Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (fos) originally isolated from the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses. The proto-oncogene protein c-fos codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. The insertion of c-fos into FBJ-MSV or FBR-MSV induces osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The human c-fos gene is located at 14q21-31 on the long arm of chromosome 14.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (1/76734)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

The role of gene splicing, gene amplification and regulation in mosquito insecticide resistance. (2/76734)

The primary routes of insecticide resistance in all insects are alterations in the insecticide target sites or changes in the rate at which the insecticide is detoxified. Three enzyme systems, glutathione S-transferases, esterases and monooxygenases, are involved in the detoxification of the four major insecticide classes. These enzymes act by rapidly metabolizing the insecticide to non-toxic products, or by rapidly binding and very slowly turning over the insecticide (sequestration). In Culex mosquitoes, the most common organophosphate insecticide resistance mechanism is caused by co-amplification of two esterases. The amplified esterases are differentially regulated, with three times more Est beta 2(1) being produced than Est alpha 2(1). Cis-acting regulatory sequences associated with these esterases are under investigation. All the amplified esterases in different Culex species act through sequestration. The rates at which they bind with insecticides are more rapid than those for their non-amplified counterparts in the insecticide-susceptible insects. In contrast, esterase-based organophosphate resistance in Anopheles is invariably based on changes in substrate specificities and increased turnover rates of a small subset of insecticides. The up-regulation of both glutathione S-transferases and monooxygenases in resistant mosquitoes is due to the effects of a single major gene in each case. The products of these major genes up-regulate a broad range of enzymes. The diversity of glutathione S-transferases produced by Anopheles mosquitoes is increased by the splicing of different 5' ends of genes, with a single 3' end, within one class of this enzyme family. The trans-acting regulatory factors responsible for the up-regulation of both the monooxygenase and glutathione S-transferases still need to be identified, but the recent development of molecular tools for positional cloning in Anopheles gambiae now makes this possible.  (+info)

TIF1gamma, a novel member of the transcriptional intermediary factor 1 family. (3/76734)

We report the cloning and characterization of a novel member of the Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 1 (TIF1) gene family, human TIF1gamma. Similar to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, the structure of TIF1beta is characterized by multiple domains: RING finger, B boxes, Coiled coil, PHD/TTC, and bromodomain. Although structurally related to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, TIF1gamma presents several functional differences. In contrast to TIF1alpha, but like TIF1beta, TIF1 does not interact with nuclear receptors in yeast two-hybrid or GST pull-down assays and does not interfere with retinoic acid response in transfected mammalian cells. Whereas TIF1alpha and TIF1beta were previously found to interact with the KRAB silencing domain of KOX1 and with the HP1alpha, MODI (HP1beta) and MOD2 (HP1gamma) heterochromatinic proteins, suggesting that they may participate in a complex involved in heterochromatin-induced gene repression, TIF1gamma does not interact with either the KRAB domain of KOX1 or the HP1 proteins. Nevertheless, TIF1gamma, like TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, exhibits a strong silencing activity when tethered to a promoter. Since deletion of a novel motif unique to the three TIF1 proteins, called TIF1 signature sequence (TSS), abrogates transcriptional repression by TIF1gamma, this motif likely participates in TIF1 dependent repression.  (+info)

Telomerase reverse transcriptase gene is a direct target of c-Myc but is not functionally equivalent in cellular transformation. (4/76734)

The telomerase reverse transcriptase component (TERT) is not expressed in most primary somatic human cells and tissues, but is upregulated in the majority of immortalized cell lines and tumors. Here, we identify the c-Myc transcription factor as a direct mediator of telomerase activation in primary human fibroblasts through its ability to specifically induce TERT gene expression. Through the use of a hormone inducible form of c-Myc (c-Myc-ER), we demonstrate that Myc-induced activation of the hTERT promoter requires an evolutionarily conserved E-box and that c-Myc-ER-induced accumulation of hTERT mRNA takes place in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. These findings demonstrate that the TERT gene is a direct transcriptional target of c-Myc. Since telomerase activation frequently correlates with immortalization and telomerase functions to stabilize telomers in cycling cells, we tested whether Myc-induced activation of TERT gene expression represents an important mechanism through which c-Myc acts to immortalize cells. Employing the rat embryo fibroblast cooperation assay, we show that TERT is unable to substitute for c-Myc in the transformation of primary rodent fibroblasts, suggesting that the transforming activities of Myc extend beyond its ability to activate TERT gene expression and hence telomerase activity.  (+info)

Gene expression profiles in HTLV-I-immortalized T cells: deregulated expression of genes involved in apoptosis regulation. (5/76734)

Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia, an acute and often fatal T-cell malignancy. A key step in HTLV-I-induced leukemigenesis is induction of abnormal T-cell growth and survival. Unlike antigen-stimulated T cells, which cease proliferation after a finite number of cell division, HTLV-I-infected T cells proliferate indefinitely (immortalized), thus facilitating occurrence of secondary genetic changes leading to malignant transformation. To explore the molecular basis of HTLV-I-induced abnormal T-cell survival, we compared the gene expression profiles of normal and HTLV-I-immortalized T cells using 'gene array'. These studies revealed a strikingly altered expression pattern of a large number of genes along with HTLV-I-mediated T-cell immortalization. Interestingly, many of these deregulated genes are involved in the control of programmed cell death or apoptosis. These findings indicate that disruption of the cellular apoptosis-regulatory network may play a role in the HTLV-I-mediated oncogenesis.  (+info)

Socs1 binds to multiple signalling proteins and suppresses steel factor-dependent proliferation. (6/76734)

We have identified Socs1 as a downstream component of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathway. We show that the expression of Socs1 mRNA is rapidly increased in primary bone marrow-derived mast cells following exposure to Steel factor, and Socs1 inducibly binds to the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase via its Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. Previous studies have shown that Socs1 suppresses cytokine-mediated differentiation in M1 cells inhibiting Janus family kinases. In contrast, constitutive expression of Socs1 suppresses the mitogenic potential of Kit while maintaining Steel factor-dependent cell survival signals. Unlike Janus kinases, Socs1 does not inhibit the catalytic activity of the Kit tyrosine kinase. In order to define the mechanism by which Socs1-mediated suppression of Kit-dependent mitogenesis occurs, we demonstrate that Socs1 binds to the signalling proteins Grb-2 and the Rho-family guanine nucleotide exchange factors Vav. We show that Grb2 binds Socs1 via its SH3 domains to putative diproline determinants located in the N-terminus of Socs1, and Socs1 binds to the N-terminal regulatory region of Vav. These data suggest that Socs1 is an inducible switch which modulates proliferative signals in favour of cell survival signals and functions as an adaptor protein in receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathways.  (+info)

Anopheles gambiae Ag-STAT, a new insect member of the STAT family, is activated in response to bacterial infection. (7/76734)

A new insect member of the STAT family of transcription factors (Ag-STAT) has been cloned from the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. The domain involved in DNA interaction and the SH2 domain are well conserved. Ag-STAT is most similar to Drosophila D-STAT and to vertebrate STATs 5 and 6, constituting a proposed ancient class A of the STAT family. The mRNA is expressed at all developmental stages, and the protein is present in hemocytes, pericardial cells, midgut, skeletal muscle and fat body cells. There is no evidence of transcriptional activation following bacterial challenge. However, bacterial challenge results in nuclear translocation of Ag-STAT protein in fat body cells and induction of DNA-binding activity that recognizes a STAT target site. In vitro treatment with pervanadate (vanadate and H2O2) translocates Ag-STAT to the nucleus in midgut epithelial cells. This is the first evidence of direct participation of the STAT pathway in immune responses in insects.  (+info)

Id helix-loop-helix proteins inhibit nucleoprotein complex formation by the TCF ETS-domain transcription factors. (8/76734)

The Id subfamily of helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins plays a fundamental role in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Id proteins are thought to inhibit differentiation mainly through interaction with other HLH proteins and by blocking their DNA-binding activity. Members of the ternary complex factor (TCF) subfamily of ETS-domain proteins have key functions in regulating immediate-early gene expression in response to mitogenic stimulation. TCFs form DNA-bound complexes with the serum response factor (SRF) and are direct targets of MAP kinase (MAPK) signal transduction cascades. In this study we demonstrate functional interactions between Id proteins and TCFs. Ids bind to the ETS DNA-binding domain and disrupt the formation of DNA-bound complexes between TCFs and SRF on the c-fos serum response element (SRE). Inhibition occurs by disrupting protein-DNA interactions with the TCF component of this complex. In vivo, the Id proteins cause down-regulation of the transcriptional activity mediated by the TCFs and thereby block MAPK signalling to SREs. Therefore, our results demonstrate a novel facet of Id function in the coordination of mitogenic signalling and cell cycle entry.  (+info)

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

... , or gene regulation, includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or ... Conversely, down-regulation is a process resulting in decreased gene and corresponding protein expression. Up-regulation occurs ... Often, one gene regulator controls another, and so on, in a gene regulatory network. Gene regulation is essential for viruses, ... Gene structure Spatiotemporal gene expression "Can genes be turned on and off in cells?". Genetics Home Reference. Bell JT, Pai ...
The Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, located within the School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, is a research ... Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression website Wellcome Trust website Coordinates: 56°27′29″N 2°59′09″W / 56.458003°N ... The controlled unravelling of DNA is an important step in the regulation of gene function. Angus Lamond, a Wellcome Principal ... Gene expression, Genetics in the United Kingdom, Research institutes in Scotland, University of Dundee, Wellcome Trust, ...
... is the control of gene expression at the RNA level. It occurs once the RNA polymerase has been ... "Gene Expression and Regulation , Learn Science at Scitable". www.nature.com. Retrieved 2020-10-12. Friedman RC, Farh KK, Burge ... "Control of gene expression during T cell activation: alternate regulation of mRNA transcription and mRNA stability". BMC ... These complexes are essential for the regulation of gene expression to ensure that all the steps are performed correctly ...
The regulation of gene expression (or gene regulation) by environmental factors and during different stages of development can ... Gene expression can be influenced by positive or negative regulation, depending on which of the two types of regulatory ... Hillis, David M.; Sadava, David; Hill, Richard W.; Price, Mary V. (2014). "Regulation of gene expression". Principles of Life ( ... Similarly, transcription factors in eukaryotic cells can also coordinate the expression of a group of genes, even if the genes ...
Gene Regulation and Expression; Cell and Developmental Biology; Molecular Physiology; Environmental and Applied Biology; MRC ... The building originally housed the Divisions of Gene expression, Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Parasitology that were ... Developmental Biology Cell Signalling and Immunology Computational Biology Drug Discovery Unit Gene Regulation and Expression ...
Histone acetylation Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (2015-11-30). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp ... It is thought that a histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. The histone mark ... histone proteins are acetylated and deacetylated on lysine residues in the N-terminal tail as part of gene regulation. ...
Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (30 November 2015). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN ... It is thought that a histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. MAP3K4 controls the ... histone proteins are acetylated and deacetylated on lysine residues in the N-terminal tail as part of gene regulation. ...
Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (2015-11-30). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN ... It is thought that a Histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. H3K36ac has not been ... histone proteins are acetylated and deacetylated on lysine residues in the N-terminal tail as part of gene regulation. ...
Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN 9780127999586. Ruthenburg AJ, Li H, Patel DJ, Allis CD (December ... It is thought that a histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. The histone mark ... histone proteins are acetylated and deacetylated on lysine residues in the N-terminal tail as part of gene regulation. ...
Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN 9780127999586. Farooq, Zeenat; Banday, Shahid; Pandita, Tej K.; ... It is thought that a Histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. Three forms of H3K79 ... H3K79 dimethylation has been detected in the transcribed regions of active genes. The histone mark H3K36me3 can be detected in ...
Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (30 November 2015). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN ... It is thought that a histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. The histone mark can be ... The phosphorylation of H3T11 by Sch9 and CK2 links a nutritional stress response to chromatin in the regulation of lifespan. ...
Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (2015-10-19). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. ISBN 9780128004715. ... Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN 9780127999586. Ruthenburg AJ, Li H, Patel DJ, Allis CD (December ... It is thought that a Histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. Suppression of the H3K4 ...
Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (30 November 2015). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN ... and transcriptional regulation. Arginine methylation plays a major role in gene regulation because of the ability of the PRMTs ... It is thought that a histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. PRMT2 was shown to ...
Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (2015-11-30). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN ... It is thought that a Histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell-specific gene regulation. Since the H3K27ac and ... histone proteins are acetylated and deacetylated on lysine residues in the N-terminal tail as part of gene regulation. ...
Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. London: Elsevier/Academic Press. pp. 21-38. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-799958-6.00002-0. ... It is thought that a histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell-specific gene regulation. The histone mark ... and the transmission of the memory of gene expression from parents to offspring during development. H3K36me2 indicates ...
Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (2015-11-30). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN ... It is thought that a histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... H4K5ac has also been implicated in epigenetic bookmarking which allows gene expression patterns to be faithfully passed to ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. The histone mark ...
Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (30 November 2015). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN ... "Regulation of a novel epigenome of protein biosynthesis genes". Retrieved 4 May 2022. Darieva, Zoulfia; Webber, Aaron; Warwood ... It is thought that a histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This could be a new regulatory network that coordinates gene expression to enable the necessary cell expansion that comes with ...
Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (2015-11-30). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN ... It is thought that a Histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. H3K56ac is a covalent ... histone proteins are acetylated and deacetylated on lysine residues in the N-terminal tail as part of gene regulation. ...
Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (30 November 2015). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN ... It is thought that a histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. The histone mark can be ... androgen-dependent kinase signaling precludes the removal of active methyl tags from H3K4 during AR-stimulated gene expression ...
Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (2015-11-30). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-35. ISBN ... It is thought that a Histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. H4K20 was one of the ... Song, L.; Crawford, G. E. (2010). "DNase-seq: A High-Resolution Technique for Mapping Active Gene Regulatory Elements across ...
Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (2015-11-30). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN ... It is thought that a Histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. H3K9ac and H3K14ac have ... histone proteins are acetylated and deacetylated on lysine residues in the N-terminal tail as part of gene regulation. ...
Figure 4: Epigenetic basis of drug regulation of gene expression Nestler EJ (August 2015). "Role of the Brain's Reward ... Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (2015). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN ... H3K9me2 represses gene expression both passively, by prohibiting acetylation and therefore binding of RNA polymerase or its ... It is thought that a histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ...
Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (30 November 2015). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN ... It is thought that a histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. A substantial number of ... Interestingly, these are often related to regulation of proliferative genes. Phosphorylation of serines 10 and 28 of H3 and ...
Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (30 November 2015). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN ... It is thought that a histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. The histone mark can be ... "Epigenetic gene regulation by Janus kinase 1 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ...
Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (30 November 2015). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN ... and transcriptional regulation. Arginine methylation plays a major role in gene regulation because of the ability of the PRMTs ... It is thought that a histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. As of March 2021, PRMT6 ...
Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (30 November 2015). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN ... and transcriptional regulation. Arginine methylation plays a major role in gene regulation because of the ability of the PRMTs ... It is thought that a histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. There is evidence of ...
"Regulation of Globin Gene Expression". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) "World Renowned Geneticist ... The Myers Lab at HudsonAlpha studies the human genome, with a focus on allelic variation and how gene expression changes ... His research focuses on the human genome with the goal of understanding how allelic variation and gene expression changes ... Tom Maniatis at Harvard University, where he studied human gene regulation. Some new technologies he developed in Maniatis's ...
Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (2015-11-30). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN ... It is thought that a Histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. The histone mark ... Song, L.; Crawford, G. E. (2010). "DNase-seq: A High-Resolution Technique for Mapping Active Gene Regulatory Elements across ...
Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (30 November 2015). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN ... It is thought that a histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. Mycobacteria can reduce ... Song, L.; Crawford, G. E. (2010). "DNase-seq: A High-Resolution Technique for Mapping Active Gene Regulatory Elements across ...
Ng DC, Su MJ, Kim R, Bikle DD (January 1996). "Regulation of involucrin gene expression by calcium in normal human ... "Regulation of involucrin gene expression". The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 123 (1): 13-22. doi:10.1111/j.0022-202X. ... Balasubramanian S, Zhu L, Eckert RL (November 2006). "Apigenin inhibition of involucrin gene expression is associated with a ... Takahashi H, Kobayashi H, Matsuo S, Iizuka H (1995). "Repression of involucrin gene expression by transcriptional enhancer ...
"Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations and Gene Fusions in Cancer". cgap.nci.nih.gov. Retrieved 2018-11-27. Nathanson, ... "Targeted Therapy Resistance Mediated by Dynamic Regulation of Extrachromosomal Mutant EGFR DNA". Science. 343 (6166): 72-76. ... "Circular ecDNA promotes accessible chromatin and high oncogene expression". Nature. 575 (7784): 699-703. Bibcode:2019Natur.575 ... Fikes, Bradley J. (9 February 2017). "Cancer genes hide outside chromosomes". sandiegouniontribune.com. Retrieved 2019-01-31. " ...
Jones ME (1980). "Pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis in animals: genes, enzymes, and regulation of UMP biosynthesis". Annual ... "Both gene expression for orotate phosphoribosyltransferase and its ratio to dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase influence outcome ... Gene. 394 (1-2): 78-86. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2007.02.009. PMID 17383832. Lin T, Suttle DP (May 1995). "UMP synthase activity ... In humans, the gene that codes for this enzyme is located on the long arm of chromosome 3 (3q13). This bifunctional enzyme has ...
... generally because gene regulatory proteins of the E2F family have become unrestrained and increase G1/S cyclin gene expression ... Within the cell cycle, there is a stringent set of regulations known as the cell cycle control system that controls the timing ... pRB binding to E2F family transcription factors downregulate expression of S phase cyclin genes; anaphase-promoting complex ( ... Foster DA, Yellen P, Xu L, Saqcena M (November 2010). "Regulation of G1 Cell Cycle Progression: Distinguishing the Restriction ...
Graham, I. A.; Denby, K. J.; Leaver, C. J. (1994). "Carbon Catabolite Repression Regulates Glyoxylate Cycle Gene Expression in ... Dave, Anuja; Vaistij, Fabián E.; Gilday, Alison D.; Penfield, Steven D.; Graham, Ian A. (2016). "Regulation of Arabidopsis ... Structure and function of the cucumber malate synthase gene and expression during plant development. ethos.bl.uk (PhD thesis). ... The discovery of a 10 gene cluster responsible for the production of the anti-cancer compound noscapine in opium poppy provided ...
... gene expression is mediated by decreased DNA binding of nuclear factor I proteins which control constitutive TTF-1 expression ... "Transcriptional Regulation of Intermediate Progenitor Cell Generation during Hippocampal Development". Development. 143 (24): ... differential expression of two classes of NF-1 genes". J. Neurovirol. 2 (2): 87-100. doi:10.3109/13550289609146542. PMID ... Nuclear factor 1 X-type is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFIX gene. NFI-X3, a splice variant of NFIX, regulates ...
Manohar CF, Salwen HR, Furtado MR, Cohn SL (1996). "Up-regulation of HOXC6, HOXD1, and HOXD8 homeobox gene expression in human ... This gene belongs to the homeobox family of genes. The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors ... consisting of 9 to 11 genes arranged in tandem. This gene is one of several homeobox HOXD genes located in a cluster on ... 1994). "The thyroid transcription factor-1 gene is a candidate target for regulation by Hox proteins". EMBO J. 13 (14): 3339-47 ...
Consumption regulations varies by county: many have adopted some sort of regulation allowing cannabis consumption clubs to ... Music in homage from these clubs arose; Gene Krupa even composed an entire album named "Teapad Songs Volume 1". These clubs ... Many of these Spanish groups were members of the pan-European non-government organization ENCOD which coined the expression ... "I'm Feeling High and Happy - Gene Krupa and his Orchestra (1938)". Herb Museum. "What is ENCOD ? - Encod.org". Archived from ...
Dehm SM, Bonham K (April 2004). "SRC gene expression in human cancer: the role of transcriptional activation". Biochem. Cell ... It plays a role in the regulation of embryonic development and cell growth. An elevated level of activity of c-Src is suggested ... a viral gene) to one where a gene that is normally present in the cell can cause cancer. It is believed that at one point an ... a novel human intracellular SRC-like tyrosine kinase-encoding gene". Gene. 138 (1-2): 247-51. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90817-6 ...
The protein encoded by this gene shares similarity with the product of Drosophila syd gene, required for the functional ... 2001). "Expression of JNK cascade scaffold protein JSAP1 in the mouse nervous system". Neurosci. Res. 39 (4): 391-400. doi: ... A new mode of regulation of the MAP kinase cascade". J. Biol. Chem. United States. 277 (43): 40703-9. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Studies of the similar gene in mouse suggested that this protein may interact with and regulate the activity of numerous ...
... regulation, heterologous expression, and enzyme properties". European Journal of Biochemistry. 230 (3): 1053-8. doi:10.1111/j. ... barrels positioned face to face and thought to have evolved by gene duplication. The active site lies between the tops of the ... a face-to-face double barrel that evolved by gene duplication". PLOS Biology. 3 (2): e31. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030031. PMC ...
Weinstein, Eugene A.; Beckhouse, Lawrence S.; Blumstein, Philip W.; Stein, Robert B. (December 1968). "Interpersonal strategies ... Narcissists also tend to be neater and flashier dressers, display friendlier facial expressions, and exhibit more self-assured ... regulation of behaviors to control the image presented to the interviewer Relational control: Applicants' attempt to control ... doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2000.tb00217.x. Kutcher, Eugene J.; Bragger, Jennifer D.; Masco, Jamie L. (September 2013). "How ...
"Cloning and expression of primate Daxx cDNAs and mapping of the human gene to chromosome 6p21.3 in the MHC region". DNA Cell ... and has been implicated in many nuclear processes including transcription and cell cycle regulation. This gene encodes a ... No expression of Daxx leads to malfunction of S phase and cells with two nuclei are formed. Another centromeric component, CENP ... Death-associated protein 6 also known as Daxx is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DAXX gene. Daxx, a Death domain- ...
In Silico Identification and Expression Analysis of CDF-Like Genes". In Olivares-Quiroz L, Resendis-Antonio O (eds.). ... This type of regulation often involves allosteric regulation of the activities of multiple enzymes in the pathway. Extrinsic ... There are multiple levels of metabolic regulation. In intrinsic regulation, the metabolic pathway self-regulates to respond to ... Firstly, the regulation of an enzyme in a pathway is how its activity is increased and decreased in response to signals. ...
Parthenogenetic/gynogenetic embryos have twice the normal expression level of maternally derived genes, and lack expression of ... Barlow DP (April 1993). "Methylation and imprinting: from host defense to gene regulation?". Science. 260 (5106): 309-10. ... among imprinted genes. It has also been postulated that if the retrotransposed gene is inserted close to another imprinted gene ... "Allelic expression of mammalian imprinted genes in a matrotrophic lizard, Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii". Development Genes and ...
Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ... The UPS is also involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses. This activity is usually attributed to the role of ... The gene PSMD7 encodes a non-ATPase subunit of the 19S regulator. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 17. The human ... Sheehy AM, Gaddis NC, Choi JD, Malim MH (Aug 2002). "Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed ...
2004). "Expression and transcriptional regulation of functionally distinct Bmf isoforms in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells ... Bcl-2-modifying factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMF gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ... Human BMF genome location and BMF gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. v t e (Genes on human chromosome 15, All stub ... BMF (gene) has been shown to interact with Bcl-2 and DYNLL2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000104081 - Ensembl, May 2017 ...
Mosimann C, Hausmann G, Basler K (April 2009). "β-catenin hits chromatin: regulation of Wnt target gene activation". Nature ... Ji J, Yamashita T, Wang XW (2011). "Wnt/β-catenin signaling activates microRNA-181 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma". ... These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they ... Mutations in genes encoding these proteins can lead to inactivation of cadherin cell adhesions and elimination of contact ...
Environmental prenatal stress exposure, for example, alters glucocorticoid receptor gene expression, gene function, and future ... Gene regulation as it relates to the HPA axis has been implicated in transgenerational stress effects. ... Epigenetic re-programming of gene expression alters stress response in offspring later in life when exposed to decreased ... Chromatin remodeling in rodent offspring and altered gene expression within the limbic brain regions that may contribute to ...
Gene Structure and Expression. 1625 (2): 141-52. doi:10.1016/S0167-4781(02)00600-0. PMID 12531473. Tran Q, Roesser JR (February ... Lemaire R, Winne A, Sarkissian M, Lafyatis R (March 1999). "SF2 and SRp55 regulation of CD45 exon 4 skipping during T cell ... "Entrez Gene: SFRS6 splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich 6". Zahler AM, Lane WS, Stolk JA, Roth MB (May 1992). "SR proteins: a ... Splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SFRS6 gene. The protein encoded by this ...
"Entrez Gene: ICOS inducible T-cell co-stimulator". Rudd CE, Schneider H (Jul 2003). "Unifying concepts in CD28, ICOS and CTLA4 ... It forms homodimers and plays an important role in cell-cell signaling, immune responses and regulation of cell proliferation. ... "Characterization of human inducible costimulator ligand expression and function". Journal of Immunology. 164 (9): 4689-96. doi: ... In wild-type C57BL/6 mice, anti-CTLA-4 treatment resulted in tumor rejection in 80 to 90% of subjects, but in gene-targeted ...
2005). "Systemic regulation of vascular NAD(P)H oxidase activity and nox isoform expression in human arteries and veins". ... 2001). "Homologs of gp91phox: cloning and tissue expression of Nox3, Nox4, and Nox5". Gene. 269 (1-2): 131-40. doi:10.1016/ ... v t e (Genes on human chromosome 11, All stub articles, Human chromosome 11 gene stubs). ... "Entrez Gene: NOX4 NADPH oxidase 4". Schröder K, Zhang M, Benkhoff S, Mieth A, Pliquett R, Kosowski J, Kruse C, Luedike P, ...
"Expression of esophageal cancer related gene 4 (ECRG4), a novel tumor suppressor gene, in esophageal cancer and its inhibitory ... Sabatier R, Finetti P, Adelaide J, Guille A, Borg JP, Chaffanet M, Lane L, Birnbaum D, Bertucci F (2011). "Down-regulation of ... Yue CM, Deng DJ, Bi MX, Guo LP, Lu SH (June 2003). "Expression of ECRG4, a novel esophageal cancer-related gene, downregulated ... v t e (Genes on human chromosome 2, CS1 Chinese-language sources (zh), All stub articles, Human chromosome 2 gene stubs). ...
... elements in gene promoters. Type I IFNs can induce expression of genes with either ISRE or GAS elements, but gene induction by ... IFNs belonging to all three classes are important for fighting viral infections and for the regulation of the immune system. ... Gene cloning also confirmed that IFN-α was encoded by a family of many related genes. The type II IFN (IFN-γ) gene was also ... US patent 6207146, Tan YH, Hong WJ, "Gene expression in mammalian cells.", issued 2001 Cantell K (1998). The story of ...
identified a list of 32 genes targeted by miR-137 by cross-referencing the global gene expression analysis of HCT 116 ... including regulation of dendrite length, branch points, end points, and spine density in mouse adult hippocampal ... KDM4A targets CHD5, a tumour suppressor and positive regulator p53 expression. It was observed that miR-137 expression is lost ... is a short non-coding RNA molecule that functions to regulate the expression levels of other genes by various mechanisms. miR- ...
Ras homolog gene family, member B, also known as RHOB, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the RHOB gene. RHOB is a ... Gampel A, Parker PJ, Mellor H (September 1999). "Regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor traffic by the small GTPase ... "Identification and characterization of a novel activated RhoB binding protein containing a PDZ domain whose expression is ... "Entrez Gene: RHOB ras homolog gene family, member B". Chardin P, Madaule P, Tavitian A (March 1988). "Coding sequence of human ...
"Improved Broad-Host-Range RK2 Vectors Useful for High and Low Regulated Gene Expression Levels in Gram-Negative Bacteria", ... J A Kornacki, C H Chang, and D H Figurski: "kil-kor regulon of promiscuous plasmid RK2: structure, products, and regulation of ... genes, which inactivate the kil genes. The kil and kor genes together are suspected to play a role in the broad host range of ... In addition, RK2 contains a set of potentially lethal (to the cell) genes, called kil genes, and a set of complementary ...
biochemical function biological function involved regulation and interactions expression These steps may involve both ... A simple method of gene annotation relies on homology based search tools, like BLAST, to search for homologous genes in ... the auspices of the Gene Wiki portal which operates a bot that harvests gene data from research databases and creates gene ... Entrez Gene Ensembl GENCODE Gene Ontology Consortium GeneRIF RefSeq Uniprot Vertebrate and Genome Annotation Project (Vega) At ...
There is some evidence that the expression of Abl is regulated by the microRNA miR-203. BCR gene GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Yoshida K (2007). "Regulation for nuclear targeting of the Abl tyrosine kinase in response to DNA damage". Advances in ... This gene is a partner in a fusion gene with the BCR gene in the Philadelphia chromosome, a characteristic abnormality in ... The t(9;22) translocation results in the head-to-tail fusion of the BCR and ABL1 genes, leading to a fusion gene present in ...
... multiplicity of selenoprotein genes and expression of a protein containing 17 selenocysteine residues". Genes Cells. 5 (12): ... Binds to heparin in a pH-dependent manner Mostert V (April 2000). "Selenoprotein P: properties, functions, and regulation". ... Burk RF; Hill KE (2009). "Selenoprotein P-expression, functions, and roles in mammals". Biochim Biophys Acta. 1790 (11): 1441-7 ... Gene. 199 (1-2): 211-7. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00369-7. PMID 9358058. Hill KE, Zhou J, Austin LM, Motley AK, Ham AJ, Olson ...
June 1990). "Expression of the CD34 gene in vascular endothelial cells". Blood. 75 (12): 2417-2426. doi:10.1182/blood.V75.12. ... "Differential regulation of the human and murine CD34 genes in hematopoietic stem cells". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... "Entrez Gene: CD34 CD34 molecule". Simmons DL, Satterthwaite AB, Tenen DG, Seed B (January 1992). "Molecular cloning of a cDNA ... Satterthwaite AB, Burn TC, Le Beau MM, Tenen DG (April 1992). "Structure of the gene encoding CD34, a human hematopoietic stem ...
Gene Expression and Regulation section investigates molecular mechanisms of gene expression employed by bacterial pathogens and ... Biochemists and microbiologists investigating molecular mechanisms of gene expression employed by bacterial pathogens and phage ... The Vibrio cholerae master regulator for the activation of biofilm biogenesis genes, VpsR, senses both cyclic di-GMP and ... Conformational change of the Bordetella response regulator BvgA accompanies its activation of the B. pertussis virulence gene ...
Signal Transduction in the Regulation of Gene Expression. Perry J. Blackshear, M.D., D.Phil. Senior Investigator Tel 984-287- ... Physiological roles of these proteins in the regulation of gene expression, in organisms ranging from yeasts to man, under ... The Post-transcriptional Gene Expression Group is interested in the molecular mechanisms by which proteins of this family are ... Perry J. Blackshear, M.D., D.Phil., is head of the Post-Transcriptional Gene Expression Group and holds a secondary appointment ...
Other studies have demonstrated regulation of apoprotein gene expression by sucrose-rich diet, nutritional regulation of gene ... regulation of LDL receptor gene and apolipoprotein gene expression in the liver and GI tract; o studies on nutrient control of ... NUTRIENT INFLUENCE ON GENE REGULATION AND EXPRESSION NIH GUIDE, Volume 21, Number 17, May 8, 1992 PA NUMBER: PA-92-77 P.T. 34 ... This program announcement, Nutrient Influence on Gene Regulation and Expression, is related to the priority areas focusing on ...
A selection of influential publications from the Principal Investigators of the Gene Expression and Regulation Section ... Gene Regul Syst Bio (2007) 1:275-93. Abstract/Full Text. Escherichia coli RNA polymerase recognition of a sigma70-dependent ... A basic/hydrophobic cleft of the T4 activator MotA interacts with the C-terminus of E.coli sigma70 to activate middle gene ... VpsR Directly Activates Transcription of Multiple Biofilm Genes in Vibrio cholerae.. Hsieh ML, Waters CM, Hinton DM.. J ...
Social Regulation for Human Gene Expression Download VideoCast. You can download this VideoCast and play it on your device. ... Recent research has discovered that socio-environmental conditions may have an effect on human gene expression. In this lecture ... Recent research has discovered that socio-environmental conditions may have an effect on human gene expression. In this lecture ... and its efforts to identify the types of genes subject to social regulation. Dr. Coles overview of this field of research will ...
It regulates many haematopoietic genes and interacts with a number of other transcription factors. Its functions are mostly ... Upon disruption of the GATA1 gene, mice show a drastic bloodless phenoty … ... Regulation of GATA1 gene expression Makoto Kobayashi et al. J Biochem. 2007 Jul. ... These observations suggest the importance of regulation on the expression level and timing of GATA1. Deciphering such ...
Metabolic Regulation of Gene Expression by Histone Lysine β-Hydroxybutyrylation Zhongyu Xie 1 , Di Zhang 1 , Dongjun Chung 2 , ... Metabolic Regulation of Gene Expression by Histone Lysine β-Hydroxybutyrylation Zhongyu Xie et al. Mol Cell. 2016. . ... I) RT-qPCR analysis of gene expression during 48h of fasting. Relative expression was normalized to Actin. Data were ... The Venn diagram shows the numbers of the top 700 genes with increased gene expression in response to starvation. (K) ...
Regulation of Gene Expression at the Beginning of Mammalian Development Background. Mammalian development begins when an egg is ... One approach to understanding regulation of DNA replication and gene expression at the beginning of mammalian development has ... Figure 2. Developmental changes affecting regulation of gene expression at the beginning of mouse development. These include ... transcribed genes lie in close proximity and therefore provide a unique paradigm for differential regulation of gene expression ...
UTRs in gene expression regulation - Search Results - PubMed ... UTRs in gene expression regulation. [No authors listed] [No ... On the function and relevance of alternative 3-UTRs in gene expression regulation. Pereira-Castro I, Moreira A. Pereira-Castro ... On the function and relevance of alternative 3-UTRs in gene expression regulation. Pereira-Castro I, et al. Wiley Interdiscip ... On the function and relevance of alternative 3-UTRs in gene expression regulation. [No authors listed] Wiley Interdiscip Rev ...
Regulation of gene expression and genome organisation. Add to your list(s) Download to your calendar using vCal ... University of Cambridge , Talks.cam , Computational and Systems Biology , Regulation of gene expression and genome organisation ... I will discuss the regulation of gene expression and genome architecture, focusing on regulatory elements, chromatin domains, ... Differential control of the genome establishes gene expression programmes that drive cellular identity and function. ...
Postdoctoral Fellow in Regulation of Gene Expression and Molecular Carcinogenesis Group in Physics & Astronomy, Academic Posts ... and other transcriptional kinases in the regulation of gene expression and their targeting in human diseases, particularly ... Research experience in the fields of gene expression (transcription, mRNA-processing, RNA biology) or related fields ... protein expression and purification, PCR, molecular cloning etc. ... Postdoctoral Fellow in Regulation of Gene Expression and ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant * Subject Areas on Research. * A Co-opted Regulator of Lateral Root Development Controls ... Phytochrome regulation and differential expression of gibberellin 3b-hydroxylase genes in germinating Arabidopsis seeds ... A gene expression map of the Arabidopsis root. * A gene regulatory network for root epidermis cell differentiation in ... DNA repair proteins are directly involved in regulation of gene expression during plant immune response. ...
... but also in the regulation of viral gene expression, i.e. in the down-regulation of the three polymerase genes and the up- ... By contrast, the expression of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene was severely suppressed. The over-production of the polymerase ... regulation of the HA gene during secondary transcription. ... each carrying a ts mutation in the PB2 gene, were analysed for ... but also in the regulation of viral gene expression, i.e. in the down-regulation of the three polymerase genes and the up- ...
Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression after the production of an RNA transcript.. ...
... ... The role of DNA methylation in eQTL regulation of gene expression was investigated by data triangulation using several causal ... our mediation analyses illuminate the likely intermediary role of CpG methylation in eQTL regulation of gene expression. ... mostly mediating genetic influence on gene expression. In summary, we provide a comprehensive catalog of eQTLs, meQTLs and ...
We have characterized the concerted regulation by insulin (3-h h ... Defective regulation of gene expression may be involved in the ... Regulation of gene expression in adipose tissue.. We further investigated whether the impaired regulation of gene expression ... Basal mRNA expression pattern in skeletal muscle.. We have first investigated the regulation of the expression of nine genes ... and p85αPI3K gene expression. In addition, it is still unclear whether the observed defects in the regulation of gene ...
Yu, H., Gong, L., Wu, C., Nilsson, K., Li-Wang, X. & Schwartz, S., 2018 Mar 1, In: Journal of General Virology. 99, 3, p. 328-343 16 p., 001019.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ...
The highest regulation of Hb gene expression in response to hypoxia was found at this stage. Transcriptional regulation of Hb ... Larval gene expression patterns under moderate hypoxia. The relative levels of 14 Hb transcripts (seven Hbα genes and seven Hbβ ... We conclude that subtype- and stage-specific regulation of Hb gene expression plays a role in the physiological response of D. ... The present work confirms that the regulation of Hb gene expression is involved in the molecular response to hypoxia in D. ...
To understand early signaling and gene regulation in bystander cells, we used a bio-informatics approach, measuring global gene ... Gene ontology suggested signal transduction and transcriptional regulation responding 30 minutes after treatment affected cell ... We used whole human genome microarrays and real time quantitative PCR to measure and validate gene expression. Microarray ... We measured time-dependent expression of genes controlled by the NF-κB pathway; matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3; chemokine ...
Conversely, mbk-1 dependent expression patterns of selected pathogen resistance genes, including asp-12, dod-24 and drd-50, ... Our work reveals previously unknown roles of C. elegans mbk-1 in the regulation of fatty acid desaturase- and H2S metabolic- ... Finally, cth-1 and cysl-2, two genes which connect pathogen resistance to the metabolism of the gaseous messenger and lifespan ... Irrespective of genetic background, mbk-1 regulated genes were enriched for functions in biological processes related to ...
Laboratory project: Regulation of Gene Expression. Contributor(s):. Nirenberg, Marshall W.. Bethke, Bruce. Tsai, Wu-Hong. ...
Tags: RNA, miRNA, circRNA, lncRNA, gene regulation, gene expression, genetics. Related Blog Posts. *RNA-Targeting Therapeutic ... miRNAs, lncRNAs and circRNAs are newfound types of non-coding RNAs that are shedding light on the regulation of gene expression ... With the new and developing understanding of non-coding RNAs roles in gene expression regulation, we can modify the central ... Non-Coding RNAs Are Rising Stars in Gene Expression Regulation. By Yannis Grammatikakis ...
In the present study, we used RT-PCR to characterize aromatase transcripts and real-time PCR to quantify the expression of the ... Total aromatase mRNA expression in the pituitary varied significantly during the estrous cycle, with the highest level ... Immunohistochemistry studies in the rat have shown that pituitary aromatase expression is sex-dependent and varies across the ... These results suggest that pituitary aromatase mRNA expression is downregulated by estrogens. ...
  • Differential control of the genome establishes gene expression programmes that drive cellular identity and function. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants. (uams.edu)
  • LinkedOmics was used to identify differential gene expression with RBM8A and to analyze Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. (aging-us.com)
  • Expression of immediate early genes in brain reward circuitries: Differential regulation by psychostimulant and opioid drugs. (nih.gov)
  • This lecture has been broken into ten chapters and may be viewed by clicking on the links provided, beginning with Introduction To Social Regulation for Human Gene Expression . (nih.gov)
  • In this lecture, Dr. Cole will summarize the developing field of social genomics, and its efforts to identify the types of genes subject to social regulation. (nih.gov)
  • Name types of genes that are sensitive to the social environment. (nih.gov)
  • The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), for instance, were recently identified as major regulators of gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • Model made predictions on which genes would code for intermediate regulators of gene expression. (liveforever.club)
  • Gene ontology suggested signal transduction and transcriptional regulation responding 30 minutes after treatment affected cell structure, motility and adhesion, and interleukin synthesis. (columbia.edu)
  • I will discuss the regulation of gene expression and genome architecture, focusing on regulatory elements, chromatin domains, and 3D genome organization in C. elegans. (cam.ac.uk)
  • These findings highlight the critical role of LDB1 in maintaining both ESC stemness and promoting differentiation through its influence on gene expression and genome organization. (nih.gov)
  • We identify and compare expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) and CpG methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTLs) among 147 established PrCa risk SNPs in primary prostate tumors (n = 355 from a Seattle-based study and n = 495 from The Cancer Genome Atlas, TCGA) and tumor-adjacent, histologically benign samples (n = 471 from a Mayo Clinic study). (nih.gov)
  • We used whole human genome microarrays and real time quantitative PCR to measure and validate gene expression. (columbia.edu)
  • We used sequencing data from the Cancer Genome Atlas database and Gene Expression Omnibus, analyzed RBM8A expression and gene regulation networks in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (aging-us.com)
  • Team built a genome-wide model for regulation of gene expression in S. cerevisiae. (liveforever.club)
  • It will measure, over time, how every other gene in the genome responds. (liveforever.club)
  • At first, only a few lncRNAs were known to exist, but as technologies improved, next generation sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed a large number of lncRNAs, with several of them playing roles in epigenetic regulation and gene expression during embryonic development or cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Cooperation between the H3K27me3 Chromatin Mark and Non-CG Methylation in Epigenetic Regulation. (uams.edu)
  • Clayton, C & Shapira, M 2007, ' Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in trypanosomes and leishmanias ', Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology , vol. 156, no. 2, pp. 93-101. (bgu.ac.il)
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uams.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Gene Expression Regulation, Plant" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "Gene Expression Regulation, Plant" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uams.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Gene Expression Regulation, Plant" by people in Profiles over the past ten years. (uams.edu)
  • Histone Deacetylase HDA9 and WRKY53 Transcription Factor Are Mutual Antagonists in Regulation of Plant Stress Response. (uams.edu)
  • Thomas J, Kim HR, Rahmatallah Y, Wiggins G, Yang Q, Singh R, Glazko G, Mukherjee A. RNA-seq reveals differentially expressed genes in rice (Oryza sativa) roots during interactions with plant-growth promoting bacteria, Azospirillum brasilense. (uams.edu)
  • Upon disruption of the GATA1 gene, mice show a drastic bloodless phenotype. (nih.gov)
  • The Post-transcriptional Gene Expression Group is interested in the molecular mechanisms by which proteins of this family are regulated, and in their physiological roles in a variety of normal processes, including innate immunity in response to environmental cues, hematopoiesis, establishment of the fetal circulation, and placental physiology in mammals. (nih.gov)
  • However, basic mechanisms underlying the influence of dietary factors and related metabolites on gene transcription need further study. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to studies focusing on mechanisms controlling gene regulation by dietary factors, support is also needed for work on the interactions between genetic factors and nutrition. (nih.gov)
  • However, the precise mechanisms by which LDB1 contributes to gene regulation and chromatin structure modification during erythrocyte development stages are not well understood. (nih.gov)
  • During my Ph.D., I decided to pursue my thesis project in a lab working in the RNA field and, more specifically, on the mechanisms of alternative splicing regulation. (nih.gov)
  • Dosage compensation mechanisms equalize the level of X chromosome expression between sexes. (umn.edu)
  • Along with generating a uniquely extensive data resource in interconnected brain regions implicated in depression/anxiety and environmental influences, this project will deliver cellular mechanisms and molecular mediators implicated in affective and cognitive regulation. (edu.au)
  • 0.01) mRNA expression was reduced in obese (nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic) subjects and was negatively correlated with the BMI of the subjects ( r = −0.63, P = 0.02). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Recent studies indicate that this is an emerging area, rich with opportunities, but in need of additional support for further development of research efforts It appears that nutritional factors, e.g., various vitamins regulated via dietary intake can interact with other regulatory networks, such as tissue-specific, developmental, and hormonal factors, as well as dietary fat or carbohydrate, to regulate gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • In the current study, we tested the effects of the hop-derived compounds 8-prenylnaringenin, 6-prenylnaringenin, xanthohumol and isoxanthohumol (1) to modulate markers of differentiation and gene expression in osteoblasts and (2) to regulate proliferation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. (elsevier.com)
  • These IEGs might play important roles in activating target genes that regulate adaptations implicated in the behavioral manifestations diagnosed as addiction. (nih.gov)
  • Transcription regulation at the core: similarities among bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic RNA polymerases. (nih.gov)
  • Messanger RNA (mRNA) isoforms with alternative 3 '- untranslated regions ( 3 '- UTRs ) are produced by alternative polyadenylation (APA), which occurs during transcription in most eukaryotic genes. (nih.gov)
  • Other studies have demonstrated regulation of apoprotein gene expression by sucrose-rich diet, nutritional regulation of gene expression in lipogenesis, and suppression of fatty acid synthase transcription by polyunsaturated fatty acids. (nih.gov)
  • To understand early signaling and gene regulation in bystander cells, we used a bio-informatics approach, measuring global gene expression at 30 minutes and signaling pathways between 30 minutes and 4 hours after exposure to α-particles in IMR-90 fibroblasts. (columbia.edu)
  • Expression of this gene is linked to functional networks involving the ribosome and RNA metabolic signaling pathways. (aging-us.com)
  • Third, among risk SNPs identified as both eQTLs and meQTLs, mediation analyses suggest that over two-thirds have evidence of a causal role for DNA methylation, mostly mediating genetic influence on gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • Irrespective of genetic background, mbk-1 regulated genes were enriched for functions in biological processes related to organic acid metabolism and pathogen defense. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conversely, mbk-1 dependent expression patterns of selected pathogen resistance genes, including asp-12 , dod-24 and drd-50 , differed across the genetic backgrounds examined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Name one neural or endocrine pathway that can mediate social influence on gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • Deciphering such regulation is the key to understanding the commitment and differentiation of blood cells. (nih.gov)
  • LDB1 deficiency also affected erythrocyte differentiation after ESCs transitioned to embryoid bodies, as indicated by decreased expression of Ter119 and CD71 markers. (nih.gov)
  • Transcriptomic analysis revealed upregulated expression of Lin28b, a gene typically suppressed during erythroid progenitor differentiation and loss of self-renewal capacity. (nih.gov)
  • His group studies the roles of a small family of CCCH tandem zinc finger proteins, exemplified by tristetraprolin or TTP, in the physiological regulation of mRNA turnover and translation. (nih.gov)
  • This program announcement, Nutrient Influence on Gene Regulation and Expression, is related to the priority areas focusing on the roles of specific dietary factors in the etiology and prevention of chronic diseases and obesity. (nih.gov)
  • Our research team is dedicated to understanding the roles of CDK12, CDK11, and other transcriptional kinases in the regulation of gene expression and their targeting in human diseases, particularly cancer. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • Our work reveals previously unknown roles of C. elegans mbk-1 in the regulation of fatty acid desaturase- and H 2 S metabolic-genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With the new and developing understanding of non-coding RNAs' roles in gene expression regulation, we can modify the central dogma of biology. (nih.gov)
  • researchers found that miRNAs have the ability to bind to messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and block protein expression, either by promoting degradation or by silencing translation. (nih.gov)
  • Protein Expression and Purification [electronic resource]. (who.int)
  • Total aromatase mRNA expression in the pituitary varied significantly during the estrous cycle, with the highest level occurring on the day of metestrus. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • These results suggest that pituitary aromatase mRNA expression is downregulated by estrogens. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • DNA methylation and cis-regulation of gene expression by prostate cancer risk SNPs. (nih.gov)
  • The role of DNA methylation in eQTL regulation of gene expression was investigated by data triangulation using several causal inference approaches, including a proposed adaptation of the Causal Inference Test (CIT) for causal direction. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, our mediation analyses illuminate the likely intermediary role of CpG methylation in eQTL regulation of gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • Methylation in the promoter of C/EBP α gene was detected by MALDI TOF MassARRAY. (biomedcentral.com)
  • miRNAs, lncRNAs and circRNAs are newfound types of non-coding RNAs that are shedding light on the regulation of gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) were the first group of non-coding RNA molecules to be extensively studied regarding gene expression regulation. (nih.gov)
  • Gene enrichment analysis examined target networks of kinases, miRNAs and transcription factors. (aging-us.com)
  • Using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, we generated LDB1-deleted mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to investigate LDB1's role in erythropoiesis. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we uncoupled X chromosome dose from sex-specific gene regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans to determine the effect of each on X expression. (umn.edu)
  • Kramer, M , Rao, P & Ercan, S 2016, ' Untangling the contributions of sex-specific gene regulation and x-chromosome dosage to sex-biased gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans ', Genetics , vol. 204, no. 1, pp. 355-369. (umn.edu)
  • To determine the function(s) of the PB2 protein of influenza A virus, six temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of A/Udorn/72 (H3N2) virus, each carrying a ts mutation in the PB2 gene, were analysed for virus RNA and protein synthesis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We proposed a network model where the observed decrease in phosphorylation of β-catenin protein after GSK3β dependent inactivation can trigger target gene expression at later times after radiation exposure These results are the first to show that the radiation induced bystander signal induces a widespread gene expression response at 30 minutes after treatment and these changes are accompanied by modification of signaling proteins in the PI3K-AKT-GSK3β pathway. (columbia.edu)
  • A growing mouse oocyte, arrested at diplotene of its first meiotic prophase, transcribes and translates many of its own genes, thereby producing a store of proteins sufficient to support development to the 8-cell stage. (nih.gov)
  • To determine the degree of co-expression of GABA and Ach handling proteins , we measured expression in adult mice of Slc32a1, Gad1 and Gad2 (which encode GAD67 and GAD65, respectively, the GABA synthetic enzymes ) in cholinergic neurons using fluorescent in situ hybridization . (bvsalud.org)
  • is head of the Post-Transcriptional Gene Expression Group and holds a secondary appointment in the NIEHS Immunity, Inflammation, and Disease Laboratory . (nih.gov)
  • Language: English / Format: Text / Subject: Mutagenesis and Gene Expression Regulation / Genre: Articles / Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. (nih.gov)
  • Control of influenza virus gene expression: quantitative analysis of each viral RNA species in infected cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • To compare gene expression and regulation of the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) antagonists follistatin, gremlin, chordin and noggin in human normal and osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IL-13, dexamethasone, transforming growth factor beta1, basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor BB and epidermal growth factor down-regulated the expression of both antagonists. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The RNA biology field has turned much of its attention to exciting and promising non-coding RNA research, highlighting RNA's role in regulating gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • C/EBPα gene as a lung tumor suppressor was demonstrated: loss of C/EBPα expression through p38α inactivation led to tumor promotion and progression [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transgene expression suggests that nearly all forebrain cholinergic neurons in mice at some point in development express Slc32a1, which encodes the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT). (bvsalud.org)
  • By measuring expression of Slc32a1, Gad1, Gad2, and Chat in the basal forebrain and medial septum in mice from post-natal day 0 to 28, we noted abundant yet variable expressions of GABAergic markers across early development, which are subsequently downregulated in adulthood. (bvsalud.org)
  • Regarding gene-environment interactions, a key aspect of psychiatric disorders, our serotonin transporter (5-HTT) mutant mice provide invaluable tools. (edu.au)
  • Basal and induced gene expression was determined using real-time PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DNA tumor viruses : control of gene expression and replication / edited by Michael Botchan, Terri Grodzicker, Phillip A. Sharp. (who.int)
  • Tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma stimulated follistatin expression, but downregulated gremlin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In erythropoiesis, the activation of the Œ≤-globin gene relies on the LDB1 complex, which enables interaction with the distant locus control region (LCR) enhancer. (nih.gov)
  • The relationship between X chromosome dosage compensation and sex-biased gene expression remains largely unexplored. (umn.edu)
  • In early embryogenesis, when dosage compensation is not yet fully active, X chromosome dose drives the hermaphrodite-biased expression of many X-linked genes, including several genes that were shown to be responsible for hermaphrodite fate. (umn.edu)
  • A similar effect is seen in the C. elegans germline, where X chromosome dose contributes to higher hermaphrodite X expression, suggesting that lack of dosage compensation in the germline may have a role in supporting higher expression of X chromosomal genes with female-biased functions in the gonad. (umn.edu)
  • In the soma, dosage compensation effectively balances X expression between the sexes. (umn.edu)
  • These results suggest that lack of dosage compensation in different tissues and developmental stages allow X chromosome copy number to contribute to sex-biased gene expression and function. (umn.edu)
  • Eight to 10 hours later during G2-phase of 2-cell embryos,expression of zygotic genes increases in both amount and complexity. (nih.gov)
  • It is expected that regardless of approach, all studies will be focused on normal and/or abnormal control of gene regulation and expression. (nih.gov)
  • Abnormal RBM8A expression is associated with carcinogenesis. (aging-us.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry studies in the rat have shown that pituitary aromatase expression is sex-dependent and varies across the estrous cycle, suggesting that estrogens might be involved in the regulation of aromatase activity and might act locally as a paracrine or autocrine factor in the pituitary. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • This announcement is intended to stimulate research on dietary factors and related metabolic interactions that have direct or indirect nutrient influence on specific gene regulation and expression. (nih.gov)
  • There was an increased response of this set of genes 30 minutes after treatment and another wave of induction at 4 hours. (columbia.edu)
  • The ts + revertants of ICRC27 did not exhibit the ts defects and also lost most of the non-ts phenotypes at 34 °C. These observations indicate that the PB2 protein participates not only in the synthesis of viral RNAs, but also in the regulation of viral gene expression, i.e. in the down-regulation of the three polymerase genes and the up-regulation of the HA gene during secondary transcription. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Our results demonstrate that data mining efficiently reveals information about RBM8A expression and potential regulatory networks in HCC, laying a foundation for further study of the role of RBM8A in carcinogenesis. (aging-us.com)
  • More advanced studies focus on dietary protein control of intestinal hormone gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • The Bordetella pertussis model of exquisite gene control by the global transcription factor BvgA. (nih.gov)
  • It regulates many haematopoietic genes and interacts with a number of other transcription factors. (nih.gov)
  • Knocking out LDB1 significantly reduced the levels of key transcription factors involved in stem cell regulation, including Sox2, Oct4, and KLF4, and revealed an interaction between LDB1 and KLF4. (nih.gov)
  • Production of follistatin protein paralleled the gene expression pattern. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene expression in Kinetoplastids is very unusual in that the open reading frames are arranged in long polycistronic arrays, monocistronic mRNAs being created by post-transcriptional processing. (bgu.ac.il)
  • Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression after the production of an RNA transcript. (yeastrc.org)
  • These results suggest that expression of GABA signaling machinery in the cortically-projecting cholinergic system peaks during early development before settling at a non-zero level that is maintained through adulthood. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our results indicate that reduced C/EBP α gene expression may play a role in the development of cervical squamous cell carcinoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Vibrio cholerae master regulator for the activation of biofilm biogenesis genes, VpsR, senses both cyclic di-GMP and phosphate. (nih.gov)
  • Conformational change of the Bordetella response regulator BvgA accompanies its activation of the B. pertussis virulence gene fhaB. (nih.gov)
  • IEGs include classes of low expression genes that can become very highly induced within seconds or minutes of activation by endogenous or exogenous stimuli. (nih.gov)
  • In summary, we provide a comprehensive catalog of eQTLs, meQTLs and putative cancer genes for known PrCa risk SNPs. (nih.gov)
  • However, the role of C/EBP α gene in cervical cancer is still not clear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The second phase of ZGA is specific for a subset of zygotic genes. (nih.gov)
  • The Lim domain binding protein 1 (LDB1) is essential for cell identity determination and cell-specific gene expression regulation through promoter-enhancer looping. (nih.gov)
  • Scientists working on projects requiring modulation of specific gene expression can use non-coding RNAs as powerful tools to achieve gene knockdowns. (nih.gov)
  • Data suggest that follistatin and gremlin expression is timed with specific stages in the progression of OA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a result, somatic sex-biased expression is almost entirely due to sex-specific gene regulation. (umn.edu)
  • The review documents some contrasting effects of these classes of drugs on gene expression and indicates that further studies are necessary to identify the specific effects of each drug class when trying to predict clinical responses to therapeutic agents. (nih.gov)
  • Recent research has discovered that socio-environmental conditions may have an effect on human gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • Formation of a mouse 2-cell embryo marks the transition from maternal to zygotic gene dependence. (nih.gov)
  • Transcription of endogenous genes also has been detected in late 1-cell mouse embryos where it begins at the end of S-phase. (nih.gov)
  • We investigated the expression of C/EBP α gene in cervical squamous cell carcinoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • C/EBPα expression in HeLa cells was examined and HeLa cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay and HeLa cells migration was analyzed by matrigel-coated transwell migration assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We show here that C/EBP α gene is also down-regulated in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bone-forming activity and ER-subtype specificity were investigated by measuring alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in hFOB/ERα cells and regulation of gene transcription for AP, interleukin-6, pS2 and von Willebrand factor (VWF) in U-2 OS/ERα and U-2 OS/ERβ cells. (elsevier.com)