Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Gene Expression Regulation, Archaeal: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Microarray Analysis: The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mice, Inbred C57BLDNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 188.8.131.52.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Genes, Immediate-Early: Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Immediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Microdissection: The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Histone Deacetylases: Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMethylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Genes, Neoplasm: Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Mice, Inbred BALB CViral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Genes, fos: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (fos) originally isolated from the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses. The proto-oncogene protein c-fos codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. The insertion of c-fos into FBJ-MSV or FBR-MSV induces osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The human c-fos gene is located at 14q21-31 on the long arm of chromosome 14.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. (1/31686)The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants. (+info)
FGF8 induces formation of an ectopic isthmic organizer and isthmocerebellar development via a repressive effect on Otx2 expression. (2/31686)Beads containing recombinant FGF8 (FGF8-beads) were implanted in the prospective caudal diencephalon or midbrain of chick embryos at stages 9-12. This induced the neuroepithelium rostral and caudal to the FGF8-bead to form two ectopic, mirror-image midbrains. Furthermore, cells in direct contact with the bead formed an outgrowth that protruded laterally from the neural tube. Tissue within such lateral outgrowths developed proximally into isthmic nuclei and distally into a cerebellum-like structure. These morphogenetic effects were apparently due to FGF8-mediated changes in gene expression in the vicinity of the bead, including a repressive effect on Otx2 and an inductive effect on En1, Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression. The ectopic Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression domains formed nearly complete concentric rings around the FGF8-bead, with the Wnt1 ring outermost. These observations suggest that FGF8 induces the formation of a ring-like ectopic signaling center (organizer) in the lateral wall of the brain, similar to the one that normally encircles the neural tube at the isthmic constriction, which is located at the boundary between the prospective midbrain and hindbrain. This ectopic isthmic organizer apparently sends long-range patterning signals both rostrally and caudally, resulting in the development of the two ectopic midbrains. Interestingly, our data suggest that these inductive signals spread readily in a caudal direction, but are inhibited from spreading rostrally across diencephalic neuromere boundaries. These results provide insights into the mechanism by which FGF8 induces an ectopic organizer and suggest that a negative feedback loop between Fgf8 and Otx2 plays a key role in patterning the midbrain and anterior hindbrain. (+info)
Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. (3/31686)Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain. (+info)
The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (4/31686)Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut. (+info)
A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (5/31686)The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates. (+info)
The cardiac homeobox gene Csx/Nkx2.5 lies genetically upstream of multiple genes essential for heart development. (6/31686)Csx/Nkx2.5 is a vertebrate homeobox gene with a sequence homology to the Drosophila tinman, which is required for the dorsal mesoderm specification. Recently, heterozygous mutations of this gene were found to cause human congenital heart disease (Schott, J.-J., Benson, D. W., Basson, C. T., Pease, W., Silberbach, G. M., Moak, J. P., Maron, B. J., Seidman, C. E. and Seidman, J. G. (1998) Science 281, 108-111). To investigate the functions of Csx/Nkx2.5 in cardiac and extracardiac development in the vertebrate, we have generated and analyzed mutant mice completely null for Csx/Nkx2.5. Homozygous null embryos showed arrest of cardiac development after looping and poor development of blood vessels. Moreover, there were severe defects in vascular formation and hematopoiesis in the mutant yolk sac. Interestingly, TUNEL staining and PCNA staining showed neither enhanced apoptosis nor reduced cell proliferation in the mutant myocardium. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated that, among 20 candidate genes examined, expression of ANF, BNP, MLC2V, N-myc, MEF2C, HAND1 and Msx2 was disturbed in the mutant heart. Moreover, in the heart of adult chimeric mice generated from Csx/Nkx2.5 null ES cells, there were almost no ES cell-derived cardiac myocytes, while there were substantial contributions of Csx /Nkx2.5-deficient cells in other organs. Whole-mount &bgr;-gal staining of chimeric embryos showed that more than 20% contribution of Csx/Nkx2. 5-deficient cells in the heart arrested cardiac development. These results indicate that (1) the complete null mutation of Csx/Nkx2.5 did not abolish initial heart looping, (2) there was no enhanced apoptosis or defective cell cycle entry in Csx/Nkx2.5 null cardiac myocytes, (3) Csx/Nkx2.5 regulates expression of several essential transcription factors in the developing heart, (4) Csx/Nkx2.5 is required for later differentiation of cardiac myocytes, (5) Csx/Nkx2. 5 null cells exert dominant interfering effects on cardiac development, and (6) there were severe defects in yolk sac angiogenesis and hematopoiesis in the Csx/Nkx2.5 null embryos. (+info)
Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (7/31686)A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping. (+info)
Ultrabithorax function in butterfly wings and the evolution of insect wing patterns. (8/31686)BACKGROUND: . The morphological and functional evolution of appendages has played a critical role in animal evolution, but the developmental genetic mechanisms underlying appendage diversity are not understood. Given that homologous appendage development is controlled by the same Hox gene in different organisms, and that Hox genes are transcription factors, diversity may evolve from changes in the regulation of Hox target genes. Two impediments to understanding the role of Hox genes in morphological evolution have been the limited number of organisms in which Hox gene function can be studied and the paucity of known Hox-regulated target genes. We have therefore analyzed a butterfly homeotic mutant 'Hindsight', in which portions of the ventral hindwing pattern are transformed to ventral forewing identity, and we have compared the regulation of target genes by the Ultrabithorax (Ubx) gene product in Lepidopteran and Dipteran hindwings. RESULTS: . We show that Ubx gene expression is lost from patches of cells in developing Hindsight hindwings, correlating with changes in wing pigmentation, color pattern elements, and scale morphology. We use this mutant to study how regulation of target genes by Ubx protein differs between species. We find that several Ubx-regulated genes in the Drosophila haltere are not repressed by Ubx in butterfly hindwings, but that Distal-less (Dll) expression is regulated by Ubx in a unique manner in butterflies. CONCLUSIONS: . The morphological diversification of insect hindwings has involved the acquisition of different sets of target genes by Ubx in different lineages. Changes in Hox-regulated target gene sets are, in general, likely to underlie the morphological divergence of homologous structures between animals. (+info)
Suppressors of Hedgehog signaling: Linking aberrant development of neural progenitors and tumorigenesis - Fingerprint -...
Map Position and Expression of the Genes in the 38 Region of Drosophila | Genetics
GENSCAN predictions and expression of predicted genes: GENSCAN predicted a total of 135 genes to lie within the 760 kb of sequence analyzed. Of these, 17 correspond to genes that have previously been characterized and another 22 are at least partially homologous to mobile genetic elements such as transposons and retroviruses (Table 5). To test these gene predictions and to determine the expression patterns of predicted genes, probes were designed for 121 known and predicted genes, and developmental Northern blots containing mRNA from six different stages and tissues were probed. The chosen stages reflect most of the fly life cycle plus isolated ovaries. In total, these experiments allowed us to determine the expression pattern for an additional 64 of the 96 potential new transcription units (in addition to the previously published ones and the mobile elements). GENSCAN predictions, the autoradiographs of Northern blots, and a summary table of their developmental expression profile can be seen on ...
Balancing self renewal and differentiation - Laboratory of Comparative Developmental Dynamics
How is self renewal and differentiation precisely balanced to accommodate growth? Unlike the externally developing zebrafish embryo, amniotes such as mice and chickens undergo vast amounts of growth concomitantly with the formation of the embryonic body axis. The posterior body of the mouse embryo increases by approximately 65 times its initial volume during somitogenesis, this is…
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Mechanisms that direct human development from conception to birth. Conserved molecular and cellular pathways regulate tissue and organ development; errors in these pathways result in congenital anomalies and human diseases. Topics: molecules regulating development, cell induction, developmental gene regulation, cell migration, programmed cell death, pattern formation, stem cells, cell lineage, and development of major organ systems. Emphasis on links between development and clinically significant topics including infertility, assisted reproductive technologies, contraception, prenatal diagnosis, multiparity, teratogenesis, inherited birth defects, fetal therapy, adolescence, cancer, and aging ...
Transcriptional regulation is achieved by the coordinated interplay of numerous protein factors with regulatory control sequences coded in the genome. At present, many of the major components of the machinery regulating transcription in eukaryotes are well known. However, mechanisms by which this complex machinery achieves precise control of cell and tissue-specific programs of gene expression observed in multi-cellular organisms is poorly understood. Our laboratory is interested in deciphering mechanisms of gene expression patterns critical for proper organ development and function in mammals. Using the mouse as a rich genetic and developmental system, we plan to probe the biological function of various components of the transcriptional apparatus to uncover novel pathways of cell type specification. In addition to characterizing basic mechanisms of differentiation and development, we will utilize developmental defects in the mouse to model human disease states as potential avenues of ...
A switch in transcription and cell fate governs the onset of an epigenetically-deregulated tumor in Drosophila | eLife
do this using the appropriate number of sig figs 320.44 − (3104.1/2.6)
Spatial expression pattern of MBC in wild-type embryos. | Open-i
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The T-box transcription factor TBX3 drives proliferation by direct repression of the p21 WAF1 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor...
TBX3, a member of the T-box family of transcription factors, is essential in development and has emerged as an important player in the oncogenic process. TBX3 is overexpressed in several cancers and has been shown to contribute directly to tumour formation, migration and invasion. However, little is known about the molecular basis for its role in development and oncogenesis because there is a paucity of information regarding its target genes. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1 plays a pivotal role in a myriad of processes including cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis and here we provide a detailed mechanism to show that it is a direct and biologically relevant target of TBX3. Using a combination of luciferase reporter gene assays and in vitro and in vivo binding assays we show that TBX3 directly represses the p21WAF1 promoter by binding a T-element close to its initiator. Furthermore, we show that the TBX3 DNA binding domain is required for the transcriptional repression of p21WAF1
Specificity of CNS and PNS regulatory subelements comprising pan-neural enhancers of the deadpan and scratch genes is achieved...
The Drosophila pan-neural genes deadpan (dpn) and scratch (scrt) are expressed in most or all developing neural precursor cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). We have identified a cis-acting enhancer element driving full pan-neural expression of the dpn gene which is composed of independent CNS- and PNS-specific subelements. We have also identified CNS- and PNS-specific subelements of the scrt enhancer. Deletion analysis of the dpn and scrt PNS-specific subelements reveals that PNS specificity of these two evolutionarily unrelated enhancers is achieved in part by repression of CNS expression. We discuss the implications of the striking organizational similarities of the dpn, scrt, and sna pan-neural enhancers.. ...
Social Welfare Functionals on Restricted Domains and in Economic Environments
Downloadable! March 1997 Arrows ``impossibility and similar classical theorems are usually proved for an unrestricted domain of preference profiles. Recent work extends Arrows theorem to various restricted but ``saturating domains of privately oriented, continuous, (strictly) convex, and (strictly) monotone ``economic preferences for private and/or public goods. For strongly saturating domains of more general utility profiles, this paper provides similar extensions of Wilsons theorem and of the strong and weak ``welfarism results due to dAspremont and Gevers and to Roberts. Hence, for social welfare functionals with or without interpersonal comparisons of utility, most previous classification results in social choice theory apply equally to strongly saturating economic domains. Journal of Economic Literature classification: D71. Keywords: social welfare functionals, Arrows theorem, Wilsons theorem, welfarism, neutrality, restricted domains, economic domains, economic environments.
Highlights in DD - Kiefer - 2010 - Developmental Dynamics - Wiley Online Library
Highlights" calls attention to exciting advances in developmental biology that have recently been reported in Developmental Dynamics. Development is a broad field encompassing many important areas. To reflect this fact, the section spotlights significant discoveries that occur across the entire spectrum of developmental events and problems: from new experimental approaches, to novel interpretations of results, to noteworthy findings utilizing different developmental organisms.. Joining forces (Fusion of Uniluminal Vascular Spheroids: A Model for Assembly of Blood Vessels by Paul A. Fleming, W. Scott Argraves, Carmine Gentile, Adrian Neagu, Gabor Forgacs, and Christopher J. Drake, Dev Dyn 239:398-406). In a process common among large caliber blood vessels, the descending aorta is formed upon fusion of two smaller vessels, in this case, the bilateral dorsal aortae. Fleming et al. use an in vitro system they previously developed, uniluminar vascular spheroids, to understand physical aspects of ...
Tutorial - Spatial Gene Expression -Software -Spatial Gene Expression -Official 10x Genomics Support
To create your own CA1 cluster, first filter the spots to select for only the ones that are highly expressive of the Fibcd1 gene. Based on the coloring of spots and the Log2 Max Count scale at the bottom of the Gene Expression panel, we will set a threshold of 3. Enter 3 into the Select By Count field above the Log2 Max Count scale and click on the filter button. This gives us the option to create a new cluster that contains only those spots. The spots which were selected by the filter are highlighted in purple in the background. You can create a new Category name called Subfields and a new Cluster name called CA1. Once this is saved, you are taken to Category mode. The Subfields category is displayed along with the new Cluster, CA1, that we just created.. ...
Role of the hindbrain in dorsoventral but not anteroposterior axial specification of the inner ear | Development
Establishment of the body axes is an early event during vertebrate development, which provides positional information for development of later structures (Dale et al., 2002). Although asymmetric gene expression patterns are evident before the onset of gastrulation, the body axes are not morphologically obvious until formation of the primitive streak during gastrulation, closely followed by formation of the neural tube during neurulation in an anterior-to-posterior progression. Along the anteroposterior axis, members of the Hox gene family play important roles in conferring positional identity of the neural tube (Lumsden and Krumlauf, 1996), whereas BMPs/WNTs and SHH are thought to establish the dorsal and ventral axes, respectively (Harland et al., 2002). A properly patterned neural tube then relays positional information to adjacent tissues and organs. For example, cranial neural crest cells deriving from different segments of the hindbrain contribute to morphologically distinct structures and ...
Cerebellum Development Pathway Bioinformatics: Novus Biologicals
Exploring New Frontiers - Analyzing and Visualizing Visium Gene Expression Data - 10x Genomics
The ability to discern spatial gene expression differences in complex biological systems is critical to our understanding of developmental biology and the progression of disease. The upcoming Visium Spatial Gene Expression Solution analyzes total mRNA in intact tissue sections, allowing you to discover genes and markers relevant to your research, without having to rely on known targets. Join us for a live webinar to learn more about data analysis and visualization tools for the Visium Spatial Gene Expression Solution.
Gene expression in tooth: references
Hox complex genes are key developmental regulators highly conserved throughout evolution. They encode transcription factors that initiate genetic programs of diversified morphogenesis along the anteroposterior embryonic axis. We report the characterization of the novel Drosophila Hox target gene dlarp, isolated from a further screen of a previously described library of genomic DNA fragments associated in vivo with Ultrabithorax proteins. The dlarp spatio-temporal pattern of transcription in wild-type and homeotic mutant embryos is consistent with a positive regulation by Sex combs reduced and Ultrabithorax in the parasegment 2 ectoderm and the abdominal mesoderm, respectively. The teashirt gene product, thought to act in concert with Hox proteins, is also required for the transcriptional control of this target. Search in databases revealed that dlarp has been highly conserved during evolution. The embryonic expression pattern of the mouse orthologue does not support a function downstream of Hox ...
Characterization of a gene trap insertion into a novel gene, cordon-bleu, expressed in axial structures of the gastrulating mouse embryo.. We have used a gene trap (GT) vector and embryonic stem (ES) cell chimeras to screen for insertions of the lacZ reporter gene into transcription units that are spatially and temporally regulated during early mouse embryogenesis. GT vectors which can act as both a reporter and a mutagen have been previously used to isolate new genes that are essential for mouse development. In this paper we describe a GT insertion which displays a very restricted pattern of expression in the gastrulating embryo. beta-Galactosidase activity was first detected at 7.5 days post-coitum (E7.5) in the node region of the embryo and extended to the midline structures at E8.0. At E9.5 expression was restricted to the floor plate, the notochord, the roof of the gut, and the liver anlage. Expression appeared in the somites at E10.0 and later became more widespread. We used rapid ...
Die Bedeutung der cAMP-Signalkaskade für die Entwicklung des Reninsystems in der Mausniere - University of Regensburg...
The phenomenon of renin producing cells having a different plasticity in the immature and the adult kidney is known for a long time. However, it is unknown what factors are responsible for this typical switch on and off of renin expression and for the disappearance of renin producing cells during nephrogenesis and after chronic stimulation. To determine these factors, the 3-dimensional pattern of renin expressing cells as well as the development of the arterial vasculature in a normal mouse kidney during nephrogenesis was characterized. For the 3-dimensional reconstructions, we used serial slices of mouse kidneys of embryonic day E13 up to postpartal day 10 as well as adult kidneys, on which we marked the expression of renin and smooth muscle actin as marker for the vascular tree by immunofluorescence. Renin was detected for the first time in the media of arcuate main arteries at embryonic day E15. Based on this initial expression we on the one hand observed a retrograde expansion to the ...
Comparing the intestinal transcriptome of Meishan and Large White piglets during late fetal development reveals genes involved...
BACKGROUND: Maturity of intestinal functions is critical for neonatal health and survival, but comprehensive description of mechanisms underlying intestinal maturation that occur during late gestation still remain poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate biological processes specifically involved in intestinal maturation by comparing fetal jejunal transcriptomes of two representative porcine breeds (Large White, LW; Meishan, MS) with contrasting neonatal vitality and maturity, at two key time points during late gestation (gestational days 90 and 110). MS and LW sows inseminated with mixed semen (from breed LW and MS) gave birth to both purebred and crossbred fetuses. We hypothesized that part of the differences in neonatal maturity between the two breeds results from distinct developmental profiles of the fetal intestine during late gestation. Reciprocal crossed fetuses were used to analyze the effect of parental genome. Transcriptomic data and 23 phenotypic variables known to be
RefEx - T-box 19
Gene Expression Literature Detail
ZFIN Publication: Zecchin et al., 2007
The different cell types of the vertebrate pancreas arise asynchronously during organogenesis. Beta-cells producing insulin, alpha-cells producing glucagon, and exocrine cells secreting digestive enzymes differentiate sequentially from a common primordium. Notch signaling has been shown to be a major mechanism controlling these cell-fate choices. So far, the pleiotropy of Delta and Jagged/Serrate genes has hindered the evaluation of the roles of specific Notch ligands, as the phenotypes of knock-out mice are lethal before complete pancreas differentiation. Analyses of gene expression and experimental manipulations of zebrafish embryos allowed us to determine individual contributions of Notch ligands to pancreas development. We have found that temporally distinct phases of both endocrine and exocrine cell type specification are controlled by different delta and jagged genes. Specifically, deltaA knock-down embryos lack alpha cells, similarly to mib (Delta ubiquitin ligase) mutants and embryos ...
Hydrogen gas attenuates embryonic gene expression and prevents left ventricular remodeling induced by intermittent hypoxia in...
JCI - Welcome
Progressive lung fibrosis, particularly the idiopathic form, causes severe pulmonary dysfunction with limited treatment options. While it is known that a combination of epithelial injury, accumulation of activated fibroblasts, and deposition of cellular matrix contribute to this disease, the underlying molecular mechanisms and cellular components remain incompletely characterized. In particular, fibroblast accumulation plays a central role in tissue fibrosis, but the regulation and cellular origins of this facet of disease are unclear. Ting Xie and colleagues of Cedars-Sinai Medical Center have discovered that the embryonic transcription factor TBX4 contributes to lung fibrosis by facilitating fibroblast accumulation. Using in vivo lineage tracing, cell surface marker analysis, and gene expression profiling, the group demonstrated that TBX4-expressing progenitors give rise to a variety of lung cell types, and importantly, are a major source of activated fibroblasts. In a mouse model, ...
In zebrafish, as in other vertebrates, an initially singular eye field within the neural plate has to split during morphogenesis to allow the development of two separated eyes. It has been suggested that anterior progression of midline tissue within the neural plate is involved in the bilateralization of the eye field. Mutations in the recently identified silberblick (slb) gene cause an incomplete separation of the eyes. During gastrulation and early somitogenesis, the ventral midline of the central nervous system (CNS) together with the underlying axial mesendoderm is shortened and broadened in slb embryos. While in wild-type embryos the ventral CNS midline extends to the anterior limit of the neural plate at the end of gastrulation, there is a gap between the anterior tip of the ventral CNS midline and the anterior edge of the neural plate in slb. To investigate the cause for the shortening of the ventral CNS midline in slb we determined the fate of labeled ventral CNS midline cells in ...
RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - T-box transcription factor TBX21 - Q9JKD8 (TBX21 MOUSE)
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
データ&アプリ】 Developmental Genomic (AtGenExpress Developmental gene expression + PPDB promoter motif) Triplicate Data | LinkData
Full triplicate expression dataset of AtGenExpress plant developmental tissues, combined with LDSS sequence analysis of regulatory (8mer) motif calculations (PPDB). MotifExpress tool allows the plloting of all triplicate data points during the design process, so the user has some idea of the experimental variation in the measurements ...
Links/Collaborators - Laboratory of Comparative Developmental Dynamics
Alfonso Martnez-Arias lab Investigating the structure and function of Living Matter, with a special focus on the processes that generate tissues and organs from single cells through interactions between protein and gene regulatory networks. Scott Fraser lab: The Translational Imaging Center at USC Developing new technologies for the imaging of biological structure and function…
Mouse Brain Development - Andre M. Goffinet; Pasko Rakic; | Foyles Bookstore
With the enormous development of human and mouse genomics and the availability of a variety of transgenic techniques, the mouse has become the most widely used animal for basic studies of brain development and as a model for human developmental disorders. The topics are addressed using a diversity of techniques, from genetic, biochemical and cell biological to morphological and functional. The conceptual approaches also provide a framework for studies of other problems and point the way towards future research.
Cylindromyrmex brasiliensis - AntWiki
TL 5.56-8.48; HL 1.16-1.64; HW 0.93-1.32; EL 0.37-0.49; SL 0.51-0.73; SW 0.17-0.22; WL 1.40-2.20; PeL 0.55-0.96; PeW 0.51-0.84; HFeL 0.67-1.02; HFeW 0.25-0.34; HTiL 0.65-1.04; HTiW 0.19-0.26; HBaL 0.53-0.83; HBaW 0.09-0.12; CI 78.1-80.5; SI 30.7-34.4; HFeI 33.3-37.3; HTiI 25.0-29.2; HBaI 14.4-15.1. Head about 1/5 longer than broad, with subparallel sides. Occiput low. Vertexal angles round. Frontal carinae about half broad as the maximum head width. Anterior third of the frontal carinae diverging backward, and reaching the middle of the eyes posteriorly. Dorsum of the frontal carinae with an impressed, short, median sulcus anteriorly. Frontal carinae not reaching the anterior border of the clypeus. Compound eyes large, slightly convex and behind the mid line of the head. Ocelli developed. Scapes surpassing the anterior border of the eyes. Proximal fifth of the scapes about 1/2 narrower than the remaining parts. Mandibles weakly convex dorsally. Mandibles laterally angulate at the base. ...
Mech engg Jobs in Coimbatore - Mech engg Job Vacancy in Coimbatore - Monsterindia.com
Differential patterns of expression of Eps15 and Eps15R during mouse embryogenesis<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential patterns of expression of Eps15 and Eps15R during mouse embryogenesis. AU - Offenhäuser, Nina. AU - Santolini, Elisa. AU - Simeone, Antonio. AU - Di Fiore, Pier Paolo. PY - 2000/7/1. Y1 - 2000/7/1. N2 - Eps15 and Eps15R are related tyrosine kinase substrates, which have been implicated in endocytosis and synaptic vesicle recycling. Through the protein:protein interaction abilities of their EH domains, they establish a complex network of interactions with several proteins, including Numb, a protein necessary for neuronal cell fate specification. We analyzed the expression of Eps15 and Eps15R during murine development, at the time of active neurogenesis. The most striking difference was at the level of subcellular localization, with Eps15 present in the cytosol and on the plasma membrane, while Eps15R exhibited mainly a nuclear localization. Interesting topographical differences also emerged. In the 12.5 days post coitum neuroepithelium, Eps15 was expressed in the ...
LSM2102 - NUS ModMaven
LSM2102 - Molecular Biology. This module teaches the structure, organization and function of genes and genomes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes (e.g.: DNA topology, hierarchy of packaging of DNA in chromosomes and relationship to gene activity and genome dynamics). The functional roles of DNA regulatory ciselements and transcription factors involved in gene expression will be examined extensively. The molecular events of transcription; post-transcriptional modifications and RNA processing; temporal and spatial gene expression, control and regulation, signals of gene expression will be dealt with in detail. The cause and/or effect of dysfunction of gene expression and diseases will be discussed.
Researchers catalog dozens of mutations in crucial brain development gene
PPT - 第五节 神经系统对内脏 活动调节 Visceral Activity Control By Nervous System PowerPoint Presentation - ID:985279
Salk news: Understanding organ placement
We know that in the phase of development, there is a genetic cascade that leads to the proper placement of organs. If that cascade is disrupted, the results can lead to major problems or be fatal," said Salk Professor Juan Carlos Izpisúa Belmonte, who published the findings in the January 8 issue of Nature. Still, scientists did not have a clear understanding of what triggers the genetic cascade that defines organ placement. Izpisúa Belmonte s group focused on the activity of the Notch pathway, an important player during embryo development and also during tumorigenesis, and a key factor for proper left-right asymmetry, as the same group and others had learned earlier this year ...
Chick Development | ClipArt ETC
Embryonic structures - IEEE Conferences, Publications, and Resources
Grasslin Electronic Timer - Basement Lighting
Non-Coding RNA Relocates Genes When It's Time To Go To Work
Cells develop and thrive by turning genes on and off as needed in a precise pattern, a process known as regulated gene transcription. In a paper published in the November 9 issue of the journal Cell, researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine say this process is even more complex than previously thought, with regulated genes actually relocated to other, more conducive places in the cell nucleus.. "When regulated gene transcription goes awry, many human diseases result, such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer and growth defects in children," said Michael G. Rosenfeld, MD, a professor in the UC San Diego Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator and senior author of the study. "Weve shown that rather than being activated at certain, random locations within the cell nucleus, regulated genes can dynamically relocate. The discovery provides a more comprehensive picture of the interaction between regulated genes and human ...
Everything At One Click: Anna University All Semester previous year question paper for mechanical (MECH) engineering semester...
Here I have upload all the question papers of semester 3rd to 8th for mechanical department (MECH) of anna university for regulation 2004,2005, 2007, 2008 and 2010. You can download it in the PDF format. If you have any queries or doubt feel free to ask or just leave a comment here. This question papers were obtained from other sources, if any thing is not correct please forgive me ...
Genetic and molecular control of folate-homocysteine metabolism in mutant mice, Mammalian Genome | 10.1007/s00335-001-3054-2 |...
Cell fate | Biology Open
Publikationen | Max-Planck-Institut für biophysikalische Chemie
Macbook Air w/upgraded Ram VS Retina MBP | MacRumors Forums
Although FLASH mutant mice have been reported to die in the early embryonic phase , FLASH KO ES cells was revealed to...
INSPIRE Interactive Data Specifications
Everything At One Click: Anna University previous year Question Papers with solutions For Mechanical - Mech
Local Heroes of Immune System Uncovered
Search Articles | University of Toronto Libraries
Sebastian Ocklenburg (2017). "Epigenetic regulation of lateralized fetal spinal gene expression underlies hemispheric ... Developmental Psychology, 2014. 50(3): p. 809-814. "A lefty's lament". Harvard Gazette. ... Epigenetic regulation of lateralized fetal spinal gene expression underlies hemispheric asymmetries. Elife. 2017 Feb 1;6. pii: ... 2017 found that asymmetric methylation of CpG sites plays a key role for gene expression asymmetries that have been related to ...
Downstream promoter element
"Regulation of gene expression via the core promoter and the basal transcriptional machinery". Developmental Biology. 339 (2): ... a key component in the regulation of gene expression". Genes & Development. 16 (20): 2583-2592. doi:10.1101/gad.1026202. PMID ... The promoters of nearly all Hox genes of D. melanogaster, with the exception of the evolutionarily most recent genes, Ubx and ... Gene. 389 (1): 52-65. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2006.09.029. PMC 1955227 . PMID 17123746. Kutach, Alan K; Kadonaga, James T (1 July ...
... expression and up-regulation of caudal-type homeobox 2 (Cdx2) gene expression. Sall4 is part of the transcriptional regulatory ... The various SALL4-null mouse models mimic human mutations in the SALL4 gene, which were shown to cause developmental problems ... Kühnlein RP, Brönner G, Taubert H, Schuh R (Aug 1997). "Regulation of Drosophila spalt gene expression". Mechanisms of ... SALL4 can alter gene expression changes through its interaction with many co-factors and epigenetic complexes. It is also known ...
Alternative splicing is crucial for tissue-specific and developmental regulation in gene expression. Alternative splicing can ... The effect of alternative splicing in gene expression can be seen in complex eukaryotes which have a fixed number of genes in ... Furthermore, primary transcript processing provides a control for gene expression as well as a regulatory mechanism for the ... These variables create a wide range of viral gene expression. For example, tissue culture cells actively producing infectious ...
"Regulation of osteocalcin gene expression by a novel Ku antigen transcription factor complex". The Journal of Biological ... Developmental Dynamics. 218 (2): 300-15. doi:10.1002/(sici)1097-0177(200006)218:2. 3.0.co;2-k. PMID 10842358. Willis DM, Loewy ... "Serological identification and expression analysis of gastric cancer-associated genes". Br. J. Cancer. 86 (11): 1824-30. doi: ... Gene. 371 (2): 291-5. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2005.12.008. PMID 16507339. Vinarová E, Vinar O, Zvolský P (July 1977). "Predictors of ...
Epigenome-wide association study (EWAS)
The main type of DNAm is at cytosines within CpG dinucleotides which is known to be involved in gene expression regulation. ... DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns change over time, and vary between developmental stage and tissue type. ... The array still only covers less than 2% of the CpG sites in the genome, but does attempt to cover all known genes with a high ... In the past, the 27k Illumina array covered on average two CpG sites in the promoter regions of approximately 14,000 genes and ...
"Regulated expression of FLRT genes implies a functional role in the regulation of FGF signalling during mouse development". ... Developmental Biology. 297 (1): 14-25. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2006.04.004. PMID 16872596. "Entrez Gene: FLRT2 fibronectin leucine ... Fibronectin leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein FLRT2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FLRT2 gene. This gene ... Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (September 1996). "Normalization and subtraction: two approaches to facilitate gene discovery ...
T-box genes encode transcription factors, which control gene expression, involved in the regulation of developmental processes ... Eomesodermin/Tbr2 controls the expression of cardiac specific genes Mesp1, Myl7, Myl2, Myocardin,Nkx2.5 and Mef2c. Additionally ... The Eomesodermin/Tbr2 gene, EOMES, encodes a member of a conserved protein family that shares a common DNA-binding domain, the ... Kimura N, Nakashima K, Ueno M, Kiyama H, Taga T (Jun 1999). "A novel mammalian T-box-containing gene, Tbr2, expressed in mouse ...
Small temporal RNA
... a paradigm for RNA-mediated regulation of gene expression". BioEssays. 24 (2): 119-29. doi:10.1002/bies.10046. PMID 11835276. ... Banerjee D, Slack F (February 2002). "Control of developmental timing by small temporal RNAs: ... Small temporal RNA (abbreviated stRNA) regulates gene expression during roundworm development by preventing the mRNAs they bind ... stRNAs exert negative post-transcriptional regulation by binding to complementary sequences in the 3' untranslated regions of ...
Cornelia de Lange Syndrome
... chromosome segregation and the regulation of developmental gene expression. Defects in these functions likely underlie many of ... The latter two genes seem to correlate with a milder form of the syndrome. In July 2012, the fourth "CdLS gene"-HDAC8-was ... Since then, additional genes have been found (SMC1A, SMC3 and HDAC8) that cause CdLS when changed. There are likely other genes ... HDAC8 is an X-linked gene, meaning it is located on the X chromosome. Individuals with CdLS who have the gene change in HDAC8 ...
... and play a part in the regulation of gene expression. These enzymes transfer methyl groups on and off histones to regulate ... Epigenetic activation of certain developmental genes is impaired by loss of either enzyme and developmental abnormalities occur ... This gene is located on the X chromosome. These two genes belong to a family of genes called chromatin-modifying enzymes. ... The specific developmental genes have not been fully identified. It is seen that a majority of these cases are due to de novo ...
Paul M. Bingham
Bingham, P. M.; Chou, T. B.; Mims, I; Zachar, Z (1988). "On Off Regulation of Gene-Expression at the Level of Splicing". Trends ... Chou, T. B.; Zachar, Z. Z.; Bingham, PM (1987). "Developmental expression of a regulatory gene is programmed at the level of ... His research group also worked on the nature of metazoan gene regulation (Zachar and Bingham, 1985) and the elucidation of the ... Zachar, Z.; Bingham, P. M. (1982). "Regulation of White Locus Expression - the Structure of Mutant Alleles at the White Locus ...
Illumina Methylation Assay
... which in the last decade has been recognized to be important in the regulation of gene expression, development and genetic ... Changes in the methylation pattern and level have been shown to contribute to cancer and various developmental diseases. For ... These genes include RefSeq genes from the NCBI CCDS Database, cancer genes that show differential methylation patterns during ... Allows integration of data between other platforms such as gene expression and microRNA profiling. The method looks at ~2 CpG ...
The expression of many thousands of genes are regulated by ncRNAs. This regulation can occur in trans or in cis. There is ... Dahm R (February 2005). "Friedrich Miescher and the discovery of DNA". Developmental Biology. 278 (2): 274-88. doi:10.1016/j. ... act to promote gene expression. In higher eukaryotes microRNAs regulate gene expression. A single miRNA can ... 2012). Non-coding RNAs and Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression: Drivers of Natural Selection. Caister Academic Press. ISBN ...
One of the major players in cellular regulation are transcription factors, proteins that regulate the expression of genes. ... developmental stage, and pathological state. ... of the cell to the activation of the expression of a gene. High ... Modelization can handle the data and allow to test a hypothesis (for example, gene A is regulated by protein B) that can be ... Those components can be regulatory elements, genes, mRNAs, proteins, and metabolites. The description includes the interplay of ...
"Regulation of gene expression via the core promoter and the basal transcriptional machinery". Developmental Biology. 339 (2): ... ends of the genes in a bidirectional gene pair. A "bidirectional gene pair" refers to two adjacent genes coded on opposite ... Altered expressions of microRNAs also silence or activate many genes in progression to cancer (see microRNAs in cancer). ... Not listed here are the many kinds of cancers involving aberrant transcriptional regulation owing to creation of chimeric genes ...
Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3
1996). "Differential developmental and tissue-specific regulation of expression of the genes encoding three members of the ... 1999). "Two novel mutations of the FMO3 gene in a proband with trimethylaminuria". Hum. Mutat. 13 (5): 376-9. doi:10.1002/(SICI ... 1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library". Gene. 200 (1-2): 149- ... "Entrez Gene: FMO3 flavin containing monooxygenase 3". "Trimethylamine monooxygenase (Homo sapiens)". BRENDA. Technische ...
... studies the regulation of gene expression in response to developmental or environmental stimuli to learn how ... Alexander Stark (born 1974) is a biochemist and computational biologist working on the regulation of gene expression in ... He is on the editorial boards of "Genes & Development" and "Molecular Systems Biology". Alexander Stark's lab http://www. ... transcription and transcriptional networks define cellular and developmental programs. More specifically, he investigates how ...
"Expression profiles of hippocampal regenerative sprouting-related genes and their regulation by E-64d in a developmental rat ... CTSB gene is located at chromosome 8p22, consisting of 13 exons.The promoter of CTSB gene contains a GC-rich region including ... isolation and sequencing of full-length cDNAs and polymorphisms of the gene". Gene. 139 (2): 163-9. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94) ... Kindy MS, Yu J, Zhu H, El-Amouri SS, Hook V, Hook GR (2012). "Deletion of the cathepsin B gene improves memory deficits in a ...
Sea urchin skeletogenesis
1997). "Skeletal morphogenesis in the sea urchin embryo: regulation of primary mesenchyme gene expression and skeletal rod ... Gilbert, Scott F. (2006). Developmental Biology: Eighth Edition. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc. ISBN 0- ... It has also been found that the msp130 gene exhibits a complex pattern of spatial regulation within the PMC syncytium during ... that the ectoderm may play a role in controlling skeletal morphogenesis by regulating the expression of PMC-specific gene ...
"Negative regulation of the Wnt signal by MM-1 through inhibiting expression of the wnt4 gene". Experimental Cell Research. 314 ... These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate ... Lastly, the absence of WNT4 also affects the expression of other genes that function in lung development such as Sox9 and FGF9 ... One important example is the stabilization of β catenin, which increases the expression of target genes. For instance, TAFIIs ...
In the regulation of gene expression, studied in evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), both activators and repressors ... boundless-biology-textbook/gene-expression-16/regulation-of-gene-expression-111/prokaryotic-versus-eukaryotic-gene-expression- ... A regulator gene, regulator, or regulatory gene is a gene involved in controlling the expression of one or more other genes. ... An example of a regulator gene is a gene that codes for a repressor protein that inhibits the activity of an operator gene (a ...
... is an abnormal gene expression in a cell type, tissue type, or developmental stage in which the gene is not ... it is uncommonly seen in nature because it is a product of defects in gene regulation. In fact, ectopic expression is more ... Artificially induced gene expression helps to determine the function of a gene of interest. Common techniques such as ... Here they found relatively low OR gene expression compared to the olfactory tissue, which result indicates that the OR gene in ...
Vidal, Miguel (2009-01-01). "Role of polycomb proteins Ring1A and Ring1B in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression". The ... "Altered Retinoic Acid Sensitivity and TemporalExpression of Hox Genes in Polycomb-M33-Deficient Mice". Developmental Biology. ... The expression of Sry and Sox9 genes in gonads of XY Cbx2-knockout mice is reduced, suggesting that Cbx2 is required for the ... M33 is a gene. It is a mammalian homologue of Drosophila Polycomb. It localises to euchromatin within interphase nuclei, but it ...
Shiv I.S. Grewal
... regulation of chromosome structure that govern diverse cellular processes including stable inheritance of gene expression, ... proper regulation of developmental states, and preserving genomic integrity, providing broad implications for human biology and ... Then he joined National Cancer Institute as a postdoctoral fellow and found that the silenced states of gene expression can be ... He continued to pursue his interests in the areas of epigenetic control of gene expression and development, joining Cold Spring ...
Stormo's research combines experimental and computational approaches to understand regulation of gene expression. His ... Cellular and Developmental Biology, becoming a professor before moving to Washington University in St. Louis in 1999. ... "Computational and Experimental Approaches to Modeling Gene Regulation @ uncCharlotte". UNC Charlotte Department of ... and their contributions to the regulatory networks that control gene expression. Stormo initially majored in physics as an ...
Sawicki's research also entails identifying stem cells in normal developmental processes and the gene-expression profiles of ... she expanded her research interests to gene regulation/expression in early mammalian development. In 1981, Sawicki moved back ... These studies have contributed to an understanding of the role that HuR plays in regulating the expression of genes that help ... "Evidence for expression of the paternal genome in the two-cell mouse embryo". Nature. 294: 450-451. 1981-12-03. doi:10.1038/ ...
List of MeSH codes (G05)
... gene expression regulation, bacterial MeSH G05.315.310 --- gene expression regulation, developmental MeSH G05.315.320 --- gene ... gene expression regulation, plant MeSH G05.315.385 --- gene expression regulation, viral MeSH G05.315.410 --- gene silencing ... gene expression regulation, fungal MeSH G05.315.370 --- gene expression regulation, neoplastic MeSH G05.315.370.500 --- gene ... gene amplification MeSH G05.315.290 --- gene expression regulation, archaeal MeSH G05.315.300 --- ...
Establishment of sister chromatid cohesion
... chromosome segregation and the regulation of developmental gene expression. Defects in these functions likely underlie many of ... The Pds5 gene was also identified in yeast as necessary for the establishment of cohesion. In humans, the gene has two homologs ... The Eco1/Ctf7 gene (yeast) was one of the first genes to be identified as specifically required for the establishment of ... Genetic alterations in genes NIPBL, SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21 and HDAC8 are associated with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome. The proteins ...
... may also be defined as sequence-specific regulation of gene expression triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). ... regulation of developmental, neuronal cell fate, cell death, proliferation, fat storage, haematopoietic cell fate, insulin ... downregulation of genes For a detailed explanation of the up-regulation of genes, see RNAi:upregulation of genes The same way ... However, the varied and nuanced role of RNA silencing in the regulation of gene expression remains an ongoing scientific ...
... appearance-observable traits caused by the expression of a condition's genes. The features of craniosynostosis' particular ... bulging eyes • flat face • hernias • long, thin fingers • developmental delay • mental retardation 182212 FBN1 ... the involvement of OSA as a causative agent for elevated intracranial pressure suggests an association with the auto-regulation ... in FGFR genes) and mutations that lead to loss of function (in TWIST genes). Craniosynostosis is therefore likely the ...
These five proteins directly control the timing of expression of over 200 genes. The five master regulatory proteins are ... Cell polarity regulationEdit. In C. crescentus, cell polarity is readily apparent by the assembly of polar organelles and by ... Its use as a model originated with developmental biologist Lucy Shapiro. ... Cell cycle regulation includes feedback signals that pace progression of the cell cycle engine to match progress of events at ...
NRL expression leads to the rod fate. NR2E3 further restricts cells to the rod fate by repressing cone genes. RORbeta is needed ... L cones are present in primates, however there is not much known for their developmental program due to use of rodents in ... Swaroop, Anand; Douglas Kim; Douglas Forrest (August 2010). "Transcriptional Regulation of Photoreceptor Development and ... photoreceptor gene expression; and lastly axonal growth, synapse formation and outer segment growth. ...
Down regulation of the PAX gene expression inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis. This could be a possible avenue for ... "Pax genes in renal development, disease and regeneration". Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. Paramutation & Pax ... it is possible that it regulates expression of genes other than thyroid-specific. Several known tumor suppressor genes like ... Paired box gene 8, also known as PAX8, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PAX8 gene. ...
Evolution of biological complexity
Pays, E. (2005). "Regulation of antigen gene expression in Trypanosoma brucei". Trends Parasitol. 21 (11): 517-20. doi:10.1016/ ... According to this model, new genes are created by non-adaptive processes, such as by random gene duplication. These novel ... All changes in the gene frequencies of populations--and quite often in the traits those genes influence--are by definition ... how new alternative spliced isoforms of genes arise, how gene scrambling in ciliates evolved, and how pervasive pan-RNA editing ...
"Recruitment of the androgen receptor via serum response factor facilitates expression of a myogenic gene". The Journal of ... Developmental Biology (6th ed.). Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates. ISBN 0-87893-243-7.. [page needed] ... Early regulation. Before the production of the pituitary hormone luteinizing hormone (LH) by the embryo starting at about ... Androgen regulation decreases the likelihood of depression in males. In preadolescent male rats, neonatal rats treated with ...
... the types of pollen that an ear of corn will accept through expression of certain forms of the Gametophyte Factor 1 gene. Many ... 2007). "How pollen tubes grow". Developmental Biology. 303 (2): 405-420. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2006.12.003. CS1 maint: Explicit ... regulations can cause their product to be rejected as organic corn, and for which they have no recourse against GMO growers. ... The popcorn remains free to donate its genes via its own pollen to other types of corn. The effectiveness of this restriction ...
regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of gene expression. • transcription, ... "Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Developmental Biology. 1 (4): 533-57. doi:10.1002/wdev.35. PMC 3404495. PMID 22844349.. ... In humans, PR is encoded by a single PGR gene residing on chromosome 11q22, it has two isoforms, PR-A and PR-B, that ... ensembl.org, Gene: ESR1 (ENSG00000091831) *^ Gadkar-Sable S, Shah C, Rosario G, Sachdeva G, Puri C (2005). "Progesterone ...
Regulation of gene expression. *Gene regulatory network. *Developmental-genetic toolkit. *Evolutionary developmental biology ... Such a gene that exhibits multiple phenotypic expression is called a pleiotropic gene . Therefore mutation in a pleiotropic ... developmental pleiotropy, and selectional pleiotropy. Gene pleiotropy occurs when a gene product interacts with multiple other ... One basic model of pleiotropy's origin describes a single gene locus to the expression of a certain trait. The locus affects ...
For example, increased maternal licking and grooming has been shown to alter expression of the glutocorticoid receptor gene ... Horton TH (Jan 2005). "Fetal origins of developmental plasticity: animal models of induced life history variation". Am. J. Hum ... Exposure to mild or moderate stressors early in life has been shown to enhance HPA regulation and promote a lifelong resilience ... de Kloet ER, Sibug RM, Helmerhorst FM, Schmidt MV, Schmidt M (April 2005). "Stress, genes and the mechanism of programming the ...
This affects their function of gene regulation. In general, genes that are active have less bound histone, while inactive genes ... In budding yeast, the candidate gene for activation of histone gene expression is SBF. SBF is a transcription factor that is ... "A bivalent chromatin structure marks key developmental genes in embryonic stem cells". Cell. 125 (2): 315-26. doi:10.1016/j. ... "NPAT links cyclin E-Cdk2 to the regulation of replication-dependent histone gene transcription". Genes & Development. 14 (18): ...
Transcription and mRNA splicing - Gene expression.. Notable cell biologistsEdit. *Jean Baptiste Carnoy ... Cell signaling - Regulation of cell behavior by signals from outside.. *Division - By which cells reproduce either by mitosis ( ... Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
"Seizures and the regulation of neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide gene expression in brain". Epilepsy Research. Supplement. 4 ... Although BDNF is needed in the developmental stages, BDNF levels have been shown to decrease in tissues with aging. Studies ... positive regulation of receptor binding. • regulation of protein localization to cell surface. • regulation of receptor ... Expression. The BDNF protein is encoded by a gene that is also called BDNF, found in humans on chromosome 11. ...
The gap genes act at the top of this regulatory hierarchy. Expression of the gap genes occurs in discrete domains along the ... developmental biology emerged as a field of study which attempts to correlate the genes with morphological change, and so tries ... Farley, Brian M.; Ryder, Sean P. (January 2008). "Regulation of Maternal mRNAs in Early Development". Critical Reviews in ... Zygotic expression of the gap genes is thought to be required for the subdivision of the embryo into several units of adjacent ...
List of atheists in science and technology
Eugene Paul Wigner; Andrew Szanton (1992). Andrew Szanton, ed. The Recollections of Eugene P. Wigner As Told to Andrew Szanton ... nor even with an expression of emotional antipathy, for he loved to use religious expressions and metaphors, but simply by ... PZ Myers (1957-): American evolutionary developmental biologist at the University of Minnesota and a blogger via his blog, ... a liberal who advocated state regulation, an individualist who championed social cooperation, and a very private public ...
Regulation of gene expression. *Gene regulatory network. *Developmental-genetic toolkit. *Evolutionary developmental biology ... Hall, B.K., Hallgrímsson, B. Monroe, W.S. (2008). Strickberger's evolution: the integration of genes, organisms and populations ... Such retention is important in evolutionary biology, domestication, and evolutionary developmental biology. ... the fitness of the individual because the female is producing more offspring and therefore passing on more of her genes. In ...
... the regulation of gene expression, and responses to oxidative stress. The importance of proteolytic degradation inside cells ... The cellular consequences of ARF activation depend on the plant type and developmental stage, but are involved in directing ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-Jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ... Certain transcription factors regulating the expression of specific genes, including one component of the mammalian complex NF- ...
Regulation of gene expression. *Gene regulatory network. *Developmental-genetic toolkit. *Evolutionary developmental biology ... then gene A is epistatic and gene B is hypostatic. For example, the gene for total baldness is epistatic to the gene for brown ... Epistasis within genes. Just as mutations in two separate genes can be non-additive if those genes interact, mutations in ... The hair-colour genes are hypostatic to the baldness gene. The baldness phenotype supersedes genes for hair colour and so the ...
Narcissistic personality disorder
However, the specific genes and gene interactions that contribute to its cause-and how they may influence the developmental and ... The brain regions identified in the above studies are associated with empathy, compassion, emotional regulation, and cognitive ... effective expression, empathy, discussion and problem solving/conflict resolution". Marital/relationship ... Masterson, James F (June 1981). The Narcissistic and Borderline Disorders: An Integrated Developmental Approach (First ed.). ...
LIG3, a enciclopedia libre
"Structure and function of the DNA ligases encoded by the mammalian LIG3 gene". Gene. 531 (2): 150-157. doi:10.1016/J.GENE. ... "DNA ligase IV mutations identified in patients exhibiting developmental delay and immunodeficiency". Mol. Cell 8 (6): 1175-85. ... "Up-regulation of WRN and DNA ligase III-alpha in chronic myeloid leukemia: consequences for the repair of DNA double-strand ... "Molecular cloning and expression of human cDNAs encoding a novel DNA ligase IV and DNA ligase III, an enzyme active in DNA ...
Platelet-derived growth factor
Downstream effects of this include regulation of gene expression and the cell cycle. The role of PI3K has been investigated by ... PDGFs are mitogenic during early developmental stages, driving the proliferation of undifferentiated mesenchyme and some ... and gene expression and significantly augmented the influx of inflammatory cells and fibroblasts, accelerating extracellular ... It has been shown that the sis oncogene is derived from the PDGF B-chain gene. PDGF-BB is the highest-affinity ligand for the ...
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein
More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • phospholipase binding. • GTPase regulator activity. • SH3 ... negative regulation of cell motility. • blood coagulation. • positive regulation of Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation. • ... "Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. 24 (4): 258-66. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2012.12.005. PMC 3656410. PMID 23291261.. ... regulation of stress fiber assembly. • negative regulation of stress fiber assembly. • cellular response to interferon-gamma. ...
"Tissue expression and developmental regulation of chicken cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides". Journal of Animal Science and ... "Entrez Gene: CAMP cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide".. *^ a b c d e Zanetti M (January 2004). "Cathelicidins, multifunctional ... positive regulation of interleukin-8 secretion. • defense response. • negative regulation of growth of symbiont on or near host ... "The expression of the gene coding for the antibacterial peptide LL-37 is induced in human keratinocytes during inflammatory ...
However, this effect is not a direct result of PrP's absence, and rather arises from increased Doppel gene expression. ... negative regulation of T cell receptor signaling pathway. • regulation of protein localization. • negative regulation of ... Initial attempts produced two strains of PrP-null mice that shows no physiological or developmental differences when subjected ... regulation of glutamate receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of neuron death. • negative regulation of amyloid- ...
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency
Besides these effects, it has also been shown that "...a developmental down-regulation of GABAA receptor mediated ... Such diseases are caused by an error in a single DNA gene. Because the disease is autosomal, the defective gene is found on an ... proved that repeated exposure of GHB to MAP kinase affected myelin expression. This is a critical finding since myelin is the ... It is believed that the genetic basis for SSADH deficiency resides in the SSADH human ALDH5A1 gene which maps to chromosome ...
Regulation of gene expression. *Gene regulatory network. *Developmental-genetic toolkit. *Evolutionary developmental biology ... Morris KL (2008). "Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression". RNA and the Regulation of Gene Expression: A Hidden Layer of ... There are several layers of regulation of gene expression. One way that genes are regulated is through the remodeling of ... They control gene expression including virulence genes in pathogens and are viewed as new targets in the fight against drug- ...
Posttraumatic stress disorder
A developmental perspective on risk-modifying factors". Archives of General Psychiatry. 53 (5): 416-23. doi:10.1001/archpsyc. ... the differential expression of symptoms culturally (specifically with respect to avoidance and numbing symptoms, distressing ... In children and adolescents, there is a strong association between emotional regulation difficulties (e.g. mood swings, anger ... "PTSD and gene variants: new pathways and new thinking". Neuropharmacology. 62 (2): 628-37. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.02. ...
Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
... these proteins control gene expression within the cell of origin, and when released exert homeostatic and developmental control ... A common novel function within human aaRSs is providing additional regulation of biological processes. There exists a theory ... Aminoacyl tRNA therefore plays an important role in RNA translation, the expression of genes to create proteins. ... TARS (gene). References. *^ McClain WH (November 1993). "Rules that govern tRNA identity in protein synthesis". Journal ...
Single cell sequencing
... such as long-noncoding RNA and microRNAs in gene expression regulation. Small-seq is a single-cell method that captures small ... scRNA-Seq is becoming widely used across biological disciplines including Developmental biology, Neurology, Oncology,[ ... patterns of gene expression can be identified through gene clustering analyses. This can uncover the existence of rare cell ... Specifically, scientists have used gene expression profiles from pan-cancer datasets in order to build coexpression networks, ...
Gene regulation. Main article: Regulation of gene expression. At the cellular level, homeostasis is carried out by ... receptors include nuclear receptors that bring about changes in gene expression through up-regulation or down-regulation, and ... Main articles: Blood sugar regulation and Glycolysis § Regulation of the rate limiting enzymes ... Copper regulation. Main article: Copper in health § Homeostasis. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to ...
Aging , developmental biology , gene expression , genetics , infertility , Notch , ovarian cancer , ovary , reproductive ... is to elucidate the mechanisms of the TAF4b subunit of TFIID in the regulation of ovarian-specific networks of gene expression ... As an application of our research, we aim to understand how the disruption of normal gene expression networks may affect the ... In 1998, he moved to UC Berkeley where he conducted postdoctoral studies on mechanisms of tissue-specific gene expression. This ...
Developmental expression and nutritional regulation of a zebrafish gene homologous to mammalian microsomal triglyceride...
Developmental expression and nutritional regulation of a zebrafish gene homologous to mammalian microsomal triglyceride ... Real-time quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the developmental regulation and tissue-specificity of mtp expression. A significant ... The nutritional regulation of zebrafish mtp expression observed in the anterior intestine supports the notion that this protein ... We have found a zebrafish mtp homologous gene coding a protein with 54% identity with human MTP large subunit with the most ...
Experts and Doctors on developmental gene expression regulation in Kyoto, Japan
Research Topics about Experts and Doctors on developmental gene expression regulation in Kyoto, Japan ... Experts and Doctors on developmental gene expression regulation in Kyoto, Japan. Summary. Locale: Kyoto, Japan ... You are here: Locale , Japan , Experts and Doctors on developmental gene expression regulation in Kyoto, Japan ... Ogasawara M, Wada H, Peters H, Satoh N. Developmental expression of Pax1/9 genes in urochordate and hemichordate gills: insight ...
Developmental Stage-Specific and Nitrate-Independent Regulation of Nitrate Reductase Gene Expression in Rapeseed | Plant...
Developmental Stage-Specific and Nitrate-Independent Regulation of Nitrate Reductase Gene Expression in Rapeseed. H. Fukuoka, T ... Developmental Stage-Specific and Nitrate-Independent Regulation of Nitrate Reductase Gene Expression in Rapeseed ... Developmental Stage-Specific and Nitrate-Independent Regulation of Nitrate Reductase Gene Expression in Rapeseed ... Developmental Stage-Specific and Nitrate-Independent Regulation of Nitrate Reductase Gene Expression in Rapeseed ...
Developmental Regulation of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Gene Expression by the MSX and DLX Homeodomain Protein Families
... *. ... Therefore, we propose that MSX and DLX family members participate in developmental regulation of GnRH gene expression. ... result in dynamic regulation of GnRH promoter expression. Indeed, the transcriptional activity of the GnRH gene appears to be ... in regulation of gene expression during development is well documented in vertebrate and invertebrate species (19-23). ...
Genome-wide gene expression analysis supports a developmental model of low temperature tolerance gene regulation in wheat ...
Analysis of variance of gene expression separated the samples by genetic background and by the developmental stage before or ... The levels of expression of these genes were highly influenced by the initial rate and the duration of the genes response to ... The results support the developmental model of LT tolerance gene regulation and demonstrate the complex genotype by environment ... Using gene-specific ANOVA we identified 12,901 genes (at p < 0.001) that change in expression with respect to both genotype and ...
Cloning and expression analysis of a gene that shows developmental regulation upon tuberization in potato, Plant Molecular...
"Cloning and expression analysis of a gene that shows developmental regulation upon tuberization in potato, Plant Molecular ... Cloning and expression analysis of a gene that shows developmental regulation upon tuberization in potato. Jackson, Stephen; ... Cloning and expression analysis of a gene that shows developmental regulation upon tuberization in potato. Cloning and ... expression analysis of a gene that shows developmental regulation upon tuberization... Jackson, Stephen; Gascón, Jordi; Carrera ...
Browsing BioMedCentral SWORD Deposits by Subject "Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental"
Temporal Regulation of Shaker- andShab-Like Potassium Channel Gene Expression in Single Embryonic Spinal Neurons during K+...
Other current properties were distributed similarly despite differential gene expression. The developmental increase in ... Temporal Regulation of Shaker- andShab-Like Potassium Channel Gene Expression in Single Embryonic Spinal Neurons during K+ ... Temporal Regulation of Shaker- andShab-Like Potassium Channel Gene Expression in Single Embryonic Spinal Neurons during K+ ... Temporal Regulation of Shaker- andShab-Like Potassium Channel Gene Expression in Single Embryonic Spinal Neurons during K+ ...
Enriched expression and developmental regulation of the middle-weight neurofilament (NF-M) gene in song control nuclei of the...
Enriched expression and developmental regulation of the middle-weight neurofilament (NF-M) gene in song control nuclei of the ... Enriched expression and developmental regulation of the middle-weight neurofilament (NF-M) gene in song control nuclei of the ... Enriched expression and developmental regulation of the middle-weight neurofilament (NF-M) gene in song control nuclei of the ... Enriched expression and developmental regulation of the middle-weight neurofilament (NF-M) gene in song control nuclei of the ...
Developmental regulation of gene expression and astrocytic processes may explain selective hippocampal vulnerability<...
Lavenex, P., Sugden, S. G., Davis, R. R., Gregg, J., & Lavenex, P. B. (2011). Developmental regulation of gene expression and ... Developmental regulation of gene expression and astrocytic processes may explain selective hippocampal vulnerability. In: ... Developmental regulation of gene expression and astrocytic processes may explain selective hippocampal vulnerability. / Lavenex ... Lavenex, P, Sugden, SG, Davis, RR, Gregg, J & Lavenex, PB 2011, Developmental regulation of gene expression and astrocytic ...
Regulation of gene expression - Wikipedia
Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, ... "Gene modulation" redirects here. For information on therapeutic regulation of gene expression, see therapeutic gene modulation. ... Main article: Gene regulatory network. Up-regulation and down-regulation. Up-regulation is a process that occurs within a ... Regulated stages of gene expression. Any step of gene expression may be modulated, from the DNA-RNA transcription step to ...
Developmental Regulation of Myosin Heavy Chain Gene Expression in Cultured Rat Cardiac Muscle Cells | NTU Scholars
Cell, Molecular, Health, and Disease (CMHD) | Department of Biology | Baylor University
Regulation of Gene Expression Bessie Kebaara, PhD. The Kebaara lab is interested in regulation of gene expression at the ... Developmental Genetics. Myeongwoo Lee, PhD. Experimental model system: The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans ... Thus, NMD plays dual roles, one in mRNA surveillance and a second in regulation of gene expression. Our goal is to understand ... One of our major goals is to understand complex biological systems by employing a range of techniques including gene expression ...
Molecular and Cellular Biology in Bloomington, Indiana United States from Indiana University
Gene expression regulation • Microbial development, environmental interactions, and pathogenesis • Mitosis, meiosis, and the ... Ph.D.-Molecular Biology; Ph.D.-Cellular Biology; Ph.D.-Developmental Biology; Ph.D.-Genetics; Ph.D.-Microbiology; Ph.D.-Plant ... You will have access to key research areas within broad disciplines such as cell biology; developmental biology; genetics; ... cytoskeleton • Molecular evolution and evolutionary developmental biology • Plant development and plant-pathogen interactions ...
Dr Andy Eamens / Staff Profile / The University of Newcastle, Australia
Regulation of gene expression by miRNA-guided cleavage has been extensively studied, but there is much less information about ... the importance of small RNA-driven gene regulation has been recognized and implicated in central developmental processes as ... are present in most eukaryotes and are central effectors of RNA silencing-mediated mechanisms for gene expression regulation. ... the importance of small RNA-driven gene regulation has been recognized and implicated in central developmental processes as ...
Genetic and epigenetic regulation of gene expression in fetal and adult human livers | BMC Genomics | Full Text
Our analyses generated a comprehensive resource of factors involved in the regulation of hepatic gene expression, and allowed ... and gene expression levels (526 unique genes (eQTL)), at a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05. Of the 526 unique eQTL associated ... we identified 657 differentially methylated genes with adult-specific expression, these genes were enriched for transcription ... However, there is substantial inter-individual variation in hepatic gene expression, and although numerous genetic factors have ...
Patent US7356416 - Method and system for automated inference creation of physico-chemical ... - Google Patents
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/drug effects. MH -. Mesoderm/drug effects/*physiology. MH -. Microinjections. ... given a gene expression profile indicating that expression of Gene X is inhibited in cells treated with Compound Y, this datum ... Gene expression and evaluation system. WO2000015847A2. Sep 8, 1999. Mar 23, 2000. Gene Logic, Inc.. Genomic knowledge discovery ... with the genes said gene expression profile reveals to be up-regulated or down-regulated under pre-determined experimental ...
Doublecortin-like, a microtubule-associated protein expressed in radial glia, is crucial for neuronal precursor division and...
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental * Mice * Microtubule-Associated Proteins / genetics * Microtubules / physiology * ... Our data emphasize the unique role of the DCLK gene in mitotic spindle integrity during early neurogenesis. In addition, they ... In vivo knockdown of the DCLK gene by in utero electroporation significantly reduced cell numbers in the inner proliferative ...
Regulation of invasive cell behavior by taiman, a Drosophila protein related to AIB1, a steroid receptor coactivator amplified...
Here we report the identification of a Drosophila gene, named taiman, which encodes a steroid hormone receptor coactivator ... Steroid hormones are key regulators of numerous physiological and developmental processes, including metastasis of breast and ... Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental * Genetic Testing * Molecular Sequence Data * Mosaicism * Mutation / physiology ... Regulation of invasive cell behavior by taiman, a Drosophila protein related to AIB1, a steroid receptor coactivator amplified ...
Profiling gene expression during root induction in juvenile and mature cuttings of Eucalyptus grandis revealed developmental...
The results suggest developmental and auxin regulation of MTs. To determine the relevance to adventitious root (AR) formation, ... Profiling gene expression during root induction in juvenile and mature cuttings of Eucalyptus grandis revealed developmental ... These included genes related to the microtubules (MTs) system. Therefore, expression of 42 transcripts annotated as tubulin or ... A comprehensive microarray analysis was performed to compare the profiles of gene expression in juvenile and mature cuttings ...
9780077405656 - LSC Chemistry, Cell Biology and | eCampus.com
12 Gene Expression at the Molecular Level. 13 Gene Regulation. 14 Mutation, DNA Repair, and Cancer. 15 Eukaryotic Chromosomes, ... 19 Developmental Genetics. 20 Genetic Technology. 21 Genomes, Proteomes, and Bioinformatics. Rewards Program. ... 9 Cell Communication and Regulation of the Cell Cycle. 10 Multicellularity. Unit 3 Genetics. 11 Nucleic Acid Structure and DNA ...
Life Sciences MSc by Research MSc by Research (Postgraduate) : Study : University of Dundee
developmental and stem cell biology. *drug discovery. *gene regulation and expression. *immunology/immunotherapy ... Gene regulation and expression. You will undertake research to answer some of the most basic questions in biology - how genes ... Developmental and stem cell biology. Developmental biology studies how organisms grow and develop and is closely aligned with ...
What You Will Study (Postgraduate) : Study : University of Dundee
Cell and Developmental Biology Graduate Program - Oregon Health & Science University - Graduate Programs and Degrees
Cell and Developmental Biology Graduate Program at Oregon Health & Science University provides on-going educational ... signal transduction and developmental regulation of gene expression; regulation of cell proliferation, growth, and motility; ... Oregon Health & Science University / Cell and Developmental Biology Graduate Program is located in Portland, OR, in an urban ... Interested in Cell and Developmental Biology Graduate Program? Admissions officers are waiting to hear from you! ...
The T Cell Receptor: Its Repertoire and Role in Thymocyte Development | SpringerLink
Although the discovery of the genes and protein of the T cell receptor has solved some immunological problems many issues ... Developmental regulation of T cell receptor gene expression. Nature 314:103, (1985).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... T-cell receptor β chain expression: Dependence on relatively few variable region genes. Science 229:566, (1985).ADSCrossRef ... expression of T cell antigen receptor during fetal development in the thymus. Nature 315:232, (1985).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Phytochrome Regulation and Differential Expression of Gibberellin 3β-Hydroxylase Genes in Germinating Arabidopsis Seeds | Plant...
Developmental Regulation of the GA4 and GA4H Genes. To investigate the roles of the GA4 and GA4H genes during plant development ... Developmental Regulation of GA4 and GA4H Expression.. Autoradiography of RNA gel blots containing 25 μg of total RNAs isolated ... Phytochrome Regulation of GA4 and GA4H Expression. We have shown that GA4 and GA4H expression in dark-imbibed wild-type seeds ... Phytochrome Regulation and Differential Expression of Gibberellin 3β-Hydroxylase Genes in Germinating Arabidopsis Seeds. ...
GENETICS 3520 - Gene Expression & Hum & Dev Genetics (Theory) III | Course Outlines
Developmental Neurogenetics and work on Literature Review. 3. Lecture. Developmental Neurogenetics / Regulation of Gene ... Copies of scientific papers for Gene Regulation and Developmental Genetics aspects of the. course (supplied by the lecturers). ... of the mechanisms that control gene expression, the genetic determination of developmental pathways, the various types of human ... of the mechanisms that control gene expression, the genetic determination of developmental pathways, the various types of human ...
DNA Methylation Research Trends
Handbook on Longevity: Genetics, Diet and Disease
Lonely young adults in modern Britain: findings from an epidemiological cohort study
Developmental Psychology 40, 149-161.. Cole, SW, et al. (2007) Social regulation of gene expression in human leukocytes. Genome ... changes in gene expression (Cole et al. 2007), elevated cortisol (Adam et al. 2006), cognitive impairments (Shankar et al. 2013 ... Developmental Psychology 52, 943-959.. Luo, Y, et al. (2012) Loneliness, health and mortality in old age: a national ... Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre. , Institute of Psychiatry. , Psychology and Neuroscience. , Kings College London ...
CellularMechanismsMouseCellDevelopmentBiologyGeneticsProteinsTarget genesPathwaysMRNACellularDifferentiationPolymeraseArabidopsisProcessesHumansEmbryoMutationsNeuronsMicroRNARegulatoryEpigeneticSubsetSpecificityStructuralBacteriaLociPatternsReplicationChromatinMiRNA targetPromotersMoleculesReceptorsRegulates developmentalOrganismProtein-codinDifferentiallyOrganismsTranscription factorHomologTranscriptional activationFetal liverPhysiologicalRolesPlantVariationHistone
- Richard Freiman is molecular geneticist studying fundamental mechanisms of transcriptional regulation in mammalian development and human disease. (brown.edu)
- Before joining the Brown faculty in 2003, Dr. Freiman completed graduate training in mechanisms garnering eukaryotic transcriptional regulation. (brown.edu)
- In 1998, he moved to UC Berkeley where he conducted postdoctoral studies on mechanisms of tissue-specific gene expression. (brown.edu)
- His recent work focuses on understanding the molecular etiology of infertility and ovarian cancer in women and mechanisms of spermatogonial stem cell regulation in men. (brown.edu)
- Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways , respond to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources. (wikipedia.org)
- Louise and I, using a number of innovative molecular biology techniques, identified and characterised two new machinery proteins involved in the endogenous gene regulatory pathway of plants, the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway. (edu.au)
- Developmental biology studies how organisms grow and develop and is closely aligned with stem cell biology research. (dundee.ac.uk)
- You will undertake research to answer some of the most basic questions in biology - how genes are maintained, organised, inherited, copied and controlled to underpin complex life. (dundee.ac.uk)
- Oregon Health & Science University / Cell and Developmental Biology Graduate Program is located in Portland, OR, in an urban setting. (petersons.com)
- Developmental Biology 2008;316:6-20. (washington.edu)
- How specificity is maintained between stimulus and transcription of specific genes is a fundamental problem in cell biology. (jneurosci.org)
- Human evolutionary developmental biology or informally human evo-devo is the human-specific subset of evolutionary developmental biology. (wikipedia.org)
- Evolutionary developmental biology is the study of the evolution of developmental processes across different organisms. (wikipedia.org)
- Evolutionary developmental biology is primarily concerned with the ways in which evolution affects development, and seeks to unravel the causes of evolutionary innovations. (wikipedia.org)
- Brian Hall traces the roots of evolutionary developmental biology in his 2012 paper on its past present and future. (wikipedia.org)
- Many of the human evolutionary developmental biology studies have been modeled after primate studies and consider the two together in a comparative model. (wikipedia.org)
- Some of the work on human evolutionary developmental biology has centered around the neotenous features that present in humans, but are not shared across the primate spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
- The roles of genes and inheritance in the biology of humans and the organisms with which we interact. (uoguelph.ca)
- The X-linked loci Firre and Dxz4 are involved in autosomal gene regulation rather than XCI biology. (elifesciences.org)
- The Program in Cell and Molecular Biology at the University of Virginia offers comprehensive graduate training in modern biological sciences, emphasizing cellular, molecular, and developmental biology. (virginia.edu)
- The research interests of the faculty span the spectrum of modern cell and molecular biology, from studies on the intricate structure of biological molecules to the complex unfolding of developmental pathways in multicellular organisms. (virginia.edu)
- Maria Barna is an Assistant Professor in the Departments of Developmental Biology and Genetics at Stanford University. (stanford.edu)
- She completed her thesis work in the lab of Dr. Lee Niswander in the Developmental Biology Department at Sloan Kettering Institute in 2007. (stanford.edu)
- In 2013, she received a dual appointment as an Assistant Professor in the Departments of Developmental Biology and Genetics at Stanford University. (stanford.edu)
- She has also received the inaugural Elizabeth Hay award from the Society of Developmental Biology, the H.W. Mossman Award in Developmental Biology and the Tsuneko and Reiji Okazaki Award, among others. (stanford.edu)
- This research is opening a new field of study in which we apply sophisticated mass spectrometry, computational biology, genomics, and developmental genetics, to characterize a ribosome code to gene expression. (stanford.edu)
- Attendees can expect exciting sessions on RNA polymerase structural biology, mechanisms that control initiation, elongation, and termination, regulation of transcription in pathogens, RNA-based control, transcriptional networks, and connections between cell topology and gene expression. (faseb.org)
- The study of lymphocyte activation and gene expression is central to understanding the complex biology of these cells and offers hope for regulating these cells in different clinical settings. (keystonesymposia.org)
- Our results demonstrate that the Carnegie collection will be useful as a discovery tool in diverse areas of cell and developmental biology and suggest new strategies for greatly increasing the coverage of the Drosophila proteome with protein trap insertions. (genetics.org)
- THE central challenge of postsequence genomics is to learn how an enhanced knowledge of genes, transcripts, and proteins can be applied to better understand the biology of multicellular organisms. (genetics.org)
- The genetics of expression of an allotype. (springer.com)
- The course aims to give students a level of understanding of concepts and experimental techniques in the areas of gene regulation, developmental genetics and human genetics that would enable them to develop competencies expected of a university graduate in Genetics. (edu.au)
- This course will develop an understanding of the fundamental concepts in genetics, including patterns of inheritance, allelic variation, gene interaction, linkage, gene mapping and changes in chromosome structure and number. (uoguelph.ca)
- The course includes discussion of the genetic basis of human individual differences, gene frequencies in human populations, human behavioral genetics, human cytogenetics, biochemical genetics and developmental genetics, medical genetics and other aspects of human heredity. (uoguelph.ca)
- Fundamental aspects of genetics including the chromosomal basis of inheritance, cytogenetics, genes in populations and quantitative traits will be introduced. (uoguelph.ca)
- Single embryo RNA-seq combined with mouse genetics provides a comprehensive view on the roles of Rlim and Xist for the regulation of X-linked gene expression during early mouse embryogenesis. (elifesciences.org)
- Developmental genetics is the study of how genes control the growth and development of an organism throughout its life-cycle. (le.ac.uk)
- Therefore, expression of 42 transcripts annotated as tubulin or MTs associated proteins (MAPs) was validated in the same RNA samples. (datamed.org)
- This course provides an introduction to the structure of the gene and the relationship between genes and proteins with an in depth discussion of the processes of replication, transcription, translation, regulation of gene expression, mutation and DNA repair and recombination. (uoguelph.ca)
- Furthermore, myxobacteria contain a large number of proteins involved in signal transduction pathways and transcriptional regulation ( 10 - 12 ). (asm.org)
- The only significant annotation cluster containing an overrepresentation of genes regulated by CSF2 in TE was for secreted or extracellular proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
- In humans RNAP II consists of seventeen protein molecules (gene products encoded by POLR2A-L, where the proteins synthesized from 2C-, E-, and F-form homodimers). (wikiversity.org)
- The LIM domain is a zinc-binding amino acid motif that characterizes various proteins which function in protein-protein interactions and transcriptional regulation. (jneurosci.org)
- Expression patterns of several LIM protein genes are compatible with roles in vertebrate CNS development, but little is known about the expression, regulation, or function of LIM proteins in the mature CNS. (jneurosci.org)
- The specific combination of proteins synthesized varies with developmental, metabolic and environmental circumstances. (usda.gov)
- The function of genes is to pass on the information necessary to build proteins - and bodies - from one generation to the next. (le.ac.uk)
- Genes contain the information a cell needs to make proteins - a bit like a recipe for a living thing. (le.ac.uk)
- Different genes contain the information needed to make different proteins, and different proteins do different jobs in the cell. (le.ac.uk)
- The answer lies in special control genes that produce proteins that control the activity of other genes. (le.ac.uk)
- One way in which genes can influence the activity of other genes is through the production of proteins called transcription factors , which stick to special control sites in the DNA at the start of a gene to switch them on and off. (le.ac.uk)
- In animals, these responses might include regulation of translation of stress-induced proteins, alternative splicing of messenger RNA precursors, differential expression of allelic proteins, modulation of activities of small non-coding RNAs, regulation of mRNA turnover and control of RNA editing. (biologists.org)
- At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes ( Gene expression regulation ), mRNAs (RNA, Messenger ), and proteins. (jove.com)
- 2012). I went on to show, once again via the use of amiRNA technology, that DRB3 and DRB5 regulate the expression of DRB2-dependent miRNA target genes independently of target gene mRNA cleavage-based RNA silencing, the predominant mode of sRNA-directed RNA silencing in plants (Eamens et al . (edu.au)
- GSE10341), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 target genes are induced to a greater extent in null fetuses than in wt siblings, supporting the notion that mutants experience lower oxygen tension or have an enhanced response to hypoxia. (biomedsearch.com)
- Blumenfeld , M. , Maury , M. , Chouard , T. , Yaniv , M. & Condamine , H. (1991) Hepatic nuclear factor 1 (HNF1) shows a wider distribution than products of its known target genes in developing mouse. (springer.com)
- Different combinations of microRNAs are expressed in different cell types and may coordinately regulate cell-specific target genes. (nature.com)
- This latter finding led us to potential target genes containing TRF2-responsive promoters. (nature.com)
- We also identified additional TRF2-responsive target genes involved in DNA replication and cell proliferation. (nature.com)
- Figure 4: Microarray analysis of TRF2-responsive target genes. (nature.com)
- Via specific mRNA complementary pairing of target genes, miRNAs are able to regulate the expression of mRNA levels or inhibit protein translation following transcription. (nih.gov)
- p53 signals apoptosis through transactivation of various target genes that can be grouped as inducing apoptosis either intrinsically (via the mitochondria) or extrinsically (via death receptors). (asm.org)
- In addition to lecturing, I am taking a molecular approach to determine the role(s) of each of the five members of the Arabidopsis DRB protein family in the parallel sRNA-directed RNA silencing pathways of plants, specifically determining the 'DRB-dependence' of each sRNA species, and further to study the sRNA levels and sRNA target gene expression during abiotic stress, namely drought and salt stress. (edu.au)
- The aim is to give students an appreciation, at an advanced level, of the mechanisms that control gene expression, the genetic determination of developmental pathways, the various types of human genetic mutation that lead to disease and the pathogenic pathways from genotype to phenotype. (edu.au)
- These observations show that temporal features of action potentials (and associated Ca 2+ transients) regulate expression of neuronal genes by activating specific intracellular signaling pathways with appropriate temporal dynamics. (jneurosci.org)
- Although there is considerable information on the multiple signal transduction pathways leading from membrane depolarization to gene transcription, it is not fully understood how these reactions operate as a system to extract and transmit information from temporally varying stimulation. (jneurosci.org)
- The objective of the current experiment was to identify genes regulated by CSF2 in the ICM and trophectoderm (TE) of the bovine blastocyst with the goal of identifying possible molecular pathways by which CSF2 increases developmental competence for survival. (biomedcentral.com)
- Genes downregulated by CSF2 in ICM were overrepresented in several pathways including those for ERK and AKT signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
- In addition, genes downregulated in TE were overrepresented in TGFβ and Nanog pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
- Caenorhabditis elegans daf-11 and daf-21 mutants share defects in specific chemosensory responses mediated by several classes of sensory neurons, indicating that these two genes have closely related functions in an assortment of chemosensory pathways. (genetics.org)
- We use functional mouse genetic approaches, organ and cell culture, genome wide screen, in situ hybridization and other strategies to study the role of specific pathways in the developmental programs of the lung. (bu.edu)
- Additional factors that alter initiation, elongation, or termination of transcription program an amazing variety of developmental pathways. (faseb.org)
- Taken altogether, the data provide genetic evidence that suggests that induction of the AtAOX1a gene by distinct mitochondrial perturbations are via distinct, but overlapping signaling pathways that are tissue specific. (deepdyve.com)
- Whole-mount in situ hybridization experiments demonstrate that the mRNA accumulation is developmental stage specific. (plantphysiol.org)
- This indicates the unique regulation of NR in embryogenesis in which NR mRNA transcription is activated in a developmental stage-specific manner that is independent of nitrate induction. (plantphysiol.org)
- Although previous work demonstrates that maturation of I Kv depends on general mRNA synthesis, it is not known whether increases in K + channel gene transcripts direct maturation of the current. (jneurosci.org)
- Detection of a coexpressed housekeeping gene along with the potassium channel gene controlled for successful aspiration of cellular mRNA and allowed scoring of cells in which Kv gene transcripts were not detected. (jneurosci.org)
- The Kebaara lab is interested in regulation of gene expression at the messenger RNA level (mRNA). (baylor.edu)
- Thus, NMD plays dual roles, one in mRNA surveillance and a second in regulation of gene expression. (baylor.edu)
- The following is a list of stages where gene expression is regulated, the most extensively utilised point is Transcription Initiation: Chromatin domains Transcription Post-transcriptional modification RNA transport Translation mRNA degradation In eukaryotes, the accessibility of large regions of DNA can depend on its chromatin structure, which can be altered as a result of histone modifications directed by DNA methylation, ncRNA, or DNA-binding protein. (wikipedia.org)
- RNA binding protein FOX-1 functions as a dose-dependent X-signal element to communicate X-chromosome number and determine nematode sex by controlling alternative non-productive pre-mRNA splicing of the master sex-determination switch gene. (elifesciences.org)
- Our results demonstrate that mRNA levels of all transcription factors tested are significantly above background in the whole embryo and are either reduced or enhanced in expression during subsequent development. (springer.com)
- There is no lactose to inhibit the repressor , so the repressor binds to the operator , which obstructs the RNA polymerase from binding to the promoter and making the mRNA encoding the lactase gene. (wikipedia.org)
- In multicellular organisms, gene regulation drives cellular differentiation and morphogenesis in the embryo, leading to the creation of different cell types that possess different gene expression profiles from the same genome sequence. (wikipedia.org)
- Although investigation of specific lncRNAs revealed their role in the metabolism of cellular RNA, our understanding of their contribution to post-transcriptional regulation is relatively limited. (mdpi.com)
- The first is investigating ribosome-mediated control of gene expression genome-wide in space and time during cellular differentiation and organismal development. (stanford.edu)
- miR‑26b is an miRNA of 22 nt and is important in the regulation of cellular processes. (nih.gov)
- Gain a clearer understanding of the dynamic effects of chromatin restructuring on the expression of your gene-of-interest and increase gene expression in certain cellular contexts. (systembio.com)
- 1. A CLOuD9-induced chromatin loop at the β-globin locus leads to activation of gene expression in K562 cells but not in HEK293T cells, highlighting the importance of cellular context and the need for additional factors in gene expression. (systembio.com)
- Shukunami C, Takimoto A, Oro M, Hiraki Y. Scleraxis positively regulates the expression of tenomodulin, a differentiation marker of tenocytes. (labome.org)
- Our study indicates that, in addition to its role in preventing premature differentiation of early endocrine cells, Rbp-j regulates epithelial growth, Pdx1 expression, and acinar cell differentiation during mid-pancreatic development. (labome.org)
- A developmental increase in density of delayed rectifier potassium current ( I Kv ) in embryonic Xenopus spinal neurons shortens action potential durations and limits calcium influx governing neuronal differentiation. (jneurosci.org)
- Brn3a regulates neuronal subtype specification in the trigeminal ganglion by promoting Runx expression during sensory differentiation. (washington.edu)
- Brn3a and Islet1 act epistatically to regulate the gene expression program of sensory differentiation. (washington.edu)
- The role of retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) in hematopoiesis is very important, as the fusion of RARα gene with PML gene initiates acute promyelocytic leukemia where differentiation of the myeloid lineage is blocked, followed by an uncontrolled proliferation of leukemic blasts. (mdpi.com)
- Essential for the coupling of ERK cascade activation with the expression of ETS family genes in megakaryocytic differentiation. (uniprot.org)
- Lmo1, Lmo2, and Lmo3 are LIM-only genes originally identified as putative oncogenes that have been implicated in the control of cell differentiation and are active during CNS development. (jneurosci.org)
- miRNA expression has a time‑ and space specificity, and it is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, development, tumor metastasis occurrence and other biological processes. (nih.gov)
- Parent of origin imprints on the genome have been implicated in the regulation of neural cell type differentiation. (nih.gov)
- Analysis of imprinting in hpESCs and in hpNSCs revealed that maternal-specific gene expression patterns and imprinting marks were generally maintained in PG cells upon differentiation. (nih.gov)
- Our results demonstrate that despite the lack of a paternal genome, hpESCs generate proliferating NSCs that are capable of differentiation into physiologically functional neuron-like cells and maintain allele-specific expression of imprinted genes. (nih.gov)
- In the absence of functional Lhx2 neuronal differentiation was arrested prior to onset of OR expression. (diva-portal.org)
- C. elegans equalizes the expression of X-chromosome genes between the sexes by reducing the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to promoters of X-linked genes in hermaphrodites, using a chromosome-restructuring complex called condensin. (elifesciences.org)
- RNA polymerase II is recruited to the promoters of protein-coding genes in living cells. (wikiversity.org)
- A major step of gene expression regulation is the control of transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II. (usda.gov)
- The present study used reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect the relative expression levels of miR‑26b in the pituitary tissue of Yanbian cattle at different developmental stages. (nih.gov)
- Lactose is inhibiting the repressor, allowing the RNA polymerase to bind with the promoter and express the genes, which synthesize lactase. (wikipedia.org)
- For transcription to take place, the enzyme that synthesizes RNA, known as RNA polymerase , must attach to the DNA near a gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Poised RNA polymerase II changes over developmental time and prepares genes for future expression. (semanticscholar.org)
- Previous studies have indicated that light-induced germination of Arabidopsis seeds is mediated by the hormone gibberellin (GA). Using RNA gel blot analyses, we studied the regulation of two Arabidopsis genes, GA4 and GA4H (for GA4 homolog), both of which encode GA 3β-hydroxylases that catalyze the final biosynthetic step to produce bioactive GAs. (plantcell.org)
- To study this response, called mitochondrial retrograde regulation, and developmental gene expression, a transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) line containing a firefly luciferase gene controlled by a promoter region of the Arabidopsis alternative oxidase 1a gene (AtAOX1a) was created. (deepdyve.com)
- Arabidopsis alternative oxidase 1a gene ( AtAOX1a ) was created. (deepdyve.com)
- Here, we show that the expression of genes associated with glycolysis and glutamate metabolism in astrocytes and the coverage of excitatory synapses by astrocytic processes undergo significant decreases in the CA1 field of the monkey hippocampus during postnatal development. (elsevier.com)
- Given the established role of astrocytes in the regulation of glutamate concentration in the synaptic cleft, our findings suggest that a developmental decrease in astrocytic processes could underlie the selective vulnerability of CA1 during hypoxic-ischemic episodes in adulthood, its decreased susceptibility to febrile seizures with age, as well as contribute to the emergence of selective, adultlike memory function. (elsevier.com)
- In vivo knockdown of the DCLK gene by in utero electroporation significantly reduced cell numbers in the inner proliferative zones and dramatically disrupted most radial processes. (nih.gov)
- Steroid hormones are key regulators of numerous physiological and developmental processes, including metastasis of breast and ovarian cancer. (nih.gov)
- Student will be able to identify basic differences and common developmental principles of organisms and (s)he will be able to demonstrate them on the basic developmental processes of insects, amphibians, mammals and plants. (muni.cz)
- This branch supports studies on the mechanism and regulation of basic molecular processes and the interactions among these processes. (nih.gov)
- Genes play a vital role in controlling all of these processes. (le.ac.uk)
- The discovery of distinctive, regulated programs of gene expression at a fine scale has the potential to reveal new cell types and substructures that make up tissues and the biological processes that govern their function. (genetics.org)
- Maternally-derived signals called embryokines can alter developmental phenotype of the preimplantation embryo immediately or later during pre-natal or post-natal life [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The Hox genes confer positional information to the axial and paraxial tissues as they emerge gradually from the posterior aspect of the vertebrate embryo. (biologists.org)
- In wild type, expression was detected in both cotyledons (c), the embryo axis (a) and endosperm cell layer (e). (biologists.org)
- A newly fertilised egg cell has a collection of genes that contains all information needed to transform it from a single cell into an embryo and then an adult. (le.ac.uk)
- So, for example, homeotic or homeobox genes control whole sets of other genes to set out the basic body plan of the embryo, separating the front from the back, and producing the right body structure in the right place. (le.ac.uk)
- Anteroposterior polarity of the Drosophila embryo is initiated by the localized activities of the maternal genes, bicoid and nanos, which establish a gradient of the hunchback (hb) morphogen. (semanticscholar.org)
- Spatial control of the gap gene knirps in the Drosophila embryo by posterior morphogen system. (semanticscholar.org)
- Mutations in 3 genes (MKS3, CC2D2A and RPGRIP1L) cause COACH syndrome (Joubert syndrome with congenital hepatic fibrosis). (washington.edu)
- More than 3800 gene mutations are linked to inherited cardiomyopathies (ICs) and identification of underlying gene mutations continues to expand ( https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/ ). (frontiersin.org)
- abi3, fus3 and lec2 mutations affect At2S3 expression in seeds. (biologists.org)
- Kv1.1 and 2.2 are thus candidates for generation of I Kv , and spinal neurons are a heterogeneous population with respect to potassium channel gene expression. (jneurosci.org)
- Moreover, correlation of gene expression with current properties shows that neurons lacking Kv2.2 have a characteristic voltage dependence of activation of I Kv . (jneurosci.org)
- Here we show that the expression of the gene encoding the middle-weight neurofilament (NF-M), an important component of the neuronal cytoskeleton and a useful tool for studying the cytarchitectonic organization of mammalian cortical areas, is highly enriched in large neurons within pallial song control nuclei (nucleus HVC, robustus nucleus of the arcopallium, and lateral magnocellular nucleus of the nidopallium) of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). (elsevier.com)
- In the hippocampal formation, Lmo1, Lmo2 , and Lmo3 show different combinatorial patterns of expression levels in CA pyramidal and dentate granule neurons, and Lmo1 is present in topographically restricted subpopulations of astrocytes. (jneurosci.org)
- daf-11 and daf-21 mutants have similar defects in several of these responses (reviewed in R iddle and A lbert 1997 ), suggesting that the daf-11 and daf-21 gene products (DAF-11 and DAF-21) act at the same step to regulate chemosensory transduction in several types of sensory neurons. (genetics.org)
- During this Postdoctoral Fellowship (2006-2009), I developed an artificial microRNA (amiRNA) plant transformation vector that directs highly efficient and specific RNA silencing of a researcher's gene(s) of interest (Eamens and Waterhouse, Methods Mol Biol . (edu.au)
- In particular, we experimentally validate common regulation of Mtpn by miR-375 , miR-124 and let-7b and thus provide evidence for coordinate microRNA control in mammals. (nature.com)
- Expression of microRNA‑26b and identification of its target gene EphA2 in pituitary tissues in Yanbian cattle. (nih.gov)
- The GnRH regulatory region contains four conserved homeodomain binding sites (ATTA) that are essential for basal promoter activity and cell-specific expression of the GnRH gene. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Often, one gene regulator controls another, and so on, in a gene regulatory network . (wikipedia.org)
- Based on their function in GA biosynthesis, expression of GA 3β-hydroxylase genes is likely to play a key regulatory role in controlling the appropriate levels of active GAs during plant growth. (plantcell.org)
- Gene regulatory elements can target a chromatin regulatory complex to a single chromosome in the genome through hierarchical specification and long distance cooperation. (elifesciences.org)
- We propose that such lncRNA sponges can extensively rewire post-transcriptional gene regulatory networks by altering the protein-RNA interaction landscape in a cell-type-specific manner. (mdpi.com)
- Similar to other pathogens and gram-negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa has a global regulatory system known as quorum sensing (QS) that controls expression of numerous genes, many of which are associated with virulence ( 11 , 37 ). (asm.org)
- In particular, we seek to address whether fundamental aspects of gene regulation are controlled by ribosomes harboring a unique activity or composition that are tuned to translating specific transcripts by virtue of RNA regulatory elements embedded within their 5'UTRs. (stanford.edu)
- In recent years this work has been augmented by the availability of atomic-level structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNA polymerases and transcription factors in combination with systems-wide profiling of gene regulatory events. (faseb.org)
- Promoters represent critical elements that can work in concert with other regulatory regions ( enhancers , silencers , boundary elements/ insulators ) to direct the level of transcription of a given gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Some of these modifications that regulate gene expression are inheritable and are referred to as epigenetic regulation . (wikipedia.org)
- Interestingly, the epigenetic state of ADME genes, at least in rodent livers, can change in response to xenobiotic exposure [ 16 , 17 ], thus opening the perspective for epigenetics-mediated drug-drug interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
- More examples on epigenetic regulation of ADME genes have been reviewed by Kacevska et al. (biomedcentral.com)
- The contribution of epigenetic modifications of the ZTRE to age-associated changes in the regulation of zinc transporter gene expression. (ncl.ac.uk)
- We examined in more detail a subset of these genes (2,771) where expression was highly influenced by the interaction between these two main factors. (biomedcentral.com)
- These data suggest that TRF2 functions as a core promoter-selectivity factor responsible for coordinating transcription of a subset of genes in Drosophila . (nature.com)
- Real-time quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the developmental regulation and tissue-specificity of mtp expression. (nih.gov)
- sRNAs are then loaded onto effector complexes that use the sRNA as a sequence specificity determinant to regulate the expression of complementary target sequences at either the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. (edu.au)
- We observed that meQTL were more stable between tissues than eQTL and a very strong tissue-specificity for the identified associations between CpG methylation and gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
- In tandem, the functions annotated to the genes affected by alternative splicing across each lncRNA knockdown also displayed cell-type specificity. (mdpi.com)
- Also, cmr1Delta mutants do not express the melanin biosynthetic structural genes SCD1 and THR1 during mycelial melanization, although the expression of these two genes was not affected during appressorial melanization. (labome.org)
- Quantitative combined reverse transcription-poly-merase chain reaction analysis suggests that the flexible and variable regulation of NR expression, which is organ specific, nitrogen metabolite specific, and developmental stage specific, is caused principally by regulation of one major structural gene. (plantphysiol.org)
- In addition, these transcription factors and many liver-specific structural genes rise concomitantly in intestine and kidney just before birth, suggesting the expression of hepatogenic factors in these tissues as well. (springer.com)
- Gene Expr Patterns. (labome.org)
- Furthermore, we provide evidence that Ta.Vrn-A1 and Ta.Vrt1 originally hypothesized to encode for the same gene showed different patterns of expression and therefore are distinct. (biomedcentral.com)
- These kinetics limited the fidelity with which P-CREB could follow different patterns of action potentials, and P-CREB levels were not well correlated with c-fos expression. (jneurosci.org)
- The objective of the present study was to investigate whether differences in the temporal dynamics of the second messenger Ca 2+ and integration by downstream signaling elements could contribute to specific activation of genes in response to specific patterns of neuronal firing. (jneurosci.org)
- All axial and paraxial tissues between the middle of the hindbrain and the tip of the tail acquire differential and combinatorial Hox expression patterns, irrespective of whether they are segmented. (biologists.org)
- The complex network of DNA protein and protein-protein interactions determines the degree of transcription of a specific sequence and defines particular expression patterns. (usda.gov)
- Metazoan physiology depends on intricate patterns of gene expression that remain poorly known. (genetics.org)
- By sequencing the genomic insertion sites, determining splicing patterns downstream of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) exon, and analyzing expression patterns in the ovary and salivary gland, we found that 600-900 different genes are trapped in our collection. (genetics.org)
- Characterizing the splicing patterns that lead to normal or aberrant GFP expression tests the current catalog of transcript isoforms generated by alternative splicing. (genetics.org)
- Available only from SBI and featured in a recent Nature Communications article 1 , our CLOuD9 Gene Expression Regulation Kit gives you an exciting and innovative tool for studying-and potentially controlling-gene expression regulation by putting you in control of chromatin loop formation. (systembio.com)
- The polyhomeotic gene of Drosophila encodes a chromatin protein that shares polytene chromosome-binding sites with Polycomb. (semanticscholar.org)
- From a teleological standpoint, this arrangement [of focused promoters] is consistent with the notion that it would be easier to regulate the transcription of a gene with a single transcription start site than one with multiple start sites. (wikiversity.org)
- In contrast, ~46% of human core promoters contain the consensus INR (YYANWYY) and ~30% are INR-containing TATA-less genes. (wikiversity.org)
- Promoters are located near the transcription start sites of genes, upstream on the DNA (towards the 5' region of the sense strand ). (wikipedia.org)
- These transcription factors have specific activator or repressor sequences of corresponding nucleotides that attach to specific promoters and regulate gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
- As promoters are typically immediately adjacent to the gene in question, positions in the promoter are designated relative to the transcriptional start site , where transcription of DNA begins for a particular gene (i.e., positions upstream are negative numbers counting back from -1, for example -100 is a position 100 base pairs upstream). (wikipedia.org)
- In the cell nucleus, it seems that promoters are distributed preferentially at the edge of the chromosomal territories, likely for the co-expression of genes on different chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
- We survey recent work on how the signalling molecules that have a crucial role in the onset of patterning in the neural tube and mesoderm influence Hox gene transcription. (biologists.org)
- Receptors, enzymes and adapter molecules have been identified, signaling cascades and networks have been defined, and the complex regulation of gene expression has been explored. (keystonesymposia.org)
- By analyzing the methylomes and transcriptomes of 14 fetal and 181 adult livers, we identified 657 differentially methylated genes with adult-specific expression, these genes were enriched for transcription factor binding sites of HNF1A and HNF4A. (biomedcentral.com)
- To isolate genes putatively linked to Lhx2 function, genes differentially expressed in the HPC lines were isolated using a cDNA subtraction approach. (diva-portal.org)
- We also identified 1,000 genes specific to fetal liver, which were enriched for GATA1, STAT5A, STAT5B and YY1 binding sites. (biomedcentral.com)
- The antagonist of Wnt signalling, Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1), was identified in the former group of genes as it showed a similar expression pattern in the fetal liver, as that of Lhx2 and expression of Dkk-1 in fetal liver and in HPC lines appeared to be regulated by Lhx2. (diva-portal.org)