Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Gene Expression Regulation, Archaeal: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Microarray Analysis: The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mice, Inbred C57BLDNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Genes, Immediate-Early: Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Immediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Microdissection: The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Histone Deacetylases: Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMethylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Genes, Neoplasm: Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Mice, Inbred BALB CViral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Genes, fos: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (fos) originally isolated from the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses. The proto-oncogene protein c-fos codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. The insertion of c-fos into FBJ-MSV or FBR-MSV induces osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The human c-fos gene is located at 14q21-31 on the long arm of chromosome 14.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.

Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. (1/31686)

The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants.  (+info)

FGF8 induces formation of an ectopic isthmic organizer and isthmocerebellar development via a repressive effect on Otx2 expression. (2/31686)

Beads containing recombinant FGF8 (FGF8-beads) were implanted in the prospective caudal diencephalon or midbrain of chick embryos at stages 9-12. This induced the neuroepithelium rostral and caudal to the FGF8-bead to form two ectopic, mirror-image midbrains. Furthermore, cells in direct contact with the bead formed an outgrowth that protruded laterally from the neural tube. Tissue within such lateral outgrowths developed proximally into isthmic nuclei and distally into a cerebellum-like structure. These morphogenetic effects were apparently due to FGF8-mediated changes in gene expression in the vicinity of the bead, including a repressive effect on Otx2 and an inductive effect on En1, Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression. The ectopic Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression domains formed nearly complete concentric rings around the FGF8-bead, with the Wnt1 ring outermost. These observations suggest that FGF8 induces the formation of a ring-like ectopic signaling center (organizer) in the lateral wall of the brain, similar to the one that normally encircles the neural tube at the isthmic constriction, which is located at the boundary between the prospective midbrain and hindbrain. This ectopic isthmic organizer apparently sends long-range patterning signals both rostrally and caudally, resulting in the development of the two ectopic midbrains. Interestingly, our data suggest that these inductive signals spread readily in a caudal direction, but are inhibited from spreading rostrally across diencephalic neuromere boundaries. These results provide insights into the mechanism by which FGF8 induces an ectopic organizer and suggest that a negative feedback loop between Fgf8 and Otx2 plays a key role in patterning the midbrain and anterior hindbrain.  (+info)

Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. (3/31686)

Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain.  (+info)

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (4/31686)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (5/31686)

The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates.  (+info)

The cardiac homeobox gene Csx/Nkx2.5 lies genetically upstream of multiple genes essential for heart development. (6/31686)

Csx/Nkx2.5 is a vertebrate homeobox gene with a sequence homology to the Drosophila tinman, which is required for the dorsal mesoderm specification. Recently, heterozygous mutations of this gene were found to cause human congenital heart disease (Schott, J.-J., Benson, D. W., Basson, C. T., Pease, W., Silberbach, G. M., Moak, J. P., Maron, B. J., Seidman, C. E. and Seidman, J. G. (1998) Science 281, 108-111). To investigate the functions of Csx/Nkx2.5 in cardiac and extracardiac development in the vertebrate, we have generated and analyzed mutant mice completely null for Csx/Nkx2.5. Homozygous null embryos showed arrest of cardiac development after looping and poor development of blood vessels. Moreover, there were severe defects in vascular formation and hematopoiesis in the mutant yolk sac. Interestingly, TUNEL staining and PCNA staining showed neither enhanced apoptosis nor reduced cell proliferation in the mutant myocardium. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated that, among 20 candidate genes examined, expression of ANF, BNP, MLC2V, N-myc, MEF2C, HAND1 and Msx2 was disturbed in the mutant heart. Moreover, in the heart of adult chimeric mice generated from Csx/Nkx2.5 null ES cells, there were almost no ES cell-derived cardiac myocytes, while there were substantial contributions of Csx /Nkx2.5-deficient cells in other organs. Whole-mount &bgr;-gal staining of chimeric embryos showed that more than 20% contribution of Csx/Nkx2. 5-deficient cells in the heart arrested cardiac development. These results indicate that (1) the complete null mutation of Csx/Nkx2.5 did not abolish initial heart looping, (2) there was no enhanced apoptosis or defective cell cycle entry in Csx/Nkx2.5 null cardiac myocytes, (3) Csx/Nkx2.5 regulates expression of several essential transcription factors in the developing heart, (4) Csx/Nkx2.5 is required for later differentiation of cardiac myocytes, (5) Csx/Nkx2. 5 null cells exert dominant interfering effects on cardiac development, and (6) there were severe defects in yolk sac angiogenesis and hematopoiesis in the Csx/Nkx2.5 null embryos.  (+info)

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (7/31686)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Ultrabithorax function in butterfly wings and the evolution of insect wing patterns. (8/31686)

BACKGROUND: . The morphological and functional evolution of appendages has played a critical role in animal evolution, but the developmental genetic mechanisms underlying appendage diversity are not understood. Given that homologous appendage development is controlled by the same Hox gene in different organisms, and that Hox genes are transcription factors, diversity may evolve from changes in the regulation of Hox target genes. Two impediments to understanding the role of Hox genes in morphological evolution have been the limited number of organisms in which Hox gene function can be studied and the paucity of known Hox-regulated target genes. We have therefore analyzed a butterfly homeotic mutant 'Hindsight', in which portions of the ventral hindwing pattern are transformed to ventral forewing identity, and we have compared the regulation of target genes by the Ultrabithorax (Ubx) gene product in Lepidopteran and Dipteran hindwings. RESULTS: . We show that Ubx gene expression is lost from patches of cells in developing Hindsight hindwings, correlating with changes in wing pigmentation, color pattern elements, and scale morphology. We use this mutant to study how regulation of target genes by Ubx protein differs between species. We find that several Ubx-regulated genes in the Drosophila haltere are not repressed by Ubx in butterfly hindwings, but that Distal-less (Dll) expression is regulated by Ubx in a unique manner in butterflies. CONCLUSIONS: . The morphological diversification of insect hindwings has involved the acquisition of different sets of target genes by Ubx in different lineages. Changes in Hox-regulated target gene sets are, in general, likely to underlie the morphological divergence of homologous structures between animals.  (+info)

*Long non-coding RNA

... may be illustrative of a generalised mechanism that tightly regulates important developmental genes with complex expression ... such as the heat shock genes. This additional hierarchy of regulation that exempts individual genes from the generalised ... July 2008). "Expression of a noncoding RNA is elevated in Alzheimer's disease and drives rapid feed-forward regulation of beta- ... A recent study observed an inverse expression profile of the p15 gene and an antisense ncRNA in leukaemia. A detailed analysis ...

*Let-7 microRNA precursor

... yet the expression pattern of let-7 family is indeed temporal during developmental processes. Given that the expression levels ... 2006). "Extensive post-transcriptional regulation of microRNAs and its implications for cancer". Genes Dev. 20 (16): 2202-2207 ... Let-7 has been demonstrated to be a direct regulator of RAS expression in human cells All the three RAS genes in human, K-, N ... The lethal-7 (let-7) gene was first discovered in the nematode as a key developmental regulator and became one of the first two ...

*Regulation of gene expression

Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, ... Conversely, down-regulation is a process resulting in decreased gene and corresponding protein expression. Up-regulation occurs ... Often, one gene regulator controls another, and so on, in a gene regulatory network. Gene regulation is essential for viruses, ... Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production ...

*Human evolutionary developmental biology

Regulation of gene expression Mitteroecker, Philipp; Bookstein, Fred (2008-04-01). "The Evolutionary Role of Modularity and ... Evolutionary developmental biology is the study of the evolution of developmental processes across different organisms. It is ... Evolutionary developmental biology is primarily concerned with the ways in which evolution affects development, and seeks to ... Human evolutionary developmental biology or informally human evo-devo is the human-specific subset of evolutionary ...

*Downstream promoter element

"Regulation of gene expression via the core promoter and the basal transcriptional machinery". Developmental Biology. 339 (2): ... a key component in the regulation of gene expression". Genes & Development. 16 (20): 2583-2592. doi:10.1101/gad.1026202. PMID ... The promoters of nearly all Hox genes of D. melanogaster, with the exception of the evolutionarily most recent genes, Ubx and ... Gene. 389 (1): 52-65. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2006.09.029. PMC 1955227 . PMID 17123746. Kutach, Alan K; Kadonaga, James T (1 July ...

*Primary transcript

Alternative splicing is crucial for tissue-specific and developmental regulation in gene expression. Alternative splicing can ... The effect of alternative splicing in gene expression can be seen in complex eukaryotes which have a fixed number of genes in ... Furthermore, primary transcript processing provides a control for gene expression as well as a regulatory mechanism for the ... These variables create a wide range of viral gene expression. For example, tissue culture cells actively producing infectious ...

*M33 (gene)

Vidal, Miguel (2009-01-01). "Role of polycomb proteins Ring1A and Ring1B in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression". The ... "Altered Retinoic Acid Sensitivity and TemporalExpression of Hox Genes in Polycomb-M33-Deficient Mice". Developmental Biology. ... The expression of Sry and Sox9 genes in gonads of XY Cbx2-knockout mice is reduced, suggesting that Cbx2 is required for the ... M33 is a gene. It is a mammalian homologue of Drosophila Polycomb. It localises to euchromatin within interphase nuclei, but it ...

*Small temporal RNA

... a paradigm for RNA-mediated regulation of gene expression". BioEssays. 24 (2): 119-29. doi:10.1002/bies.10046. PMID 11835276. ... Banerjee D, Slack F (February 2002). "Control of developmental timing by small temporal RNAs: ... Small temporal RNA (abbreviated stRNA) regulates gene expression during roundworm development by preventing the mRNAs they bind ... stRNAs exert negative post-transcriptional regulation by binding to complementary sequences in the 3' untranslated regions of ...

*List of MeSH codes (G05)

... gene expression regulation, bacterial MeSH G05.315.310 --- gene expression regulation, developmental MeSH G05.315.320 --- gene ... gene expression regulation, plant MeSH G05.315.385 --- gene expression regulation, viral MeSH G05.315.410 --- gene silencing ... gene expression regulation, fungal MeSH G05.315.370 --- gene expression regulation, neoplastic MeSH G05.315.370.500 --- gene ... gene amplification MeSH G05.315.290 --- gene expression regulation, archaeal MeSH G05.315.300 --- ...

*Eomesodermin

T-box genes encode transcription factors, which control gene expression, involved in the regulation of developmental processes ... Eomesodermin/Tbr2 controls the expression of cardiac specific genes Mesp1, Myl7, Myl2, Myocardin,Nkx2.5 and Mef2c. Additionally ... The Eomesodermin/Tbr2 gene, EOMES, encodes a member of a conserved protein family that shares a common DNA-binding domain, the ... Kimura N, Nakashima K, Ueno M, Kiyama H, Taga T (Jun 1999). "A novel mammalian T-box-containing gene, Tbr2, expressed in mouse ...

*Regulator gene

In the regulation of gene expression, studied in evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), both activators and repressors ... boundless-biology-textbook/gene-expression-16/regulation-of-gene-expression-111/prokaryotic-versus-eukaryotic-gene-expression- ... A regulator gene, regulator, or regulatory gene is a gene involved in controlling the expression of one or more other genes. ... An example of a regulator gene is a gene that codes for a repressor protein that inhibits the activity of an operator gene (a ...

*Epigenome-wide association study (EWAS)

The main type of DNAm is at cytosines within CpG dinucleotides which is known to be involved in gene expression regulation. ... DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns change over time, and vary between developmental stage and tissue type. ... The array still only covers less than 2% of the CpG sites in the genome, but does attempt to cover all known genes with a high ... In the past, the 27k Illumina array covered on average two CpG sites in the promoter regions of approximately 14,000 genes and ...

*Shiv I.S. Grewal

... regulation of chromosome structure that govern diverse cellular processes including stable inheritance of gene expression, ... proper regulation of developmental states, and preserving genomic integrity, providing broad implications for human biology and ... Then he joined National Cancer Institute as a postdoctoral fellow and found that the silenced states of gene expression can be ... He continued to pursue his interests in the areas of epigenetic control of gene expression and development, joining Cold Spring ...

*Alexander Stark

... studies the regulation of gene expression in response to developmental or environmental stimuli to learn how ... Alexander Stark (born 1974) is a biochemist and computational biologist working on the regulation of gene expression in ... He is on the editorial boards of "Genes & Development" and "Molecular Systems Biology". Alexander Stark's lab http://www. ... transcription and transcriptional networks define cellular and developmental programs. More specifically, he investigates how ...

*Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

... chromosome segregation and the regulation of developmental gene expression. Defects in these functions likely underlie many of ... The latter two genes seem to correlate with a milder form of the syndrome. In July 2012, the fourth "CdLS gene"-HDAC8-was ... Since then, additional genes have been found (SMC1A, SMC3 and HDAC8) that cause CdLS when changed. There are likely other genes ... HDAC8 is an X-linked gene, meaning it is located on the X chromosome. Individuals with CdLS who have the gene change in HDAC8 ...

*Handedness

Sebastian Ocklenburg (2017). "Epigenetic regulation of lateralized fetal spinal gene expression underlies hemispheric ... Developmental Psychology, 2014. 50(3): p. 809-814. "A lefty's lament". Harvard Gazette. ... Epigenetic regulation of lateralized fetal spinal gene expression underlies hemispheric asymmetries. Elife. 2017 Feb 1;6. pii: ... 2017 found that asymmetric methylation of CpG sites plays a key role for gene expression asymmetries that have been related to ...

*Gary Stormo

Stormo's research combines experimental and computational approaches to understand regulation of gene expression. His ... Cellular and Developmental Biology, becoming a professor before moving to Washington University in St. Louis in 1999. ... "Computational and Experimental Approaches to Modeling Gene Regulation @ uncCharlotte". UNC Charlotte Department of ... and their contributions to the regulatory networks that control gene expression. Stormo initially majored in physics as an ...

*Illumina Methylation Assay

... which in the last decade has been recognized to be important in the regulation of gene expression, development and genetic ... Changes in the methylation pattern and level have been shown to contribute to cancer and various developmental diseases. For ... These genes include RefSeq genes from the NCBI CCDS Database, cancer genes that show differential methylation patterns during ... Allows integration of data between other platforms such as gene expression and microRNA profiling. The method looks at ~2 CpG ...

*SALL4

... expression and up-regulation of caudal-type homeobox 2 (Cdx2) gene expression. Sall4 is part of the transcriptional regulatory ... The various SALL4-null mouse models mimic human mutations in the SALL4 gene, which were shown to cause developmental problems ... Kühnlein RP, Brönner G, Taubert H, Schuh R (Aug 1997). "Regulation of Drosophila spalt gene expression". Mechanisms of ... SALL4 can alter gene expression changes through its interaction with many co-factors and epigenetic complexes. It is also known ...

*NAA15

"Regulation of osteocalcin gene expression by a novel Ku antigen transcription factor complex". The Journal of Biological ... Developmental Dynamics. 218 (2): 300-15. doi:10.1002/(sici)1097-0177(200006)218:2. 3.0.co;2-k. PMID 10842358. Willis DM, Loewy ... "Serological identification and expression analysis of gastric cancer-associated genes". Br. J. Cancer. 86 (11): 1824-30. doi: ... Gene. 371 (2): 291-5. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2005.12.008. PMID 16507339. Vinarová E, Vinar O, Zvolský P (July 1977). "Predictors of ...

*Janet Sawicki

Sawicki's research also entails identifying stem cells in normal developmental processes and the gene-expression profiles of ... she expanded her research interests to gene regulation/expression in early mammalian development. In 1981, Sawicki moved back ... These studies have contributed to an understanding of the role that HuR plays in regulating the expression of genes that help ... "Evidence for expression of the paternal genome in the two-cell mouse embryo". Nature. 294: 450-451. 1981-12-03. doi:10.1038/ ...

*FLRT2

"Regulated expression of FLRT genes implies a functional role in the regulation of FGF signalling during mouse development". ... Developmental Biology. 297 (1): 14-25. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2006.04.004. PMID 16872596. "Entrez Gene: FLRT2 fibronectin leucine ... Fibronectin leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein FLRT2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FLRT2 gene. This gene ... Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (September 1996). "Normalization and subtraction: two approaches to facilitate gene discovery ...

*Establishment of sister chromatid cohesion

... chromosome segregation and the regulation of developmental gene expression. Defects in these functions likely underlie many of ... The Pds5 gene was also identified in yeast as necessary for the establishment of cohesion. In humans, the gene has two homologs ... The Eco1/Ctf7 gene (yeast) was one of the first genes to be identified as specifically required for the establishment of ... Genetic alterations in genes NIPBL, SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21 and HDAC8 are associated with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome. The proteins ...

*Kabuki syndrome

... and play a part in the regulation of gene expression. These enzymes transfer methyl groups on and off histones to regulate ... Epigenetic activation of certain developmental genes is impaired by loss of either enzyme and developmental abnormalities occur ... This gene is located on the X chromosome. These two genes belong to a family of genes called chromatin-modifying enzymes. ... The specific developmental genes have not been fully identified. It is seen that a majority of these cases are due to de novo ...

*Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3

1996). "Differential developmental and tissue-specific regulation of expression of the genes encoding three members of the ... 1999). "Two novel mutations of the FMO3 gene in a proband with trimethylaminuria". Hum. Mutat. 13 (5): 376-9. doi:10.1002/(SICI ... 1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library". Gene. 200 (1-2): 149- ... "Entrez Gene: FMO3 flavin containing monooxygenase 3". "Trimethylamine monooxygenase (Homo sapiens)". BRENDA. Technische ...

*Death-associated protein 6

"Cloning and expression of primate Daxx cDNAs and mapping of the human gene to chromosome 6p21.3 in the MHC region". DNA Cell ... and has been implicated in many nuclear processes including transcription and cell cycle regulation. This gene encodes a ... TGF-β regulates a variety of different cellular developmental processes including growth, differentiation, proliferation, and ... No expression of Daxx leads to malfunction of S phase and cells with two nuclei are formed. Another centromeric component, CENP ...

*Regulome

One of the major players in cellular regulation are transcription factors, proteins that regulate the expression of genes. ... developmental stage, and pathological state. ... of the cell to the activation of the expression of a gene. High ... Modelization can handle the data and allow to test a hypothesis (for example, gene A is regulated by protein B) that can be ... Those components can be regulatory elements, genes, mRNAs, proteins, and metabolites. The description includes the interplay of ...
Previous studies showed that Eve has two distinct repressor domains, one dependent on the corepressor Gro and the other Gro-independent. Paradoxically, a primary function of Eve in this process is to allow activation of en stripes in both even- and odd-numbered parasegments. We used our ability to functionally replace the endogenous eve gene with a transgenic copy to evaluate the relative contribution of these and other domains to the function of Eve in this process. We found that neither repressor domain is sufficient to properly organize the odd-numbered parasegments, although all (or most) en stripes can be restored by either one alone (Fig. 1C,D). However, the relative width of the odd-numbered parasegments is reduced, so that they are unstable, and are deleted at later developmental stages. This gives rise to the pair-rule phenotype that earned even skipped its name (the even-numbered abdominal denticle bands are in odd-numbered parasegments) (Nüsslein-Volhard and Wieschaus, 1980).. The ...
GENSCAN predictions and expression of predicted genes: GENSCAN predicted a total of 135 genes to lie within the 760 kb of sequence analyzed. Of these, 17 correspond to genes that have previously been characterized and another 22 are at least partially homologous to mobile genetic elements such as transposons and retroviruses (Table 5). To test these gene predictions and to determine the expression patterns of predicted genes, probes were designed for 121 known and predicted genes, and developmental Northern blots containing mRNA from six different stages and tissues were probed. The chosen stages reflect most of the fly life cycle plus isolated ovaries. In total, these experiments allowed us to determine the expression pattern for an additional 64 of the 96 potential new transcription units (in addition to the previously published ones and the mobile elements). GENSCAN predictions, the autoradiographs of Northern blots, and a summary table of their developmental expression profile can be seen on ...
How is self renewal and differentiation precisely balanced to accommodate growth? Unlike the externally developing zebrafish embryo, amniotes such as mice and chickens undergo vast amounts of growth concomitantly with the formation of the embryonic body axis. The posterior body of the mouse embryo increases by approximately 65 times its initial volume during somitogenesis, this is…
Mechanisms that direct human development from conception to birth. Conserved molecular and cellular pathways regulate tissue and organ development; errors in these pathways result in congenital anomalies and human diseases. Topics: molecules regulating development, cell induction, developmental gene regulation, cell migration, programmed cell death, pattern formation, stem cells, cell lineage, and development of major organ systems. Emphasis on links between development and clinically significant topics including infertility, assisted reproductive technologies, contraception, prenatal diagnosis, multiparity, teratogenesis, inherited birth defects, fetal therapy, adolescence, cancer, and aging ...
One of the current challenges in terms of cancer treatment is how it can be best adapted to patients: today the emphasis is on personalized treatment (factoring in genetic and metabolic profiles). In response to this growing need for personalization, there is an increasing demand for fundamental research to develop adapted future treatments.
Transcriptional regulation is achieved by the coordinated interplay of numerous protein factors with regulatory control sequences coded in the genome. At present, many of the major components of the machinery regulating transcription in eukaryotes are well known. However, mechanisms by which this complex machinery achieves precise control of cell and tissue-specific programs of gene expression observed in multi-cellular organisms is poorly understood. Our laboratory is interested in deciphering mechanisms of gene expression patterns critical for proper organ development and function in mammals. Using the mouse as a rich genetic and developmental system, we plan to probe the biological function of various components of the transcriptional apparatus to uncover novel pathways of cell type specification. In addition to characterizing basic mechanisms of differentiation and development, we will utilize developmental defects in the mouse to model human disease states as potential avenues of ...
each of the following were suppose to be rounded to two sig figs. mark then correct or incorrect. if incorrect state the correct answer 1) 1.249 103 to 1.3 103 i know its wrong but i dont know the correct answer 2)7.999 102 to 80 ...
Dawn Forge ACM-22 REAPER class artillery mech :: mecha. hokay. to build this mech, i looked at several dawn forge mechs, (not directly copied anything on purpose, mind you) including the ATLAS class mech, a...
Spatial expression pattern of MBC in wild-type embryos. Anterior is to the left and dorsal to the top in all except A. (A) Stage 13 embryos from the progeny of
Mech Commander Omnitech is standalone game. There is no need for Mech Commander 2 installation nor disk. There is no need for XNA installation any more for Mission Editor. Improved stability. Many bugfixes. Editor is finally free of XNA.
Standard StepSaver Complete Oil Analysis System come with manifolds, the appropriate number of individual StepSaver units, one 20L trap, two boxes of Environmental Express UltraFlow filter disks and other labware
Study Flashcards On top 300 #1 mech at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
J:122405 Kemp CR, Willems E, Wawrzak D, Hendrickx M, Agbor Agbor T, Leyns L, Expression of Frizzled5, Frizzled7, and Frizzled10 during early mouse development and interactions with canonical Wnt signaling. Dev Dyn. 2007 Jul;236(7):2011-9 ...
How is Product Specification abbreviated? C-SPEC stands for Product Specification. C-SPEC is defined as Product Specification somewhat frequently.
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Avhandlingar om DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES. Sök bland 78317 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet på Avhandlingar.se.
Returns the number of columns occupied by this cell accessible. This is 1 if the specified cell is only in one column, or more than 1 if the specified cell spans multiple columns. ...
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TBX3, a member of the T-box family of transcription factors, is essential in development and has emerged as an important player in the oncogenic process. TBX3 is overexpressed in several cancers and has been shown to contribute directly to tumour formation, migration and invasion. However, little is known about the molecular basis for its role in development and oncogenesis because there is a paucity of information regarding its target genes. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1 plays a pivotal role in a myriad of processes including cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis and here we provide a detailed mechanism to show that it is a direct and biologically relevant target of TBX3. Using a combination of luciferase reporter gene assays and in vitro and in vivo binding assays we show that TBX3 directly represses the p21WAF1 promoter by binding a T-element close to its initiator. Furthermore, we show that the TBX3 DNA binding domain is required for the transcriptional repression of p21WAF1
The Drosophila pan-neural genes deadpan (dpn) and scratch (scrt) are expressed in most or all developing neural precursor cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). We have identified a cis-acting enhancer element driving full pan-neural expression of the dpn gene which is composed of independent CNS- and PNS-specific subelements. We have also identified CNS- and PNS-specific subelements of the scrt enhancer. Deletion analysis of the dpn and scrt PNS-specific subelements reveals that PNS specificity of these two evolutionarily unrelated enhancers is achieved in part by repression of CNS expression. We discuss the implications of the striking organizational similarities of the dpn, scrt, and sna pan-neural enhancers.. ...
Downloadable! March 1997 Arrows ``impossibility and similar classical theorems are usually proved for an unrestricted domain of preference profiles. Recent work extends Arrows theorem to various restricted but ``saturating domains of privately oriented, continuous, (strictly) convex, and (strictly) monotone ``economic preferences for private and/or public goods. For strongly saturating domains of more general utility profiles, this paper provides similar extensions of Wilsons theorem and of the strong and weak ``welfarism results due to dAspremont and Gevers and to Roberts. Hence, for social welfare functionals with or without interpersonal comparisons of utility, most previous classification results in social choice theory apply equally to strongly saturating economic domains. Journal of Economic Literature classification: D71. Keywords: social welfare functionals, Arrows theorem, Wilsons theorem, welfarism, neutrality, restricted domains, economic domains, economic environments.
Highlights" calls attention to exciting advances in developmental biology that have recently been reported in Developmental Dynamics. Development is a broad field encompassing many important areas. To reflect this fact, the section spotlights significant discoveries that occur across the entire spectrum of developmental events and problems: from new experimental approaches, to novel interpretations of results, to noteworthy findings utilizing different developmental organisms.. Joining forces (Fusion of Uniluminal Vascular Spheroids: A Model for Assembly of Blood Vessels by Paul A. Fleming, W. Scott Argraves, Carmine Gentile, Adrian Neagu, Gabor Forgacs, and Christopher J. Drake, Dev Dyn 239:398-406). In a process common among large caliber blood vessels, the descending aorta is formed upon fusion of two smaller vessels, in this case, the bilateral dorsal aortae. Fleming et al. use an in vitro system they previously developed, uniluminar vascular spheroids, to understand physical aspects of ...
Abstract XLPOU-60 is a Xenopus POU-domain gene whose expression is tightly controlled during early development at transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, and post-tra..
Hox complex genes are key developmental regulators highly conserved throughout evolution. They encode transcription factors that initiate genetic programs of diversified morphogenesis along the anteroposterior embryonic axis. We report the characterization of the novel Drosophila Hox target gene dlarp, isolated from a further screen of a previously described library of genomic DNA fragments associated in vivo with Ultrabithorax proteins. The dlarp spatio-temporal pattern of transcription in wild-type and homeotic mutant embryos is consistent with a positive regulation by Sex combs reduced and Ultrabithorax in the parasegment 2 ectoderm and the abdominal mesoderm, respectively. The teashirt gene product, thought to act in concert with Hox proteins, is also required for the transcriptional control of this target. Search in databases revealed that dlarp has been highly conserved during evolution. The embryonic expression pattern of the mouse orthologue does not support a function downstream of Hox ...
Characterization of a gene trap insertion into a novel gene, cordon-bleu, expressed in axial structures of the gastrulating mouse embryo.. We have used a gene trap (GT) vector and embryonic stem (ES) cell chimeras to screen for insertions of the lacZ reporter gene into transcription units that are spatially and temporally regulated during early mouse embryogenesis. GT vectors which can act as both a reporter and a mutagen have been previously used to isolate new genes that are essential for mouse development. In this paper we describe a GT insertion which displays a very restricted pattern of expression in the gastrulating embryo. beta-Galactosidase activity was first detected at 7.5 days post-coitum (E7.5) in the node region of the embryo and extended to the midline structures at E8.0. At E9.5 expression was restricted to the floor plate, the notochord, the roof of the gut, and the liver anlage. Expression appeared in the somites at E10.0 and later became more widespread. We used rapid ...
BACKGROUND: Maturity of intestinal functions is critical for neonatal health and survival, but comprehensive description of mechanisms underlying intestinal maturation that occur during late gestation still remain poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate biological processes specifically involved in intestinal maturation by comparing fetal jejunal transcriptomes of two representative porcine breeds (Large White, LW; Meishan, MS) with contrasting neonatal vitality and maturity, at two key time points during late gestation (gestational days 90 and 110). MS and LW sows inseminated with mixed semen (from breed LW and MS) gave birth to both purebred and crossbred fetuses. We hypothesized that part of the differences in neonatal maturity between the two breeds results from distinct developmental profiles of the fetal intestine during late gestation. Reciprocal crossed fetuses were used to analyze the effect of parental genome. Transcriptomic data and 23 phenotypic variables known to be
TBS 19, TBX19, FLJ26302, TPIT, dJ747L4.1, T-box protein 19, TBS19, T-box transcription factor TBX19, T-box factor, pituitary, FLJ34543, dj747L4.1, T-box 19 ...
J:96466 Singh MK, Petry M, Haenig B, Lescher B, Leitges M, Kispert A, The T-box transcription factor Tbx15 is required for skeletal development. Mech Dev. 2005 Feb;122(2):131-44 ...
The different cell types of the vertebrate pancreas arise asynchronously during organogenesis. Beta-cells producing insulin, alpha-cells producing glucagon, and exocrine cells secreting digestive enzymes differentiate sequentially from a common primordium. Notch signaling has been shown to be a major mechanism controlling these cell-fate choices. So far, the pleiotropy of Delta and Jagged/Serrate genes has hindered the evaluation of the roles of specific Notch ligands, as the phenotypes of knock-out mice are lethal before complete pancreas differentiation. Analyses of gene expression and experimental manipulations of zebrafish embryos allowed us to determine individual contributions of Notch ligands to pancreas development. We have found that temporally distinct phases of both endocrine and exocrine cell type specification are controlled by different delta and jagged genes. Specifically, deltaA knock-down embryos lack alpha cells, similarly to mib (Delta ubiquitin ligase) mutants and embryos ...
The prevalence of sleep apnea is much higher in patients with heart failure, and intermittent hypoxia (IH) relevant to sleep apnea might induce left ventricular (LV) remodeling. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repetitive hypoxi
In zebrafish, as in other vertebrates, an initially singular eye field within the neural plate has to split during morphogenesis to allow the development of two separated eyes. It has been suggested that anterior progression of midline tissue within the neural plate is involved in the bilateralization of the eye field. Mutations in the recently identified silberblick (slb) gene cause an incomplete separation of the eyes. During gastrulation and early somitogenesis, the ventral midline of the central nervous system (CNS) together with the underlying axial mesendoderm is shortened and broadened in slb embryos. While in wild-type embryos the ventral CNS midline extends to the anterior limit of the neural plate at the end of gastrulation, there is a gap between the anterior tip of the ventral CNS midline and the anterior edge of the neural plate in slb. To investigate the cause for the shortening of the ventral CNS midline in slb we determined the fate of labeled ventral CNS midline cells in ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Full triplicate expression dataset of AtGenExpress plant developmental tissues, combined with LDSS sequence analysis of regulatory (8mer) motif calculations (PPDB). MotifExpress tool allows the plloting of all triplicate data points during the design process, so the user has some idea of the experimental variation in the measurements ...
Alfonso Martnez-Arias lab Investigating the structure and function of Living Matter, with a special focus on the processes that generate tissues and organs from single cells through interactions between protein and gene regulatory networks. Scott Fraser lab: The Translational Imaging Center at USC Developing new technologies for the imaging of biological structure and function…
With the enormous development of human and mouse genomics and the availability of a variety of transgenic techniques, the mouse has become the most widely used animal for basic studies of brain development and as a model for human developmental disorders. The topics are addressed using a diversity of techniques, from genetic, biochemical and cell biological to morphological and functional. The conceptual approaches also provide a framework for studies of other problems and point the way towards future research.
TL 5.56-8.48; HL 1.16-1.64; HW 0.93-1.32; EL 0.37-0.49; SL 0.51-0.73; SW 0.17-0.22; WL 1.40-2.20; PeL 0.55-0.96; PeW 0.51-0.84; HFeL 0.67-1.02; HFeW 0.25-0.34; HTiL 0.65-1.04; HTiW 0.19-0.26; HBaL 0.53-0.83; HBaW 0.09-0.12; CI 78.1-80.5; SI 30.7-34.4; HFeI 33.3-37.3; HTiI 25.0-29.2; HBaI 14.4-15.1. Head about 1/5 longer than broad, with subparallel sides. Occiput low. Vertexal angles round. Frontal carinae about half broad as the maximum head width. Anterior third of the frontal carinae diverging backward, and reaching the middle of the eyes posteriorly. Dorsum of the frontal carinae with an impressed, short, median sulcus anteriorly. Frontal carinae not reaching the anterior border of the clypeus. Compound eyes large, slightly convex and behind the mid line of the head. Ocelli developed. Scapes surpassing the anterior border of the eyes. Proximal fifth of the scapes about 1/2 narrower than the remaining parts. Mandibles weakly convex dorsally. Mandibles laterally angulate at the base. ...
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In an attempt to define the pattern of developmental expression of AP-2rep and AP-2 in Xenopus embryos, we cloned a Xenopus AP-2rep cDNA. The AP-2rep message was localized in the organizer region at t
LSM2102 - Molecular Biology. This module teaches the structure, organization and function of genes and genomes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes (e.g.: DNA topology, hierarchy of packaging of DNA in chromosomes and relationship to gene activity and genome dynamics). The functional roles of DNA regulatory ciselements and transcription factors involved in gene expression will be examined extensively. The molecular events of transcription; post-transcriptional modifications and RNA processing; temporal and spatial gene expression, control and regulation, signals of gene expression will be dealt with in detail. The cause and/or effect of dysfunction of gene expression and diseases will be discussed.
第五节 神经系统对内脏 活动调节 Visceral Activity Control By Nervous System. 一、自主神经系统的功能 Function of autonomic nervous system. 又称植物神经系统或内脏神经系统. 传入神经 Afferent 传出神经 Efferent. 自主神经系统 Autonomic...
We know that in the phase of development, there is a genetic cascade that leads to the proper placement of organs. If that cascade is disrupted, the results can lead to major problems or be fatal," said Salk Professor Juan Carlos Izpisúa Belmonte, who published the findings in the January 8 issue of Nature. Still, scientists did not have a clear understanding of what triggers the genetic cascade that defines organ placement. Izpisúa Belmonte s group focused on the activity of the Notch pathway, an important player during embryo development and also during tumorigenesis, and a key factor for proper left-right asymmetry, as the same group and others had learned earlier this year ...
Origin of lungs, liver, and pancreas in the chick. The mesoderm is shaded; the endoderm dark. lg., One of the lungs; St., stomach; l., liver; p., pancreas." -Thomson, 1916. ...
Cells develop and thrive by turning genes on and off as needed in a precise pattern, a process known as regulated gene transcription. In a paper published in the November 9 issue of the journal Cell, researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine say this process is even more complex than previously thought, with regulated genes actually relocated to other, more conducive places in the cell nucleus.. "When regulated gene transcription goes awry, many human diseases result, such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer and growth defects in children," said Michael G. Rosenfeld, MD, a professor in the UC San Diego Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator and senior author of the study. "Weve shown that rather than being activated at certain, random locations within the cell nucleus, regulated genes can dynamically relocate. The discovery provides a more comprehensive picture of the interaction between regulated genes and human ...
A paper jogging apparatus can automatically jog paper sheets due to vibratory action of vibratory plate (19) disposed on an upper portion of a tiltable body (2) simply by tilting the tiltable body (2) having an up-down table (3) vertically movable by an up-down driver (8) and stacking an appropriate number of paper sheets on the up-down table (3) as tilted.
Here I have upload all the question papers of semester 3rd to 8th for mechanical department (MECH) of anna university for regulation 2004,2005, 2007, 2008 and 2010. You can download it in the PDF format. If you have any queries or doubt feel free to ask or just leave a comment here. This question papers were obtained from other sources, if any thing is not correct please forgive me ...
Read "Genetic and molecular control of folate-homocysteine metabolism in mutant mice, Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Summary: Embryonic cells that transiently express the transcription factor, Tbx6, during the process of gastrulation have been tracked in later development in wild-type and Tbx6 homozygous mutant embryos, where they give rise to the ectopic neural tubes characteristic of the mutant phenotype. ...
5. 體節首次出現在胚胎未來的枕區》他們很快的由頭向尾發育並且生成大部分的中軸骨骼和相關的肌肉以及鄰近皮膚的真皮層》第一對體節出現在第三周結束時3位於脊索頭端稍微尾部的地方》隨後幾對的體節以頭向尾的順序形成 ...
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The genes Hobit and Blimp1 control a universal molecular program responsible for placing immune cells at the front lines of the body to fight infection, cancer.
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... /ˈkɔr nɪ kəl/ noun 1. any of various small, horn-shaped processes, especially one of a pair of tubes at the posterior end of the abdomen of aphids, from wh
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Homeodomain transcription factors control developmental processes. They pattern body formation, specify cell lineages and switch the onset of gene regulatory cascades. Pitx2, a bicoid-related homeodomain transcription factor, is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm and mesoderm-derived tissues. Pitx2 null mice are characterized by failure of body wall closure, axial and cardiac malformations and arrest of organ development. By analyzing Pitx2 expression pattern and phenotype of Pitx2 null mice, we have established that (1) Pitx2 is a universal muscle marker, because it marks the muscle lineage more completely that any of the known markers, (2) expression of Pitx2 precedes the onset of myogenic progression in the cephalic mesoderm and mesodermal core of first BA and activates the transcription factors Tbx1, Tcf21, and Msc, (3) Pitx2 follows the onset of myogenic progression in the somitic mesoderm, (4) loss of Pitx2 leads to absence of extraocular, mastication and abdominal ...
Hox genes encode evolutionarily conserved transcription factors involved in the specification of segmental identity during embryonic development. This specification of identity is thought to be directed by differential Hox gene action, based on differential spatiotemporal expression patterns, protein sequence differences, interactions with co-factors and regulation of specific downstream genes. During embryonic development of the Drosophila brain, the Hox gene labial is required for the regionalized specification of the tritocerebral neuromere; in the absence of labial, the cells in this brain region do not acquire a neuronal identity and major axonal pathfinding deficits result. We have used genetic rescue experiments to investigate the functional equivalence of the Drosophila Hox gene products in the specification of the tritocerebral neuromere. Using the Gal4-UAS system, we first demonstrate that the labial mutant brain phenotype can be rescued by targeted expression of the Labial protein ...
Inada, M და Benten, D და Cheng, K და Joseph, B და Berishvili, E და Badve, S და Logdberg, L და Dabeva, M და Gupta, S (2008) Stage-specific regulation of adhesion molecule expression segregates epithelial stem/progenitor cells in fetal and adult human livers. Hepatology International, 2 (1). С. 50-62. ...
@font-face { font-family: Times; }@font-face { font-family: Cambria; }p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal { margin: 0cm 0cm 0.0001pt; font-size: 12pt; font-family: Times New Roman; }div.Section1 { page: Section1; } Successful patterning of the embryo, from establishing the three primary axes to the regional specification of tissue progenitors is essential to generating a viable embryo. The three germ layers in the early embryo undergo patterning through slightly different mechanisms. The tissue of interest to this study is the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM), which will give rise to the lineages of the cardiovascular system and is essential for regional specification of adjacent germ layers. However, little is known about how the LPM itself undergoes regional specification and attains its intitial patterning after gastrulation. Here, I will demonstrate that a complex pattern of gene expression exists across the entire LPM shortly after gastrulation, much earlier than previously recognized.
This set of guidance notes is designed to support practitioners and evaluators in conducting retrospective evaluations of a capacity development intervention or portfolio to assess and document results. Users will enhance their understanding of the capacity development process, of what works and what does not work in promoting change and to inform future programs.. The standard M&E approach for assess- ing capacity development results has not been sufficient. These guidance notes are designed to complement and supplement good M&E practice to more effectively identify capacity development results. Typi- cally, results-based M&E emphasizes the assessment of outcomes and impacts while 9also tracking inputs, activities and outputs to monitor implementation. A results chain or logic model is used to articulate the sequence from inputs to results.. For example, in World Bank lending operations, a projects results framework specifies the project development objec- tive (PDO), higher-level outcomes ...
TBX3, a member of the T-box family of transcription factors, is essential in development and has emerged as an important player in the oncogenic process. TBX3 is overexpressed in several cancers and has been shown to contribute directly to tumour formation, migration and invasion. However, little is known about the molecular basis for its role in development and oncogenesis because there is a paucity of information regarding its target genes. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1 plays a pivotal role in a myriad of processes including cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis and here we provide a detailed mechanism to show that it is a direct and biologically relevant target of TBX3. Using a combination of luciferase reporter gene assays and in vitro and in vivo binding assays we show that TBX3 directly represses the p21WAF1 promoter by binding a T-element close to its initiator. Furthermore, we show that the TBX3 DNA binding domain is required for the transcriptional repression of p21WAF1
During vertebrate embryogenesis, the cranial neural crest (CNC) forms at the neural plate border and subsequently migrates and differentiates into many types of cells. The transcription factor Snai2, which is induced by canonical Wnt signaling to be expressed in the early CNC, is pivotal for CNC induction and migration in Xenopus. However, snai2 expression is silenced during CNC migration, and its roles at later developmental stages remain unclear. We generated a transgenic X. tropicalis line that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) driven by the snai2 promoter/enhancer, and observed eGFP expression not only in the pre-migratory and migrating CNC, but also the differentiating CNC. This transgenic line can be used directly to detect deficiencies in CNC development at various stages, including subtle perturbation of CNC differentiation. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry confirm that Snai2 is re-expressed in the differentiating CNC. Using a separate transgenic Wnt reporter line
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Blimp1, a zinc-finger containing DNA-binding transcriptional repressor, functions as a master regulator of B cell terminal differentiation. Considerable evidence suggests that Blimp1 is required for the establishment of anteroposterior axis formation and the formation of head structures during early vertebrate development. In mouse embryos, Blimp1 is strongly expressed in axial mesendoderm, the tissue known to provide anterior patterning signals during gastrulation. Here, we describe for the first time the defects caused by loss of Blimp1 function in the mouse. Blimp1 deficient embryos die at mid-gestation, but surprisingly early axis formation, anterior patterning and neural crest formation proceed normally. Rather, loss of Blimp1 expression disrupts morphogenesis of the caudal branchial arches and leads to a failure to correctly elaborate the labyrinthine layer of the placenta. Blimp1 mutant embryos also show widespread blood leakage and tissue apoptosis, and, strikingly, Blimp1 homozygous mutants
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoenzymes are essential for scavenging excess reactive oxygen species in living organisms. So far, expression pattern of SOD isoenzymes genes along leaf development plus their sub-cellular localization and physical interaction network have not yet been clearly elucidated. Using multiple bioinformatics tools, we predicted the sub-cellular localizations of SOD isoforms and described their physical interactions in rice. Using in silico approaches, we obtained several evidences for existence of seven SOD genes and a SOD copper chaperone gene. Their transcripts were differentially expressed along with different developmental stage of rice leaf. Finally, we performed quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to validate in silico differential expression pattern of SOD genes experimentally. Expression of two cytosolic cCuZn-SODs was high during the whole vegetative stage. Two plastidic Fe-SODs were found and their expression levels were very low and started ...
... A University of Illinois and Mayo collaboration has demonstrated a novel gene expression analysis technique that can accurately measure levels of RNA quickly and directly from a cancerous tissue sample.
Three dimensional time-lapse imaging is time-consuming and labor intensive, but the resulting data provide rich dynamic information that may yield new insights into mechanisms of growth and development. Analysis of developmental dynamics does not replace but augments standard morphometric analyses. Our new method is useful not only for analysis of angiogenic sprouting in zebrafish, but also for analysis of angiogenic sprouting in other systems and for other similar events such as analysis of neurite growth dynamics in axonal pathfinding.. Automated extraction of meaningful information from digital images is a complex problem because time-lapse data acquired from living organisms frequently has a low signal and high noise. The human visual cortex is excellent for extracting information from such images but cannot yet be entirely replaced by computer vision. We tested software tools in FIJI ImageJ and in IMARIS that refined manually selected points to a nearby point of local maximum signal ...
Developmental patterning requires juxtacrine signaling in order to tightly coordinate the fates of neighboring cells. Recent work has shown that Notch and Delta, the canonical metazoan juxtacrine signaling receptor and ligand, mutually inactivate each other in the same cell. This cis-interaction generates mutually exclusive sending and receiving states in individual cells. It generally remains unclear, however, how this mutual inactivation and the resulting switching behavior can impact developmental patterning circuits. Here we address this question using mathematical modeling in the context of two canonical pattern formation processes: boundary formation and lateral inhibition. For boundary formation, in a model motivated by Drosophila wing vein patterning, we find that mutual inactivation allows sharp boundary formation across a broader range of parameters than models lacking mutual inactivation. This model with mutual inactivation also exhibits robustness to correlated gene expression ...
This chapter evaluates UNDP’s main contributions to various expected outcomes and the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability of its cont
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of the T-box family genes, Tbx1-Tbx5, during early mouse development. AU - Chapman, Deborah L.. AU - Garvey, Nancy. AU - Hancock, Sarah. AU - Alexiou, Maria. AU - Agulnik, Sergei I.. AU - Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J.. AU - Cebra-Thomas, Judith. AU - Bollag, Roni Jacob. AU - Silver, Lee M.. AU - Papaioannou, Virginia E.. PY - 1996/8/1. Y1 - 1996/8/1. N2 - A novel family of genes, characterized by the presence of a region of homology to the DNA-binding domain of the Brachyury (T) locus product, has recently been identified. The region of homology has been named the T-box, and the new mouse genes that contain the T-box domain have been named T-box 1-6 (Tbx1 through Tbx6). As the basis for further study of the function and evolution of these genes, we have examined the expression of 5 of these genes, Tbx1-Tbx5, across a wide range of embryonic stages from blastocyst through gastrulation and early organogenesis by in situ hybridization of wholemounts and tissue sections. Tbx3 is ...
Akt1 is well known for its role in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis and is implicated in tumors and several neurological disorders. However, the role of Akt1 in neural development has not been well defined. We have isolated zebrafish akt1 and shown that this gene is primarily transcribed in the developing nervous system, and its spatiotemporal expression pattern suggests a role in neural differentiation. Injection of akt1 morpholinos resulted in loss of neuronal precursors with a concomitant increase in post-mitotic neurons, indicating that knockdown of Akt1 is sufficient to cause premature differentiation of neurons. A similar phenotype was observed in embryos deficient for Notch signaling. Both the ligand (deltaA) and the downstream target of Notch (her8a) were downregulated in akt1 morphants, indicating that Akt1 is required for Delta-Notch signaling. Furthermore, akt1 expression was downregulated in Delta-Notch signaling-deficient embryos and could be induced by
Organogenesis is dependent on the formation of distinct cell types within the embryo. Important to this process are the hox genes, which are believed to confer positional identities to cells along the anteroposterior axis. Here, we have identified the caudal-related gene cdx4 as the locus mutated in kugelig (kgg), a zebrafish mutant with an early defect in haematopoiesis that is associated with abnormal anteroposterior patterning and aberrant hox gene expression. The blood deficiency in kgg embryos can be rescued by overexpressing hoxb7a or hoxa9a but not hoxb8a, indicating that the haematopoietic defect results from perturbations in specific hox genes. Furthermore, the haematopoietic defect in kgg mutants is not rescued by scl overexpression, suggesting that cdx4 and hox genes act to make the posterior mesoderm competent for blood development. Overexpression of cdx4 during zebrafish development or in mouse embryonic stem cells induces blood formation and alters hox gene expression. Taken ...
In most organisms, control of the developmental program involves a regulated transition from maternally supplied mRNAs and proteins to newly synthesized zygotically encoded factors. This phenomena, known as the maternal to zygotic transition (MZT), is observed in a wide range of embryos in the animal and plant kingdoms; in chordates, the MZT typically occurs during midblastula stages, and therefore is often referred to as the midblastula transition (MBT). Early development of most organisms is exclusively maternally controlled, and the zygotic genome of the embryo remains transcriptionally silent until after the MBT, when the transition to zygotic control culminates. Recent work in a number of organisms has identified several genes that are activated prior to the MBT, but whether precocious expression of specific mRNAs is important for later development has not been examined in detail. In this work, I characterize the role of a maternal transcription factor in preMBT transcription, and identify a
Hox genes encode a family of transcriptional regulators that elicit distinct developmental programmes along the head-to-tail axis of animals. The specific regional functions of individual Hox genes largely reflect their restricted expression patterns, the disruption of which can lead to developmental defects and disease. Here, we examine the spectrum of molecular mechanisms controlling Hox gene expression in model vertebrates and invertebrates and find that a diverse range of mechanisms, including nuclear dynamics, RNA processing, microRNA and translational regulation, all concur to control Hox gene outputs. We propose that this complex multi-tiered regulation might contribute to the robustness of Hox expression during development.. ...
V Despic, M Dejung, M Gu, J Krishnan, J Zhang, L Herzel, K Straube, MB Gerstein, F Butter, KM Neugebauer (2017).Genome Res 27: 1184-1194 ...
Despic V, Dejung M, Gu M, Krishnan J, Zhang J, Herzel L, Straube K, Gerstein MB, Butter F, Neugebauer KM. Dynamic RNA-protein interactions underlie the zebrafis
Beginning in the late 1980s, Eric Davidsons group at Cal Tech developed a modularity hypothesis of developmental gene regulation, showing that in an expanding number of cases, particular aspects of development were governed by compact modules of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), and that these modules were separable, complex and interconnected. Davidson made no attempt to further generalize the hypothesis, but others took up the idea, transported it out of development and extended it to a general rule of clustering. Despite such misbegotten origins, the extended modularity hypothesis-that TFBSs in general tend to come in compact clusters-has been highly productive, yet it has never been challenged with a large, diverse and unbiased dataset to see how universal it actually is. The aim of the present paper is to do so. Applying human-mouse-rat phylogenetic footprinting to neighbourhoods of a diverse set of TFBSs, including both developmental and non-developmental signals, we find ...
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The word "epigenetic" is used to refer to heritable patterns of gene expression that occur without changes in the DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms play important roles in animal and plant development. They are required to achieve stable gene silencing in defined cell types and at specific developmental stages. In mammals, there are many examples of epigenetic silencing of one of the two alleles of genes. These include X-chromosome inactivation in females, and imprinted genes, a group of genes whose expression depends on whether they are inherited from the mother or the father. Some eighty genes are now known to be imprinted in humans and mice. These are organised in large chromosomal clusters, and play important roles in embryonic and extra-embryonic development.. The allelic expression of imprinted genes is controlled by epigenetic marks, "the imprints", which are put onto the gene in either female (egg) or male (sperm) germ cells. The precise nature of these imprints and the mechanisms that ...
Neuroblastoma (NB), although rare, accounts for 15% of all pediatric cancer mortality. Unusual among cancers, NBs lack a consistent set of gene mutations and excluding large-scale chromosomal rearrangements, and the genome appears to be largely intact. Indeed, many interesting features of NB suggest it has less in common with adult solid tumours but instead has characteristics of a developmental disorder. NB arises overwhelmingly in infants under 2 years during a specific window of development, and histologically NB bares striking similarity to undifferentiated neuroblasts of the sympathetic nervous system, its likely cells of origin. Hence, NB could be considered a disease of development arising when neuroblasts of the sympathetic nervous system fail to undergo proper differentiation, but instead are maintained precociously as progenitors with the potential for acquiring further mutations eventually resulting in tumour formation. To explore this possibility, we require a robust and flexible ...
Twist1, a bHLH transcriptional factor, plays a critical role in mesoderm development. Twist1 is overexpressed in several tumor types where it has been shown to affect several oncogenic processes (e.g. apoptosis, senescence, stemness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition), but the mechanism of action of this embryonic transcription factor in cancer is poorly defined. In particular, the laboratory where I work has demonstrated that Twist1 antagonizes oncogene-induced apoptosis and senescence at least in part by interfering with the ARF/p53 pathway. However, we recently collected data that Twist1 interferes with p53 also independently of ARF. By investigating the role of Twist1 in sarcomas, we found that Twist1 interacts directly with p53. As a result of this interaction, Twist1 hinders key phosphorylations of p53, thus facilitating MDM2:p53 complex formation and p53 degradation. Our study suggests the existence of a "Twist code" for p53 inactivation in sarcomas and discloses the possibility that ...
Masters students who are working on their masters theses should enroll in this course for the appropriate number of credits. Students should consult with their committee chair or their advisor to determine the appropriate number of credits. Students who are inappropriately enrolled in this course will be dropped from the roster ...
The increasing repertoire of microRNAs expressed during organ development and their role in regulating organ morphogenesis provide a compelling need to develop methods to assess microRNA function using various in vitro and in vivo experimental models
In all Metazoa, transcription is inactive during the first mitotic cycles after fertilisation. In Drosophila melanogaster, Zygotic Genome Activation (ZGA) occurs in two waves, starting respectively at mitotic cycles 8 (approximately 60 genes) and 14 (over a thousand genes). The regulatory mechanisms underlying these drastic transcriptional changes remain largely unknown. We developed an original gene clustering method based on discretized transition profiles, and applied it to datasets from three landmark early embryonic transcriptome studies. We identified 417 genes significantly up-regulated during ZGA. De novo motif discovery returned nine motifs over-represented in their non-coding sequences (upstream, introns, UTR), three of which correspond to previously known transcription factors: Zelda, Tramtrack and Trithorax-like (Trl). The nine discovered motifs were combined to scan ZGA-associated regions and predict about 1300 putative cis-regulatory modules. The fact that Trl is known to act as chromatin
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stimulation of human and rat islet β-cell proliferation with retention of function by the homeodomain transcription factor Nkx6.1. AU - Schisler, Jonathan C.. AU - Fueger, Patrick T.. AU - Babu, Daniella A.. AU - Hohmeier, Hans E.. AU - Tessem, Jeffery S.. AU - Lu, Danhong. AU - Becker, Thomas C.. AU - Naziruddin, Bashoo. AU - Levy, Marlon. AU - Mirmira, Raghu. AU - Newgard, Christopher B.. PY - 2008/5. Y1 - 2008/5. N2 - The homeodomain transcription factor Nkx6.1 plays an important role in pancreatic islet β-cell development, but its effects on adult β-cell function, survival, and proliferation are not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that treatment of primary rat pancreatic islets with a cytomegalovirus promoter-driven recombinant adenovirus containing the Nkx6.1 cDNA (AdCMV-Nkx6.1) causes dramatic increases in [methyl-3H] thymidine and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and in the number of cells per islet relative to islets treated with a ...
Intestinal hormones are key regulators of digestion and energy homeostasis secreted by rare enteroendocrine cells. These cells produce over ten different hormones including GLP-1 and GIP peptides known to promote insulin secretion. To date, the molecular mechanisms controlling the specification of the various enteroendocrine subtypes from multipotent Neurog3+ endocrine progenitor cells, as well as their number, remain largely unknown. In contrast, in the embryonic pancreas, the opposite activities of Arx and Pax4 homeodomain transcription factors promote islet progenitor cells towards the different endocrine cell fates. In this study, we thus investigated the role of Arx and Pax4 in enteroendocrine subtype specification. The small intestine and colon of Arx- and Pax4-deficient mice were analyzed using histological, molecular, and lineage tracing approaches. We show that Arx is expressed in endocrine progenitors (Neurog3+) and in early differentiating (ChromograninA−) GLP-1-, GIP-, CCK-, Sct- Gastrin-
Retinoic acid (RA) is a key signal involved in the posteriorization of vertebrate neural ectoderm. The major enzyme involved in biosynthesis of RA during embryonic development is retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Raldh2). A zebrafish mutant in raldh2 (neckless; nls), which is devoid of RA signalling during embryonic development, exhibits anterior-posterior (AP) patterning defects in the neural ectoderm. Using the nls mutant I found that loss of RA also affects AP patterning of the cranial mesoderm. I depleted RA signalling in embryos and found that markers of the posterior cranial mesoderm are shortened along the AP axis, correlating with the severity of RA depletion. I determined the timing for requirement of RA to establish the AP-level of the posterior border of head mesoderm. Together with the pattern of raldh2 expression, I conclude that during gastrulation, RA biosynthesis in prospective mesoderm is a key signal for the specification of the AP extent of the posterior cranial mesoderm. ...
Hindbrain development is orchestrated by a vertebrate gene regulatory network that generates segmental patterning along the anterior-posterior axis via Hox genes. Here, we review analyses of vertebrate and invertebrate chordate models that inform upon the evolutionary origin and diversification of this network. Evidence from the sea lamprey reveals that the hindbrain regulatory network generates rhombomeric compartments with segmental Hox expression and an underlying Hox code. We infer that this basal feature was present in ancestral vertebrates and, as an evolutionarily constrained developmental state, is fundamentally important for patterning of the vertebrate hindbrain across diverse lineages. Despite the common ground plan, vertebrates exhibit neuroanatomical diversity in lineage-specific patterns, with different vertebrates revealing variations of Hox expression in the hindbrain that could underlie this diversification. Invertebrate chordates lack hindbrain segmentation but exhibit some conserved
The extraembryonic endoderm of mammals is essential for nutritive support of the foetus and patterning of the early embryo. Visceral and parietal endoderm are major subtypes of this lineage with the former exhibiting most, if not all, of the embryonic patterning properties. Extraembryonic endoderm (XEN) cell lines derived from the primitive endoderm of mouse blastocysts represent a cell culture model of this lineage, but are biased towards parietal endoderm in culture and in chimaeras. Here, I further characterise XEN cells and show that these cell lines exhibit high levels of heterogeneity. In an effort for XEN cells to adopt visceral endoderm character different aspects of the in vivo environment were mimicked. I found that BMP4 and laminin promote a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition of XEN cells with upregulation of epithelial markers and downregulation of mesenchymal markers. Gene expression analysis showed the differentiated XEN cells most resembled extraembryonic visceral endoderm. ...
Within the hindbrain region, neural crest cell migration is organized into three streams that follow the segmentation of the neuroepithelium into distinct rhombomeric compartments. Although the streaming of neural crest cells is known to involve signals derived from the neuroepithelium, the molecular properties underlying this process are poorly understood. Here, we have mapped the expression of the signaling component of two secreted class III Semaphorins, Semaphorin (Sema) 3A and Sema 3F, at time points that correspond to neural crest cell migration within the hindbrain region of the chick. Both Semaphorins are expressed within rhombomeres at levels adjacent to crest-free mesenchyme and expression of the receptor components essential for Semaphorin activity by neural crest cells suggests a function in restricting neural crest cell migration. By using bead implantation and electroporation in ovo, we define a role for both Semaphorins in the maintenance of neural crest cell streams in proximity to the

Browsing BioMedCentral SWORD Deposits by Subject Gene Expression Regulation, DevelopmentalBrowsing BioMedCentral SWORD Deposits by Subject "Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental"

... Archie Digital Collections. ... Browsing BioMedCentral SWORD Deposits by Subject "Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental". * 0-9 ...
more infohttp://archie.kumc.edu/handle/2271/794/browse?value=Gene+Expression+Regulation%2C+Developmental&type=subject

Developmental Regulation of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Gene Expression by the MSX and DLX Homeodomain Protein FamiliesDevelopmental Regulation of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Gene Expression by the MSX and DLX Homeodomain Protein Families

... *. ... Therefore, we propose that MSX and DLX family members participate in developmental regulation of GnRH gene expression. ... result in dynamic regulation of GnRH promoter expression. Indeed, the transcriptional activity of the GnRH gene appears to be ... in regulation of gene expression during development is well documented in vertebrate and invertebrate species (19-23). ...
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Developmental expression and nutritional regulation of a zebrafish gene homologous to mammalian microsomal triglyceride...Developmental expression and nutritional regulation of a zebrafish gene homologous to mammalian microsomal triglyceride...

Developmental expression and nutritional regulation of a zebrafish gene homologous to mammalian microsomal triglyceride ... Real-time quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the developmental regulation and tissue-specificity of mtp expression. A significant ... The nutritional regulation of zebrafish mtp expression observed in the anterior intestine supports the notion that this protein ... We have found a zebrafish mtp homologous gene coding a protein with 54% identity with human MTP large subunit with the most ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15614773?dopt=Abstract

Genetic and epigenetic regulation of gene expression in fetal and adult human livers | BMC Genomics | Full TextGenetic and epigenetic regulation of gene expression in fetal and adult human livers | BMC Genomics | Full Text

Our analyses generated a comprehensive resource of factors involved in the regulation of hepatic gene expression, and allowed ... and gene expression levels (526 unique genes (eQTL)), at a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05. Of the 526 unique eQTL associated ... we identified 657 differentially methylated genes with adult-specific expression, these genes were enriched for transcription ... However, there is substantial inter-individual variation in hepatic gene expression, and although numerous genetic factors have ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-15-860

Cloning and expression analysis of a gene that shows developmental regulation upon tuberization in potato, Plant Molecular...Cloning and expression analysis of a gene that shows developmental regulation upon tuberization in potato, Plant Molecular...

"Cloning and expression analysis of a gene that shows developmental regulation upon tuberization in potato, Plant Molecular ... Cloning and expression analysis of a gene that shows developmental regulation upon tuberization in potato. Jackson, Stephen; ... Cloning and expression analysis of a gene that shows developmental regulation upon tuberization in potato. Cloning and ... expression analysis of a gene that shows developmental regulation upon tuberization... Jackson, Stephen; Gascón, Jordi; Carrera ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/cloning-and-expression-analysis-of-a-gene-that-shows-developmental-hSDfUD5O7R

Patent US7356416 - Method and system for automated inference creation of physico-chemical ... - Google PatentsPatent US7356416 - Method and system for automated inference creation of physico-chemical ... - Google Patents

Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/drug effects. MH -. Mesoderm/drug effects/*physiology. MH -. Microinjections. ... given a gene expression profile indicating that expression of Gene X is inhibited in cells treated with Compound Y, this datum ... Gene expression and evaluation system. WO2000015847A2. Sep 8, 1999. Mar 23, 2000. Gene Logic, Inc.. Genomic knowledge discovery ... with the genes said gene expression profile reveals to be up-regulated or down-regulated under pre-determined experimental ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US7356416?dq=KOI-18

DNA Methylation Research TrendsDNA Methylation Research Trends

Developmental Gene Expression Regulation. 08.. Lecture Notes on Computational Mutation. 09.. Fragile Sites: New Discoveries and ...
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Handbook on Longevity: Genetics, Diet and DiseaseHandbook on Longevity: Genetics, Diet and Disease

Developmental Gene Expression Regulation. 08.. Lecture Notes on Computational Mutation. 09.. Fragile Sites: New Discoveries and ... Research on Aging and Longevity in the Parthenogenetic Marbled Crayfish, with Special Emphasis on Stochastic Developmental ...
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High oxygen prevents fetal lethality due to lack of catecholamines.High oxygen prevents fetal lethality due to lack of catecholamines.

Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. Heart Rate. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 / genetics, metabolism. Male. Mice. Mice, ... Previous Document: In vivo regulation of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the rat renal circulation and the effect.... ... GSE10341), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 target genes are induced to a greater extent in null fetuses than in wt siblings, ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/High-oxygen-prevents-fetal-lethality/18635452.html

Retinal ganglion cell-derived sonic hedgehog signaling is required for optic disc and stalk neuroepithelial cell development.Retinal ganglion cell-derived sonic hedgehog signaling is required for optic disc and stalk neuroepithelial cell development.

Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. Hedgehog Proteins. In Situ Hybridization. Membrane Proteins / genetics, metabolism. ... 2493159 - Ubiquitous expression of sevenless: position-dependent specification of cell fate.. 21064109 - Galectin-4 functions ... and cells at the optic disc in close proximity to the Shh-expressing RGCs upregulate Hh target genes, which suggests they are ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Retinal-ganglion-cell-derived-sonic/12756179.html

Genome-wide gene expression analysis supports a developmental model of low temperature tolerance gene regulation in wheat ...Genome-wide gene expression analysis supports a developmental model of low temperature tolerance gene regulation in wheat ...

Analysis of variance of gene expression separated the samples by genetic background and by the developmental stage before or ... The levels of expression of these genes were highly influenced by the initial rate and the duration of the genes response to ... The results support the developmental model of LT tolerance gene regulation and demonstrate the complex genotype by environment ... Using gene-specific ANOVA we identified 12,901 genes (at p < 0.001) that change in expression with respect to both genotype and ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-12-299

Wac: a new Augmin subunit required for chromosome alignment but not for acentrosomal microtubule assembly in female meiosis.  -...Wac: a new Augmin subunit required for chromosome alignment but not for acentrosomal microtubule assembly in female meiosis. -...

Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental; Kinetochores; Larva; Male; Meiosis; Microtubule-Associated Proteins; Microtubules; ...
more infohttp://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/108199/

EphA2 identification of the miR-26b target gene. 1 repr | Open-iEphA2 identification of the miR-26b target gene. 1 repr | Open-i

EphA2 identification of the miR-26b target gene. 1 represents EphA2 and 3′-UTR pmirGLO and the miR-26b mimics co-transfected ... Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*. *MicroRNAs/genetics*/metabolism. *Pituitary Gland/growth & development/metabolism* ... The 2‑∆∆Ct method was used to calculate the relative gene expression levels. The miRNA target gene database TargetScan and ... The 2‑∆∆Ct method was used to calculate the relative gene expression levels. The miRNA target gene database TargetScan and ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4581756_MMR-12-04-5753-g13&req=4

Electrophysiologically active PG neurons.Representative | Open-iElectrophysiologically active PG neurons.Representative | Open-i

Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. *Genomic Imprinting. *Humans. *Male. *Motor Neurons/cytology/metabolism ... Bottom Line: Analysis of imprinting in hpESCs and in hpNSCs revealed that maternal-specific gene expression patterns and ... Bottom Line: Analysis of imprinting in hpESCs and in hpNSCs revealed that maternal-specific gene expression patterns and ... Analysis of imprinting in hpESCs and in hpNSCs revealed that maternal-specific gene expression patterns and imprinting marks ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3412801_pone.0042800.g004&req=4

The Hippo Pathway Member Nf2 Is Required for Inner Cell Mass Specification - PubMedThe Hippo Pathway Member Nf2 Is Required for Inner Cell Mass Specification - PubMed

Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental *. Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Regulation of Myocardial Cell Growth and Death by the Hippo Pathway S Ikeda et al. Circ J 80 (7), 1511-9. 2016. PMID 27302848. ... Genes Dev 29 (12), 1271-84. 2015. PMID 26109050. YAP (Yes-associated protein) and TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ- ... Injection of dominant-negative Nf2 mRNA causes Yap mislocalization and ectopic Cdx2 expression, effects that can be rescued by ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23791728/

Ingolf Bachs research topics | Profiles RNSIngolf Bach's research topics | Profiles RNS

Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. 8. 2012. 519. 0.800. Why? Zebrafish. 6. 2012 ...
more infohttps://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/133506/network/researchareas/details

Multifunctional RNA processing protein SRm160 induces apoptosis and regulates eye and genital development in Drosophila - IGMMMultifunctional RNA processing protein SRm160 induces apoptosis and regulates eye and genital development in Drosophila - IGMM

Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental; Alleles; Apoptosis/*genetics; Cell Nucleus/genetics/metabolism; Drosophila/* ... To begin elucidating the functions of the protein in signaling and its potential role in developmental processes, we ...
more infohttp://www.igmm.cnrs.fr/publication/multifunctional-rna-processing-protein-srm160-induces-apoptosis-and-regulates-eye-and-genital-development-in-drosophila/

Mariya Ivshinas research topics | Profiles RNSMariya Ivshina's research topics | Profiles RNS

Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. 1. 2014. 507. 0.130. Why? Inflammation. 1. 2014 ...
more infohttps://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/16941089/network/researchareas/details

Delta-notch Signaling and Drosophila Cell Fate Choice - PubMedDelta-notch Signaling and Drosophila Cell Fate Choice - PubMed

Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... A Cell-Based Computational Model of Early Embryogenesis Coupling Mechanical Behaviour and Gene Regulation J Delile et al. Nat ... Serrate Expression Can Functionally Replace Delta Activity During Neuroblast Segregation in the Drosophila Embryo Y Gu et al. ... In particular, emerging evidence regarding the expression and function of Delta and Notch during development also raise ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7813766/

Adelaide Research & Scholarship: Quantitative allele-specific expression and DNA methylation analysis of H19, IGF2 and IGF2R in...Adelaide Research & Scholarship: Quantitative allele-specific expression and DNA methylation analysis of H19, IGF2 and IGF2R in...

Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental; Genomic Imprinting; Gestational Age; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Trimester, First; ... Surprisingly, despite the known co-regulation of H19 and IGF2, little variation in expression of the repressed IGF2 alleles was ... Expression of IGF2R was biallelic, with a mean expression ratio of 49:51 (SD = 0.07), making transient imprinting unlikely. ... Expression from the repressed H19 alleles ranged from 1-25% and was higher (P,0.001) in first trimester (13.5±8.2%) compared to ...
more infohttps://digital.library.adelaide.edu.au/dspace/handle/2440/76127

HKU Scholars Hub: A DEAB-sensitive aldehyde dehydrogenase regulates hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells development during...HKU Scholars Hub: A DEAB-sensitive aldehyde dehydrogenase regulates hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells development during...

Gene Expression Profiling. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental - Drug Effects. en_US. ... DEAB treatment between 0 and 18 hpf increased gene expression associated with HSPC (scl, lmo2), erythropoiesis (gata1, α- and Β ... DEAB treatment between 0 and 18 hpf increased gene expression associated with HSPC (scl, lmo2), erythropoiesis (gata1, α- and Β ...
more infohttp://hub.hku.hk/handle/10722/163350

adult choroid plexus neoplasm 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engineadult choroid plexus neoplasm 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Postmortem Changes. *[Email] Email this result item ... Gene Expression. Genes, Neoplasm. *[MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Immunohistochemistry ... To conclude, using gene expression profiling, several genes differentially expressed in human choroid plexus papillomas could ... Gene Ontology. gene/protein/disease-specific - Gene Ontology annotations from this paper . ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=adult+choroid+plexus+neoplasm+2005:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b0

Maria Barna | Stanford Medicine ProfilesMaria Barna | Stanford Medicine Profiles

Translation control is a prevalent form of gene expression regulation in developmental and stem cell biology. A recent paper by ... We further discuss the implications of this form of gene expression regulation for a growing number of human genetic disorders ... Plzf mediates transcriptional repression of HoxD gene expression through chromatin remodeling DEVELOPMENTAL CELL Barna, M., ... The expression of members of the abdominal b (Abdb) Hox gene complex, as well as genes encoding bone morphogenetic proteins ( ...
more infohttps://med.stanford.edu/profiles/maria-barna

ZFIN Publication: Dick et al., 1999ZFIN Publication: Dick et al., 1999

Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. *Hedgehog Proteins. *In Situ Hybridization. *Insect Proteins/metabolism ... smad1 expression starts shortly before the onset of gastrulation. It is expressed on the ventral side of the embryo, whereas ... Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists 216(3): 285-298 (Journal) Generate ... Injection studies and mutant analyses suggest that the ventral smad1 expression is positively regulated by Bmp2b, but not by ...
more infohttp://zfin.org/ZDB-PUB-991115-2

ZFIN Publication: Yamamoto et al., 1998ZFIN Publication: Yamamoto et al., 1998

Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental; Genes, Homeobox; In Situ Hybridization; Mesoderm/cytology; Models, Genetic; ... Further, we show that the floating head homeobox gene is required in axial mesoderm to repress the expression of both spadetail ... Genetic studies show that papc is a close downstream target of spadetail, gene encoding a transcription factor required for ...
more infohttp://zfin.org/ZDB-PUB-980820-2
  • Various lines of evidence imply that Delta and Notch proteins function as signal and receptor in cellular interactions required for the partitioning of fates among cells within equivalence groups in many developmental contexts. (nih.gov)
  • These basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-Zip proteins are synthesized as membrane-bound precursors, which are cleaved to form a soluble, transcriptionally active mature SREBP that regulates the promoters for genes involved in lipid synthesis. (umassmed.edu)
  • Some of the work on human evolutionary developmental biology has centered around the neotenous features that present in humans, but are not shared across the primate spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • To better understand imprinting in the human placenta during early gestation, we quantified allele-specific expression for H19, IGF2 and IGF2R in first trimester (6-12 weeks gestation) and term placentae (37-42 weeks gestation) using pyrosequencing. (edu.au)
  • Developmental expression and nutritional regulation of a zebrafish gene homologous to mammalian microsomal triglyceride transfer protein large subu. (nih.gov)
  • We have found a zebrafish mtp homologous gene coding a protein with 54% identity with human MTP large subunit with the most conserved regions distributed in the corresponding predicted alpha-helical and C- and A-sheet domains. (nih.gov)
  • The nutritional regulation of zebrafish mtp expression observed in the anterior intestine supports the notion that this protein, similar to mammalian MTP large subunit, could be a factor implicated directly or indirectly in large lipid droplets accumulation observed in the fish enterocyte after feeding. (nih.gov)
  • Via specific mRNA complementary pairing of target genes, miRNAs are able to regulate the expression of mRNA levels or inhibit protein translation following transcription. (nih.gov)
  • To begin elucidating the functions of the protein in signaling and its potential role in developmental processes, we characterized mutant and overexpression SRm160 phenotypes in Drosophila and their interactions with the locus encoding the LAMMER protein kinase, Doa. (cnrs.fr)
  • Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virtually any step of gene expression can be modulated, from transcriptional initiation, to RNA processing, and to the post-translational modification of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene regulation is essential for viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes as it increases the versatility and adaptability of an organism by allowing the cell to express protein when needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any step of gene expression may be modulated, from the DNA-RNA transcription step to post-translational modification of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • miR‑26b is an miRNA of 22 nt and is important in the regulation of cellular processes. (nih.gov)
  • She completed her thesis work in the lab of Dr. Lee Niswander in the Developmental Biology Department at Sloan Kettering Institute in 2007. (stanford.edu)
  • She has also received the inaugural Elizabeth Hay award from the Society of Developmental Biology, the H.W. Mossman Award in Developmental Biology and the Tsuneko and Reiji Okazaki Award, among others. (stanford.edu)
  • Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, respond to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injection of dominant-negative Nf2 mRNA causes Yap mislocalization and ectopic Cdx2 expression, effects that can be rescued by overexpression of Lats2 kinase. (nih.gov)
  • GSE10341), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 target genes are induced to a greater extent in null fetuses than in wt siblings, supporting the notion that mutants experience lower oxygen tension or have an enhanced response to hypoxia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • EphA2 identification of the miR-26b target gene. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of microRNA‑26b and identification of its target gene EphA2 in pituitary tissues in Yanbian cattle. (nih.gov)
  • The miRNA target gene database TargetScan and RNA22 were used for prediction of the miR‑26b target gene and selective recognition was also performed. (nih.gov)
  • Interaction of miR-26b with the candidate target gene EphA2 was indicated by a decrease in luciferase expression of the cells. (nih.gov)
  • Injection studies and mutant analyses suggest that the ventral smad1 expression is positively regulated by Bmp2b, but not by Bmp4 signaling, whereas smad5 expression is independent of Bmp2b. (zfin.org)
  • Zygotic Nf2 mutant blastocysts have mild defects in Yap localization and Cdx2 expression, but these become much more severe upon removal of both maternal and zygotic Nf2. (nih.gov)
  • We observed that meQTL were more stable between tissues than eQTL and a very strong tissue-specificity for the identified associations between CpG methylation and gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our lab studies how intricate control of gene expression and cell signaling is regulated on a minute-by-minute basis to give rise to the remarkable diversity of cell types and tissue morphology that form the living blueprints of developing organisms. (stanford.edu)
  • They concluded that even though much of the developmental results are similar insofar as brain size, the trajectories by which they arrived are not shared. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional assignments using GO annotations showed that genes involved in transport, oxidation-reduction, and stress response were highly represented. (biomedcentral.com)