Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (fos) originally isolated from the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses. The proto-oncogene protein c-fos codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. The insertion of c-fos into FBJ-MSV or FBR-MSV induces osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The human c-fos gene is located at 14q21-31 on the long arm of chromosome 14.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.

In vivo and in vitro processing of the Bacillus subtilis transcript coding for glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, serine acetyltransferase, and cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase. (1/19133)

In Bacillus subtilis, the adjacent genes gltX, cysE, and cysS encoding respectively glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, serine acetyl-transferase, and cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase, are transcribed as an operon but a gltX probe reveals only the presence of a monocistronic gltX mRNA (Gagnon et al., 1994, J Biol Chem 269:7473-7482). The transcript of the gltX-cysE intergenic region contains putative alternative secondary structures forming a p-independent terminator or an antiterminator, and a conserved sequence (T-box) found in the leader of most aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and many amino acid biosynthesis genes in B. subtilis and in other Gram-positive eubacteria. The transcription of these genes is initiated 45 nt upstream from the first codon of gltX and is under the control of a sigmaA-type promoter. Analysis of the in vivo transcript of this operon revealed a cleavage site immediately downstream from the p-independent terminator structure. In vitro transcription analysis, using RNA polymerases from Escherichia coli, B. subtilis, and that encoded by the T7 phage, in the presence of various RNase inhibitors, shows the same cleavage. This processing generates mRNAs whose 5'-end half-lives differ by a factor of 2 in rich medium, and leaves putative secondary structures at the 3' end of the gltX transcript and at the 5' end of the cysE/S mRNA, which may be involved in the stabilization of these mRNAs. By its mechanism and its position, this cleavage differs from that of the other known transcripts encoding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in B. subtilis.  (+info)

In vitro study of two dominant inhibitory GTPase mutants of Escherichia coli translation initiation factor IF2. Direct evidence that GTP hydrolysis is necessary for factor recycling. (2/19133)

We have recently shown that the Escherichia coli initiation factor 2 (IF2) G-domain mutants V400G and H448E do not support cell survival and have a strong negative effect on growth even in the presence of wild-type IF2. We have isolated both mutant proteins and performed an in vitro study of their main functions. The affinity of both mutant proteins for GTP is almost unchanged compared with wild-type IF2. However, the uncoupled GTPase activity of the V400G and H448E mutants is severely impaired, the Vmax values being 11- and 40-fold lower, respectively. Both mutant forms promoted fMet-tRNAfMet binding to 70 S ribosomes with similar efficiencies and were as sensitive to competitive inhibition by GDP as wild-type IF2. Formation of the first peptide bond, as measured by the puromycin reaction, was completely inhibited in the presence of the H448E mutant but still significant in the case of the V400G mutant. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation revealed that, in contrast to wild-type IF2, both mutant proteins stay blocked on the ribosome after formation of the 70 S initiation complex. This probably explains their dominant negative effect in vivo. Our results underline the importance of GTP hydrolysis for the recycling of IF2.  (+info)

Transient gene asymmetry during sporulation and establishment of cell specificity in Bacillus subtilis. (3/19133)

Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is initiated by an asymmetric division generating two cells of different size and fate. During a short interval, the smaller forespore harbors only 30% of the chromosome until the remaining part is translocated across the septum. We demonstrate that moving the gene for sigmaF, the forespore-specific transcription factor, in the trapped region of the chromosome is sufficient to produce spores in the absence of the essential activators SpoIIAA and SpoIIE. We propose that transient genetic asymmetry is the device that releases SpoIIE phosphatase activity in the forespore and establishes cell specificity.  (+info)

Transcription of the stationary-phase-associated hspX gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is inversely related to synthesis of the 16-kilodalton protein. (4/19133)

The 16-kDa protein, an alpha-crystallin homologue, is one of the most abundant proteins in stationary-phase Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here, transcription and translation of the hspX gene, which encodes the 16-kDa protein, have been investigated by Northern blotting analysis, primer extension, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a microaerophilic stationary-phase model. Two transcripts of about 2.5 and 1.1 kb were demonstrated by Northern blot analysis and hybridized to the hspX gene probe. Primer extension analysis revealed that the transcription start site is located 33 nucleotides upstream of the hspX gene start codon. The cellular level of the hspX mRNA was maximum in log-phase bacilli and was markedly reduced after 20 days in unagitated culture, when the organisms had entered the stationary phase. A third transcript of 0.5 kb was detected 0.6 kb downstream of the hspX gene; this transcript has a transcriptional pattern completely different from that of the 1.1- and 2.5-kb products, suggesting that there may be another gene in this region. In contrast to the high level of hspX mRNA in log-phase bacilli, 16-kDa protein synthesis was low in log-phase bacteria and rose to its maximum after 20 days. In both log-phase and stationary-phase bacteria the mRNA was unstable, with a half-life of 2 min, which indicated that the transcript stability was growth rate independent and not a general means for controlling the gene expression. However, the cellular content of 16-kDa protein, while low in log-phase bacteria, rose to a maximum at 10 days and remained at this high level for up to 50 days, which indicates that this protein is a stable molecule with a low turnover rate. These data suggest that the regulation of hspX expression during entry into and maintenance of stationary phase involves translation initiation efficiency and protein stability as potential mechanisms.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of SirA, an iron-regulated protein from Staphylococcus aureus. (5/19133)

The acquisition of iron by pathogenic bacteria is often a crucial step in establishing infection. To accomplish this, many bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, produce low-molecular-weight iron-chelating siderophores. However, the secretion and transport of these molecules in gram-positive organisms are poorly understood. The sequence, organization, and regulation of genes involved in siderophore transport are conserved among gram-negative bacteria. We used this information to identify a putative siderophore transport locus from an S. aureus genomic sequence database. This locus contains three predicted open reading frames with a high degree of homology to genes involved in siderophore uptake in several bacterial species, in particular the cbr locus of the plant pathogen Erwinia chrysanthemi. The first gene in the locus, which we have designated sir for staphylococcal iron regulated, encodes a putative lipoprotein with a molecular mass of 37 kDa. The open reading frame is preceded by a 19-bp region of dyad symmetry with homology for operator sequences controlling iron-regulated expression of genes in other bacteria. Fur titration experiments indicate that this region of dyad symmetry is sufficient for Fur-dependent regulation in Escherichia coli. The expression of this gene was repressed, in a dose-dependent manner, by the addition of iron to the S. aureus culture medium. sir-encoded proteins may be involved in iron acquisition in vivo and therefore may be targets for antimicrobial agents.  (+info)

Nitrate-dependent regulation of acetate biosynthesis and nitrate respiration by Clostridium thermoaceticum. (6/19133)

Nitrate has been shown to shunt the electron flow in Clostridium thermoaceticum from CO2 to nitrate, but it did not influence the levels of enzymes involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (J. M. Frostl, C. Seifritz, and H. L. Drake, J. Bacteriol. 178:4597-4603, 1996). Here we show that under some growth conditions, nitrate does in fact repress proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The CO oxidation activity in crude extracts of nitrate (30 mM)-supplemented cultures was fivefold less than that of nitrate-free cultures, while the H2 oxidation activity was six- to sevenfold lower. The decrease in CO oxidation activity paralleled a decrease in CO dehydrogenase (CODH) protein level, as confirmed by Western blot analysis. Protein levels of CODH in nitrate-supplemented cultures were 50% lower than those in nitrate-free cultures. Western blots analyses showed that nitrate also decreased the levels of the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (60%) and methyltransferase (70%). Surprisingly, the decrease in activity and protein levels upon nitrate supplementation was observed only when cultures were continuously sparged. Northern blot analysis indicates that the regulation of the proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway by nitrate is at the transcriptional level. At least a 10-fold decrease in levels of cytochrome b was observed with nitrate supplementation whether the cultures were sparged or stoppered. We also detected nitrate-inducible nitrate reductase activity (2 to 39 nmol min-1 mg-1) in crude extracts of C. thermoaceticum. Our results indicate that nitrate coordinately represses genes encoding enzymes and electron transport proteins in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and activates transcription of nitrate respiratory proteins. CO2 also appears to induce expression of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway genes and repress nitrate reductase activity.  (+info)

Environmental signals modulate ToxT-dependent virulence factor expression in Vibrio cholerae. (7/19133)

The regulatory protein ToxT directly activates the transcription of virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae, including cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). Specific environmental signals stimulate virulence factor expression by inducing the transcription of toxT. We demonstrate that transcriptional activation by the ToxT protein is also modulated by environmental signals. ToxT expressed from an inducible promoter activated high-level expression of CT and TCP in V. cholerae at 30 degrees C, but expression of CT and TCP was significantly decreased or abolished by the addition of 0.4% bile to the medium and/or an increase of the temperature to 37 degrees C. Also, expression of six ToxT-dependent TnphoA fusions was modulated by temperature and bile. Measurement of ToxT-dependent transcription of genes encoding CT and TCP by ctxAp- and tcpAp-luciferase fusions confirmed that negative regulation by 37 degrees C or bile occurs at the transcriptional level in V. cholerae. Interestingly, ToxT-dependent transcription of these same promoters in Salmonella typhimurium was relatively insensitive to regulation by temperature or bile. These data are consistent with ToxT transcriptional activity being modulated by environmental signals in V. cholerae and demonstrate an additional level of complexity governing the expression of virulence factors in this pathogen. We propose that negative regulation of ToxT-dependent transcription by environmental signals prevents the incorrect temporal and spatial expression of virulence factors during cholera pathogenesis.  (+info)

Role of ribosome release in regulation of tna operon expression in Escherichia coli. (8/19133)

Expression of the degradative tryptophanase (tna) operon of Escherichia coli is regulated by catabolite repression and tryptophan-induced transcription antitermination. In cultures growing in the absence of added tryptophan, transcription of the structural genes of the tna operon is limited by Rho-dependent transcription termination in the leader region of the operon. Tryptophan induction prevents this Rho-dependent termination, and requires in-frame translation of a 24-residue leader peptide coding region, tnaC, that contains a single, crucial, Trp codon. Studies with a lacZ reporter construct lacking the spacer region between tnaC and the first major structural gene, tnaA, suggested that tryptophan induction might involve cis action by the TnaC leader peptide on the ribosome translating the tnaC coding region. The leader peptide was hypothesized to inhibit ribosome release at the tnaC stop codon, thereby blocking Rho's access to the transcript. Regulatory studies with deletion constructs of the tna operon of Proteus vulgaris supported this interpretation. In the present study the putative role of the tnaC stop codon in tna operon regulation in E. coli was examined further by replacing the natural tnaC stop codon, UGA, with UAG or UAA in a tnaC-stop codon-tnaA'-'lacZ reporter construct. Basal level expression was reduced to 20 and 50% when the UGA stop codon was replaced by UAG or UAA, respectively, consistent with the finding that in E. coli translation terminates more efficiently at UAG and UAA than at UGA. Tryptophan induction was observed in strains with any of the stop codons. However, when UAG or UAA replaced UGA, the induced level of expression was also reduced to 15 and 50% of that obtained with UGA as the tnaC stop codon, respectively. Introduction of a mutant allele encoding a temperature-sensitive release factor 1, prfA1, increased basal level expression 60-fold when the tnaC stop codon was UAG and 3-fold when this stop codon was UAA; basal level expression was reduced by 50% in the construct with the natural stop codon, UGA. In strains with any of the three stop codons and the prfA1 mutation, the induced levels of tna operon expression were virtually identical. The effects of tnaC stop codon identity on expression were also examined in the absence of Rho action, using tnaC-stop codon-'lacZ constructs that lack the tnaC-tnaA spacer region. Expression was low in the absence of tnaC stop codon suppression. In most cases, tryptophan addition resulted in about 50% inhibition of expression when UGA was replaced by UAG or UAA and the appropriate suppressor was present. Introduction of the prfA1 mutant allele increased expression of the suppressed construct with the UAG stop codon; tryptophan addition also resulted in ca. 50% inhibition. These findings provide additional evidence implicating the behavior of the ribosome translating tnaC in the regulation of tna operon expression.  (+info)

Two-component signal transduction systems enable bacteria to sense, respond, and adapt to changes in their environment or in their intracellular state. Each two-component system consists of a sensor protein-histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR). In the prototypical two-component pathway, the sensor HK phosphorylates its own conserved His residue in response to a signal(s) in the environment. Subsequently, the phosphoryl group of HK is transferred onto a specific Asp residue on the RR. The activated RR can then effect changes in cellular physiology, often by regulating gene expression. Two-component pathways thus often enable cells to sense and respond to stimuli by inducing changes in transcription ...
Two-component signal transduction systems enable bacteria to sense, respond, and adapt to changes in their environment or in their intracellular state. Each two-component system consists of a sensor protein-histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR). In the prototypical two-component pathway, the sensor HK phosphorylates its own conserved His residue in response to a signal(s) in the environment. Subsequently, the phosphoryl group of HK is transferred onto a specific Asp residue on the RR. The activated RR can then effect changes in cellular physiology, often by regulating gene expression. Two-component pathways thus often enable cells to sense and respond to stimuli by inducing changes in transcription ...
The relative representation of each mutant was determined by calculating the fold change (sequence reads/insertion in cholesterol divided by sequence reads/insertion in glycerol) for each gene. Statistical significance was determined by t-test. Each insertion site in each replicate sample was treated as a separate data point. The hyperbola used for defining genes specifically required for growth in cholesterol was defined by the formula, y = 3.8/x+0.7. Genes above this line are annotated as required for growth on cholesterol. - Griffin JE, Gawronski JD, Dejesus MA, Ioerger TR, Akerley BJ, Sassetti CM, High-resolution phenotypic profiling defines genes essential for mycobacterial growth and cholesterol catabolism. PLoS Pathog (2011) 7(9). ...
Zhu J, Miller MB, Vance RE, Dziejman M, Bassler BL, Mekalanos JJ. Quorum-sensing regulators control virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 ;99(5):3129-34. ...
Citation Gómez-Mejia A, Gámez G, Hirschmann S, Kluger V, Rath H, Böhm S, Voss F, Kakar N, Petruschka L, Völker U, Brückner R, Mäder U, Hammerschmidt S. 2018. Pneumococcal metabolic adaptation and colonization are regulated by the two-component regulatory system 08. mSphere 3:e00165-18. ...
E coli rssB protein: negative regulator of sigma(S) factor, Rpos; isolated from E. coli; this two-component response regulator affects sigma S-dependent proteins; it is implicated in the control of protein stability; has been sequenced; homologous proteins, namely, Mvia and Hnr found in other bacteria
We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time.Find out more ...
24Optionss operation was also banned by other regulators. Rodeler was also banned in the UK by the Financial Conduct Authority in June 2020 for using
This project is to design and fabricate the mini ball mill that can grind the solid state of various type of materials into nano-powder. The cylindrical jar is used as a mill that would rotate the material that about to be ground, a motor is used to power the system so that the jar can rotate in high speed and using the regulator controls the speed of the rotation of the jar.. Get Price ...
Sindromul hiperactivitate/deficit de atenție (ADHD) este o afecțiune neuropsihiatrică frecvent întâlnită la vârsta pediatrică. La școlari, frecvența ADHD este de 4-12% (Brown 2001, Faraone 2003), dar sindromul poate afecta copiii de toate vârstele și manifestările pot persista până la vârsta adultă.
Hardcorescenen i Umeå har ett världsomspännande rykte och är en viktig del av svensk musikhistoria. Med tonvikt på Umeå och 1990-tal presenteras här Sveriges största samling av hardcorematerial ...
Hardcorescenen i Umeå har ett världsomspännande rykte och är en viktig del av svensk musikhistoria. Med tonvikt på Umeå och 1990-tal presenteras här Sveriges största samling av hardcorematerial ...
Signal transductionRegulatory functionsDNA interactionsphosphonate utilization transcriptional regulator PhnR (TIGR03337; HMM-score: 32.5) ...
E. Bouffartigues, I. Si Hadj Mohand, R. Duchesne, O. Maillot, N. Orange, et al.. Insight into the mechanism controlling the activity of the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor SigX in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. XIeme Congrès de la SFM, 2015, PARIS, France. ⟨hal-02386341⟩ ...
H-NS family proteins are nucleoid-associated proteins that form oligomers on DNA and function as global regulators. They are found in both bacterial chromosomes and plasmids, and were suggested to be candidate effectors of the interaction between them. TurA and TurB are the predominantly expressed H-NS family proteins encoded on the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida KT2440, while Pmr is encoded on the carbazole-degradative incompatibility group P-7 plasmid pCAR1. Previous transcriptome analyses suggested that they function cooperatively, but play different roles in the global transcriptional network. In addition to differences in protein interaction and DNA-binding functions, cell expression levels are important in clarifying the detailed underlying mechanisms. Here, we determined the precise protein amounts of TurA, TurB, and Pmr in KT2440 in the presence and absence of pCAR1. The intracellular amounts of TurA and TurB in KT2440 and KT2440(pCAR1) were determined by quantitative western blot analysis
Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) play fundamental roles in bacterial survival and pathogenesis and have been proposed as targets for the development of novel classes of antibiotics. A new coupled assay was developed and applied to analyse the kinetic mechanisms of three new kinds of inhibitors of TCS function. The assay exploits the biochemical properties of the cognate HpkA-DrrA histidine kinase-response regulator pair from Thermotoga maritima and allows multiple turnovers of HpkA, linear formation of phosphorylated DrrA, and Michaelis-Menten analysis of inhibitors. The assay was validated in several ways, including confirmation of competitive inhibition by adenosine 5′-β,γ-imidotriphosphate (AMP-PNP). The coupled assay, autophosphorylation and chemical cross-linking were used to determine the mechanisms by which several compounds inhibit TCS function. A cyanoacetoacetamide showed non-competitive inhibition with respect to ATP concentration in the coupled assay. The
The general stress response comprises approximately 200 genes and is driven by the alternative sigma factor SigB. Besides the process of sporulation with approximately 500 involved gene products under initial control of Spo0A are the two most significant and extensive cellular responses that can be observed in B. subtilis. The general stress response provides vegetative growing as well as non-growing and non-sporulating cells with a comprehensive cross-protective and preventive multiple stress resistance to various hostile environmental conditions. In contrast, the endospore is the most resistant but also dormant cell type produced by B. subtilis. The scope of this study was the identification of regulatory cascades driven by the general stress response sigma factor SigB to further elucidate the structure and function of the general stress regulon itself and to uncover potential intersections between the SigB response and other major developmental programs in the regulatory network of B. ...
The gram-negative bacterial envelope is a complex extracytoplasmic compartment responsible for numerous cellular processes. Among its most important functions is its service as the protective layer separating the cytoplasmic space from the ever-changing external environment. To adapt to the diverse conditions encountered both in the environment and within the mammalian host, Escherichia coli and Salmonella species have evolved six independent envelope stress response systems . This review reviews the sE response, the CpxAR and BaeSR two-component systems (TCS) , the phage shock protein response, and the Rcs phosphorelay system. These five signal transduction pathways represent the most studied of the six known stress responses. The signal for adhesion to abiotic surfaces enters the pathway through the novel outer membrane lipoprotein NlpE, and activation on entry into the exponential phase of growth occurs independently of CpxA . Adhesion could disrupt NlpE causing unfolding of its unstable N-terminal
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ECF sigma factor sigC is required for lethality in mice and for the conditional expression of a defined gene set. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Shop Leucine-responsive regulatory protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Leucine-responsive regulatory protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Although Escherichia coli is generally considered to be predominantly a commensal of the gastrointestinal tract, a number of recent studies suggest that it is also capable of long-term survival and growth in environments outside the host. As the extraintestinal physical and chemical conditions are often different from those within the host, it is possible that distinct genetic adaptations may be required to enable this transition. Several studies have shown a trade-off between growth and stress resistance in nutrient-poor environments, with lesions in the rpoS locus, which encodes the stress sigma factor RpoS (σS). In this study, we investigated a unique collection of long-term soil-persistent E. coli isolates to determine whether the RpoS-controlled general stress response is altered during adaptation to a nutrient-poor extraintestinal environment. The sequence of the rpoS locus was found to be highly conserved in these isolates, and no nonsense or frameshift mutations were detected. Known ...
Member of the two-component regulatory system PhoP/PhoQ which regulates the expression of genes involved in virulence, adaptation to acidic and low Mg(2+) environments and resistance to host defense antimicrobial peptides. Essential for intramacrophage survival of S.typhimurium. In low periplasmic Mg(2+), PhoQ phosphorylates PhoP, resulting in the expression of PhoP-activated genes (PAG) and repression of PhoP-repressed genes (PRG). In high periplasmic Mg(2+), PhoQ dephosphorylates phospho-PhoP, resulting in the repression of PAG and may lead to expression of some PRG. Essential for transcription of spiC inside macrophages by controlling the expression of the two-component regulatory system SsrB/SpiR (SsrA) and Pir at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels respectively. Promotes expression of the two-component regulatory system PmrA/PmrB via activation of pmrD gene. Is required to attenuate bacterial growth within fibroblast cells and to enhance bacterial resistance to bile in intestinal cells.
CategoryTree ,Parents= * 3. [[Information processing]] ** 3.4. [[Regulation of gene expression]] ,Neighbours= * 3.4.1. [[Sigma factors and their control]] * 3.4.2. [[Transcription factors and their control]] * 3.4.3. [[Trigger enzymes]] * 3.4.4. [[RNA binding regulators]] * 3.4.5. [[Regulators of core metabolism]] * 3.4.6. [[Transition state regulators]] * 3.4.7. [[Phosphorelay]] * 3.4.8. [[Quorum sensing]] * 3.4.9. [[Other regulators]] ,Related= none ,}} == Genes in this functional category == * [[abh]] * [[abrB]] * [[salA]] * [[scoC]] * [[sinI]] * [[sinR]] * [[slrA]] * [[slrR]] =Back to [[categories ...
This unit provides a chronological in‐depth description of all protocols needed for quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (Q‐RT‐PCR) analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi gene expression within infected mouse tissues
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The two-component signal transduction system (TCS) BarA/UvrY activates transcription of CsrB and CsrC noncoding RNAs, which act by sequestering the RNA-binding global regulatory protein CsrA. Here, we show that the metabolic end products formate and acetate provide a physiological stimulus for this TCS and thus link posttranscriptional regulation by the Csr system to the metabolic state of the cell. ...
An adaptive response to environmental stimuli is essential for life. The most widespread response mechanism involves the transfer of a phosphoryl group amongst the proteins in a signalling process. Two-component signal transduction systems are the chief signalling devices in bacteria and archaea. Actually, they are found in all life domains, although not in animals. A single bacteria can contain tens to hundreds of two-component systems controlling vital processes such as metabolism, development, motility, response to stress or virulence. These systems offer enormous possibilities for the development of new antimicrobials because they play a paramount role in bacterial physiology and in virulence processes, allowing adaptation of a parasite to its human host, or even triggering resistance to known antibiotics.. Although there are numerous variations in the details, two components systems obey the same basic pattern. The prototype consists of two proteins. One of them is a homodimeric membrane ...
GT:ID BAD55842.1 GT:GENE BAD55842.1 GT:PRODUCT putative two-component system response regulator GT:DATABASE GIB00210CH01 GT:ORG nfar0 GB:ACCESSION GIB00210CH01 GB:LOCATION 1103586..1104263 GB:FROM 1103586 GB:TO 1104263 GB:DIRECTION + GB:PRODUCT putative two-component system response regulator GB:PROTEIN_ID BAD55842.1 LENGTH 225 SQ:AASEQ MTAVLLAEDDEAIAAPLSRALGREGYTVTVESFGPAVLRRALEGNHDLLILDLGLPGMDGLEVCRQVRARGADLAVLMLTARTDEVDFVVGLDAGADDYVGKPFRLAELLARVRALLRRSGIGDEAVEVGGIRLEPAARRVLVNGVEVGLANKEYELLKVLIDRAGQVVPRETILREVWGDAELRGSKTLDMHMSWLRRKIGDEGPMAERRIVTVRGVGFRLNTD GT:EXON 1,1-225:0, BL:SWS:NREP 1 BL:SWS:REP 1-,222,REGX3_MYCTU,4e-41,41.4,220/227, SEG 105-,119,rlaellarvrallrr, BL:PDB:NREP 1 BL:PDB:REP 2-,222,2oqrA,5e-41,41.1,219/226, RP:PDB:NREP 1 RP:PDB:REP 1-,219,3c3wB,1e-22,25.4,205/210, RP:PFM:NREP 2 RP:PFM:REP 4-,104,PF00072,4e-15,43.6,101/111,Response_reg, RP:PFM:REP 145-,222,PF00486,2e-11,53.2,77/77,Trans_reg_C, HM:PFM:NREP 2 HM:PFM:REP 4-,114,PF00072,8.6e-28,36.9,111/112,Response_reg, HM:PFM:REP ...
GT:ID BAD55509.1 GT:GENE BAD55509.1 GT:PRODUCT putative two-component system response regulator GT:DATABASE GIB00210CH01 GT:ORG nfar0 GB:ACCESSION GIB00210CH01 GB:LOCATION complement(685615..686331) GB:FROM 685615 GB:TO 686331 GB:DIRECTION - GB:PRODUCT putative two-component system response regulator GB:PROTEIN_ID BAD55509.1 LENGTH 238 SQ:AASEQ MGGVSTSPTPTVLVVDDDEDVLASVERGLRLSGFHVLVARDGAAALRSVNADCPDAVVLDMNMPVLDGAGVVTALRALGNDVPICVLSARASVDDRISGLESGADDYLVKPFVLAELVARIKALLRRRTDAPAAAATPGAITVGPLEVDEAGYRALLHGREIELTKREFELLSTLARNAGVVLSRERLLELVWGYDFAADTNVVDVFVGYLRRKLEADGTPRLLHTIRGVGFVLRAPK GT:EXON 1,1-238:0, BL:SWS:NREP 1 BL:SWS:REP 27-,235,PRRA_MYCTU,5e-65,65.2,207/233, SEG 4-,26,vstsptptvlvvdddedvlasve, SEG 123-,140,allrrrtdapaaaatpga, SEG 181-,192,vvlsrerllelv, BL:PDB:NREP 1 BL:PDB:REP 27-,235,1ys6B,2e-65,65.2,207/227, RP:PDB:NREP 1 RP:PDB:REP 27-,231,3c3wB,2e-24,20.9,187/210, RP:PFM:NREP 2 RP:PFM:REP 33-,122,PF00072,6e-17,45.6,90/111,Response_reg, RP:PFM:REP ...
Escherichia coli is transformed from a commensal organism into a pathogen by acquisition of genetic elements called pathogenicity islands (PAIs). Katsowich et al. investigated how the PAI virulence genes of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) respond when the bacterium attaches to a host gut cell. EPEC first sticks to the host by means of pili and then uses a PAI-encoded type 3 secretion system (T3SS) to inject multiple effectors into the host cell. But not all virulence mediators are injected. For example, CesT, a bacterial chaperone, delivers virulence effectors into the T3SS apparatus. Then, within the bacterial cytoplasm, it interacts with a gene repressor called CsrA, which reprograms bacterial gene expression to help the bacteria to adapt to epithelial cell-associated life.. Science, this issue p. 735 ...
Reliable identification of targets of bacterial regulators is necessary to understand bacterial gene expression regulation. These targets are commonly predicted by searching for high-scoring binding sites in the upstream genomic regions, which typically leads to a large number of false positives. In contrast to the common approach, here we propose a novel concept, where overrepresentation of the scoring distribution that corresponds to the entire searched region is assessed, as opposed to predicting individual binding sites. We explore two implementations of this concept, based on Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) and Anderson-Darling (AD) tests, which both provide straightforward P value estimates for predicted targets. This approach is implemented for pleiotropic bacterial regulators, including σ70 (bacterial housekeeping σ factor) target predictions, which is a classical bioinformatics problem characterized by low specificity. We show that KS based approach is both faster and more accurate, departing from
Times change, but our values do not. In these uncertain times, Global Response remains committed to the mission we established more than 45 years ago. We provide exceptional, branded customer support, serving as ...
complex with c-di-GMP. C-di-GMP binds to the protein as an intercalated dimer, displacing the C-terminal 310 helix found in the apo form. The N-terminal part of ...
There could be an interesting connection here with another resent paper where in yeast it was shown that the cost of GFP is dramatically different for stable and denaturation-prone variants (for brilliant discussion of this paper see this post in It Takes 30). Is GFP equally stable in E. coli during the early and late exponential phase? Could it be that the effects observed here are reflecting mere change in GFP stability? Intracellular conditions do change in E. coli under different conditions, so it is possible that GFP is not always equally stable, and this may affect its physiological cost. Surprisingly, another report claims that in E. coli aggregated and soluble LacZ have very similar cost, which to some extent dispels my worries about GFP stability and cost ...
Steinrück M. The Influence of Sequence Context on the Evolution of Bacterial Gene Expression. IST Austria; 2018. doi:10.15479/AT:ISTA:th1059 ...
De Gentaur Oxford expressie Technologies afzonderlijke Eia Tool validatred met die in biologische monsters te onderscheiden, zoals celmedium dat verschilt. Bij de producent Oxford expressie Technologies met Genprice aanvoernummer 514 voor protocolspecificaties. The Oxford expressie Technologies Laboratoria in gb. Gentaur levert de Oxford uitdrukking Technologies test volgende dag in je Labo. De Oxford expression Technologies produkten worden het snelst en goedkoopst geleverd door Gentaur Bvba te Kampenhout voor Belgie en Gentaur BV te Eersel voor Nederland. Indien u Oxford expression Technologies kits bestelt voor vrijdag 14 uur worden die reeds de dinsdag erop in uw laboratorium afgeleverd in een koelpaket van Gentaur.. ...
Wilson, Philip, Welsh Assembly Government (Wales), corp creator. (2011) A rapid evidence assessment : investigating the drop in attainment during the transition phase with a particular focus on child poverty. ...
Getting a woman to spread her legs for you depends on your ability to smoothly navigate her through the 4 transition phases of seduction. Lets hammer out the first 2.
Transcription initiation is a critical step in bacterial gene regulation and is often controlled by transcription regulators. The alternate sigma factor (sigma54) is one such regulator that facilitates activator-dependent ...
Barrett, J. F., Goldschmidt, R. M., Lawrence, L. E., Foleno, B., Chen, R., Demers, J. P., Johnson, S., Kanojia, R., Fernandez, J., Bernstein, J., Licata, L., Donetz, A., et al. Antibacterial agents that inhibit two-component signal transduction systems Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1998 95:5317-5322 DOI:10.1073/pnas.95.9.5317 PMID:9560273 ...
During infection, senses and responds to stress; such responses may be modulated by MisRS (NGO0177 and NGO0176), a two-component system that is a homolog of CpxRA. In , CpxRA senses and responds to envelope stress; CpxA is a sensor kinase/phosphatase for CpxR, a response regulator. When a mutant is grown in medium containing glucose, CpxR is phosphorylated by acetyl phosphate but cannot be dephosphorylated, resulting in constitutive activation. Kandler and coworkers (J. L. Kandler, C. L. Holley, J. L. Reimche, V. Dhulipala, J. T. Balthazar, A. Muszynski, R. W. Carlson, and W. M. Shafer, Antimicrob Agents Chemother 60:4690-4700, 2016, showed that MisR (CpxR) is required for the maintenance of membrane integrity and resistance to antimicrobial peptides, suggesting a role in gonococcal survival Here, we evaluated the contributions of MisR and MisS (CpxA) to gonococcal infection in a murine model of cervicovaginal colonization and identified MisR-regulated genes ...
4IHT: The DNA-binding domain of BenM reveals the structural basis for the recognition of a T-N11-A sequence motif by LysR-type transcriptional regulators.
Degree of conservation of fungal oxidative stress regulators. (A) Orthologues of S. cerevisiae oxidative stress regulators in the fungi analysed. As before, the
Event SWPAs Pumping Systems & Controls Training. The pinnacle of SWPA’s Training and Educational programs is our Semi -Annual Pumping Systems Training ...
Breastfeeding gives babies the best start in life. It has important health benefits and contains the necessary nutrients to help the neurological, immunological and cognitive growth of your child. However natural breastfeeding may not be possible always. Thats why Medela, after conducting extensive research into the process of breastfeeding has developed products that are as close to natural breastfeeding as possible. Their research has taken them from understanding the anatomy of the lactating breast to the mechanism of removal by the baby. Their double and single pumping breastpumps, 2 phase expression technology and innovative feeding solutions like Calma have supported many mothers through the difficult breastfeeding times.. What is a 2-phase Expression Technology ...
A magnetic carrier and a two-component developer are provided which have remedied blank areas, fog after leaving, carrier sticking during running, and image density variations before and after runnin
A 4-man rap group from Finland. Enjoying a a fairly big cult following despite being officially formed as late as fall 2000. Members: Davo MC, producer,...
31 May 2018 marked the end of the final transition phase for registration of substances in the low-tonnage bands under REACH. Kerstin Heitmann from UMCO says what do companies need to consider.
Låt de första träffarna vara på neutral mark. Om du känner dig osäker ta det säkra före det osäkra. För mer råd och tips ring 031-7740067
Linda Sara 1994 Dvdrip. Linda Sara 1994 Dvdrip Related Tags: Linda Sara 1994 Dvdrip 80453122e1 21 HOT! foto memek anak smp umur 15 tahun ms office 2003 free...
MetabolismFatty acid and phospholipid metabolismBiosynthesisfatty acid metabolism transcriptional regulator FadR (TIGR02812; HMM-score: 17.4) ...
Uradna spletna stran predsednika Republike Slovenije javnosti zagotavlja novice, sporočila in informacije o delu, funkciji in osebnosti predsednika Republike Slovenije.
Motivated by recent experimental advances, we study two-component spin-orbit coupled ultracold bosonic atoms in two dimensions on a square optical lattice. Using a Bose-Hubbard model with spin-conserving and non-spin-conserving ...
Winkler WC, Breaker RR (2005). "Regulation of bacterial gene expression by riboswitches". Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 59: 487-517. ... October 2004). "A glycine-dependent riboswitch that uses cooperative binding to control gene expression". Science. 306 (5694): ... This regulation controls parts of the sulfur metabolism of marine bacteria. The crystal structure of the riboswitch has been ...
Turnbough, C. L. (2019). "Regulation of Bacterial Gene Expression by Transcription Attenuation". Microbiology and Molecular ... and was the first evidence that gene expression regulation mechanisms can be overlapping or redundant. "Polarity" is a gene ... Transcription-translation coupling is a mechanism of gene expression regulation in which synthesis of an mRNA (transcription) ... Luzzati, D. (1970). "Regulation of lambda exonuclease synthesis: role of the N gene product and lambda repressor". Journal of ...
Working under Ira Pastan, he researched the regulation of bacterial gene expression by cyclic AMP. In 1970, he began ... Jacks, T.; Varmus, H.E. (1985). "Expression of the Rous sarcoma virus pol gene by ribosomal frameshifting". Science. 230 (4731 ... Their best-known accomplishment was the identification of a cellular gene (c-src) that gave rise to the v-src oncogene of Rous ... Varmus and Jacob have performed a series of lecture-concerts entitled "Genes and Jazz" at the Guggenheim and Smithsonian ...
... s may also mediate bacterial escape from host cells. The regulation of gene expression of hemolysins (such as ... The regulation of the production of hemolysin in S.aureus(expression of hemolysin) is now possible due to in-vitro mutations ... "Regulation of hemolysin expression and virulence of Staphylococcus aureus by a serine/threonine kinase and phosphatase". PLOS ... Sritharan M (July 2006). "Iron and bacterial virulence". Indian J Med Microbiol. 24 (3): 163-4. doi:10.1016/S0255-0857(21)02343 ...
... down-regulation or inactivation of neighboring gene expression. Therefore, the reduction or complete elimination of extraneous ... A typical bacterial replicon may consist of a number of elements, such as the gene for plasmid-specific replication initiation ... and are usually used when studying the functionality of a solo gene or when the gene is toxic. Also connected with the gene ... These include a gene that confers resistance to particular antibiotics (ampicillin is most frequently used for bacterial ...
Bassler BL (December 1999). "How bacteria talk to each other: regulation of gene expression by quorum sensing". Current Opinion ... that quorum sensing genes tend to control the expression of a wide array of genes scattered throughout the bacterial chromosome ... As one example, QS enables bacteria to restrict the expression of specific genes to the high cell densities at which the ... However, they have a receptor that detects AHLs from other bacteria and change their gene expression in accordance with the ...
Eukaryotic transcription Glossary of gene expression terms Operon Promoter (biology) Regulation of gene expression Repressor ... Bacterial transcription Coactivator (genetics) ... that increases transcription of a gene or set of genes. ... Activators are considered to have positive control over gene expression, as they function to promote gene transcription and, in ... In eukaryotes, genes tend to be transcribed individually, and each gene is controlled by its own regulatory sequences. ...
Bassler, Bonnie L. (1999). "How bacteria talk to each other: regulation of gene expression by quorum sensing". Current Opinion ... Blango MG, Mulvey MA (April 2009). "Bacterial landlines: contact-dependent signaling in bacterial populations". Current Opinion ... Part of the Notch protein is released from the cell surface membrane and takes part in gene regulation. Cell signaling research ... The mechanism involves the production and detection of a signaling molecule, and the regulation of gene transcription in ...
For example, the 2,5-DKP cyclo(Phe-Pro) has been shown to play a role in the regulation of gene expression in multiple ... be used to imitate quorum sensing signals to regulate gene expression of pathogenic bacteria and help fight against bacterial ... For example, the 2,5-DKP cis-cyclo(Leu-Tyr) has been shown to inhibit bacterial biofilm formation; this property can be ... 2,5-DKPs have been shown to play a role in interspecies bacterial quorum sensing. ...
Deng, M.; Lancto, C. A.; Abrahamsen, M. S. (2004). "Cryptosporidium parvum regulation of human epithelial cell gene expression ... Amann R, Springer N, Schönhuber W, Ludwig W, Schmid EN, Müller KD, Michel R (January 1997). "Obligate intracellular bacterial ... Bacterial examples include: Bartonella henselae Francisella tularensis Listeria monocytogenes Salmonella Typhi Brucella ... "Host Proteasomal Degradation Generates Amino Acids Essential for Intracellular Bacterial Growth". Science. 334 (6062): 1553-7. ...
... was found to have retinol functionality through retinol-like regulation of gene expression. In 2018, a randomized, ... Bakuchiol possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties. Bakuchiol isolated from P. corylifolia has ... Chaudhuri, R. K.; Bojanowski, K. (2014). "Bakuchiol: a retinol-like functional compound revealed by gene expression profiling ... Chaudhuri RK, Bojanowski K (2014). "Bakuchiol: a retinol-like functional compound revealed by gene expression profiling and ...
These enzymes have a regulatory role in gene expression and cell cycle regulation. EcoDam from E. coli and CcrM from ... They are found in the three existing types of bacterial restriction-modification systems (in type I system the A-Mtase is the ... Yang X, Han H, De Carvalho DD, Lay FD, Jones PA, Liang G (October 2014). "Gene body methylation can alter gene expression and ... The loss of DNMT3L leads to bi-allelic expression of genes normally not expressed by the maternal allele. DNMT3L interacts with ...
November 2011). "In silico feedback for in vivo regulation of a gene expression circuit". Nature Biotechnology. 29 (12): 1114- ... The process of transduction, which uses the bacterial virus called a bacteriophage, is where the spread of the gene encoding ... By repressing the expression of the genes involved in metabolizing the less preferred sugars, cells will usually first consume ... Researchers can introduce genes into the microbes using plasmids which permit high level expression of protein, and such ...
... as major players in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. The ... Majdalani N, Vanderpool CK, Gottesman S (2005). "Bacterial small RNA regulators". Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 40 (2): 93-113. ... Rhizobial adaptations to soil and plant cell environments require the coordinate expression of complex gene networks in which ... Two complementary computational screens, eQRNA and RNAz, were used to search for novel sRNA-encoding genes in the intergenic ...
This operon is an example of repressible negative regulation of gene expression. The repressor protein binds to the operator in ... Merino E, Jensen RA, Yanofsky C (April 2008). "Evolution of bacterial trp operons and their regulation". Current Opinion in ... Animation of the Trp operon's regulation (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Gene expression ... Trp operon genes are arranged in the same order in E. coli and Bacillus subtilis. Regulation of trp operons in both organisms ...
... bacterial biofilm formation and virulence gene expression, heat and osmotic stress regulation and responses, sporulation, ... It is suggested that cyclic di-AMP is involved in the regulation of cell lysis. Studies have shown that bacterial mutant ... Regulation of c-di-AMP is critical because high c-di-AMP levels lead to abnormal physiology, growth defects, and reduced ... Cell regulation. 30: 22-29. doi:10.1016/j.mib.2015.12.007. PMC 4821758. PMID 26773214. Gundlach J, Mehne FM, Herzberg C, Kampf ...
Biology portal Bacterial transcription Regulation of gene expression RNA polymerase Transcriptional regulation Transcription ... a key component in the regulation of gene expression". Genes & Development. 16 (20): 2583-92. doi:10.1101/gad.1026202. PMID ... This allows for the temporal regulation of gene expression through the sequestration of the RNA in the nucleus, and allows for ... The poly-T termination signal pauses Pol III The regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes is achieved through the ...
... gene expression regulation, archaeal MeSH G05.315.300 - gene expression regulation, bacterial MeSH G05.315.310 - gene ... gene expression regulation, leukemic MeSH G05.315.375 - gene expression regulation, plant MeSH G05.315.385 - gene expression ... gene expression regulation, fungal MeSH G05.315.370 - gene expression regulation, neoplastic MeSH G05.315.370.500 - ... expression regulation, developmental MeSH G05.315.320 - gene expression regulation, enzymologic MeSH G05.315.320.200 - enzyme ...
... in Sickness and in Health and Charles Dorman DNA Topology and the Global Regulation of Bacterial Virulence Gene Expression 1995 ... Structural Analysis of Animal Virus Genomes 1981 Dave Sherratt The Maintenance and Propagation of Plasmid Genes in Bacterial ... access in Asia 2018 Sarah Coulthurst type VI secretion system-mediated bacterial warfare 2019 Peter Fineran bacterial innate ... From the lab to the clinic and back again 2016 David Grainger The unexpected complexity of bacterial genomes 2017 Stephen Baker ...
Another study showed that patterns of DNA methylation, which are a known regulation mechanism for gene expression, differ in ... "Dynamics of Genome Rearrangement in Bacterial Populations". PLOS Genetics. 4 (7): e1000128. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000128. ... Paralogous sequences are separated by gene cloning (gene duplication): if a particular gene in the genome is copied, then the ... A public collection of case studies and demonstrations is growing, ranging from whole genome comparisons to gene expression ...
Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Gene expression, Post-translational modification ... nat.) (2006). Dynamics of the bacterial chromosome: structure and function. Wiley-VCH. pp. 266-. ISBN 978-3-527-30496-7. ... Post-translational regulation refers to the control of the levels of active protein. There are several forms. It is performed ...
Jun-ichiro Inoue) Laboratory of Gene Expression and Regulation (Prof. Nobuaki Yoshida) Laboratory of Genome Database (Prof. ... Haruo Saito) Division of Bacterial Infection (Prof. Chihiro Sasakawa) Division of Virology (Prof. Yoshihiro Kawaoka ) ... Yasushi Kawaguchi) Department of Infectious Disease Control (Division of Bacterial Infection) (Associate Prof. Ichiro Nakagawa ...
Campbell and research associates also studied regulation and expression of E coli genes linked to the lambda insertion location ... The 1940s produced the first pictures of bacterial viruses using electron microscopy produced the first photos of bacterial ... the regulation and expression of genetic material, and the mechanism of integration and excision of genetic material into ... including the biotin (bio) and galactose (gal) genes. Early studies on bacterial viruses began after the discovery by Twort and ...
It was shown that RpsF leader regulates gene expression in response to the S6:S18 complex, contributing to the regulation of ... Fu Y, Deiorio-Haggar K, Soo MW, Meyer MM (February 2014). "Bacterial RNA motif in the 5' UTR of rpsF interacts with an S6:S18 ... RpsF leader is a conserved RNA structure, widely distributed to many bacterial species. It precedes the operon containing rpsF ...
... the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression prepares the body to better deal with bodily injury and bacterial ... This process of translation, or "turning on" of a gene to its final gene products is termed gene expression. Genetic expression ... on the expression of individual genes, or more commonly, clusters of many genes (i.e. gene profiles, or gene programs). In the ... Concurrently, the down-regulation of anti-viral gene expression leaves the individual more vulnerable to viral infection such ...
Dorman, Charles J; Deighan, Padraig (2003-04-01). "Regulation of gene expression by histone-like proteins in bacteria". Current ... Dillon SC, Dorman CJ (March 2010). "Bacterial nucleoid-associated proteins, nucleoid structure and gene expression". Nature ... including the regulation of gene expression by histone-like nucleoid-structuring protein, H-NS. H-NS is about 15.6 kDa and ... "An African swine fever virus gene with similarity to bacterial DNA binding proteins, bacterial integration host factors, and ...
"A physiological role for DNA supercoiling in the osmotic regulation of gene expression in S. Typhimurium and E. Coli". Cell. 52 ... "A bacterial antibiotic-resistance gene that complements the human multidrug-resistance P-glycoprotein gene". Nature. 391 (6664 ... "DNA supercoiling and environmental regulation of virulence gene expression in Shigella flexneri". Nature. 344 (6268): 789-792. ... Newbury, S. F.; Smith, N. H.; Higgins, C. F. (1987). "Differential mRNA stability controls relative gene expression within a ...
Gene Structure and Expression. 1625 (3): 305-8. doi:10.1016/s0167-4781(03)00017-4. PMID 12591618. Choi SK, Matsuda S, Hoshino T ... Linden H (September 1999). "Carotenoid hydroxylase from Haematococcus pluvialis: cDNA sequence, regulation and functional ... Peng X, Misawa N (October 2006). "Characterization of bacterial beta-carotene 3,3'-hydroxylases, CrtZ, and P450 in astaxanthin ... Gene Structure and Expression. 1446 (3): 203-12. doi:10.1016/s0167-4781(99)00088-3. PMID 10524195. Zhu C, Yamamura S, Nishihara ...
The phage genes specifying its regulation and DNA replication have typically been deleted, and expression of the cluster of ... Most of the RcGTA structural genes are encoded in a ~ 15 kb genetic cluster on the bacterial chromosome. However, other genes ... expression of gene transfer agent genes within a population during production and release of the Rhodobacter capsulatus gene ... These GTA-associated genes are often under coordinated regulation with the main GTA gene cluster. Phage-derived cell-lysis ...
Across all living organisms, regulation of gene expression is controlled by interactions between DNA-binding regulatory ... drives expression of downstream reporter genes. This reporter region facilitates both positive and negative selection by HIS3 ... bait-prey binding must be of high enough stringency to drive reporter gene expression (HIS3) at a sufficient level to overcome ... The bacterial one-hybrid (B1H) system is a method for identifying the sequence-specific target site of a DNA-binding domain. In ...
Gene Expression: Firstly, the cellular concentrations of glycolytic enzymes are modulated via regulation of gene expression via ... 2011) Bacterial Physiology and Metabolism, 3rd edition. *^ a b c Mehta S (20 September 2011). "Glycolysis - Animation and Notes ... Bian X, Jiang H, Meng Y, Li YP, Fang J, Lu Z (March 2022). "Regulation of gene expression by glycolytic and gluconeogenic ... 4 Regulation *4.1 Regulation by insulin in animals. *4.2 Regulation of the rate limiting enzymes *4.2.1 Hexokinase and ...
"Role of 5' mRNA and 5' U snRNA cap structures in regulation of gene expression" - Research - Retrieved 13 December 2010. ... Some viruses thwart bacterial defenses with a unique genetic alphabet [online]. 5 May 2021. Dostupné online. ...
Regulation[edit]. *Protein concentration, which in turn are affected by expression levels and degradation rates; ... There are some methods such as Jactive[72] modules and MoBaS.[73] Jactive modules integrate PPI network and gene expression ... the bacterial two-hybrid system, performed in bacteria;[38] ... Transcription of reporter genes does not occur unless bait (DB- ... the interaction between proteins can be inferred by the presence of the products resultant of the reporter gene expression.[13] ...
... s use a variety of mechanisms for the regulation of gene expression.[14] These mechanisms include: * ... and activate transcription of plant genes that aid in bacterial infection.[33] TAL effectors contain a central repeat region in ... gene expression - the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product such as a ... Transcription factors are essential for the regulation of gene expression and are, as a consequence, found in all living ...
... as isolated from APR134 gene in the disease-resistant leaves of Arabidopsis for gene expression analysis, is rapidly induced ... involved in the Ca2+-dependent signaling during the plant immune response to bacterial pathogens.[41] The CML9 expression in ... Walsh MP (June 1994). "Calmodulin and the regulation of smooth muscle contraction". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 135 (1 ... Sorghum plant contains temperature-responsive genes. These genes help the plant adapt in extreme weather conditions such as hot ...
Brigelius-Flohé R; Davies KJ (2007). "Is vitamin E an antioxidant, a regulator of signal transduction and gene expression, or a ... Van Camp W; Inzé D; Van Montagu M (1997). "The regulation and function of tobacco superoxide dismutases". Free Radic Biol Med. ... a bacterial peroxiredoxin". Biochemistry. 44 (31): 10583-92. doi:10.1021/bi050448i. PMID 16060667.. PDB 1YEX ... gene structures, evolution, and expression". Free Radic Biol Med. 33 (3): 337-49. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(02)00905-X. PMID ...
Contag CH, Bachmann MH (2002). "Advances in in vivo bioluminescence imaging of gene expression". Annual Review of Biomedical ... BacterialEdit. Bacterial bioluminescence is seen in Photobacterium species, Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio haweyi, and Vibrio harveyi ... has a three helix bundle structure that holds four important histidines that are thought to play a role in the pH regulation of ... Bacterial luciferaseEdit. The reaction catalyzed by bacterial luciferase is also an oxidative process: *FMNH2 + O2 + RCHO → FMN ...
"Z-DNA-binding proteins can act as potent effectors of gene expression in vivo". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16666-71 ... "Bacterial gene transfer by natural genetic transformation in the environment". Microbiol. Rev. 58 (3): 563-602. PMC 372978. ... DiPaolo C; Kieft R; Cross M; Sabatini R (2005). "Regulation of trypanosome DNA glycosylation by a SWI2/SNF2-like protein". Mol ... novel role for bacterial competence gene homologs". J. Bacteriol. 183: 6288-6293. doi:10.1128/JB.183.21.6288-6293.2001.. ...
Expression is mediated by the NPR1 gene and the salicylic acid pathway, both involved in resistance to fungal and insect attack ... Regulation in fungi[edit]. Regulation varies from species to species, and within an organism, chitinases with different ... there must be tight regulation and activation. Specifically, Cts1 expression has to be activated in daughter cells during late ... "Differential expression of eight chitinase genes in Medicago truncatula roots during mycorrhiza formation, nodulation, and ...
The ratio of the two homologous proteins in the complex depends on the relative expression levels of the two genes. ... Theil EC (1987). "Ferritin: structure, gene regulation, and cellular function in animals, plants, and microorganisms". Annual ... H and M subunits of eukaryotic ferritin and all subunits of bacterial and archaeal ferritin are H-type and have ferroxidase ... GeneEdit. Ferritin genes are highly conserved between species. All vertebrate ferritin genes have three introns and four exons. ...
2002). "A gene-expression signature as a predictor of survival in breast cancer". New England Journal of Medicine. 347 (25): ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC)-end sequencing (end-sequence profiling): Identifies chromosomal breakpoints by generating ... "Genome-Wide Transcriptional Regulation Mediated by Biochemically Distinct SWI/SNF Complexes". PLOS Genet. 11 (12): e1005748. ... Gene familiesEdit. Mutational analysis of entire gene families revealed that genes of the same family have similar functions, ...
"Analysis of gene expression profiles in HeLa cells in response to overexpression or siRNA-mediated depletion of NASP". ... Sadigh-Eteghad S, Majdi A, Talebi M, Mahmoudi J, Babri S (May 2015). "Regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in ... The genetics of a bacterial virus. Sci Am. 1965;212:70-78. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0265-70 ... cells mixedly infected with bacteriophage T4D wild-type and amber mutants and their possible implications as to type of gene- ...
"Negative regulation of BRCA1 gene expression by HMGA1 proteins accounts for the reduced BRCA1 protein levels in sporadic breast ... the bacterial equivalent of which is called ogt. This is an expensive process because each MGMT molecule can be used only once ... repressed expression of the gene harboring the initial double-strand break and some progeny having high expression of that gene ... half of the progeny cells express that gene at a high level and in the other half of the progeny cells expression of that gene ...
... chip determines that the alignment of the myocytes in the contractile apparatus made of cardiac tissue and the gene expression ... Living E-coli bacteria was used to demonstrate how the system can even mimic the innate cellular response to a bacterial ... "Regulation of acid base balance.". Renal Physiology (3rd ed.). St. Louis, MO.: Mosby Inc. ISBN 9780323012423. .. ... "Genes. 9 (2): 114. doi:10.3390/genes9020114. PMC 5852610. PMID 29466319.. *^ a b c d Lee S, Jin SP, Kim YK, Sung GY, Chung JH, ...
... a gene transfer ratchet could account for bacterial genes in eukaryotic nuclear genomes". Trends in Genetics. 14 (8): 307-311. ... The majority of the genes in the mitochondria and plastids are related to the expression (transcription, translation and ... another is that the host cell has assumed control of the regulation of the former endosymbiont's division, thereby ... Chromatophores contained genes that were accountable for photosynthesis but were deficient in genes that could carry out other ...
... can effect transcriptional and translational regulation of gene expression. ... In fact, bacterial populations already have such mutations that get selected under antibiotic selection.[110] Obviously, such ... The newly synthesized gene normally contains a novel gene expression or molecular function. The result of the neomorphic ... Mutations in genes can have no effect, alter the product of a gene, or prevent the gene from functioning properly or completely ...
Combining these genes with an array of genes for other domains of the antibody generates a large cavalry of antibodies with a ... RegulationsEdit. Production and testingEdit. Traditionally, most antibodies are produced by hybridoma cell lines through ... The co-expression of both of these immunoglobulin isotypes renders the B cell ready to respond to antigen.[30] B cell ... Neutralisation, in which neutralizing antibodies block parts of the surface of a bacterial cell or virion to render its attack ...
... has also demonstrated anti-tumoral effects, via inhibition of the PTTG1 gene, which is often overexpressed in tumors.[ ... Acetylation of cellular proteins is a well-established phenomenon in the regulation of protein function at the post- ... Several studies investigated the anti-infective properties of aspirin for bacterial, viral and parasitic infections. Aspirin ... considered the main transcription factor capable of inducing inflammatory response by stimulating the expression of ...
Both OPRTase and ODCase have passed through lateral gene transfer, resulting in eukaryotes' having enzymes from bacterial and ... Jones ME (1980). "Pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis in animals: genes, enzymes, and regulation of UMP biosynthesis". Annual ... "Both gene expression for orotate phosphoribosyltransferase and its ratio to dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase influence outcome ... Gene. 394 (1-2): 78-86. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2007.02.009. PMID 17383832. Lin T, Suttle DP (May 1995). "UMP synthase activity ...
In Silico Identification and Expression Analysis of CDF-Like Genes". In Olivares-Quiroz L, Resendis-Antonio O (eds.). ... This type of regulation often involves allosteric regulation of the activities of multiple enzymes in the pathway. Extrinsic ... Bacterial metabolic networks are a striking example of bow-tie organization, an architecture able to input a wide range of ... There are multiple levels of metabolic regulation. In intrinsic regulation, the metabolic pathway self-regulates to respond to ...
... elements in gene promoters. Type I IFNs can induce expression of genes with either ISRE or GAS elements, but gene induction by ... IFNs belonging to all three classes are important for fighting viral infections and for the regulation of the immune system. ... Binding of molecules uniquely found in microbes-viral glycoproteins, viral RNA, bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), ... Gene cloning also confirmed that IFN-α was encoded by a family of many related genes. The type II IFN (IFN-γ) gene was also ...
"Improved Broad-Host-Range RK2 Vectors Useful for High and Low Regulated Gene Expression Levels in Gram-Negative Bacteria", ... J A Kornacki, C H Chang, and D H Figurski: "kil-kor regulon of promiscuous plasmid RK2: structure, products, and regulation of ... 4486-4491 Kolatka K, Witosinska M, Pierechod M, Konieczny I.: "Bacterial partitioning proteins affect the subcellular location ... genes, which inactivate the kil genes. The kil and kor genes together are suspected to play a role in the broad host range of ...
Activator (genetics) Enhancer (genetics) Glossary of gene expression terms Operon Regulation of gene expression Repressor ... Estrem ST, Ross W, Gaal T, Chen ZW, Niu W, Ebright RH, Gourse RL (August 1999). "Bacterial promoter architecture: subsite ... There are also studies that measured gene expression in synthetic genes or from one to a few genes controlled by bidirectional ... Juven-Gershon T, Kadonaga JT (March 2010). "Regulation of gene expression via the core promoter and the basal transcriptional ...
Colocation for redox regulation of gene expression". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been ... Interestingly, while the expression of protein-encoding genes was stimulated by ACTH, the levels of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA ... As demonstrated by the effect of the trophic hormone ACTH on adrenal cortex cells, the expression of the mitochondrial genes ...
Cousins RJ (1994). "Metal elements and gene expression". Annual Review of Nutrition. 14: 449-69. doi:10.1146/ ... Foster M, Samman S (July 2012). "Zinc and regulation of inflammatory cytokines: implications for cardiometabolic disease". ... and opportunistic candidiasis and bacterial infections. Numerous small bowel diseases which cause destruction or malfunction of ... For example, zinc regulates the expression of metallothionein, which has multiple functions, such as intracellular zinc ...
... a tumor suppressing gene, and at several guanine residues in the 12th and 13th codons of the ras gene, a gene whose product ... "Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins in food and feed in 2003". Coulombe R. A. (1993). "Biological action of mycotoxins". J ... For instance, biological decontamination involving the use of a single bacterial species, Flavobacterium aurantiacum has been ... Impairment of the cell-mediated response to vaccine antigen and modulation of cytokine expression". Toxicology and Applied ...
It can increase the TRPV1-mediated release of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in rat dorsal spinal cord ... "Opposite effects of anandamide and N-arachidonoyl dopamine in the regulation of prostaglandin E and 8-iso-PGF formation in ... "Endogenous N-acyl-dopamines induce COX-2 expression in brain endothelial cells by stabilizing mRNA through a p38 dependent ... bacterial derived LPS (TLR4 agonist) and FSL-1 (TLR2/6 agonist)) inflammatory mediators. ...
"Identification of the nik gene cluster of Brucella suis: regulation and contribution to urease activity". Journal of ... military contributions to the study of bacterial zoonoses." Military Medicine 170 (2005): 39-48. Bossi, P., Tegnell, A., Baka, ... "Oral vaccination and immunocontraception of feral swine using brucella suis with multimeric gnrh protein expression." Proc. ... Flagellar genes, however, are present in the B. suis genome, but are thought to be cryptic remnants because some were truncated ...
Several gene expression studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified 800-1200 genes that change expression over the ... Regulation of the cell cycle involves processes crucial to the survival of a cell, including the detection and repair of ... The D period refers to the stage between the end of DNA replication and the splitting of the bacterial cell into two daughter ... In general, the binding of pRb to E2F inhibits the E2F target gene expression of certain G1/S and S transition genes including ...
Oh, JI.; Kaplan, S. (Mar 2001). "Generalized approach to the regulation and integration of gene expression". Mol Microbiol. 39 ... "Regulation of bacterial photosynthesis genes by the small noncoding RNA PcrZ". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... When genes of unknown function on CII are disrupted, many types of auxotrophy result, emphasizing that the CII is not merely a ... The regulation of its photosynthetic machinery is of great interest to researchers, as R. sphaeroides has an intricate system ...
"Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Gene Expression Regulation ... Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial*Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial. *Regulation of Gene Expression, Bacterial ... "Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial" by people in Profiles. ...
Mechanisms of gene expression regulation in bacteria. The survival of bacteria to adverse conditions depends on its ability to ... In our research group, we are studying different mechanisms of gene expression regulation in Salmonella enterica and ... Bacterial conjugation. Conjugative plasmids are vehicles for horizontal gene transfer. Conjugation is one of the major ... The studies in Salmonella are focused in the regulation of the pathogenicity island 1 genes, which are involved in the invasion ...
Researchers identify new keys to regulation of bacterial gene expression The cellular process of transcription, in which the ... RNAs emerge as major players in gene regulation Tiny strands of genetic material called RNA - a chemical cousin of DNA - are ... Gene responsible for premature ejaculation The rapidity of ejaculation in men is genetically determined. This is the result of ... Neuropeptide Y gene variation may lead to early coronary artery disease Researchers from Duke University Medical Center have ...
Regulation of virus-associated lymphoma growth and gene expression by bacterial quorum sensing molecules. Regulation of virus- ... Regulation of virus-associated lymphoma growth and gene expression by bacterial quorum sensing molecules ... associated lymphoma growth and gene expression by bacterial quorum sensing molecules. Link to Article ...
We have previously reported that overexpression of the salinity-responsive DWARF AND DELAYED FLOWERING 1 (DDF1) gene, encoding ... DNA, Bacterial / genetics * Gene Expression Regulation, Plant * Genes, Plant * Gibberellins / metabolism* * Mixed Function ... The DDF1 transcriptional activator upregulates expression of a gibberellin-deactivating gene, GA2ox7, under high-salinity ... Here, we found that the GA 2-oxidase 7 gene (GA2ox7), which encodes a C20-GA deactivation enzyme, is strongly upregulated in ...
Additional Keywords : Gene Expression Regulation. [+] Lactobacillus plantarum NK3 and Bifidobacterium longum NK49 may ... Diseases : Bacterial Vaginosis, Osteoporosis. Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, NF-kappaB Inhibitor, ... Lactobacillus Brevis OPK-3 from kimchi prevents obesity and modulates the expression of adipogenic and pro-inflammatory genes. ... Diseases : Bacterial Infections and Mycoses, Listeria Infections, Salmonella Infections, Staphylococcal Infections, ...
... gene expression regulation; genes; loci; disease course; bacterial colonization; intestinal mucosa; bioluminescence. Abstract: ... The NP gene was detected in 73 out of 99 blood samples analyzed. The deduced amino acid sequence of these gene fragments showed ... cattle diseases; bacterial colonization; enteropathogens; microbial genetics; nalidixic acid; bacterial adhesion; beef cattle; ... genes; molecular epidemiology; reference standards; genetic variation; oxytetracycline; virulence; bacterial infections; ...
Studies, however, have shown that antibiotics may induce changes in cell gene expression and regulation. For this reason, it is ... In our group we always use aseptic techniques and fresh media but we still have bacterial contamination, with media turbidity ... genome-wide identification of antibiotic-induced changes in gene expression and regulation. Sci Rep 7, 7533 (2017). ... An opportunity for a first testing and evaluation of the effect of antibiotics on the cell gene expression is offered by ...
Exploring post-transcriptional regulation of bacterial gene expression. Dai Lab. Investigating genetic and environmental ... Structural mechanisms of epigenetic regulation of gene transcription in biology and human diseases, and structure-based drug ... The role of cell cycle and apoptotic genes in cancer progression and as target for the development of novel anticancer drugs ... Exploring links between drug target regulation and system level properties in cells and animals ...
Post-transcriptional regulation plays important roles to finely tune gene expression in bacteria. In particular, regulation of ... AapA1 belongs to type I TA bacterial toxins, and both its mechanism of action towards the membrane and toxicity features are ... Post-transcriptional regulation plays important roles to finely tune gene expression in bacteria. In particular, regulation of ... By now it is clear that post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression mediated by such RNAs is the rule rather than-as ...
... in research of bacterial evolution and dynamic genomes and are associated with expression and regulation of functional genes. ... Sequencing of the B. pertussis 23S rRNA Gene The A2047G mutation has been proven to be the cause of erythromycin resistance of ... We amplified and sequenced the 7 genes of B. pertussis isolates (ptxA, ptxC, ptxP, prn, fim2, fim3, and tcfA2) as previously ... Bacterial Strains, Patient Demographics, and Clinical Information From October 2014 through December 2016, all patients ...
Host-bacterial interactions, characterization of bacterial virulence determinants, and regulation of virulence gene expression ... Intestinal immune response to enteric bacterial and protozoal pathogens.. E. Janice Endsley, Ph.D.. Mechanisms and regulation ... Molecular pathogenesis of host-parasite interactions; structure-function relationships and regulation of bacterial virulence ... Initiation and regulation of the innate immune response to RNA viruses and viral mechanisms of immune evasion. U. V. Nikos ...
Their predicted structure and genomic location suggest that, even in compact bacterial genomes, a relatively large fraction of ... A previous systematic analysis of a representative set of 40 bacterial genomes produced a large collection of sequences, ... Systematic analysis of 40 bacterial genomes revealed a large number of repeated sequence families, including known and novel ... Analysis of non-coding sequences in several bacterial genomes brought to the identification of families of repeated sequences, ...
The down-regulation of miR398 induces the CSD1 gene expression, a mechanism triggered by bacterial infection (Pseudomonas ... The low Zn status negatively affected the expression of defense-related genes, among others PR1, a SA-induced marker gene that ... In a transgenic line of rice containing the Pi54 gene, the up-regulation of defense response genes (callose, laccase, PAL, and ... At sufficient Zn levels, the expression of the Zn exporter zitB is low, and genes for Zn uptake are repressed. At high Zn, zitB ...
Small RNA-mediated Gene Regulation It has been shown that small RNAs repress or modify gene expression in all organisms. In ... Phage resistance is conferred by the specific targeting of foreign nucleic acid by a bacterial surveillance system. We are ...
Regulation and Heterologous Expression of Bacterial Natural Product Genes. Garza, A.. National Institute of General Medical ... Deciphering and Controlling the Signaling Processes in Bacterial Multicellular Systems and Bacteria-Host Interactions: EFRI- ...
... approaches are used to uncover scientific knowledge in topics including bacterial evolution and gene expression and regulation. ... gene regulation and key experimental techniques such as genetic engineering. ... function and metabolism of bacterial cells. The complexity and dynamic nature of bacterial communities is addressed including ... Genes and cells are the fundamental building blocks of all life. All life is made up of cells and their function is controlled ...
Mechanisms of transcription; regulation of bacterial gene expression. Robert A. Niederman, Professor of Molecular Biology and ... Regulation of gene expression; mechanisms of protein synthesis and G-protein regulation. Tony Ah-Ng Kong, Professor of ... Regulation of gene expression by nuclear hormone receptors. Dunne Fong, Associate Professor of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, ... Regulation of meiotic recombination; mouse models for the expression of tumor suppressor genes. Henrik Pedersen, Professor of ...
... this is compatible with the demonstrated role of these enzymes in the regulation of the expression of other genes. We propose ... Unexpectedly, the PUA domain was detected also in bacterial and yeast glutamate kinases; ... and the analysis of pum mRNA and protein expression during early Drosophila development. The pum gene is unusually large; ... and SUI1 domains must have included several events of lateral gene transfer and gene loss as well as lineage-specific domain ...
What is Nutrient Broth? • Luria-Bertani (LB) broth • Medium that contains nutrients for bacterial growth and gene expression • ... araC B A D araC GFP Gene RNA Polymerase RNA Polymerase B A D araC araC GFP Gene Gene Regulation ... Localization and regulation of gene expression • Cell movement • Cell fate during development • Formation of different organs ... pGLO Bacterial Transformation - Dna. rna. protein. trait. pglo bacterial transformation. safety first!. wear gloves do ...
... specifically intermediate filaments and the role of adhesion proteins in the regulation of gene expression. My current ... Over the past few decades, my interests have evolved from membrane-enveloped bacterial viruses, through acetylcholine receptor ...
Bacterial gene expression control at the transcriptional, translational and post-translational levels. Global regulation and ... Regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes: regulation at the genome, transcription, RNA processing and translation levels. ... Control of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Recombinant DNA technology and its applications in gene analysis and ... Gene expression in Gram negative (E.coli) Gram positive (B.subtilis) and yeast cells (S.cerevisea). Use of Agrobacterium and ...
Bacterial proteomics. *Biofilms. *Environmental regulation of gene expression. *Antimicrobial and wound healing peptides ...
Tepavčevićs scientific interests focus on the regulation of gene expression in bacteria and specifically on regulation at the ... including the regulation of virulence in pathogens. Many important questions regarding sRNA contribution to the bacterial ... and their chaperones regulate gene expression. Specifically, the lab is looking at the regulation of processes required for ... Tepavčević studies how bacteria regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. She uses a marine bacterium, Vibrio ...
Anti-Bacterial Agents; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Drug Resistance, Microbial; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial; Protein ... Our aim was to explore the impact of CO gas per se, without intervention of CORMs, on bacterial physiology and gene expression ... CO is known to inhibit bacterial respiration, and we found expression of genes encoding energy-transducing pathways to be ... Carbon Monoxide Gas Is Not Inert, but Global, in Its Consequences for Bacterial Gene Expression, Iron Acquisition, and ...
They enable hands-on learning about the central dogma, genetic engineering, and the regulation of gene expression. ... Bio-Rads pGLO Bacterial Transformation and GFP Kits offer engaging and unforgettable lab activities in which students engineer ... These kits enable hands-on learning about the central dogma, gene expression and regulation, genetic engineering, protein ... Bio-Rads pGLO™ Bacterial Transformation Kits offer unforgettable lab activities in which students engineer bacteria to express ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial. Next Sort by:. .css-2b097c-container{position:relative;box-sizing:border-box;}. .css- ...
This results in altered expression of subtelomeric genes. Recent observations further reveal telomere length-dependent gene ... Using chromatinized bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) reporters in human fibroblasts, we found that ETV5 and c-Myc/MYC- ... allowing expression of , 40 gene products involved in DNA repair and cell cycle regulation. Here, using a DNA replication ... Using gene expression and synthetic peptide arrays on membrane support and overlay analyses, we found here that inhibiting USP7 ...
Regulation of Prokaryotic gene expression. Gene expression in bacteria is highly influenced by changing environment. Gene ... Genes that encode a protein which regulate the gene expression of other genes are called regulatory genes. This code for an ... Continuous expression of genes is called constitutive or housekeeping gene expression. ​. *Certain gene such as tRNA, rRNA, ... Positive and Negative control of gene expression *The regulation of gene expression-- induction (turning on) and repression ( ...
  • We have described a regulatory circuit, composed of three proteins, that controls the expression of genes involved in the conjugation of IncHI1 plasmids in response to changes in the environmental conditions. (
  • Mechanism of epigenetic alterations in cardiopulmonary vascular disease, calcium handling proteins, and small molecules inhibitors and target gene therapies. (
  • Regulation occurs at many points during the transcription and translation processes and involves epigenomic compounds, which are chemical compounds and proteins that can attach to DNA and influence gene expression. (
  • A small domain consisting of 60-65 amino acid residues was detected in the ribosomal protein S4, two families of pseudouridine synthases, a novel family of predicted RNA methylases, a yeast protein containing a pseudouridine synthetase and a deaminase domain, bacterial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases, and a number of uncharacterized, small proteins that may be involved in translation regulation. (
  • Over the past few decades, my interests have evolved from membrane-enveloped bacterial viruses, through acetylcholine receptor structure and synaptic assembly, to the organization and function of the cytoskeleton, specifically intermediate filaments and the role of adhesion proteins in the regulation of gene expression. (
  • It is quite possible that distinctions in gene regulation can alter the expression levels of key proteins thereby changing the organism's resistance properties without gain or loss of a particular gene. (
  • In bacteria, three main proteins - Hfq, ProQ, and CsrA - have been shown to regulate numerous complex processes, including bacterial growth, stress response and virulence. (
  • Phase variation of Opa proteins of Neisseria meningitidis and the effects of bacterial transformation. (
  • The majority of opa genes in UK disease isolates (315/463, 68.0%) were in the 'on' phase, suggesting the importance of Opa proteins during invasive disease. (
  • Frameshift knockout mutations enable reverse genetics and assignment of function, sequence insertions can be used to fuse genes to epitope tags or other functional domains, such as fluorescent proteins to endogenous gene products, and specific sequence alterations can be used to induce amino acid substitutions for disease modeling, to transfer traits in agricultural crops and livestock, and to correct defective genes for therapeutic applications. (
  • A wide range of stimuli, including cytokines, mitogens, environmental particles, toxic metals, and viral or bacterial products, activate NF-kappaB, mostly through IkappaB kinase (IKK)-dependent phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of its inhibitor, the IkappaB family of proteins. (
  • Activated NF-kappaB translocates into the nucleus where it modulates the expression of a variety of genes, including those encoding cytokines, growth factors, acute phase response proteins, cell adhesion molecules, other transcription factors, and several cell apoptosis regulators. (
  • Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria. (
  • The survival of bacteria to adverse conditions depends on its ability to modulate gene expression, to provide the appropriate gene products for the adaptation to the new environmental conditions. (
  • In the case of pathogenic bacteria, the modulation of gene expression is crucial, since during the infectious process they need to encounter different many different niches of the host. (
  • Post-transcriptional regulation plays important roles to finely tune gene expression in bacteria. (
  • Dr. Tepavčević's scientific interests focus on the regulation of gene expression in bacteria and specifically on regulation at the post-transcriptional level. (
  • Dr. Tepavčević studies how bacteria regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. (
  • Bio-Rad's pGLO™ Bacterial Transformation Kits offer unforgettable lab activities in which students engineer bacteria to express the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and glow green under UV light. (
  • This kit contains the components for producing bacteria with arabinose-regulated expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP). (
  • Gene expression in bacteria is highly influenced by changing environment. (
  • Probiotic microorganisms colonize the gastrointestinal tract of the host environment, reducing the risk of pathogenic bacteria growth and their potential impact on the regulation of host immune responses. (
  • Understanding how virulence factors are regulated by temperature presents a significant challenge, as gene expression and protein production are often influenced by complex regulatory networks involving multiple transcription factors in bacteria. (
  • Here we highlight some recent insights into thermal regulation of virulence in pathogenic bacteria. (
  • We outline the mechanisms of thermal regulation and how understanding this fundamental aspect of the biology of bacteria has implications for pathogenesis and human health. (
  • Using an STm mutant with impaired ability to polarize macrophage phenotypes, we find that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) defines a granuloma macrophage population that is nonpermissive for intracellular bacteria, and their abundance anticorrelates with tissue bacterial burden. (
  • A small subpopulation of non-replicating, multidrug-tolerant bacteria is present within clonal populations of many bacterial species. (
  • Intestinal immune response to enteric bacterial and protozoal pathogens. (
  • These sRNAs can modulate multiple regulatory circuits important for all aspects of bacterial physiology, including the regulation of virulence in pathogens. (
  • Recently, we have demonstrated that pre-treatment with actin disrupting drugs latrunculin B (latB) and cytochalasin E can enhance plant resistance against bacterial and fungal pathogens via activation of salicylic acid (SA) pathway. (
  • One hundred seventeen AMPs (defined here as 'potent putative AMPs') were predicted to have very good activity against more than two bacterial pathogens, and these were characterized further in silico. (
  • It is the body's first-line defense against many bacterial pathogens. (
  • Macrophages mediate key antimicrobial responses against intracellular bacterial pathogens, such as Salmonella enterica. (
  • In vivo, antibiotics are often surprisingly inefficient at eliminating bacterial pathogens. (
  • This chapter outlines methods to identify and study persisters resulting from interactions between bacterial pathogens and their hosts. (
  • Thermal regulation can be achieved at the level of DNA, RNA or protein and although many virulence factors are subject to thermal regulation, the exact mechanisms of control are yet to be elucidated in many instances. (
  • BACKGROUND: Iron is a crucial element for bacterial survival and virulence. (
  • Two new studies provide evidence that differences in people's blood levels of C reactive protein (CRP) stem in part from natural variation in known metabolic genes. (
  • Their predicted structure and genomic location suggest that, even in compact bacterial genomes, a relatively large fraction of the genome consists of non-protein-coding sequences, possibly functioning at the RNA level. (
  • These kits enable hands-on learning about the central dogma, gene expression and regulation, genetic engineering, protein separation, and the biomanufacturing process. (
  • Here, using in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing in mouse kidney, we demonstrate that PTH activation rapidly induces increased recruitment of phosphorylated (p-133) CREB (pCREB) and its coactivators, CBP (CREB-binding protein) and CRTC2 (CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 2), to previously defined kidney-specific M1 and M21 enhancers near the Cyp27b1 gene. (
  • This kit enables hands-on learning about the central dogma, gene expression and regulation, genetic engineering, protein separation, and the biomanufacturing process. (
  • The presence of Opa PV in meningococcal populations and high expression of Opa among invasive strains likely indicates the importance of this protein in bacterial colonization in the human nasopharynx. (
  • Topics that will be covered include quantitative laws in genome evolution, regulatory circuits for gene regulation and their specific behaviors, the role of gene expression noise, bacterial growth laws, regulatory principles in metazoan development, and application of maximum entropy and information theory principles to biological problems from protein structure to development. (
  • Growth-Phase-Specific Modulation of Cell Morphology and Gene Expression by an Archaeal Histone Protein. (
  • Moreover, MSX1 regulated the CDH2 expression by activating the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. (
  • It is caused by a mutation in a specific gene that causes low levels of a protein called CD18. (
  • Two putative c-type multiheme cytochromes required for the expression of OmcB, an outer membrane protein essential for optimal Fe(III) reduction in Geobacter sulfurreducens. (
  • G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) take part in a wide range of vital regulations of our physiological actions. (
  • We have previously reported that overexpression of the salinity-responsive DWARF AND DELAYED FLOWERING 1 (DDF1) gene, encoding an AP2 transcription factor of the DREB1/CBF subfamily, causes dwarfism mainly by levels of reducing bioactive gibberellin (GA) in transgenic Arabidopsis. (
  • Gene expression is the phenotypic manifestation of genes by the processes of transcription and translation. (
  • Gene expression via transcription and translation is a fundamental principle of molecular biology that is often referred to as the central dogma of molecular biology. (
  • DNA methylation is a primary epigenetic mechanism which modulates DNA transcription and thereby gene expression. (
  • The expression levels were assayed quantitatively using reverse transcription and real-time RT-PCR. (
  • The nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB family of eukaryotic transcription factors plays an important role in the regulation of immune response, embryo and cell lineage development, cell apoptosis, cell-cycle progression, inflammation, and oncogenesis. (
  • MSX1 is an important member of the muscle segment homeobox gene (Msh) family and acts as a transcription factor to regulate tissue plasticity, yet its role in goat endometrium remodeling remains elusive. (
  • We evaluated real-time (kinetic) reverse transcription-polymerase chain response (RT-PCR) to validate differentially expressed genes identified by DNA arrays. (
  • This system of "runaway" transcription creates alternative rules for RNA quality control, and provides insights into the sheer diversity of bacterial species. (
  • Generations of researchers, including myself, were taught that coupled transcription-translation is fundamental to bacterial gene expression," says Gene-Wei Li, an associate professor of biology and senior author of the study. (
  • To gauge how common runaway transcription is, Lalanne created algorithms that sifted through genomes from over 1,000 bacterial species to identify the ends of transcripts. (
  • This page displays every known transcription unit of this operon and their known regulation. (
  • Especially 45 annotated genes were related to metabolism, apoptosis or transcription regulation. (
  • 9, 10 In this study, we explored the applicability of kinetic RT-PCR as a rapid procedure for the validation of a number of differentially expressed genes identified by HDFA. (
  • From the profiles of 30,000 genes, we selected 68 differentially expressed genes among sham (S), R0 and R5 groups using a random-variance F-test. (
  • Genes implicated in iron acquisition, and the metabolism of sulfur amino acids and arginine, are all perturbed. (
  • Vitamin D metabolism centers on kidney regulation of Cyp27b1 by mineralotropic hormones, including induction by parathyroid hormone (PTH), suppression by fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ), and reciprocal regulations for Cyp24a1 . (
  • The regulation of NAD + metabolism and the signaling networks reciprocally interacting with NAD + -producing metabolic pathways are not yet fully understood. (
  • Bacterial RNA chaperones and chaperone-like riboregulators: behind the scenes of RNA-mediated regulation of cellular metabolism. (
  • Gene expression analysis showed antimicrobial peptide (AMP) up-regulation by Asiatic acid in intestinal cells. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: The reason behind the antibacterial activities of Asiatic acid is probably over-expression of antimicrobial peptide genes. (
  • Overall, Asiatic acid up-regulates antimicrobial peptide gene expression and inhibits intracellular S. flexneri growth. (
  • The studies in Salmonella are focused in the regulation of the pathogenicity island 1 genes, which are involved in the invasion of epithelial cells. (
  • Within the biofilms, the bacterial cells are embedded in a polysaccharide matrix. (
  • Tiny strands of genetic material called RNA - a chemical cousin of DNA - are emerging as major players in gene regulation, the process inside cells that drives all biology and that scientists seek to control in order to fight disease. (
  • Expression of GFP by selected clones was evaluated by growing cells in complex or defined media. (
  • The use of pRK310 as an expression vector containing the lacZ promoter resulted in a 100-fold increase of GFP production when compared to cells containing the pLac-GFP-pJB3KmD construct. (
  • Furthermore, a modified version of the CRISPR-Cas9 system has been developed to recruit heterologous domains that can regulate endogenous gene expression or label specific genomic loci in living cells. (
  • SKACP003-treated breast cancer cells showed decreased expression of Wnt/ß-Catenin targeting genes such as C-Myc, P68, and COX-2 and significant downregulation of CDK-4 and CDK-6 genes. (
  • harvested peripheral blood mononuclear cells of IBD patients in order to study the expression patterns of some miRNAs that are commonly deregulated in IBD patients. (
  • Notably, the mRNA expression of circadian clock genes (BMAL1, PER2, REV-ERBα, and DBP) and autophagy-related genes (MAP1LC3B and ATG5) showed rhythmic expression patterns in both untreated and rapamycin/AICAR-treated U2OS cells. (
  • The therapy uses a patient's own blood stem cells and inserts a corrected version of the mutated gene. (
  • Bacterial persister cells are dormant cells, tolerant to multiple antibiotics, that are involved in several chronic infections. (
  • In the past decade, mathematical modeling has become an important tool to study the regulation of toxin-antitoxin modules and their relation to the emergence of persister cells. (
  • In the case of ciprofloxacin therapy in a Salmonella enterica subspecies 1 serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium, S. Tm) mouse infection model, this has been traced to tolerant bacterial cells surviving in lymph node monocytes (i.e., classical dendritic cells). (
  • Furthermore, human being FPR expression continues to be observed in several distinct cells and cell types ([6]C[7] and sources therein), indicating a much broad distribution of the receptors and their significant role in vivo physiologically. (
  • These cytokines have been grouped as Th1, Th2, Th17 and T regulatory (Treg) based on their expression pattern and effects on target cells or tissues [ 5 ]. (
  • Th1 cells are associated with a protective response against bacterial infection whereas Th2 cells predominate in the advanced period of the disease suggesting their role in the destruction and progression of periodontal lesions [ 7 ]. (
  • Differential distribution of the wlan and cgtB genes, associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome, in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from humans, broiler chickens, and wild birds. (
  • Gene expression in humans is complex and highly regulated. (
  • In food industry, the bacterial biofilms have a negative impact from both economical and sanitary point of view. (
  • Although the composition of oral biofilms is well established, the active portion of the bacterial community and the patterns of gene expression in vivo have not been studied. (
  • We could identify some gene expression patterns characteristic for early and mature oral biofilms. (
  • In addition to the specific set of gene functions overexpressed in early and mature oral biofilms, as detected through the short-reads dataset, the long-reads approach detected specific changes when comparing the metatranscriptome of the same individual before and after a meal, which can narrow down the list of organisms responsible for acid production and therefore potentially involved in dental caries. (
  • Use the Transformation Reagent Refill Kit with the pGLO Bacterial Transformation Kit (1660003EDU). (
  • Specifically, the lab is looking at the regulation of processes required for Vibrio colonization of the squid light organ, including motility, biofilm formation and bioluminescence. (
  • E. coli has served as a model organism in scientific research for over a century, and helped researchers parse many fundamental processes, including gene expression. (
  • Analysis of non-coding sequences in several bacterial genomes brought to the identification of families of repeated sequences, able to fold as secondary structures. (
  • A previous systematic analysis of a representative set of 40 bacterial genomes produced a large collection of sequences, potentially able to fold as stem-loop structures (SLS). (
  • Systematic analysis of 40 bacterial genomes revealed a large number of repeated sequence families, including known and novel ones. (
  • Although less prominent than in eukaryotic genomes, sequence repeats are found in most bacterial species. (
  • Following these observations, and given the current availability of a large number of sequenced bacterial genomes, a systematic analysis of stem-loop containing repeated sequences appeared of interest. (
  • In a previous article [ 18 ], high stability stem-loop structures (SLS) were studied within a representative set of bacterial genomes and some of them were shown to have strong similarity with each other. (
  • Small RNA-mediated Gene Regulation It has been shown that small RNAs repress or modify gene expression in all organisms. (
  • She uses a marine bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, an exclusive symbiont of the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, as a model system to investigate how small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) and their chaperones regulate gene expression. (
  • Gene expression may also be related to chromatin modifications and effects on non-coding RNAs. (
  • miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs with some ability to regulate gene expression. (
  • Our aim was to explore the impact of CO gas per se, without intervention of CORMs, on bacterial physiology and gene expression. (
  • Another novel domain, designated PUA domain, after PseudoUridine synthase and Archaeosine transglycosylase, was detected in archaeal and eukaryotic pseudouridine synthases, archaeal archaeosine synthases, a family of predicted ATPases that may be involved in RNA modification, a family of predicted archaeal and bacterial rRNA methylases. (
  • length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes to characterize microbial communities. (
  • This coordinated genomic regulation results in production of endocrine 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , which, together with PTH and FGF23, controls mineral homeostasis. (
  • Few such modules were enriched in autism-associated genes and genomic variants in autistic children. (
  • Prior to developing the condition, most people with Guillain-Barré syndrome have a bacterial or viral infection. (
  • However, the levels of therapeutic gene expression is consistantly controlled by insertion promoter of viral vector. (
  • Adenovirus DNA : the viral genome and its expression / edited by Walter Doerfler. (
  • Genes expression that only takes place in response to certain external or internal signal are called regulatory gene expression. (
  • Both the mechanisms involve the participation of regulatory genes. (
  • expression of other genes are called regulatory genes. (
  • In our research group, we are studying different mechanisms of gene expression regulation in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli. (
  • In Escherichia coli, mechanisms involved in the control of the expression of the alpha hemolysin produced by uropathogenic isolates and the flagella production are being explored. (
  • Morphological and Transcriptional Responses to CRISPRi Knockdown of Essential Genes in Escherichia coli. (
  • Mismatch-CRISPRi Reveals the Co-varying Expression-Fitness Relationships of Essential Genes in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. (
  • For each bacterial species, sequences obtained from this study and predicted to fold with a free energy lower than -5 Kcal/mol were selected. (
  • [ 23 ] They considered the expression patterns of the selected miRNA species in 162 healthy controls in comparison with 128 CD and 88 UC patients. (
  • The high-coverage approach allowed us to analyze over 398 million reads, revealing that microbial communities are individual-specific and no bacterial species was detected as key player at any time during biofilm formation. (
  • Genome-scale comparison of expanded gene families in Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium ovale curtisi with Plasmodium malariae and with other Plasmodium species. (
  • Genome diversity of the TetR family of transcriptional regulators in a metal-reducing bacterial family Geobacteraceae and other microbial species. (
  • Identification of multicomponent histidine-aspartate phosphorelay system controlling flagellar and motility gene expression in Geobacter species. (
  • Phage resistance is conferred by the specific targeting of foreign nucleic acid by a bacterial surveillance system. (
  • That is 10 genes whose functions are unknown - or 10 suspects for why spores of B. safensis FO-36b T are resistant to peroxide and radiation, although it is not immediately obvious that the presence or absence of any specific gene or combination of genes is responsible for the variations in resistance seen. (
  • These are potential genes of interest with respect to the resistance of the spores of this strain" said Tirumalai. (
  • The high efficiency of genome editing obviates the need for additional sequences, such as drug-resistance marker genes, and therefore the need for additional manipulations to remove them. (
  • Complete sequence of an IncFII plasmid harbouring the colistin resistance gene mcr-1 isolated from Belgian pig farms. (
  • How are messenger RNA molecules recognized and degraded to regulate gene expression? (
  • Structural and Functional Analysis of Toxin and Small RNA Gene Promoter Regions in Bacillus anthracis. (
  • By comparing the blueprints of the four strains, they found 10 genes that are unique to the FO-36b, that are not found in any other organisms (including other Bacillus strains). (
  • Conjugative plasmids are vehicles for horizontal gene transfer. (
  • Differential regulation of CsrC and CsrB by CRP-cAMP in Salmonella enterica. (
  • Other analyses implicated dendritic cell activity and differential regulation of cytokines, especially IL-17. (
  • Fifteen candidate genes were identified in qPC-14, and three candidate genes showed differential expression between a high-PC and a low-PC variety during the seed development stage. (
  • Whereas some investigators interpret a twofold difference in hybridization intensity as evidence of differential gene expression, others require fourfold differences. (
  • 1, 6, 7 Currently, array technology is usually most useful in establishing broad patterns of gene expression and in screening for differential gene expression. (
  • In particular, regulation of type I toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems is achieved through sophisticated mechanisms involving toxin mRNA folding. (
  • Mechanisms and regulation of cell mediated immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (
  • Recent projects have included the molecular engineering of viruses, and the mechanisms of bacterial pathogenicity and host colonisation. (
  • Caenorhabditis Elegans Reproductive Aging: Regulation and Underlying Mechanisms. (
  • Yet, the comprehensive set of the conditionally essential genes that underpin Salmonella survival under iron-restricted niches has not been fully explored. (
  • Thus, characterizing the composition of whole bacterial communities that actively engage in biofilm formation and sugar fermentation after the ingestion of food is vital for understanding community dynamics under health and disease conditions [ 7 ]. (
  • Gene therapy requires gene transfer vectors to deliver the therapeutic gene to the relevant target cell. (
  • Different vectors have different characteristics of DNA-carrying capacity, targeted cell types, duration and defined levels of expression. (
  • Type I toxin-antitoxin systems (T1TAs) are extremely potent bacterial killing systems difficult to characterize using classical approaches. (
  • Regulation of two highly similar genes, omcB and omcC, in a 10 kb chromosomal duplication in Geobacter sulfurreducens. (
  • These FPR genes are proven to cluster on human being chromosomal area 19q13.3 [9]C[11]. (
  • The deduced amino acid sequence of these gene fragments showed 100% identity with the sequence of other wild-type and vaccine strains. (
  • Many of the genes that may increase the risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome are involved in the immune system, and their roles in fighting infection may contribute to the development of the condition. (
  • Interestingly, the FPR3 does not respond to fMLF, the prototypic N-formyl peptide usually generated at sites of bacterial infection or tissue injury, while FPR1 binds fMLF with high affinity and FPR2 does with low affinity [16], [17]. (
  • Riboswitches are 5′-untranslated regions of mRNA that change their conformation in response to ligand binding, allowing post-transcriptional gene regulation. (
  • While the transcriptional regulation of the smmo gene in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b is known to be copper-dependent, expression of GFP by M. extorquens clones harboring pmmoX-promoters was not strongly controlled by the presence of copper in the medium. (
  • Dynamic Metabolite Profiling in an Archaeon Connects Transcriptional Regulation to Metabolic Consequences. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Suppression of Eis and expression of Wag31 and GroES in Mycobacterium tuberculosis cytosol under anaerobic culture conditions. (
  • Direct correlation between rates of anaerobic respiration and levels of mRNA for key respiratory genes in Geobacter sulfurreducens. (
  • Here we extend this study to detect all families of SLS containing sequences in the same bacterial set. (
  • The transcriptomic profile of several adhesion genes was confirmed through qPCR by measuring expression of fimbriae-associated genes. (
  • Indeed, different surface restoration properties could directly influence the level of bacterial adhesion and aggregation 5 . (
  • In other way previous studies have reported that AM inhibits bacterial adhesion because of its ability to release silver 14 however, there is insufficient evidence that the release of these elements has a purely antibacterial effect 15 . (
  • RESULTS: Here, we employed transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) method for high-resolution elucidation of the genes in Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) 14028S strain required for the growth under the in vitro conditions with four different levels of iron restriction achieved by iron chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl (Dip): mild (100 and 150 µM), moderate (250 µM) and severe iron restriction (400 µM). (
  • The results showed that the mRNA expression of MAP1LC3B and ATG5 were significantly upregulated after autophagy activation, whereas the mRNA expression of circadian clock genes (BMAL1, PER2, REV-ERBα, and DBP) were significantly decreased. (
  • Suppressing S1P₁ activity with AUY954 also increased mRNA expression levels of M2 polarization markers in post-ischemic brain, further indicating that S1P₁ could also influence M2 polarization in post-ischemic brain. (
  • Here, we set up a genetic approach to decipher the molecular underpinnings behind the regulation of a type I TA. (
  • Results: We used tightly controlled chemostat conditions and integrated transcriptomic datasets with statistical modeling to reveal the global effects of CO. CO is known to inhibit bacterial respiration, and we found expression of genes encoding energy-transducing pathways to be significantly affected via the global regulators, Fnr, Arc, and PdhR. (
  • Genes of all the enzymes working in catabolic pathways are inducible in nature. (
  • Findings related to bacterial gene expression overturn fundamental assumptions about basic biological pathways. (
  • In fact, it's becoming increasingly clear that what is true of one bacterial type may not be true of another - even when it comes down to life's most basic biological pathways. (
  • To assess the killing capability of type I toxins and to identify mutations suppressing the toxin expression or activity, we previously developed the FASTBAC-Seq (Functional AnalysiS of Toxin-Antitoxin Systems. (
  • AapA1 belongs to type I TA bacterial toxins, and both its mechanism of action towards the membrane and toxicity features are still unclear. (
  • Innovation: This is the first detailed exploration of global bacterial responses to CO, revealing unexpected targets with implications for employing CORMs therapeutically. (
  • Conclusion: This work reveals the complexity of bacterial responses to CO and provides a basis for understanding the impacts of CO from CORMs, heme oxygenase activity, or environmental sources. (
  • Recent studies have revealed the regulation and integration of inflammatory responses by the central nervous system (CNS) through the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems ( Tracey, 2002 ). (
  • Affected genes included those altering immune activation ( FASLG , IL-21R, MAPK13, PRF1, RIPK3 and S100A13 ). (
  • Strategies of immune regulation / edited by Eli Sercarz, Alastair J. Cunningham. (
  • Periodontal disease results from destruction of periodontal tissues provoked by stimulation of bacterial challenge to host immune-inflammatory response [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Bacterial plaque is the primary etiological factor for periodontitis , but the majority of destruction of the periodontal tissues concludes from a sequence of immune-inflammatory reactions [ 3 ]. (
  • RGN-mediated genome editing is facile, rapid and has enabled the efficient modification of endogenous genes in a wide variety of biomedically important cell types and novel organisms that have traditionally been challenging to manipulate genetically. (
  • Although the genome-wide specificities of CRISPR-Cas9 systems remain to be fully defined, the capabilities of these systems to perform targeted, highly efficient alterations of genome sequence and gene expression will undoubtedly transform biological research and spur the development of novel molecular therapeutics for human disease. (
  • In participating UK research institutions, investigators can publish open access in Genome Research, Genes & Development, RNA, and Learning & Memory without article publication charges and all staff can read the entire renowned Cold Spring Harbor journal collection. (
  • This leads to recurring bacterial and fungal infections that respond poorly to antibiotics, require frequent hospitalizations, and can be fatal. (
  • The NAD + -dependent histone deacetylase (HDAC) Hst1 has been shown to inhibit de novo NAD + synthesis by repressing biosynthesis of nicotinic acid ( BNA ) gene expression. (
  • Expression of genes which is induced by an environmental signal is called inducible gene expression. (
  • Moreover, Asiatic acid reduced bacterial growth and recovered intestinal tissue damages in in vivo mice model. (
  • SLO development depends on the precisely regulated expression of cooperating lymphoid chemokines and cytokines such as LTα, LTβ, RANKL, TNF, IL-7, and perhaps IL-17. (
  • Here, we found that the GA 2-oxidase 7 gene (GA2ox7), which encodes a C20-GA deactivation enzyme, is strongly upregulated in DDF1-overexpressing transgenic plants. (
  • ppGpp mediates the growth phase-dependent regulation of agn43, a phase variable gene, by stimulating its promoter activity. (
  • Wissenschaftlicher Artikel Ex vivo-growth response of porcine small intestinal bacterial communities to pharmacological doses of dietary zinc oxide Starke, Ingo C. (
  • The SKACP003-induced growth inhibition induced apoptosis, as evidenced by a decrease in BCL-2 and an increase in BAX and caspase gene (Cas-3, Cas-8, and Cas-9) expression. (
  • New insights into the role of nuclear factor-kB in cell growth regulation. (
  • We found that the fitness of the mutants reduced significantly for 28 genes, suggesting the importance of these genes for the growth under iron restriction. (
  • Previous investigations have reported that RC restorations promote bacterial growth on their surface 11-12 , suggesting that material-specific factors may be involved 13 . (