolymerization of microtubules activates NF-kappa ... MAPs have been shown to play a crucial role in the regulation of microtubule dynamics in-vivo. The rates of microtubule ... Desai A, Mitchison TJ (1997). "Microtubule polymerization dynamics". Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. 13: 83- ... which has provided information on the differential expression of the genes depending on the presence of these factors. This ...
The WNK1 gene encodes a cytoplasmic serine-threonine kinase expressed in the distal nephron. Studies have shown that WNK1 can ... The WNK1 mutant found in FHHt harbors a large deletion within intron 1 that causes an increase in the expression of full length ... The predominant role of WNK1 is the regulation of cation-Cl− cotransporters (CCCs) such as the sodium chloride cotransporter ( ... WNK1 has been implicated in the developmental switch from excitatory to inhibitory GABA signaling via interaction with NKCC1 ...
October 2004). "Lamellipodin, an Ena/VASP ligand, is implicated in the regulation of lamellipodial dynamics". Developmental ... Gene Structure and Expression. 1132 (3): 240-248. doi:10.1016/0167-4781(92)90156-t. hdl:2027.42/29785. PMID 1420303. "Entrez ... Protein enabled homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ENAH gene. ENAH has been shown to interact with ABI1, ZYX ... Sazuka T, Tomooka Y, Kathju S, Ikawa Y, Noda M, Kumar S (October 1992). "Identification of a developmentally regulated gene in ...
"Activating transcription factor 4 mediates up-regulation of alanine aminotransferase 2 gene expression under metabolic stress ... A loss of function mutation in this gene has been associated with developmental encephalopathy. Alternative splicing results in ... Glutamic--pyruvic transaminase 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPT2 gene. This gene encodes a mitochondrial ... "Entrez Gene: Glutamic--pyruvic transaminase 2". Retrieved 2018-05-07. Yang RZ, Blaileanu G, Hansen BC, Shuldiner AR, Gong DW ( ...
The regulation of gene expression by nuclear receptors often occurs in the presence of a ligand-a molecule that affects the ... Developmental Brain Research. 148 (1): 11-8. doi:10.1016/j.devbrainres.2003.09.018. PMID 14757514. Moeller LC, Broecker-Preuss ... when bound to their cognate nuclear receptors is normally to upregulate gene expression. This stimulation of gene expression by ... The result is up- or down-regulation of gene expression. A unique property of nuclear receptors that differentiates them from ...
... which can have effects on gene expression. Synthetic condensates offer a way to probe cellular function and organization with ... Hyman AA, Weber CA, Jülicher F (2014). "Liquid-liquid phase separation in biology". Annual Review of Cell and Developmental ... Case LB, Ditlev JA, Rosen MK (May 2019). "Regulation of Transmembrane Signaling by Phase Separation". Annual Review of ... Schaefer KN, Peifer M (February 2019). "Wnt/Beta-Catenin Signaling Regulation and a Role for Biomolecular Condensates". ...
Manohar CF, Salwen HR, Furtado MR, Cohn SL (1996). "Up-regulation of HOXC6, HOXD1, and HOXD8 homeobox gene expression in human ... Mutations in this gene have been associated with severe developmental defects on the anterior-posterior (a-p) limb axis. ... 1994). "The thyroid transcription factor-1 gene is a candidate target for regulation by Hox proteins". EMBO J. 13 (14): 3339-47 ... Manohar CF, Furtado MR, Salwen HR, Cohn SL (1993). "Hox gene expression in differentiating human neuroblastoma cells". Biochem ...
In Drosophila, a teneurin known as ten-m or Odz is a pair-rule gene, and its expression is required for normal development. The ... Developmental Biology. 282 (1): 27-38. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.02.017. ISSN 0012-1606. PMID 15936327. Young TR, Leamey CA ( ... suggesting cell signalling roles and regulation of actin organisation. Teneurin-3 regulates the structural and functional ... Human genes encoded teneurin domain proteins (TENM1-4) are list in the infoboxes. Tucker RP, Chiquet-Ehrismann R, Chevron MP, ...
These results show a developmental and cell lineage-related restriction in VH-gene expression, and suggest that most adult ... In chimeras of IgH congenic donors, VH-gene expression in fetal liver-derived splenic B cells and Ig-secreting cells is ... Two observations reported here demonstrate that the differential expression of VH genes is an intrinsic property of the ... We have previously shown that in IgH congenic mice VH-gene family usage in neonatal spleen B cells and adult Ig-secreting cells ...
Developmental regulation and expression of the zebrafish connexin43 gene. In: Developmental Dynamics. 2005 ; Vol. 233, No. 3. ... Developmental regulation and expression of the zebrafish connexin43 gene. Developmental Dynamics. 2005 Jul;233(3):890-906. doi ... Developmental regulation and expression of the zebrafish connexin43 gene, Developmental Dynamics, vol. 233, no. 3, pp. 890-906 ... Developmental regulation and expression of the zebrafish connexin43 gene. Bishwanath Chatterjee, Alvin J. Chin, Gunnar ...
To characterize the tissue-specific distribution and developmentally regulated expression of M and B creatine kinase mRNA in ... Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic* * Intestine, Small / metabolism * Isoenzymes * Kidney / metabolism * Liver / ... Tissue-specific distribution and developmental regulation of M and B creatine kinase mRNAs Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990 Jun 21; ... The developmentally regulated expression of M and B creatine kinase mRNA was determined in skeletal muscle, heart, brain and ...
2010). Injury-induced regulation of steroidogenic gene expression in the cerebellum. Journal of Neurotrauma. 27(10):1875-82 ... Developmental Neurobiology. 71(2): 170-81.. *Mirzatoni, A, Spence, RD, Naranjo, KC, Saldanha, CJ & Schlinger, BA. ( ... 2011). Calbindin-D28K expression increases in the dorsolateral hippocampus following corticosterone treatment in female zebra ... 2011). Neuroinflammation induces glial aromatase expression in the uninjured songbird brain. J. Neuroinflammation. July 18, 18( ...
Our results suggest that PenStrep treatment can significantly alter gene expression and regulation in a common liver cell type ... genome-wide identification of antibiotic-induced changes in gene expression and regulation. Ann H. Ryu, Walter L. Eckalbar, ... genome-wide identification of antibiotic-induced changes in gene expression and regulation ... genome-wide identification of antibiotic-induced changes in gene expression and regulation ...
Developmental Biology (5) * Gene Expression & Regulation (4) * Molecular Bases of Health & Disease (4) ... Expression of the Three Endothelin Genes and Plasma Levels of Endothelin in Pre-Eclamptic and Normal Gestations ... The gene expression of system A transporter Slc38a1, Slc38a2 and Slc38a4 was up-regulated in IF male placentas only... ... The expression patterns of both DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR are discussed in detail, with particular attention to the expression of ...
The epigenetic regulation of spatiotemporal gene expression is crucial for human development. Here, we present whole-genome ... A Hox Gene, Antennapedia, Regulates Expression of Multiple Major Silk Protein Genes in the Silkworm Bombyx mori. Journal of ... pointing to their roles in controlling the ordered spatiotemporal expression of the developmental genes in early human embryos. ... a major silk protein gene, in the silk gland. Here, we investigated whether Antp can regulate expression of multiple genes in ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. Miller GW, Ulatowski L, Labut EM, Lebold KM, Manor D, Atkinson J, Barton CL, Tanguay ...
... by electroporation of chick embryos in ovo has allowed the development of new approaches to the analysis of gene regulation, ... This method is applicable to other vertebrate embryos and is an important tool with which to address cell and developmental ... function and expression, creating an exciting opportunity to build upon the classical manipulative advantages of the chick ... Multiple spatially specific enhancers are required to reconstruct the pattern of Hox-2.6 gene expression. Genes Dev. 5, 2048- ...
... gene expression regulation; insect development; developmental stages; predatory insects; insect rearing; insect nutrition; ... 4. Differential gene expression in Perillus bioculatus nymphs fed a suboptimal artificial diet ... A BlastX search found similarities for two diet-upregulated clones, i.e., the tyrosine-3-monooxygenase gene and the gene for ... In vitro cellular & developmental biology 2005 v.41 no.3 pp. 71-76. ISSN:. 1543-706X. Subject:. Perillus bioculatus; insect ...
Gene Regulation and Expression; genomic imprinting; genomics; germ cell biology; Molecular Genetics; mouse developmental ... Next, I assessed gene expression using genome-wide assays and looked at how expression of imprinted genes is altered in the ... The main goal of this thesis is to examine how gene expression of all imprinted genes is affected in mouse models of IUGR (Mmp2 ... For imprinted genes, only 4 genes in the embryo (H19, Igf2, Slc38a4, and Dlk1) and 6 genes in the placenta (Slc38a4, Sfmbt2, ...
Epigenetic regulation of gene expression by DNA methylation and covalent chromatin modifications ... Developmental Neuroscience 26(2-4):255-265.. Dorsey, S.G., Renn, C.L., Carim-Todd, L., Barrick, C.A., Bambrick, L.L., Krueger, ... Kingsbury, T.J., Murray, P.D., Bambrick, L.L., Krueger, B.K.(2003) Ca2+-dependent regulation of trkB expression in neurons. ... regulate the expression of CREB-dependent genes such as BDNF (Almeida et al., 2009); this mechanism operates in neurons but not ...
The common themes include regulation of gene expression, signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, cell cycle and ... Molecular biology studies are supported by strong research and training programs in cell biology, developmental biology and ... A few areas of interest are - regulation of transcription factors, DNA repair mechanisms, protein folding and mis-folding, ... cellular and developmental biology, microbiology and immunology).The overarching goal of this school is to elucidate the ...
Mutations in this gene are associated with campomelic dysplasia. ... Developmental regulation of creatine kinase gene expression by ... This allele, which encodes transcription factor SOX-9, plays roles in transcriptional regulation, osteogenesis, chondrogenesis ... Muscle‐specific expression of the acetylcholine receptor alpha‐subunit gene requires both positive and negative interactions ... Mitochondrial Activity Is Involved in the Regulation of Myoblast Differentiation through Myogenin Expression and Activity of ...
1. Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression. 2. Developmental Neurobiology. 3. Translational Research (Drug Discovery for ... Developmental Neurobiology, Epigenetics, Gene Regulation, Molecular Biology, Multiple Sclerosis, Myelination, Neuro- ... Developmental Neurobiology, Epigenetics, Gene Regulation, Molecular Biology, Multiple Sclerosis, Myelination, Neuro- ... Developmental Neurobiology, Epigenetics, Gene Regulation, Molecular Biology, Multiple Sclerosis, Myelination, Neuro- ...
... developmental events such as somatic mutations that occur in brain development and epigenetic regulation of gene expression ... Candidate gene is a term with no consensus definition, but can be taken to refer to genes selected for study by means other ... versus studies of genes mapping within these regions. To assert a causal link for a single gene within a multigenic CNV locus ... and may find it challenging to know which genes to study, which alleles of those genes, and under what circumstances to expect ...
In epigenetics, he is studying gene expression regulation mechanisms through chromatin interaction, and RNA silencing pathways ... in the developmental stages of germ-line cells.. Read More about Zheyang Wu ...
T-box genes encode transcription factors, which control gene expression, involved in the regulation of developmental processes ... The Eomesodermin/Tbr2 gene, EOMES, encodes a member of a conserved protein family that shares a common DNA-binding domain, the ... Eomesodermin also known as T-box brain protein 2 (Tbr2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EOMES gene.. ... Eomesodermin/Tbr2 itself controls regulation of radial glia, as well as other related cells. Eomesodermin/Tbr2 has also been ...
Higher order chromatin folding is critical to a number of developmental processes, including the regulation of gene expression ... Higher order chromatin folding is critical to a number of developmental processes, including the regulation of gene expression ... We performed a non-biased gene expression analysis of ULTR cells using Nimblegen human gene expression microarray (n=3), and ... This effect appears to be modulated by a decrease in the expression of mTOR-related genes and pro-metastatic candidate genes. ...
Minireview: developmental regulation of thyrotropin receptor gene expression in the fetal and newborn thyroid. Endocrinology. ...
The common themes include regulation of gene expression, signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, cell cycle and ... Molecular biology studies are supported by strong research and training programs in cell biology, developmental biology and ... A few areas of interest are - regulation of transcription factors, DNA repair mechanisms, protein folding and mis-folding, ... cellular and developmental biology, microbiology and immunology).The overarching goal of this school is to elucidate the ...
Gene Expression and Regulation. BIOCHEMISTRY AND GENETICS OF PARTICULAR ORGAN SYSTEMS AND MEDICAL DISCIPLINES. Molecular Basis ... Endocrine System - Endocrinology and Developmental Medicine. Neurosensory and Neuromuscular Systems - Neurology, Ophthalmology ... Next-Generation MicroRNA Expression Profiling Technology: Methods and Protocols Jian-Bing Fan ...
Gene Expression Regulation*. *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*. *Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism. *In Situ ... Embryos, Somites, Nephrons, Zebrafish, Morphogenic segmentation, Gene expression, In situ hybridization, Kidneys MeSH Terms. * ... The cdx Genes and Retinoic Acid Control the Positioning and Segmentation of the Zebrafish Pronephros. Authors. Wingert, R.A., ... These results suggest that the cdx genes act to localize the activity of RA along the axis, thereby determining where the ...
keywords = "animals, brain, mammalian embryo, gene expression regulation, developmental, In situ hybridization, mice, mice, ... In: Developmental Biology, Vol. 280, No. 2, 15.04.2005, p. 421-433.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer- ... All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) is an endogenous morphogen that regulates gene transcription. Matemal exposure to atRA results ... N2 - All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) is an endogenous morphogen that regulates gene transcription. Matemal exposure to atRA ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. *Integrases/genetics. *Integrases/metabolism*. *Muscles/cytology. *Muscles/ ... and gain-of-function expression, ectopic expression and lineage tracing experiments. The Cre/loxP recombination system is a ... Spatiotemporal control over transgene expression is a critical need in many experimental approaches, with applications in loss ... Zebrafish transgenic lines provide valuable insights into gene functions, cell lineages and cell behaviors during development. ...
Graham IA, Smith LM, Leaver CJ, Smith SM, Developmental regulation of expression of the malate synthase gene in transgenic ... Molecular cloning of cucumber phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and developmental regulation of gene expression, Plant ... Reynolds SJ, Smith SM, Regulation of expression of the cucumber isocitrate lyase gene in cotyledons upon seed germination and ... Ismail I, de Bellis L, Alpi A, Smith SM, Expression of glyoxylate cycle genes in cucumber roots responds to sugar supply and ...
... and IGF2BP3 gene was located in the AA-unique TAD boundaries. Both HMGCR and IGF2BP3 genes exhibited increased mRNA expression ... Among those, HMGCR gene was located in TAD-boundary regions in AA broilers, but in TAD-interior regions in LS chickens, ... It was demonstrated that IGF2BP3 and HMGCR genes regulated by TAD boundary sliding were the potential biomarkers for chicken ... and chromatin inter-interaction was heavily focused on the small and gene-rich chromosomes. For genomic compartmentalization, ...
Developmental regulation of lens gene expression. Cvekl, A. & Cvekl, A. A.. National Eye Institute ... Restoring Central Regulation of Glucose Production in Type 2 Diabetes. Hawkins, M. A., Hawkins, M. A., Routh, V. H. & Routh, V ... Regulation and function of hematopoietic stem cell niches. Frenette, P. S. & Frenette, P. S. ...
  • This method is applicable to other vertebrate embryos and is an important tool with which to address cell and developmental biology questions. (
  • Our investigation of MestXL and miR-335, two unique alternative functions of the Mest locus, demonstrates that the Mest locus is involved in two types of RNA-mediated regulation and ultimately contributes to the understanding of genomic imprinting and microRNAs in mammalian biology. (
  • Detailed investigation of the underlying mechanisms of imprinting and phenotypes in these mouse lines provides us with new fundamental insights into placental biology and the regulation of gene expression by imprinting centres on distal mouse chromosome 7. (
  • Molecular biology studies are supported by strong research and training programs in cell biology, developmental biology and genetics. (
  • Developmental Biology , 280 (2), 421-433. (
  • Prerequisite courses will have introduced students to the concepts of cells, the central dogma of molecular biology, and gene regulation. (
  • Our multi-disciplinary approach will ensure diverse areas of research that include studies at the level of molecules (biochemistry, biophysics, molecular & structural biology) to organisms (cellular and developmental biology, microbiology and immunology). (
  • The overall results indicated that NAC15 gene is highly expressed in the xylem of poplar and plays an important role in wood formation in transgenic tobacco, which provides a foundation for the identification of wood-associated downstream genes and has significant implication in tree biology and biotechnology. (
  • We are at a remarkable time in biology where at last we can look at the "source code" for life-the DNA sequences that specify development, regulation, and function of organisms-but we are still far from adequately understanding how to read this vast trove of encoded information or being able to reconstruct how it evolved. (
  • Imprinted transcription at the Mest locus also produces a microRNA, miR-335, that acts to down-regulate target genes via binding to their 3'UTRs and ultimately repressing their translation. (
  • Additionally, we identify several candidate target genes of miR-335 by RNA-seq analysis on primary mouse fibroblasts that under-express miR-335. (
  • These transcription factors can form homodimers or heterodimers via helix-span-helix motifs and transactivate their target genes by binding to GC-rich consensus sequences in the promoter regions [ 11 ]. (
  • Transcriptional profiling and ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation [ChIP] followed by high-throughput sequencing) experiments identified Lhx1 target genes, including numerous anterior definitive endoderm markers and components of the Wnt signaling pathway. (
  • Her transcription factors are basic-helix-loop-helix-orange (bHLH-O) transcription factors that bind to palindromic E- and N-box canonical sequences in the promoters of target genes. (
  • TFs specifically recognize cis -regulatory regions of target genes, then regulate their expression in a way that leads to a wide range of physiological and biochemical processes. (
  • The master transcription factor Sry-type HMG box (Sox) 9 has an essential role in the expression of chondrogenic genes through the association with Sox9-binding sites on its target genes{thus to grow taller it's essential that Sox9 is working properl} . (
  • We identified 205 PenStrep-responsive genes, including transcription factors such as ATF3 that are likely to alter the regulation of other genes. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that Foxc1 expression is directly regulated by the activity of SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 9, one of the earliest transcription factors to specify the chondrocyte lineage. (
  • A few areas of interest are - regulation of transcription factors, DNA repair mechanisms, protein folding and mis-folding, intrinsically disordered proteins, enzyme catalysis and protein engineering. (
  • T-box genes encode transcription factors, which control gene expression, involved in the regulation of developmental processes. (
  • In Silico Characterization and Expression Profiles of Heat Shock Transcription Factors (HSFs) in Maize (Zea mays L. (
  • All of these processes rely on the tight coordination of extrinsic and intrinsic cues, as well as regulation of gene expression by transcription factors. (
  • Although a considerable amount of work has been conducted to identify key regulators of retinal development and regeneration, many gene regulatory networks which include both master signaling pathways as well as individual transcription factors remain poorly characterized. (
  • The regulation of gene expression is a complex control mechanism that is coordinated by a number of mechanisms, including by transcription factors (TFs). (
  • A unique tissue-specific transcript analysis revealed that lignin and cellulose biosynthetic-related genes, transcription factors (TFs) and other potential regulators of xylogenesis were under strict developmental stage-specific transcriptional regulation in poplar [10]. (
  • To fulfill those expectations, ESCs have to be directed at high efficiency to disease relevant cell types, either by the application of extracellular signals or direct programming by forced expression of transcription factors. (
  • Therefore, the expression of few factors programs ESC into neurons at high efficiency allowing us to apply biochemical interrogation techniques to study gene expression, physiological properties, chromatin status and genomic occupancy of transcription factors. (
  • In cell lineage-tracing studies, Thomas Graf [The Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Barcelona, Spain] asked how `instructive' transcription factors drive lineage choice in blood cells. (
  • They specify the identity of segments along the anterior-posterior body axis in metazoans by controlling the expression of diverse downstream targets, including transcription factors and signaling pathway components. (
  • A comprehensive survey of the fundamentals of biological chemistry, including the properties of intermediary metabolites, the structure and function of biological macromolecules, the logic of metabolic pathways (both degradative and biosynthetic) and the molecular basis of genetics and gene expression. (
  • Understanding how a person's DNA sequence affects gene expression in various tissues reveals the molecular mechanisms of disease. (
  • Molecular analysis of a phylogenetically conserved carrot gene: developmental and environmental regulation. (
  • Extensive studies of gene expression programs in carrot somatic embryos identified a gene, designated Dc3, that serves as a reliable molecular marker for the acquisition of embryogenic potential by carrot cells in culture. (
  • The molecular and genetic mechanisms regulating wood formation in Populus have been studied by developmental genetic, genomic and biochemical approaches [6]. (
  • Based on phenotypic characterization, expression analysis and ChIP-seq of Hox genes during in vitro MN differentiation, we plan to identify the enhancer structure at Hox binding sites and to establish the minimal set of cofactors and molecular logic required for Hox gene activity in MNs. (
  • Molecular cloning and gene regulation in bacilli / edited by A.T. Ganesan, Shing Chang, James A. Hoch. (
  • The most visible biological application today is the Gene Ontology project [ 1 ], which provides a controlled vocabulary for cross-species comparisons of genes and gene products that are associated with biological processes, molecular functions, and cellular components. (
  • Together, these ontologies provide innovative tools for knowledge representation and modeling of biologic and developmental relationships, as well as cellular and molecular processes. (
  • The conservation of protein sequence and developmental gene regulation would suggest that Cx43α1 gap junctions are likely to have conserved roles in vertebrate embryonic development. (
  • Genes that determine the fate of a cell or CELLS in a region of the embryo during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT . (
  • The CHD7 protein is involved in the epigenetic regulation of transcription and plays a role in the control of gene expression through chromatin remodeling and thus in early embryonic development. (
  • To comprehensively characterize the effect of antibiotic treatment on gene expression, we performed RNA-seq and ChIP-seq for H3K27ac on HepG2 cells, a human liver cell line commonly used for pharmacokinetic, metabolism and genomic studies, cultured in media supplemented with penicillin-streptomycin (PenStrep) or vehicle control. (
  • Our results suggest that PenStrep treatment can significantly alter gene expression and regulation in a common liver cell type such as HepG2, advocating that antibiotic treatment should be taken into account when carrying out genetic, genomic or other biological assays in cultured cells. (
  • Our research combines mouse genetics, bioinformatics and genomic methods to explore cis- and trans -acting components of mammalian gene regulatory machinery. (
  • and (3) Probing long-range gene regulatory mechanisms in mammals, using mouse mutants and genomic approaches to understand how these mechanisms contribute to plasticity and disease. (
  • Genomic imprinting results in preferential expression of the paternally, or the maternally inherited allele of certain genes. (
  • Genomic imprinting thus emerges as a major and dynamic mode of epigenetic regulation of brain function, with direct implications for the understanding of evolution and diseases. (
  • To understand cell differentiation and to gain control of cell fate during direct programming, it is necessary to rationalize how selector factors recognize their genomic targets and control gene expression. (
  • We observed densely clustered Ubx binding sites at 12 extended genomic loci that included ANTP-C, BX-C, Polycomb complex genes, and other regulators and the clustered binding sites were frequently active enhancers. (
  • The Department of Genetics Genome Sciences embraces a unified program devoted to outstanding research and teaching in all areas of genetics, with particular emphases on genetics and genomics, human and model system genetics, animal models of human disease, stem cell models of human disease, epigenetics and the regulation of gene expression, therapeutic targets of human genetic disease, as well as developmental genetics. (
  • In situ hybridization revealed many Cx43α1 expression domains, including the notochord and brain, heart and vasculature, many resembling patterns seen in mammalian embryos. (
  • We examined the developmental and heat shock induced expression of this gene by in situ hybridization of nonradioactively labelled riboprobe to cellular transcripts in intact embryos, larval and adult somatic tissues of wild type and an enhancer-trap line carrying the hsr(omega) 05241 allele due to insertion of a P-LacZ-rosy+ transposon at -130 bp position of the hsr(omega) promoter. (
  • In spite of insertion of a big transposon in the promoter, expression of the hsr(omega) 05241 allele in the enhancer-trap line, as revealed by in situ hybridization to hsr(omega) transcripts in cells, was similar to that of the wild type allele in all the embryonic, larval and adult somatic tissues examined. (
  • Here we present data showing the importance of AP-2α in the transcriptional regulation of genes that coordinate GN-11 neuron migration. (
  • During embryonic retinal development, the coordination of cell signaling and transcriptional regulation allows for a relatively homogenous sheet of neuroepithelial cells to proliferate and differentiate in-to a multilayered, light sensitive retinal tissue. (
  • In particular, several TFs such as AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF), CLASS III HOMEODOMAIN-LEUCINE ZIPPER (HD-ZIPIII), KANADI (KAN), MYB and NAC might govern the complex networks of transcriptional regulation in wood formation in poplar [9, 11]. (
  • Roles of OGG1 in transcriptional regulation and maintenance of metabolic homeostasis. (
  • The Bearded box, a novel 3' UTR sequence motif, mediates negative post-transcriptional regulation of Bearded and Enhancer of split Complex gene expression. (
  • However, changes in three-dimensional chromatin structure and interaction, a newly emerged mediator of gene expression, during the skeletal muscle development and IMF deposition have remained unclear. (
  • The chromatin intra-interaction was prior to inter-interaction in both AA and LS chicken, and chromatin inter-interaction was heavily focused on the small and gene-rich chromosomes. (
  • To test this notion, we have examined brain gene expression and chromatin accessibility after exposure to salient social interactions and compared active TFs and regulatory networks across behavioral model species. (
  • We have shown that this perturbation of XY gene expression is caused by changes in some of the epigenetic marks associated with the XY chromatin. (
  • As part of our collaboration with Dr. Monika Ward s group (Institute for Biogenesis, Hawaii, USA) we have demonstrated that sperm from males deficient in Sly gene present DNA damage and abnormal chromatin compaction. (
  • Low levels of chromatin acetylation results in less of the ECM genes aggrecan and COL2A1 which may interfere with optimal growth. (
  • The Sox9-related transcriptional apparatus activates its target gene expression through p300-mediated histone acetylation on chromatin. (
  • the BMP-2 inhibitor Noggin represses Sox9 expression in limb bud chondrogenic precursors while inducing the ligament/tendon-specific transcription factor Scx" "the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity of p300 has the potential to facilitate transcriptional activity by modulating the chromatin structure. (
  • Epigenetics modifications arise due to alterations in gene function that cannot be endorsed to DNA sequence modifications. (
  • Konopko, M.A., Densmore, A.L., Krueger, B.K. (2017) Sexually dimorphic epigenetic regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in fetal brain in the valproic acid model of autism spectrum disorder . (
  • Environmental exposure to stressors, such as dietary deficiency, might have an impact on epigenetic regulation of gene expression. (
  • Our research uses a mouse model of abnormal folate metabolism to understand the epigenetic mechanism behind transgenerational inheritance of developmental phenotypes. (
  • In mice and men, sperm differentiation requires a high proportion of genes located on the sex chromosomes (i.e. the X and the Y). Expression of these genes is tightly controlled by epigenetic processes which remain to be studied. (
  • The aim of our project was to better understand the epigenetic regulation of sex chromosomes during sperm differentiation and its impact on sperm development and male fertility. (
  • For this we studied mouse models which present male infertility associated with an epigenetic deregulation of XY gene expression in germ cells. (
  • The long-term goal is to determine if abnormal epigenetic regulation of XY genes is at the basis of unexplained cases of human infertility. (
  • There, the MC fellow has developed her own research project, 'the study of the epigenetic regulation of XY genes during sperm differentiation' (see below for results) and has progressively become independent: she has now been recruited by Inserm, and leads her own team in the host group. (
  • We have demonstrated that Slx and Sly are both involved in the epigenetic regulation of XY gene expression during spermiogenesis, but with overall opposite effects: Slx is an activator while Sly is a repressor of XY gene expression. (
  • All these observations are in favour of a role of SSTY, together with SLY and SLX, in the epigenetic regulation of XY gene expression. (
  • Our study uncovered a large number of new loci with imprinted features, suggesting that imprinting is a major mode of epigenetic regulation in the brain. (
  • Our results claim that CFTR epigenetic adjustments are vital in both down-regulation and up-regulation of CFTR appearance in HNC and regular cells respectively. (
  • The epigenetic code is determined by several mechanisms that affect gene expression, the most well-known of which is DNA methylation (See Figure 1). (
  • The structural chromosome alterations may arise at the chromosome level (e.g., translocations and gains or losses of large portions of chromosomes) or at the nucleotide level, which influence gene structure or expression such as mutations, insertions, deletions, gene amplifications, and gene silencing by epigenetic effects ( Jefford and Irminger-Finger, 2006 ). (
  • Advances over the past decade have linked cellular senescence and function with their metabolic reprogramming pathway in cardiac aging, including autophagy, oxidative stress, epigenetic modifications, chronic inflammation, and myocyte systolic phenotype regulation. (
  • These peaks were enriched near genes that function in cell differentiation, tRNA modification, nuclease activity and protein dephosphorylation. (
  • The distinct organization of TE islands, their gene composition and their regulation by the genome adds compelling evidence for the role of TEs as players in differentiation, adaptation and speciation. (
  • Famously in Arabidopsis, VND6 and VND7, were key regulators of xylem vessel differentiation by regulating the expression of a broad range of genes involved in xylem vessel formation [15, 16]. (
  • CHARGE Syndrome is a midline developmental defect attributed to an arrest in embryologic differentiation during early organogenesis. (
  • Aim: To detect the expression of molecules associated with Notch signaling pathway in stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) cultured in specific differentiation medium, namely, keratinocyte growth medium (KGM). (
  • Notch signaling pathway is also involved in the regulation of epithelial cell differentiation in various tissues 5-6 . (
  • The aim of this study was to detect the expression of molecules associated with Notch signallng pathway in SHED cultured in specific differentiation medium, namely, KGM. (
  • Although influenza infection causes T helper-1 cells to produce interferon-gamma and promote up-regulation of T-bet by the B-cells and their differentiation into antibody secreting cells, not all pathogens induce T helper-1 cell development. (
  • Resistance to antimicrobial drugs of convenience, the examples will be taken mainly from in bacteria can result from mutations in housekeeping the work carried out in the author's laboratory, although structural or regulatory genes. (
  • The defect is caused by mutations (frameshift, nonsense, missense, or splice-site) in the CHD7 (Chromodomain [ chr omatin o rganisation mo difier] Helicase DNA-Binding Protein 7) gene, which has been mapped to chromosome 8q12.2. (
  • SCID results from mutations in any of more than 15 known genes. (
  • Inherited causes account for approximately 50% of individuals seen for childhood (prelingual) hearing loss, of which 70% are due to mutations in numerous single genes that impair auditory function alone (nonsyndromic). (
  • Waardenburg syndrome type IV is autosomal recessive with variable penetrance and is due to SOX10 or endothelin-B receptor ( EDNRB ) gene mutations, which appear to correlate with the intestinal and/or neurological symptoms manifested in patients. (
  • Genetic testing for mutations in the VHL gene is performed at many laboratories throughout the United States and the world. (
  • In the C. elegans embryo, maternal mRNA regulation is crucial to the patterning of early cell fates. (
  • In addition, we present data demonstrating an essential role for AP-2α in mouse embryo fibroblast migration via the modulation of a distinct set of genes compared with GN-11 cells. (
  • Gene regulatory networks controlling functional activities of spatially and temporally distinct endodermal cell populations in the early mouse embryo remain ill defined. (
  • The cadherins are a major class of membrane proteins with prominent roles in cell adhesion, and the regulation of tissue organisation and morphogenesis. (
  • The nucleus-limited large non-coding hsr(omega)-n RNA product of the 93D or the hsr(omega) gene of Drosophila melanogaster binds to a variety of RNA-binding proteins involved in nuclear RNA processing. (
  • MADS-box genes encode proteins that share a highly conservative DNA-binding domain, the MADS domain, which recognizes similar 10-bp A/T-rich DNA sequences, the CArG-box [ 4 ]. (
  • In plants, MADS-box genes can be divided into two distinct groups, namely type I and type II lineages: type I MADS-box proteins have no keratin-like (K) domain and only have the MADS (M) domain, whereas type II proteins also possess an intervening (I) domain, a K domain, and a C-terminal region followed by an M domain [ 15 ]. (
  • Chromosome 2 likely contains 1,200 to 1,300 genes that provide instructions for making proteins. (
  • The MBD5 gene provides instructions for a protein that likely regulates the activity (expression) of genes, controlling the production of proteins that are involved in neurological functions such as learning, memory, and behavior. (
  • It is likely that any changes in MBD5 protein levels impair its regulation of gene expression, leading to the uncontrolled production of certain proteins. (
  • Oxygen tension and cytokines have been shown to influence trophoblast VEGF expression, suggesting that this particular family of angiogenic proteins plays an important role in placental angiogenesis [3]. (
  • Together, our results show that Ubx targets developmental regulators via strongly clustered binding sites and allow us to hypothesize that regulation by Ubx might involve Polycomb group proteins to maintain specific regulatory states in cooperative or mutually exclusive fashion, an attractive model that combines two groups of proteins with prominent gene regulatory roles during animal development. (
  • Pools of actively proliferating retinal progenitor cells are maintained to fill the needs of developmental processes and normal growth of the retina. (
  • Her factors have been previously shown to play roles in a diverse array of developmental and neurogenic processes, including neural tube closure, floor plate development, somitogenesis, and development of various components of the central nervous system as well as the cranial sensory placodes. (
  • Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism. (
  • We found parallel adaptation to global change conditions in genes related to stress response, gene expression regulation, actin regulation, developmental processes, and energy production. (
  • Endochondral ossification initiates the growth of the majority of the mammalian skeleton and is tightly controlled through gene regulatory networks. (
  • Our results therefore establish the Mest DMR as an IC and propose a new mechanism to regulate allelic usage and imprinting at sense-antisense gene pairs in mammalian genomes, via tissue-specific alternative polyadenylation and transcriptional interference. (
  • Imprinted genes are expressed either from the maternal or paternal allele during development and tend to be found in clusters throughout the mammalian genome, suggesting they may be regulated by long-range mechanisms. (
  • Structure of genes and chromosomes. (
  • Slx and Sly are multicopy genes present on the X and Y chromosomes, respectively. (
  • We have developed an antibody to study its pattern of expression and observed that SSTY is specifically express in differentiating germ cells where it colocalizes with the sex chromosomes. (
  • We have previously shown that in IgH congenic mice VH-gene family usage in neonatal spleen B cells and adult Ig-secreting cells is entirely determined by the IgH locus, while in adult resting B cells it is regulated by genetic element(s) located outside the IgH locus. (
  • In chimeras of IgH congenic donors, VH-gene expression in fetal liver-derived splenic B cells and Ig-secreting cells is dictated by the IgH haplotype, while in bone marrow-derived B cells is entirely determined by the cis element(s). (
  • These results show a developmental and cell lineage-related restriction in VH-gene expression, and suggest that most adult splenic Ig-secreting cells may originate from precursors originally present in fetal liver, but which are rare among adult bone marrow precursors and CD5+ B cells. (
  • Petropoulos, C. & Hughes, S. Replication-competent retrovirus vectors for the transfer and expression of gene cassettes in avian cells. (
  • Andreason, G. & Evans, G. Induction and expression of DNA molecules in eukaryotic cells by electroporation. (
  • Expression of MyoD, myogenin, MRF4, and Myf-5 converts nonmuscle cells to muscle cells. (
  • Eomesodermin/Tbr2 itself controls regulation of radial glia, as well as other related cells. (
  • Genetic studies in C. elegans have led to the identification of more than two dozen genes that are important for the specification of which cells should live or die, the activation of the suicide program, and the dismantling and removal of dying cells. (
  • In particular, an interplay of transcriptional regulatory cascades and networks involving CES-1 , CES-2 , HLH-1 / HLH-2 , TRA-1 , and other transcriptional regulators is crucial in activating the expression of the key death-inducing gene egl-1 in cells destined to die. (
  • C. elegans has a single classic cadherin gene, which encodes two isoforms: one predominantly expressed in the nervous system, and the other more broadly expressed in all epithelial cells. (
  • However, after 90 days of ceftriaxone administration, the IFN-γ/IL-4, CD4/CD8 ratios and CD4 + CD25 + cells restored, which indicated a new balance of immune regulation had been formed. (
  • In retinal ganglion cells, we show that this is correlated with a dramatic decrease in α 6 mRNA and protein, suggesting that changes in gene expression account for the developmental regulation of the interactions of these neurons with laminin. (
  • In other retinal neurons the expression of α 6 mRNA and protein remains high while function is lost, suggesting that the function of the α 6 β 1 heterodimer in these cells is regulated by posttranslational mechanisms. (
  • Students will learn how the modification of genes in cells and whole organisms can be used to discover gene function or to modify phenotype. (
  • Expression of the LacZ gene in this enhancer-trap line was similar to that of the hsr(omega) RNA in all diploid cell types in embryos and larvae but in the polytene cells, the LacZ gene did not express at all, neither during normal development nor after heat shock. (
  • These anomalies are likely caused by the deregulation of XY genes in germ cells induced by the absence of Sly. (
  • Deletions prevent one copy of the MBD5 gene in each cell from producing any functional protein, which reduces the total amount of this protein in cells. (
  • group comparisons (5 datasets) comprehensive in Desk S1A identifying primary signatures connected with cells DC admittance or migration or with mononuclear phagocyte developmental transitions. (
  • Regulation of IL4 gene expression by T cells and therapeutic perspectives. (
  • Knowledge on the expression analysis of Notch signaling pathway molecules in SHED cultured in KGM could highlight its involvement in controlling the biological activity of these stem cells, particularly during odontogenesis and other developmental process. (
  • Likewise, hypoxic breast cancer cells showed higher propensity to increase expression of oncogenes and to decrease expression of tumor suppressor genes ( Jefford and Irminger-Finger, 2006 ). (
  • This developmental program requires a delicate level of regulation to ensure that the correct number of cells reaches their final destination [ 3 - 5 ]. (
  • The WHO Monitoring Group on Gene transfer Medicinal Products was established to monitor devel- opments and draw up appropriate guidance for assuring the quality of gene transfer medicinal prod- ucts, including nucleic acids, viral and non-viral vectors, and genetically modified cells. (
  • We also demonstrate that expression of LBD16-SRDX, a dominant repressor of LBD16/ASL18 and its related LBD/ASLs, does not interfere in the specification of LR founder cells with local activation of the auxin response, but it blocks the polar nuclear migration in LR founder cells before ACD, thereby blocking the subsequent LR initiation. (
  • Terms for developmental and adult lung structures, tissues, and cells were included, providing comprehensive ontologies for application at varying levels of resolution. (
  • B lymphocytes, or B-cells, have to go through a developmental change as they transform from B-cells to antibody-secreting cells. (
  • In T-cell development, T-bet activates inflammatory gene programmes that allow the T-cells to become T helper-1, or Th1, cells that can kill viruses and bacteria. (
  • Surprisingly, unlike T-cells, where T-bet turns on the inflammatory gene program, T-bet repressed or turned off more than 2,000 genes in the Th1-activated B-cells. (
  • Many of the genes that are repressed by T-bet in B-cells are normally involved in antiviral and inflammatory activity. (
  • The researchers found that the expression of the inflammatory gene programme in B-cells prevents the B-cells from differentiating into antibody-secreting cells. (
  • In accompanying experiments using influenza virus-infected mice, the Lund team found that B-cell intrinsic T-bet expression was required for the development of influenza-specific long-lived antibody-secreting cells, which provide protection from subsequent encounters with the virus. (
  • The common themes include regulation of gene expression, signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, cell cycle and apoptosis, cell polarity and migration, cell-cell interactions, pattern formation and organ development. (
  • Brassinosteroid signal transduction: Clarifying the pathway from ligand perception to gene expression. (
  • The mechanisms of translational control are only beginning to be explored, but are likely to regulate diverse developmental and cellular events in metazoans. (
  • In Arabidopsis thaliana , two AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs), ARF7 and ARF19, positively regulate LR formation through activation of the plant-specific transcriptional regulators LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-DOMAIN 16/ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2-LIKE 18 ( LBD16/ASL18 ) and the other related LBD/ASL genes. (
  • In the present study, firstly, we screened 110 differentially expressed NAC genes in the leaves, stems, and roots of di-haploid Populus simonii×P. nigra by RNA-Seq. (
  • From the profiles of 30,000 genes, we selected 68 differentially expressed genes among sham (S), R0 and R5 groups using a random-variance F-test. (
  • Two observations reported here demonstrate that the differential expression of VH genes is an intrinsic property of the respective cell populations, determined by both the IgH locus and by a cis element(s) operating independently in the same animal. (
  • A non-random distribution of gene families, larvae/adult specific gene expression and signs of differential methylation in TE islands indicate intragenomic differences in regulation, evolutionary rates and coalescent effective population size. (
  • Characterization of her9 during retinal development, identification of the retinoic acid signaling pathway as a regulator of her9 expression in the retina, and the role her9 plays during retinal vasculogenesis are discussed in Chapter 3. (
  • Three novel genome resources, the mollusc Patella vulgata, annelid Pomatoceros lamarcki and rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, along with other publicly available data, were searched for the presence of TGF-β pathway genes. (
  • Analysis revealed conservation of key components within the canonical pathway, allied with extensive diversification of TGF-β ligands and partial loss of genes encoding pathway inhibitors in some lophotrochozoan lineages. (
  • To characterize the tissue-specific distribution and developmentally regulated expression of M and B creatine kinase mRNA in rats, total cellular RNA was isolated from adult rat tissues and from skeletal muscle, heart, brain and intestine at selected stages of development. (
  • The developmentally regulated expression of M and B creatine kinase mRNA was determined in skeletal muscle, heart, brain and intestine. (
  • The developmental program of B creatine kinase mRNA was different for each tissue examined. (
  • Developmental regulation of creatine kinase gene expression by myogenic factors in embryonic mouse and chick skeletal muscle. (
  • The classical tool for discovering these long-range regulatory effects and for linking distant regulatory elements with gene promoters has been genome rearrangements, such as translocations and deletions, which occur far from genes but yet disrupt their tissue-specific and/or temporal expression. (
  • Accumulations of TEs (TE islands) comprising 7.18% of the genome evolve faster than other regions with regard to single-nucleotide variants, gene/exon duplications and deletions and gene homology. (
  • An increase or decrease in MBD5 protein disrupts gene expression that is normally well-controlled by this protein, which is likely why duplications and deletions of this gene lead to the same signs and symptoms. (
  • It is also unknown whether the loss or gain of other genes in chromosome 2 deletions or duplications contribute to the features of MAND. (
  • As a PhD student he was first to clone a gene required for carbon dioxide fixation by plants and he later discovered new pathways of starch and fat metabolism. (
  • Considering rapid changes in environmental conditions, adaptive plasticity enables organisms to maintain fitness across environments 11 through underlying phenotypic changes, such as shifts in metabolism or gene regulation 12 . (
  • This technique, for example, was used successfully to study the have to protect themselves from the products of their own extent of variations in penicillinase genes that generate secondary metabolism. (
  • Especially 45 annotated genes were related to metabolism, apoptosis or transcription regulation. (
  • Many of the XY deregulated genes are good candidates (such as histone variants) to explain these anomalies. (
  • Histone methylation at gene promoters is associated with developmental regulation and region-specific expression of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors in human brain. (
  • In this review, we describe these mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA expression, and the evidence supporting their dysregulation in pituitary tumors, as well as their regulation of pro-tumorigenic genes. (
  • Of interest, a reporter construct under control of the mouse Cx43α1 promoter was observed to drive green fluorescent protein expression in zebrafish embryos in domains mimicking the native Cx43α1 expression pattern in fish and mice. (
  • Eomesodermin also known as T-box brain protein 2 (Tbr2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EOMES gene. (
  • The Eomesodermin/Tbr2 gene, EOMES, encodes a member of a conserved protein family that shares a common DNA-binding domain, the T-box. (
  • Genome-wide cloning and sequence analysis of leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • Expression of a plant gene with sequence similarity to animal TGF-beta receptor interacting protein is regulated by brassinosteroids and required for normal plant development. (
  • Protein Expression and Purification [electronic resource]. (
  • But interpreting exactly which, and how, each of those differences bring about these outcomes has been difficult, particularly when the genetic differences occur not in the coding regions of genes, but instead in the surrounding regulatory regions that control their expression. (
  • Development and regeneration of the vertebrate eye are the result of complex interactions of regulatory networks and spatiotemporally controlled gene expression events. (
  • We are particularly interested in how components of the regulatory machinery have been conserved, or have changed in specific lineages, over evolutionary time and how those changes impact phenotypic expression. (
  • Within these domains, regulatory elements may interact with local promoters, regardless of gene boundaries, and confer some level of co-regulation upon the neighboring genes. (
  • which remain susceptible to most antimicrobial drugs ing structural or regulatory genes or from acquiring foreign even though they can acquire plasmids from both entero- genetic information. (
  • Almeida, L.E.F., Roby, C.D., Krueger, B.K. (2014) Increased BDNF expression in fetal brain following in utero exposure to valproic acid: implications for autism . (
  • Minireview: developmental regulation of thyrotropin receptor gene expression in the fetal and newborn thyroid. (
  • For example, people with fetal alcohol syndrome, other developmental disabilities, and other brain disorders are vulnerable to the development of TDs, even after receiving only 1 dose of the causative agent. (
  • A complex structural rearrangement involving duplication of the KIT gene was identified in belted pigs, whose belt includes the forelimbs and is localized more cranially than the one in Adamts20 mutant mice [ 18 , 19 ]. (
  • Although DNA methylation is a key regulator of gene expression, the comprehensive methylation landscape of metastatic cancer has never been defined. (
  • I have long been interested in the mechanisms of genome evolution, and especially in the functional impact of genome variation on gene regulation during development. (
  • Although many animal behaviors are species-unique, many behaviors, including many types of social response, are very deeply conserved in both expression and in the underlying mechanisms. (
  • Loss of cdx function caused abrogation of distal segments, a posterior shift in the position of the pronephros, and alterations in the expression boundaries of raldh2 and cyp26a1, which encode enzymes that synthesize and degrade RA, respectively. (
  • Both HMGCR and IGF2BP3 genes exhibited increased mRNA expression in one-day-old AA broiler breast muscles. (
  • Suppressing S1P₁ activity with AUY954 also increased mRNA expression levels of M2 polarization markers in post-ischemic brain, further indicating that S1P₁ could also influence M2 polarization in post-ischemic brain. (
  • As genes vary in their levels of expression or activity among the many tissues of the human body, we've now been able to identify where variants exert their effects and connect this variation to complex human traits and diseases. (
  • They found that most genes vary in their levels of expression among an individual's tissues and that the levels of expression are affected by specific variants in each individual's genome sequence. (
  • Montgomery shares senior authorship of the core GTEx paper in Nature, which correlates the effect of genetic variants with tissue-specific gene expression, with three other researchers from Johns Hopkins, Penn and Princeton. (
  • That study showed that nearly 90 percent of individuals displaying abnormally high or abnormally low levels of gene expression in particular tissues have rare variants near the affected genes. (
  • Pharmacogenetic Analysis of Functional Glutamate System Gene Variants and Clinical Response to Clozapine. (
  • Belted mice have sequence variants in the Adamts20 gene encoding a secreted metalloprotease [ 16 ], which was shown to be required for melanoblast survival [ 17 ]. (
  • However, relatively little is known about the effect of antibiotic use in cell culture on gene expression and the extent to which this treatment could confound results. (
  • Gene transfer into human leukemia cell lines by electroporation: experience with exponentially decaying and square wave pulse. (
  • Zebrafish transgenic lines provide valuable insights into gene functions, cell lineages and cell behaviors during development. (
  • Developmental Cell, 38(2), 118–120. (
  • Developmental Cell, 15(2), 220–235. (
  • We proved that Axl is essential for GN-11 cell movement and that AP-2α directly regulates Axl transcription by binding to canonical AP-2 binding sites present in the promoter of this gene. (
  • Comparison of the expression patterns of hsr(omega) gene and those of the LacZ reporter gene under its various promoter regions in the enhancer-trap and transgenic lines revealed a complex pattern of regulation, which seems to be essential for its dynamically varying expression in diverse cell types. (
  • Thus, instead of "selector genes," "selector cassettes" are the functional units controlling cell fate. (
  • These changes and markers of genetic instability are driven by a failure of DNA repair systems and cell cycle regulation. (
  • In addition, XPP-specific expression of LBD16/ASL18 in arf7 arf19 induced cell divisions at XPP, thereby restoring the LR phenotype. (
  • RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Successful reprogramming of prostate tissue into Pro-iPSCs and bladder and ureter into UT-iPSCs was demonstrated by characteristic ESC morphology, marker expression, and functional pluripotency in generating all three germ-layer lineages. (
  • With the advances in BMT and gene therapy, patients now have a better likelihood of developing a functional immune system in a previously lethal genetic disease. (
  • Functional studies showed that ectopic expression of bovine TWIST2 in neural crest in transgenic zebrafish led to a decrease in melanocyte numbers. (
  • Hirschsprung disease is a developmental disorder characterized by the absence of ganglia in the distal colon, resulting in a functional obstruction. (
  • Most people with MAND also have behavior problems similar to autism spectrum disorder , a developmental condition that affects communication and social interaction. (
  • We cloned and sequenced the zebrafish (Danio rerio) connexin43 (Cx43α1) gene. (
  • No genotype-phenotype correlation could be detected and inter- and even intrafamilial expression is highly variable. (
  • To determine the possible roles of her4 and her9 factors in the retina, I characterized the expression patterns of these factors during developmental retinal neurogenesis and/or regeneration, examined loss of function phenotypes, and identified signaling pathways that modulate expression of these factors. (
  • MADS-box genes play crucial roles in plant floral organ formation and plant reproductive development. (
  • All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) is an endogenous morphogen that regulates gene transcription. (
  • The deficient neural crest theory, suggesting a developmental abnormality of the neural crest as a cause of the disease: The association of Waardenburg syndrome and congenital aganglionic megacolon supports this hypothesis. (
  • We hypothesized that the CNV causes aberrant expression of TWIST2 during neural crest development, which might negatively affect melanoblasts. (
  • In 2010, scientists from around the country banded together at the urging of the National Institutes of Health to better understand how variations in an individual's DNA sequence affect whether, where, how and when specific genes are expressed in tissues throughout the body. (
  • The papers show how small variations in an individual's genome sequence govern the expression levels of genes in 44 distinct human tissues. (
  • GTEx researchers correlated the genetic variation of more than 7,000 samples from 449 cadaver donors with gene expression levels in 44 tissues, including brain, muscle, liver and blood. (
  • Efficient gene transfer by electroporation of chick embryos in ovo has allowed the development of new approaches to the analysis of gene regulation, function and expression, creating an exciting opportunity to build upon the classical manipulative advantages of the chick embryonic system. (
  • Figure 1: Electroporation-mediated gene expression in cultured chick and mouse embryos. (
  • Figure 3: Spatially restricted expression in chick embryos, using region-specific enhancers from different species. (
  • Comparison of three non-viral transfection methods for foreign gene expression in early chicken embryos in ovo . (
  • Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of Arabidopsis TCH4 expression by diverse stimuli. (
  • Two NAC domain TFs, SND1 and NST1 (NAC secondary wall thickening promoting factor1), were proved to function redundantly in regulation of secondary wall synthesis in Arabidopsis [17]. (
  • Matemal exposure to atRA results in severe developmental abnormalities by disrupting normal patterns of atRA distribution. (
  • The loss of this gene is thought to account for many of the characteristic features of 2q37 deletion syndrome, such as intellectual disability, behavioral problems, and skeletal abnormalities. (
  • Analysis of transgenic tobacco containing a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene fused to a 1.7 kb 5' upstream element of DcG3 defined a promoter/enhancer complex that confers developmentally and environmentally regulated expression of GUS activity. (
  • We also examined LacZ expression in the enhancer-trap line and in two transgenic lines carrying different lengths of the hsr(omega) promoter upstream of the LacZ reporter. (
  • Interestingly, Lhx1-binding sites were enriched at enhancers, including the Nodal-proximal epiblast enhancer element and enhancer regions controlling Otx2 and Foxa2 expression. (
  • Some of these factors implicated in retinal development and regeneration are members of the Hairy/Enhancer of Split (Hes) superfamily of genes, including the Hairy-related (Her) factors Her4 and Her9. (
  • The enhancer of split complex of Drosophila includes four Notch-regulated members of the bearded gene family. (
  • Vertebrate genomes are organized into "topologically associating domains", or TADs, that spatially group neighboring genes within the nucleus. (
  • formerly OCT4), SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2), Kruppel-like factor 4 (gut) (KLF4), and v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (avian) (MYC, formerly C-MYC) genes to generate iPSCs. (
  • Our bioinformatics analyses indicate that the major role of these factors in the conversion is the down-regulation of developmental genes in partial iPSCs. (
  • A targeted mutation at this locus revealed that it plays an important role in the regulation of embryonic growth and adult behavior. (
  • We have recently used a genome-wide approach to characterize the repertoire of imprinted genes in the mouse embryonic and adult CNS. (
  • Comparison of the imprinted gene repertoire in the adult hypothalamus and cortex, and in the developing brain demonstrates a complex spatiotemporal, species-, sex- and isoform-specific regulation. (
  • Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood analyses, along with some consideration of conserved domain structure, was used to confirm gene identity. (
  • Delayed manifestation is usually associated with persistent nasal discharge, failure to thrive, audiovisual defects, and developmental delay. (
  • DNA tumor viruses : control of gene expression and replication / edited by Michael Botchan, Terri Grodzicker, Phillip A. Sharp. (
  • A significant association was observed between TS of EGFR expression and tumor grade but not with tumor stage or lymph node metastasis. (
  • A significant association of EGFR expression exists with tumor grade as per the new scoring system adopted. (
  • The remainder are associated with other developmental anomalies termed syndromic deafness. (
  • However, the mechanism leading to the inhibition of LHRH expression was not elucidated since a direct regulation for AP-2α on the LHRH promoter was not demonstrated. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Developmental regulation and complex organization of the promoter of the non-coding hsr(omega) gene of Drosophila melanogaster. (
  • This resulted in replacement of B mRNA by M mRNA as the predominant species at an earlier developmental stage in heart when compared to skeletal muscle. (
  • Early development of many species depends on the temporal and spatial control of maternal gene products. (
  • It was demonstrated that the IGF2BP3 and HMGCR genes regulated by TAD boundary sliding were potential biomarkers for chicken breast muscle development and IMF deposition. (
  • In an effort to further understand the role of T4 in photoreceptor ontogeny and later developmental changes in photoreceptor subtype distribution, the influence of enhanced in ovo T4 content on the onset of opsin expression and cone development was examined. (
  • This strongly corroborates the notion that clades of floral organ identity genes led to the evolution of flower development in flowering plants. (
  • MIKC-type genes were identified from streptophyte lineages, revealing new insights into their evolution and development relationships. (
  • However, type II MADS genes are well studied and play a crucial role in the control of flower development. (
  • SLO development depends on the precisely regulated expression of cooperating lymphoid chemokines and cytokines such as LTα, LTβ, RANKL, TNF, IL-7, and perhaps IL-17. (
  • In participating UK research institutions, investigators can publish open access in Genome Research, Genes & Development, RNA, and Learning & Memory without article publication charges and all staff can read the entire renowned Cold Spring Harbor journal collection. (
  • Moreover, we transferred NAC15 gene into tobacco and obtained 12 transgenic tobacco lines overexpressing the gene. (