Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (fos) originally isolated from the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses. The proto-oncogene protein c-fos codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. The insertion of c-fos into FBJ-MSV or FBR-MSV induces osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The human c-fos gene is located at 14q21-31 on the long arm of chromosome 14.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (1/76734)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

The role of gene splicing, gene amplification and regulation in mosquito insecticide resistance. (2/76734)

The primary routes of insecticide resistance in all insects are alterations in the insecticide target sites or changes in the rate at which the insecticide is detoxified. Three enzyme systems, glutathione S-transferases, esterases and monooxygenases, are involved in the detoxification of the four major insecticide classes. These enzymes act by rapidly metabolizing the insecticide to non-toxic products, or by rapidly binding and very slowly turning over the insecticide (sequestration). In Culex mosquitoes, the most common organophosphate insecticide resistance mechanism is caused by co-amplification of two esterases. The amplified esterases are differentially regulated, with three times more Est beta 2(1) being produced than Est alpha 2(1). Cis-acting regulatory sequences associated with these esterases are under investigation. All the amplified esterases in different Culex species act through sequestration. The rates at which they bind with insecticides are more rapid than those for their non-amplified counterparts in the insecticide-susceptible insects. In contrast, esterase-based organophosphate resistance in Anopheles is invariably based on changes in substrate specificities and increased turnover rates of a small subset of insecticides. The up-regulation of both glutathione S-transferases and monooxygenases in resistant mosquitoes is due to the effects of a single major gene in each case. The products of these major genes up-regulate a broad range of enzymes. The diversity of glutathione S-transferases produced by Anopheles mosquitoes is increased by the splicing of different 5' ends of genes, with a single 3' end, within one class of this enzyme family. The trans-acting regulatory factors responsible for the up-regulation of both the monooxygenase and glutathione S-transferases still need to be identified, but the recent development of molecular tools for positional cloning in Anopheles gambiae now makes this possible.  (+info)

TIF1gamma, a novel member of the transcriptional intermediary factor 1 family. (3/76734)

We report the cloning and characterization of a novel member of the Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 1 (TIF1) gene family, human TIF1gamma. Similar to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, the structure of TIF1beta is characterized by multiple domains: RING finger, B boxes, Coiled coil, PHD/TTC, and bromodomain. Although structurally related to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, TIF1gamma presents several functional differences. In contrast to TIF1alpha, but like TIF1beta, TIF1 does not interact with nuclear receptors in yeast two-hybrid or GST pull-down assays and does not interfere with retinoic acid response in transfected mammalian cells. Whereas TIF1alpha and TIF1beta were previously found to interact with the KRAB silencing domain of KOX1 and with the HP1alpha, MODI (HP1beta) and MOD2 (HP1gamma) heterochromatinic proteins, suggesting that they may participate in a complex involved in heterochromatin-induced gene repression, TIF1gamma does not interact with either the KRAB domain of KOX1 or the HP1 proteins. Nevertheless, TIF1gamma, like TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, exhibits a strong silencing activity when tethered to a promoter. Since deletion of a novel motif unique to the three TIF1 proteins, called TIF1 signature sequence (TSS), abrogates transcriptional repression by TIF1gamma, this motif likely participates in TIF1 dependent repression.  (+info)

Telomerase reverse transcriptase gene is a direct target of c-Myc but is not functionally equivalent in cellular transformation. (4/76734)

The telomerase reverse transcriptase component (TERT) is not expressed in most primary somatic human cells and tissues, but is upregulated in the majority of immortalized cell lines and tumors. Here, we identify the c-Myc transcription factor as a direct mediator of telomerase activation in primary human fibroblasts through its ability to specifically induce TERT gene expression. Through the use of a hormone inducible form of c-Myc (c-Myc-ER), we demonstrate that Myc-induced activation of the hTERT promoter requires an evolutionarily conserved E-box and that c-Myc-ER-induced accumulation of hTERT mRNA takes place in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. These findings demonstrate that the TERT gene is a direct transcriptional target of c-Myc. Since telomerase activation frequently correlates with immortalization and telomerase functions to stabilize telomers in cycling cells, we tested whether Myc-induced activation of TERT gene expression represents an important mechanism through which c-Myc acts to immortalize cells. Employing the rat embryo fibroblast cooperation assay, we show that TERT is unable to substitute for c-Myc in the transformation of primary rodent fibroblasts, suggesting that the transforming activities of Myc extend beyond its ability to activate TERT gene expression and hence telomerase activity.  (+info)

Gene expression profiles in HTLV-I-immortalized T cells: deregulated expression of genes involved in apoptosis regulation. (5/76734)

Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia, an acute and often fatal T-cell malignancy. A key step in HTLV-I-induced leukemigenesis is induction of abnormal T-cell growth and survival. Unlike antigen-stimulated T cells, which cease proliferation after a finite number of cell division, HTLV-I-infected T cells proliferate indefinitely (immortalized), thus facilitating occurrence of secondary genetic changes leading to malignant transformation. To explore the molecular basis of HTLV-I-induced abnormal T-cell survival, we compared the gene expression profiles of normal and HTLV-I-immortalized T cells using 'gene array'. These studies revealed a strikingly altered expression pattern of a large number of genes along with HTLV-I-mediated T-cell immortalization. Interestingly, many of these deregulated genes are involved in the control of programmed cell death or apoptosis. These findings indicate that disruption of the cellular apoptosis-regulatory network may play a role in the HTLV-I-mediated oncogenesis.  (+info)

Socs1 binds to multiple signalling proteins and suppresses steel factor-dependent proliferation. (6/76734)

We have identified Socs1 as a downstream component of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathway. We show that the expression of Socs1 mRNA is rapidly increased in primary bone marrow-derived mast cells following exposure to Steel factor, and Socs1 inducibly binds to the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase via its Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. Previous studies have shown that Socs1 suppresses cytokine-mediated differentiation in M1 cells inhibiting Janus family kinases. In contrast, constitutive expression of Socs1 suppresses the mitogenic potential of Kit while maintaining Steel factor-dependent cell survival signals. Unlike Janus kinases, Socs1 does not inhibit the catalytic activity of the Kit tyrosine kinase. In order to define the mechanism by which Socs1-mediated suppression of Kit-dependent mitogenesis occurs, we demonstrate that Socs1 binds to the signalling proteins Grb-2 and the Rho-family guanine nucleotide exchange factors Vav. We show that Grb2 binds Socs1 via its SH3 domains to putative diproline determinants located in the N-terminus of Socs1, and Socs1 binds to the N-terminal regulatory region of Vav. These data suggest that Socs1 is an inducible switch which modulates proliferative signals in favour of cell survival signals and functions as an adaptor protein in receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathways.  (+info)

Anopheles gambiae Ag-STAT, a new insect member of the STAT family, is activated in response to bacterial infection. (7/76734)

A new insect member of the STAT family of transcription factors (Ag-STAT) has been cloned from the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. The domain involved in DNA interaction and the SH2 domain are well conserved. Ag-STAT is most similar to Drosophila D-STAT and to vertebrate STATs 5 and 6, constituting a proposed ancient class A of the STAT family. The mRNA is expressed at all developmental stages, and the protein is present in hemocytes, pericardial cells, midgut, skeletal muscle and fat body cells. There is no evidence of transcriptional activation following bacterial challenge. However, bacterial challenge results in nuclear translocation of Ag-STAT protein in fat body cells and induction of DNA-binding activity that recognizes a STAT target site. In vitro treatment with pervanadate (vanadate and H2O2) translocates Ag-STAT to the nucleus in midgut epithelial cells. This is the first evidence of direct participation of the STAT pathway in immune responses in insects.  (+info)

Id helix-loop-helix proteins inhibit nucleoprotein complex formation by the TCF ETS-domain transcription factors. (8/76734)

The Id subfamily of helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins plays a fundamental role in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Id proteins are thought to inhibit differentiation mainly through interaction with other HLH proteins and by blocking their DNA-binding activity. Members of the ternary complex factor (TCF) subfamily of ETS-domain proteins have key functions in regulating immediate-early gene expression in response to mitogenic stimulation. TCFs form DNA-bound complexes with the serum response factor (SRF) and are direct targets of MAP kinase (MAPK) signal transduction cascades. In this study we demonstrate functional interactions between Id proteins and TCFs. Ids bind to the ETS DNA-binding domain and disrupt the formation of DNA-bound complexes between TCFs and SRF on the c-fos serum response element (SRE). Inhibition occurs by disrupting protein-DNA interactions with the TCF component of this complex. In vivo, the Id proteins cause down-regulation of the transcriptional activity mediated by the TCFs and thereby block MAPK signalling to SREs. Therefore, our results demonstrate a novel facet of Id function in the coordination of mitogenic signalling and cell cycle entry.  (+info)

Thanks to their expertise in single-molecule imaging of RNAs, researchers from the group of Jeff Chao at the FMI helped to reveal the biological mechanism of a small molecule that restricts Ewings sarcoma cell growth. The study - published in Nature Chemical Biology - is further evidence that each step of the gene expression pathway may be druggable, and a great example of a Novartis-FMI collaboration.
The immediate-early response mediates cell fate in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli and is dysregulated in many cancers.
Bogdans Gallery EMBO Practical Course on Advanced Analysis and Informatics of Microarray Data, 2006 comparison of PDGFBB and FGF2 gene expression regulation at 1h and 24h ...
Inflammation involves timed gene expression, suggesting that the fine-tuned onset, amplitude, and termination of expression of hundreds of genes is of critical importance to organismal homeostasis. Recent study of post-transcriptional regulation of inflammatory gene expression led to the suggestion of a regulatory role for pre-mRNA splicing. Here, using a hybrid capture approach to purify incompletely spliced, chromatin-associated pre-mRNAs, we use deep sequencing to study pre-mRNA splicing of the NF-kB transcriptome. By freezing transcription and examining subsequent splicing of complete transcripts, we find many introns splice tens to hundreds of times slower than average. In many cases, this is attributable to poor splice donor sequences that are evolutionarily conserved. When these introns were altered by ~2 base pairs to yield stronger splice donors, gene expression levels increased markedly for several genes in the context of a reporter system. We propose that such splice sites represent a ...
We developed m:Explorer for identifying process-specific transcription factors (TFs) from multiple genome-wide sources, including transcriptome, DNA-binding and chromatin data. m:Explorer robustly outperforms similar techniques in finding cell cycle TFs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We predicted and experimentally tested regulators of quiescence (G0), a model of ageing, over a six-week time-course. We validated nine of top-12 predictions as novel G0 TFs, including Δmga2, Δcst6, Δbas1 with higher viability and G0-essential TFs Tup1, Swi3. Pathway analysis associates longevity to reduced growth, reprogrammed metabolism and cell wall remodeling. m:Explorer (http://biit.cs.ut.ee/mexplorer/) is instrumental in interrogating eukaryotic regulatory systems using heterogeneous data.
Introduction: Lung cancer is the number one cancer killer in the United States accounting for nearly 30% of all cancer deaths. Survival rates continue to be abysmal with 5-year survival only 15% despite contemporary therapies, making it clear that novel therapeutic agents need to be discovered. The translation of mRNA into protein, a central control point in the gene expression pathway, has been increasingly implicated as a critical checkpoint in tumor genesis and progression. This checkpoint serves as a traffic signal at the intersection of cell pathways controlling cell division and survival. The cell machinery controlling the first step in protein synthesis, a hetero-trimer designated eIF4F, is stuck in the on position in many human cancers. When this happens cells evade restraints on proliferation and survival. The activation state of eIF4F is controlled at multiple levels with the primary mechanism being negative regulation by the 4E binding proteins (4E-BPs). 4E-BPs are inactivated when ...
Publications - Jeremy Sanford - Page 1 - MyScienceWork:Our work attempts to dissect the myriad roles of RNA binding proteins in mammalian gene expression. RNA p
Translational contributions to tissue specificity in rhythmic and constitutive gene expression. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
When using the gene expression search we felt it would be most valufuable if high quality images appeared near the top of your search results. That is why we have developed a way to allow our users to vote on the quality of an image. You can change your vote for a given image as many times as you want, but only your last vote is counted. Additionally,weve provided a comment box if you want to tell us why you think a specific image is good or bad ...
The Cologne Cluster of Excellence in Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-associated Diseases provides an extremely dynamic environment for research into the aging process and its diseases.
The answer, though, is differences in gene expression in a cell. Clones have identical DNA, but the way the DNA is transcribed to RNA, and the way the RNA is translated to making a protein, can be specific to the cell. There are epigenetic factors - basically, chemicals that adhere to certain parts of the genome - that dictate NOT whether the DNA is there, but how often the DNA is read to make RNA and how efficiently that is made into functional proteins. Think about a fertilized egg. It divides into two cells, then 4 cells, then 8 cells, then 16 cells, then 32 cells, etc. Every time the cell divides, it has to make a perfect copy of its DNA. The cell machinery isnt always perfect and little changes in DNA can occur. Also, those chemicals that can affect gene expression can get added or subtracted as cells divide. Many of them, however, are passed on to the daughter cells. Thats how identical cells can have different levels of gene expression, and how people and horses and dogs with identical ...
You need to be familiar with all of the different ways and levels at which cells can control gene expression, including gene expression, Chromatin packing, DNA methylation, Histone acetylation, control elements and transcription factors, alternative RNA splicing, mRNA degredation, translational control by regulatory proteins, proteasomic protein degradation, etc. (Damn, that s a lot of control ...
Biological tissues consist of various cell types that differentially contribute to physiological and pathophysiological processes. Determining and analyzing cell type-specific gene expression under diverse conditions is therefore a central aim of biomedical research. The present study compares gene expression profiles in whole tissues and isolated cell fractions purified from these tissues in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. The expression profiles of the whole tissues were compared to computationally reconstituted expression profiles that combine the expression profiles of the isolated cell fractions (macrophages, fibroblasts, and non-adherent cells) according to their relative mRNA proportions in the tissue. The mRNA proportions were determined by trimmed robust regression using only the most robustly-expressed genes (1/3 to 1/2 of all measured genes), i.e. those showing the most similar expression in tissue and isolated cell fractions. The relative mRNA proportions were
RBF1 and E2F2 are components of the Drosophila, Rb, E2F, and Myb‐associated protein (dREAM) complex, a transcriptional silencing complex that represses many E2F target genes (Korenjak et al, 2004). To determine whether components of the Pum complex are targets for dREAM‐mediated repression, we analyzed datasets of published genome‐wide dREAM ChIP experiments from Drosophila Kc cells (Georlette et al, 2007) and found a strong ChIP enrichment for all of the dREAM components (E2F2, Myb, Mip120, Mip130, and Lin‐52) on the pumilio, nanos, and brat genes (Supplementary Fig S1B). To establish the functional significance of E2F2/RBF1 binding to these promoters, we assayed gene expression levels from Drosophila S2 cells and flies containing dsRNA or RNAi sequences targeting E2F/RBF family members. Depletion of RBF1 or E2F2 (but not E2F1) strongly induced the expression of nanos and modestly elevated the levels of pum and brat (Fig 1C, Supplementary Figs S1C and S2A and B). To further assess the ...
Systems biology aims to understand the behavior of and interaction between various components of the living cell, such as genes, proteins, and metabolites. A large number of components are involved in these complex systems and the diversity of relationships between the components can be overwhelming, and there is therefore a need for analysis methods incorporating data integration. We here present a method for exploring gene regulatory mechanisms which integrates various types of data to assist the identification of important components in gene regulation mechanisms. By first analyzing gene expression data, a set of differentially expressed genes is selected. These genes are then further investigated by combining various types of biological information, such as clustering results, promoter sequences, binding sites, transcription factors and other previously published information regarding the selected genes. Inspired by Information Fusion research, we also mapped functions of the proposed method ...
Nashun B, Hill PW, Hajkova P, 2015, Reprogramming of cell fate: epigenetic memory and the erasure of memories past., EMBO Journal, Vol: 34, Pages: 1296-1308, ISSN: 0261-4189 Cell identity is a reflection of a cell type-specific gene expression profile, and consequently, cell type-specific transcription factor networks are considered to be at the heart of a given cellular phenotype. Although generally stable, cell identity can be reprogrammed in vitro by forced changes to the transcriptional network, the most dramatic example of which was shown by the induction of pluripotency in somatic cells by the ectopic expression of defined transcription factors alone. Although changes to cell fate can be achieved in this way, the efficiency of such conversion remains very low, in large part due to specific chromatin signatures constituting an epigenetic barrier to the transcription factor-mediated reprogramming processes. Here we discuss the two-way relationship between transcription factor binding and ...
Mammalian genomic imprinting is an epigenetic gene regulatory mechanism that results in parental‐specific gene expression of a small number of genes in diploid somatic cells (Beechey et al., 2001; Reik and Walter, 2001; Li, 2002; Sleutels and Barlow, 2002). Several features of the imprinting mechanism have been identified; however, it is not yet clear whether imprinting is regulated by a unique process or whether it is part of the general epigenetic apparatus used to regulate mammalian gene expression. Clustering and coordinate regulation is one feature imprinted genes share with non‐imprinted genes (Engemann et al., 2000; Onyango et al., 2000), and it is now clear that many imprinted genes are functionally grouped such that imprinted expression of several genes is regulated by one long‐range imprint control element (Thorvaldsen et al., 1998; Horike et al., 2000; Zwart et al., 2001; Fitzpatrick et al., 2002). The frequent occurrence of an imprinted non‐coding RNA within an imprinted gene ...
On 3 September 2020 Sanquin researcher Benoit Nicolet will defend his PhD thesis You only live twice: Gene expression regulation in hematopoiesis and T cells at the University of Amsterdam
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Critical ReviewsTM in Eukaryotic Gene Expression (CRE) publishes original research findings and critical reviews that contribute to advances in mechanistic understanding for genetic and epigenetic control of gene expression, organization and structure within the contexts of biological control and the diagnosis/treatment of disease. Contributions include molecular, cellular, biochemical, genetic, genomic, proteomic and bioinformatic approaches to eukaryotic gene expression. The relationship between gene structure and function is stressed, with emphasis on coordinate control of integration of biological processes. Regulatory mechanisms are explored from the perspective of sequences and regulatory molecules that influence organization and expression of eukaryotic genes as well as in relation to cellular architecture and development of cell specialization and tissue organization. Processes that include genetic and epigenetic control, cell cycle regulation, differentiation, transformation and tumorigenesis,
Over several decades, the therapeutic use of glucocorticoids have established these molecules as potent inflammation suppressors. The description of transcriptional repression of pro-inflammatory genes as a nuclear receptor mediated mechanism represents a more recent topic of glucocorticoid signaling. However, new evidences suggest that steroidal regulation of inflammation is more complex, including epigenetic and receptor-independent pathways. It is also likely that sets of genes behaves in contradictory ways, making gene repression not a rule, but rather one of the possible modulatory modes. A similar level of complexity might apply to other steroidal hormones, such as those involved in sexually dimorphic immune responses. In fact, some autoimmune diseases are much more prevalent in one gender compared to the other. In addition to well-known steroid hormones, including aldosterone and vitamin D, this review topic intends to cover also non-canonical steroid signaling, including oxysteroids and
99 Tumorigenesis is often attributed to aberrant gene expression control leading to altered cell cycle control, resistance to apoptosis, abnormal differentiation, decreased genomic stability and inefficient DNA repair. The activity of chromatin remodeling complexes is vital to maintaining proper control of gene expression. The SWI/SNF complex is conserved from yeast to man and is responsible for remodeling up to 6% of the human genome, with many of those genes known to be associated with cell cycle control. Therefore, impaired or defective activity of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, involved in regulation of gene transcription, could encourage tumor development. The complex is composed of 10 or more members but requires only three core members to do the basic task of remodeling nucleosomes: BRG1/BRM, SNF5, and BAF155. BRG1 and SNF5 both lead to tumor development in haploinsufficient mice and embryonic lethality in null mice, and are mutated or inactivated in human tumors. The third and ...
Cancer can be understood as a disease of dysfunctional gene expression control. Research in Chris Vakocs lab investigates how transcription factors and chromatin regulators cooperate to control gene expression and maintain the cancer cell state. This work makes extensive use of genetic screens to reveal cancer-specific functions for transcriptional regulators, as well as genomic and biochemical approaches to identify molecular mechanisms. One theme that has emerged from their efforts is that blood cancers are often vulnerable to targeting transcriptional coactivators, such as BRD4 and the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Vakocs team demonstrated that chemical inhibition of BRD4 exhibits therapeutic effects in mouse models of leukemia, a finding that has motivated ongoing clinical trials in human leukemia patients. The Vakoc lab has also developed a CRISPR-Cas9 screening approach that can reveal individual protein domains that sustain cancer cells. Their lab is now deploying this ...
The present study describes a novel cell type-specific mechanism of transcriptional regulation of TSP-1 in vascular cells in response to glucose. We report here that unlike our recently identified short promoter region (−280/+66) responsible for the increased THBS1 transcription in ECs, a longer promoter fragment (−1270/+66) is required for THBS1 regulation in HASMCs, as was described for specialized pericytes and mesangial cells.27 Interestingly, glucose responsiveness in ECs was in fact inhibited by the distal fragment of the promoter,10 suggesting the presence of an inhibitory element in this region, which is not active in either VSMCs or mesangial cells.27 The longer promoter region, −1270/+66, responsible for the increased THBS1 transcription in HASMCs contained distinctly different binding elements, as identified by MatInspector, located in the distal end of the promoter. These binding elements had no similarity to those in the EC-specific THBS1 promoter fragment, −280/+66, ...
Abstract: Interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene regulation was investigated in primary cultures of highly purified human peripheral blood CD28+T cells. Two discrete mechanisms for induction of T-cell proliferation could be distinguished by examining cell cycle progression and the expression of the IL-2 gene. Stimulation of cells by CD3 MoAb induced only transiently expressed, small amounts of IL-2 mRNA that was completely suppressed by cyclosporine. Costimulation of T cells with CD3 MoAb and either CD28 MoAb or PMA, but not calcium ionophore, induced a 50-100-fold increased in IL-2 gene expression and secretion. High levels of IL-2 gene expression could also be achieved by stimulation with calcium ionophore and PMA or CD28 MoAb and PMA, but not by CD28 MoAb plus calcium ionophore. IL-2 gene expression and T-cell proliferation induced by CD3 MoAb plus PMA or calcium ionophore plus PMA were completely suppressible by cyclosporine. In contrast, IL-2 gene expression and T-cell proliferation induced by CD28 MoAb ...
Buffo, A., Carulli, D., Rossi, F. and Strata, P. (2003), Extrinsic regulation of injury/growth-related gene expression in the inferior olive of the adult rat. European Journal of Neuroscience, 18: 2146-2158. doi: 10.1046/j.1460-9568.2003.02940.x ...
Kusakabe T., Yoshida, R., Ikeda, Y., Tsuda, M. (2004). Computational discovery of DNA motifs associated with cell type-specific gene expression in Ciona. Dev Biol 276:563-580. (PUBMED ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in negative regulation of gene expression pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Gene regulation at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels has been the central focus of my research program. While transcription initiation begins the process of gene expression, the post-transcriptional steps of RNA splicing, cleavage polyadenylation, transport and stability all contribute to the type and final levels of protein that will be produced. In addition, these steps are coupled to each other, which can contribute to overall regulation. My lab has been studying several different model systems that allow us to address aspects of gene regulation including immunoglobulin gene expression during B lymphocyte development and, in collaboration with the lab of Brett Spear, liver development and disease. In liver, we have identified Zhx2 as a regulator of genes involved in lipid metabolism and genes that are misregulated during liver cancer.. ...
Ca(2+)-dependent gene expression is critical for cell growth, proliferation, plasticity, and adaptation [1-3]. Because a common mechanism in vertebrates linking cytoplasmic Ca(2+) signals with activation of protein synthesis involves the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors [4, 5], we have quantified protein expression in single cells following physiological Ca(2+) signals by using NFAT-driven expression of a genetically encoded fluorescent protein. We find that gene expression following CRAC channel activation is an all-or-nothing event over a range of stimulus intensities. Increasing agonist concentration recruits more cells but each responding cell does so in an essentially digital manner. Furthermore, Ca(2+)-dependent gene expression shows both short-term memory and strong synergy, where two pulses of agonist, which are ineffectual individually, robustly activate gene expression provided that the time interval between them is short. Such temporal filtering
Is there a gene or genes that are activated at age 1 that signal to the other genes to perform gene expression appropriate for a one year old? Futhermore, is there a gene or genes that are activated at age 20 that signal to the other genes to perform gene expression appropriate for a twenty year old? Lastly, if there were a gene or genes that signals for twenty year old gene expression regulation, then if that gene were activated in an 80 year old, would the body of the 80 year old begin to exhibit the physiology of a 20 year old, thus increasing lifespan and healthspan? DE. ...
The discovery of the obese gene in the mouse and its conserved homologue in humans has led to important discoveries in energy metabolism. One of the chief findings was the fact that the expression of the leptin gene was regulated and that it, in turn, could regulate metabolism and behavior. Much of the literature has focused on the physiological role of leptin in driving processes as diverse as reproduction, starvation defence, feeding behavior or body weight, all dependent on expression levels of the ob gene. Here, we will describe our work, in which we have begun to elucidate the regulatory processes controlling obese gene expression.. Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation ; Obesity. ...
Summary Basic biological processes require gene expression. Tightly regulated molecules known as transcription factors mediate the expression of genes in development and disease. Signal transduction pathways, which respond to environmental cues or stressors are major regulators of the transcription factors. Use of macromolecular synthesis inhibitors in models of normal neurodevelopment and neurodegenerative cell death has led to the discovery that gene expression is required for these processes to occur (Martin et. al.,(1988), J Cell Biol 106 p829). To date, however, the identities of very few of the genes required in these events have been revealed. Hence, the activation or requirement of specific signaling pathways leading to the expression of known apoptotic genes is not well established. Utilizing the neurothrophic factor deprivation and neurotoxin models of programmed cell death we address these gaps in our understanding of the molecular mechanism of apoptosis as it occurs in neuronal cell death.
3. The big picture of eukaryotic gene regulation. Search. Ø Feedback inhibition is a specific type of allosteric enzymatic activity regulation mechanism in cells. homeostasis [ho″me-o-sta´sis] the tendency of biological systems to maintain relatively constant conditions in the internal environment while continuously interacting with and adjusting to changes originating within or outside the system. Homeostasis. Effective regulation definition: Regulation is the controlling of an activity or process, usually by means of rules. ADVERTISEMENTS: Let us discuss about the two types of gene expression regulation. Learn more. Biology Article. 5. The two types of gene expression regulation are: (1) Negative Regulation and (2) Positive Regulation. Homeostasis is an organisms process of maintaining a stable internal environment suitable for sustaining life. Find more ways to say regulation, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the worlds most trusted free ...
Author: Yampolsky, Pessah et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2019-07-23; Title: Augmentation of myocardial If dysregulates calcium homeostasis and causes adverse cardiac remodeling
Comparison of gene expression from transgenes and endogenous genes with or without introns reveals a time-regulating role of introns in natural biological systems.
Sreenivas was awarded PhD in Biotechnology in 2009 by University of Pune, India for his research work on understanding the genetic determinants of human diseases, undertaken at CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, India. Subsequently, he undertook postdoctoral studies investigating the role of gene expression regulation in human diseases at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.. He came to Cambridge in November 2010 as Career Development Fellow to MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology and has subsequently become an EMBO long-Term fellow. He currently investigates the role of genetic variation on the gene expression regulation and different observable traits in diverse organisms from yeast to humans. He aims to extend the general principles derived by such comprehensive studies to understand the molecular determinants of human diseases.. ...
This study provides a genome-wide screen of neuronal activity-driven gene expression in response to different chemical stimuli and downstream of four important PRTFs (CREB, SRF, EGR1, and FOS). The use of a common approach to manipulate the activity of different PRTFs, making their transactivation activity independent of the upstream signaling cascades that normally would regulate it, provides an alternative and innovative way to explore the neuronal gene programs downstream of these TFs under highly comparable conditions. Furthermore, the integration of PRTF- and stimulation-dependent patterns through meta-analysis has allowed us to gain novel insight into the transcriptional networks underlying neuronal activity-dependent gene expression, which is usually disregarded in single-molecule reductionist approaches.. Our screen identified hundreds of novel stimulus-specific activity-regulated transcripts, including novel stimulus-associated miRNAs and candidate genes that may be differentially ...
Bacterial 50 untranslated regions of mRNA (UTR) involve in a complex regulation of gene expression; however, the exact sequence features contributing to gene regulation are not yet fully understood. In this study, we ...
This study has confirmed the long-held view that integration of Ca2+ and kinase signaling is needed for efficient activation of inducible gene expression in T cells. We found that for many immune response genes, both signals are needed to open up the chromatin and activate transcription. However, the immune system encompasses other genes that are induced in a range of cell types, by a wide variety of other receptors linked to kinase but not Ca2+ signaling pathways. These include proinflammatory receptors, such as Toll family receptors, and receptors that respond to cytokines such as IL-1 and TNF, which also lead to induction of the TFs AP-1 and NF-κB. For these reasons it makes sense that we find a subset of genes that are induced by PMA via PKC-dependent pathways, in the absence of Ca2+ signaling. Significantly, we found that two-thirds of all of the genes induced 5-fold by TNF were also induced 5-fold by PMA (Table I). In contrast, there appear to be fewer gene-inducing signaling pathways ...
Background Variation in gene expression is extensive among tissues, individuals, strains, populations and species. The interactions among these sources of variation are relevant for physiological...
Effect of the stem-loop element on gene expression in different gene contexts. (A) Cell lines were generated which expressed luciferase under the control of a
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins. [from MeSH] ...
Buy or Rent Interaction of Translational and Transcriptional controls in the regulation of gene Expression as an eTextbook and get instant access.
Transcription factor that is involved in embryonic development, establishment of tissue-specific gene expression and regulation of gene expression in…
IKKα-targeting miRNAs affects noncanonical and canonical NF-κ.B gene expression(a) Real time PCR analysis of ELC mRNA in monocytes and macrophages, normalized
J:99346 Lee CS, Friedman JR, Fulmer JT, Kaestner KH, The initiation of liver development is dependent on Foxa transcription factors. Nature. 2005 Jun 16;435(7044):944-7 ...
J:112202 Krizhanovsky V, Soreq L, Kliminski V, Ben-Arie N, Math1 target genes are enriched with evolutionarily conserved clustered E-box binding sites. J Mol Neurosci. 2006;28(2):211-29 ...
21:47, 20 November 2012 (diff , hist) . . (+4,409)‎ . . N Structural Biochemistry/Modulation of Translation ‎ (Created page with ==Introduction== An effective way gene expression can be controlled is by regulating the translation of RNA. By controlling RNA (primarily mRNA) certain genes can be expresse...) ...
Gene regulation Following terms are used in gene regulation: 1) Split genes :The non-essential or non-coding parts intermixed with essential or coding
Scientists have made a medical breakthrough which may help bring new insights on how genes are activated. Roughly 3 metres of DNA is tightly folded into the nucleus of every cell in our body. This folding allows some genes to be expressed, or activated, while excluding others.
Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN 9780127999586. Farooq, Zeenat; Banday, Shahid; Pandita, Tej K.; ... It is thought that a Histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. Three forms of H3K79 ... H3K79 dimethylation has been detected in the transcribed regions of active genes. The histone mark H3K36me3 can be detected in ...
Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. London: Elsevier/Academic Press. pp. 21-38. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-799958-6.00002-0. ... It is thought that a histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell-specific gene regulation. The histone mark ... and the transmission of the memory of gene expression from parents to offspring during development. H3K36me2 indicates ...
Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (2015-11-30). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN ... It is thought that a Histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. H3K9ac and H3K14ac have ... histone proteins are acetylated and deacetylated on lysine residues in the N-terminal tail as part of gene regulation. ...
"Regulation of Globin Gene Expression". Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) "World Renowned Geneticist Richard Myers to Speak ... The Myers Lab at HudsonAlpha studies the human genome, with a focus on allelic variation and how gene expression changes ... His research focuses on the human genome with the goal of understanding how allelic variation and gene expression changes ... Tom Maniatis at Harvard University, where he studied human gene regulation. Some new technologies he developed in Maniatis's ...
Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (30 November 2015). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN ... and transcriptional regulation. Arginine methylation plays a major role in gene regulation because of the ability of the PRMTs ... It is thought that a histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. CARM1 knockout mice are ...
Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (2015-11-30). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN ... Genes that change their expression during aging have much lower levels of H3K36me3 in their gene bodies. There is reduced ... "Trimethylation of Lys36 on H3 restricts gene expression change during aging and impacts life span". Genes & Development. 29 (7 ... It is thought that a Histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ...
Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN 9780127999586. Ruthenburg AJ, Li H, Patel DJ, Allis CD (December ... It is thought that a Histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. Heterochromatin marked ... Song, L.; Crawford, G. E. (2010). "DNase-seq: A High-Resolution Technique for Mapping Active Gene Regulatory Elements across ...
Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (2015-11-30). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN ... It is thought that a Histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. H3K14ac has not been ... SETDB1 silences retroviruses and gene regulation. The histone mark acetylation can be detected in a variety of ways: 1. ...
Small EM, Krieg PA (January 2004). "Molecular regulation of cardiac chamber-specific gene expression". Trends in Cardiovascular ... Expression of ALC-2 has been shown to correlate with expression of alpha-myosin heavy chain in cardiac atria of non-human ... Lim DS, Roberts R, Marian AJ (October 2001). "Expression profiling of cardiac genes in human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYL7 gene. ALC-2 expression is restricted to cardiac muscle atria in healthy ...
June 2003). "Expression profiling reveals off-target gene regulation by RNAi". Nature Biotechnology. 21 (6): 635-7. doi:10.1038 ... In vitro assays assist in determining the phenotypic affects of miRNAs, but due to the complex nature of gene regulation not ... Herndon MK, Quirk CC, Nilson JH (January 2016). "Chapter 2 - Control of Hormone Gene Expression". In Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, ... If siRNA is able to successfully reach its target, it has the potential to therapeutically regulate gene expression through its ...
"Regulation of eukaryotic gene expression US Patent 4,833,080 (1989)". Retrieved January 6, 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged ... Regulation of Eukaryotic Gene Expression, with Mark Ptashne). Dr. Brent is the inventor on 16 additional US patents and four ... Roger Brent (born December 28, 1955) is an American biologist known for his work on gene regulation and systems biology. He ... Rodriguez, A. D. V; Didaniol, D.; Desplan, C. (2012). "Power tools for gene expression and clonal analysis in Drosophila". ...
November 1997). "The leptin receptor mediates apparent autocrine regulation of leptin gene expression". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... "Regulation of Fto/Ftm gene expression in mice and humans". Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 294: R1185-96. doi:10.1152/ ... Zhang, Y; Guo, KY; Diaz, PA; Heo, M; Leibel, RL (2002). "Determinants of leptin gene expression in fat depots of lean mice". Am ... August 1995). "The human obese (OB) gene: RNA expression pattern and mapping on the physical, cytogenetic, and genetic maps of ...
Modifications in tRNA have the well-known ability to control and modulate gene expression. The regulation of gene expression ... Yue Y, Liu J, He C (July 2015). "RNA N6-methyladenosine methylation in post-transcriptional gene expression regulation". Genes ... Alterations in the pathways leading to the addition of the removal of the m6A mark result in impaired gene expression and ... On the other hand, m5C modifications could possibly be associated with the regulation of genes involved in energy and lipid ...
"Regulation of noise in the expression of a single gene". Nature Genetics. 31 (1): 69-73. doi:10.1038/ng869. PMID 11967532. ... Chabot, J R; J. M. Pedraza; P. Luitel; A. van Oudenaarden (2007). "Stochastic gene expression out-of-steady-state in the ... Today, Van Oudenaardens work at the Hubrecht Institute focuses on stochastic gene expression, developing new tools for ... Dong; Kim, Dominic Grün; Alexander (2013). "Dampening of expression oscillations by synchronous regulation of a microRNA and ...
Karsenty G, Park RW (1995). "Regulation of type I collagen genes expression". International Reviews of Immunology. 12 (2-4): ... "Mechanoregulation of gene expression in fibroblasts". Gene. 391 (1-2): 1-15. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2007.01.014. PMC 2893340. PMID ... Differing mechanical properties in ECM exert effects on both cell behaviour and gene expression. Although the mechanism by ... They also detect elasticity and adjust their gene expression accordingly which has increasingly become a subject of research ...
His research focuses regulation of gene expression by changes in oxygen. Patrick studied for a DPhil in Medicine at Corpus ...
February 2017). "Epigenetic regulation of lateralized fetal spinal gene expression underlies hemispheric asymmetries". eLife. 6 ... 2017) found that asymmetric methylation of CpG sites plays a key role for gene expression asymmetries related to handedness. ... He says that left-handers' brains are structured in a way that increases their range of abilities, and that the genes that ... performed a genome-wide association study for a measure of relative hand skill and found that genes involved in the ...
It is an example of repressible negative regulation of gene expression. Within the operon's regulatory sequence, the operator ... It was an important experimental system for learning about gene regulation, and is commonly used to teach gene regulation. Trp ... Trp operon genes are arranged in the same order in E. coli and Bacillus subtilis. Regulation of trp operons in both organisms ... Thus, the trpR repressor decreases gene expression by altering the initiation of transcription, while attenuation does so by ...
... s are essential for the regulation of gene expression and are, as a consequence, found in all living ... Transcription factors use a variety of mechanisms for the regulation of gene expression. These mechanisms include: stabilize or ... Meyyappan M, Atadja PW, Riabowol KT (1996). "Regulation of gene expression and transcription factor binding activity during ... Yang X, Han H, De Carvalho DD, Lay FD, Jones PA, Liang G (October 2014). "Gene body methylation can alter gene expression and ...
Kren BT, Steer CJ (1996). "Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression in liver regeneration: role of mRNA stability". ... major evolutionary jumps might be caused by changes in gene regulation rather than the emergence of new genes". Sci. And Soc. ... The Tra gene, determinant of sex, in male flies becomes truncated as splicing events fail to remove a stop codon that controls ... Phenotype may also be determined by the number of RNA molecules, as more RNA transcripts lead to a greater expression of ...
Many proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression contain DNA-binding domains. For example, proteins that regulate ... It regulates gene expression. Consisting of about 110 amino acids, the winged helix (WH) domain has four helices and a two- ... The final output of most cellular signaling cascades is gene regulation. The DBD interacts with the nucleotides of DNA in a DNA ... TAL effectors are found in bacterial plant pathogens of the genus Xanthomonas and are involved in regulating the genes of the ...
"Epigenetic regulation of gene expression: how the genome integrates intrinsic and environmental signals". Nature Genetics. 33 ... "for his pioneering discoveries on DNA methylation and its role in gene expression." The following year Bird won the 2012 ... "fundamental discoveries concerning DNA methylation and gene expression" though the prize later went to James Rothman, Randy ... This discovery has allowed new strategies for mapping and identifying genes and it has allowed Bird to propose that the ...
Bassler, B. L. (1999-12-01). "How bacteria talk to each other: regulation of gene expression by quorum sensing". Current ... Quorom sensing is a form of cell-to-cell communication that alters gene expression in response to cell density. Autoinducer is ... Another possible reason bacteria use luminescence reaction is for quorum sensing, an ability to regulate gene expression in ... Despite this common gene organization, variations, such as the presence of other lux genes, can be observed among species. ...
Kaucsár, Tamás; Rácz, Zsuzsanna; Hamar, Péter (30 November 2010). "Post-transcriptional gene-expression regulation by micro RNA ... the normal expression of these genes can be restored. It is believed that cellular miRNAs inhibit viral gene expression. In a ... This is done by hybridization of the AMOs to miRNA sequences that are involved in the expression of specific genes. The issue ... It was shown that viral gene expression increased after the introduction of anti-miRNAs targeting has-miR-29a and 29b. This ...
Ingham PW (1998). "trithorax and the regulation of homeotic gene expression in Drosophila: a historical perspective". Int. J. ... is regulating gene expression. Whereas PcG proteins are typically associated with gene silencing, TrxG proteins are most ... Aside from gene regulation, evidence suggests TrxG proteins are also involved in other processes including apoptosis, cancer, ... Trithorax-group proteins (TrxG) are a heterogeneous collection of proteins whose main action is to maintain gene expression. ...
Lazar's research focus is on the epigenomic regulation of gene expression and metabolism. He is particularly interested in ... He has served as Associate Editor of Diabetes, and is on the editorial boards of Genes & Development, Cell Metabolism, Trends ... and physician-scientist known for his discovery of the hormone resistin and his contributions to the transcriptional regulation ...
"Decreased expression and androgen regulation of the tumor suppressor gene INPP4B in prostate cancer". Cancer Research. 71 (2): ... "Entrez Gene: Inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase, type II, 105kDa". Retrieved 2012-07-24. Lopez SM, Hodgson MC, Packianathan C ... Inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase, type II, 105kDa is a protein that in humans is encoded by the INPP4B gene. INPP4B encodes ... Amato R, Pinelli M, Monticelli A, Miele G, Cocozza S (November 2010). "Schizophrenia and vitamin D related genes could have ...
He is known for his studies on the regulation of Gene expression and his contributions in cancer diagnostics and the ... "Epigenetic Regulation of Chromatin Dynamics and Gene Expression: Implications in Differentiation, Disease and Therapeutics". ... "Epigenetic Regulation of Chromatin Dynamics and Gene Expression: Implications in Differentiation, Disease and Therapeutics" ( ... Missing or empty ,url= (help) Gene expression Transcriptome Coactivation (Transcription) Epigenetics Chromatin Chaperone ( ...
Mazumder B, Sampath P, Fox PL (2005). "Regulation of macrophage ceruloplasmin gene expression: one paradigm of 3'-UTR-mediated ... Mazumder B, Sampath P, Fox PL (2006). "Translational control of ceruloplasmin gene expression: beyond the IRE". Biol Res. 39 (1 ...
"Expression of Conjoined Genes: Another Mechanism for Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes". PLOS ONE. 5 (10): e13284. Bibcode: ... However, the definition of a read-through gene in the CCDS data set is that the individual partner genes must be distinct, and ... Users can select various types of identifiers such as CCDS ID, gene ID, gene symbol, nucleotide ID and protein ID to search for ... Read-through transcripts: Read-through transcripts are also known as conjoined genes or co-transcribed genes. Read-through ...
... appearance-observable traits caused by the expression of a condition's genes. The features of craniosynostosis' particular ... the involvement of OSA as a causative agent for elevated intracranial pressure suggests an association with the auto-regulation ... in FGFR genes) and mutations that lead to loss of function (in TWIST genes).[38][39] Craniosynostosis is therefore likely the ... Gene Loeys-Dietz syndrome wide-set eyes • split uvula or cleft palate • arterial tortuosity • aortic root dilatation • ...
Manohar CF, Salwen HR, Furtado MR, Cohn SL (1996). "Up-regulation of HOXC6, HOXD1, and HOXD8 homeobox gene expression in human ... This gene belongs to the homeobox family of genes. The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors ... consisting of 9 to 11 genes arranged in tandem. This gene is one of several homeobox HOXD genes located in a cluster on ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive ...
Mosimann C, Hausmann G, Basler K (April 2009). "β-catenin hits chromatin: regulation of Wnt target gene activation". Nature ... Ji J, Yamashita T, Wang XW (2011). "Wnt/β-catenin signaling activates microRNA-181 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma". ... These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they ... Mutations in genes encoding these proteins can lead to inactivation of cadherin cell adhesions and elimination of contact ...
positive regulation of gene expression. • cell-cell signaling. • hormone-mediated signaling pathway. • follicle-stimulating ... positive regulation of cell migration. • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • حمل أنثوي. • ... positive regulation of bone resorption. • regulation of osteoclast differentiation. • transforming growth factor beta receptor ... positive regulation of cell proliferation. • ovarian follicle development. • Sertoli cell proliferation. • توصيل الإشارة. • ...
"MN1 affects expression of genes involved in hematopoiesis and can enhance as well as inhibit RAR/RXR-induced gene expression". ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • transcription, DNA-templated. • biological process. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO. ... MN1 is a gene found on human chromosome 22, with gene map locus 22q12.3-qter.[5] Its official full name is meningioma ( ... in myeloproliferative disorders results in fusion of the ETS-like TEL gene on 12p13 to the MN1 gene on 22q11". Oncogene. 10 (8 ...
2009). «Fibulin-4 regulates expression of the tropoelastin gene and consequent elastic-fibre formation by human fibroblasts». ... 2009). «Differential regulation of elastic fiber formation by fibulin-4 and -5». J. Biol. Chem. 284 (36): 24553-67. PMC 2782046 ... Ontologia do gene. Função molecular. •extracellular matrix structural constituent. •protein binding. •extracellular matrix ... Rosenbloom J (1984). «Elastin: relation of protein and gene structure to disease». Lab. Invest. 51 (6): 605-23. PMID 6150137. ...
More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • ion channel activity. • benzodiazepine receptor activity. ... regulation of response to drug. • central nervous system development. • chloride transport. • ion transmembrane transport. • ... "Identification of significant association and gene-gene interaction of GABA receptor subunit genes in autism". Am. J. Hum. ... Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRA4 gene.[5][6] ...
"Endosymbiotic gene transfer and transcriptional regulation of transferred genes in Paulinella chromatophora". Molecular Biology ... The chloroplast is mostly under nuclear control, though chloroplasts can also give out signals regulating gene expression in ... Gene content and protein synthesisEdit. The chloroplast genome most commonly includes around 100 genes[7][10] which code for a ... 3 Gene content and protein synthesis *3.1 Chloroplast genome reduction and gene transfer ...
"Expression profile of active genes in human periodontal ligament and isolation of PLAP-1, a novel SLRP family gene". Gene. 275 ... Yamada S، Ozawa Y، Tomoeda M، Matoba R، Matsubara K، Murakami S (May 2006). "Regulation of PLAP-1 expression in periodontal ... Kou I، Nakajima M، Ikegawa S (Nov 2007). "Expression and regulation of the osteoarthritis-associated protein asporin". The ... negative regulation of protein kinase activity. • cytokine-mediated signaling pathway. • negative regulation of JAK-STAT ...
"Cytokine regulation of substance P expression in sympathetic neurons". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... organization of the gene, chromosome localization, and functional expression of cDNA clones". Biochemistry. 30 (44): 10640-6. ... and cytokine expression,[58] Reciprocally, cytokines may induce expression of SP and its NK1R.[59][60] In this sense, for ... "C/EBPbeta couples dopamine signalling to substance P precursor gene expression in striatal neurones". Journal of Neurochemistry ...
2002). "Regulated expression of the apolipoprotein E/C-I/C-IV/C-II gene cluster in murine and human macrophages. A critical ... positive regulation of sequestering of triglyceride. • triglyceride homeostasis. • lipid metabolic process. • very-low-density ... Apolipoprotein (apo)C4 gene is a member of the apolipoprotein C gene family. It is expressed in the liver and has a predicted ... Apo C4 is a 3.3-kb gene consisting of 3 exons and 2 introns; it is located 0.5 kb 5' to the APOC2 gene.[5] ...
Fu X, Zhu ZH, Wang YQ, Wu GC (January 2007). "Regulation of proinflammatory cytokines gene expression by nociceptin/orphanin FQ ...
These five proteins directly control the timing of expression of over 200 genes. The five master regulatory proteins are ... Cell polarity regulationEdit. In C. crescentus, cell polarity is readily apparent by the assembly of polar organelles and by ... Cell cycle regulation includes feedback signals that pace progression of the cell cycle engine to match progress of events at ... The Caulobacter CB15 genome has 4,016,942 base pairs in a single circular chromosome encoding 3,767 genes.[7] The genome ...
NRL expression leads to the rod fate. NR2E3 further restricts cells to the rod fate by repressing cone genes. RORbeta is needed ... Swaroop, Anand; Douglas Kim; Douglas Forrest (August 2010). "Transcriptional Regulation of Photoreceptor Development and ... photoreceptor gene expression; and lastly axonal growth, synapse formation and outer segment growth. ... CRX further defines the photoreceptor specific panel of genes being expressed. ...
... mechanical modulation of cell shape and gene expression". Tissue Eng Part A. 14 (9): 1573-80. doi:10.1089/ten.tea.2008.0113. ... "Loss of Smad3-Mediated Negative Regulation of Runx2 Activity Leads to an Alteration in Cell Fate Determination". Molecular ... General Trsp gene deletion is lethal to the embryo. The results of this research was used as a model for Kashin-Beck disease. ... General gene knock out of the TGF-β resulted in death. Conditional inactivation of TGF-βr2 of osteochondroprogenitor cells in ...
"Expression of an antisense prosystemin gene in tomato plants reduces resistance toward Manduca sexta larvae". Proceedings of ... by adding antisense genes to silence the native gene or by adding extra copies of the native gene.[45][46] ... "Expression of a synthesized gene encoding cationic peptide cecropin B in transgenic tomato plants protects against bacterial ... A genetically modified tomato, or transgenic tomato, is a tomato that has had its genes modified, using genetic engineering. ...
Down regulation of the PAX gene expression inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis. This could be a possible avenue for ... it is possible that it regulates expression of genes other than thyroid-specific. Several known tumor suppressor genes like ... Paired box gene 8, also known as PAX8, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PAX8 gene.[5] ... This gene is a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors. Members of this gene family typically encode ...
Pays, E. (2005). "Regulation of antigen gene expression in Trypanosoma brucei". Trends Parasitol. 21 (11): 517-20. doi:10.1016/ ... According to this model, new genes are created by non-adaptive processes, such as by random gene duplication. These novel ... All changes in the gene frequencies of populations--and quite often in the traits those genes influence--are by definition ... how new alternative spliced isoforms of genes arise, how gene scrambling in ciliates evolved, and how pervasive pan-RNA editing ...
2001). „Cyclical regulation of GnRH gene expression in GT1-7 GnRH-secreting neurons by melatonin". Endocrinology. 142 (11): ... 2000). „Melatonin receptor mRNA expression in human granulosa cells". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 156 (1-2): 107-10. PMID 10612428. ... 2004). „The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ...
regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • response to oxidative stress. • cell-cell adhesion. • positive regulation of ... Miehe U، Kadyrov M، Neumaier-Wagner P، Bartz C، Rath W، Huppertz B (2007). "Expression of the actin stress fiber-associated ... Gene. 165 (2): 267-71. PMID 8522188. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(95)00542-E. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw- ...
"Recruitment of the androgen receptor via serum response factor facilitates expression of a myogenic gene". The Journal of ... Early regulation[edit]. Before the production of the pituitary hormone luteinizing hormone (LH) by the embryo starting at about ... Androgen regulation decreases the likelihood of depression in males. In preadolescent male rats, neonatal rats treated with ... Social isolation has a hindering effect in AHN whereas normal regulation of androgens increases AHN. A study using male rats ...
... the types of pollen that an ear of corn will accept through expression of certain forms of the Gametophyte Factor 1 gene. Many ... regulations can cause their product to be rejected as organic corn, and for which they have no recourse against GMO growers. ... The popcorn remains free to donate its genes via its own pollen to other types of corn. The effectiveness of this restriction ... thereby preventing the ingression of genes (natural or engineered) from other types of corn. ...
regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of gene expression. • transcription, ... In humans, PR is encoded by a single PGR gene residing on chromosome 11q22,[5][6][7] it has two isoforms, PR-A and PR-B, that ... ensembl.org, Gene: ESR1 (ENSG00000091831) *^ Gadkar-Sable S, Shah C, Rosario G, Sachdeva G, Puri C (2005). "Progesterone ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • DNA binding. • sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcription factor activity, sequence- ...
Kalsheker N, Morley S, Morgan K (April 2002). "Gene regulation of the serine proteinase inhibitors alpha1-antitrypsin and ... although heterozygote with one null mutant that abolishes expression of the gene will only show one band. In blood test results ... As every person has two copies of the A1AT gene, a heterozygote with two different copies of the gene may have two different ... It is encoded in humans by the SERPINA1 gene. A protease inhibitor, it is also known as alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (A1PI) or ...
Yagi M، Zieger B، Roth GJ، Ware J (June 1998). "Structure and expression of the human septin gene HCDCREL-1". Gene. 212 (2): ... regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. • synaptic vesicle targeting. • انقسام خلوي. • regulation of exocytosis. • mitotic ... characterization and expression analysis of the human septin SEPT8 (KIAA0202)". Gene. 312: 313-20. PMID 12909369. doi:10.1016/ ... "Entrez Gene: SEPT5 septin 5". الوسيط ,المسار=. تم تجاهله (مساعدة); الوسيط ,العنوان=. تم تجاهله (مساعدة). .mw-parser-output cite ...
Regulation of gene expression. *Gene regulatory network. *Developmental-genetic toolkit. *Evolutionary developmental biology ... Such a gene that exhibits multiple phenotypic expression is called a pleiotropic gene . Therefore mutation in a pleiotropic ... One basic model of pleiotropy's origin describes a single gene locus to the expression of a certain trait. The locus affects ... Sickle cell anemia is a pleiotropic disease because the expression of a single mutated HBB gene produces numerous consequences ...
The control exerted (from seconds to hours at a time) may merely postpone and exacerbate the ultimate expression of the tic.[ ... The nonconscious forms of self-regulation may follow different causal principles and do not rely on the same resources as the ... Nora D Volkow; Joanna S Fowler; Gene-Jack Wang (2007). "The addicted human brain: insights from imaging studies". In Andrew R ... Dawkins, R. (1976) The Selfish Gene. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 88-04-39318-1 ...
These studies have contributed much to our understanding of the regulation of gene expression, transcription factors, and the ... Bacillus subtilis spores are useful for the expression of recombinant proteins and in particular for the surface display of ...
"Control of Gene Expression". The Medical Biochemistry Page (en inglés). Consultado o 19 de setembro de 2008.. ... from expression to regulation". Proceedings of the IEEE 90 (11). Páxs. 1722-1743.. ... Serial Analysis of Gene Expression, Análise en serie da expresión xénica), MPSS (Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing, ... "Anatomy of a Comparative Gene Expression Study" (en inglés). Washington University in St. Louis - Dpt. of Computer Science & ...
A study of broad range gene expression was conducted on human malignant melanoma. Researchers classified the malignant melanoma ... regulation of epidermal growth factor-activated receptor activity. • regulation of resting membrane potential. • regulation of ... positive regulation of protein phosphorylation. • positive regulation of MAP kinase activity. • positive regulation of ... positive regulation of coagulation. • negative regulation of apoptotic signaling pathway. • neuron development. • memory. • ...
... Date: 2006-06-27 ... 2006 comparison of PDGFBB and FGF2 gene expression regulation at 1h and 24h ...
Stirling Churchman (USA) From the nucleus to the mitochondria: gene expression regulation at high resolution. 08.09.2017 , ...
"Gene modulation" redirects here. For information on therapeutic regulation of gene expression, see therapeutic gene modulation. ... Main article: Gene regulatory network. Up-regulation and down-regulation[edit]. Up-regulation is a process that occurs within a ... Regulated stages of gene expression[edit]. Any step of gene expression may be modulated, from the DNA-RNA transcription step to ... can silence expression of the gene. Regulation of transcription in cancer[edit]. Main article: Regulation of transcription in ...
Regulation of MHC gene expression.. Ting JP1, Baldwin AS.. Author information. 1. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, ... allow the functional analysis of these molecules in MHC gene regulation. The application of new techniques, such as genomic in ... The better characterization of proteins that interact with MHC class I and II promoters and the isolation of genes encoding ... New insights have also been gained in the understanding of MHC-associated genes. ...
This application proposes to study the molecular basis of retinal development using the regulation of rhodopsin gene expression ... Studies on the regulation of expression of retina-specific genes, in addition to their importance at the basic level, will also ... The definition of retina-specific promoters will make possible targeted expression of heterologous and altered genes to the ... have identified cis-acting DNA regulatory sequences that are capable of directing photoreceptor cell-specific gene expression. ...
Gene expression converts the information coded by our genes into proteins. These determine the structure and function of an ... Gene expression converts the information coded by our genes into proteins. These determine the structure and function of an ... Sorting and Intracellular Transport of RNA in Neurons: Regulation of Gene Expression at Synaptic Sites ... s Syndrom Gene Expression Messenger RNA Parkinson Translation genes hybridization neurons transcription ...
Nitrogen-dependent regulation of photosynthetic gene expression. F. Gerald Plumley and Gregory W. Schmidt ... Regulation of nuclear-encoded photosynthetic proteins by nitrogen is achieved through mechanisms affecting transcription and/or ...
The bacterium Escherichia colicarries approximately 3000 genes, but this total repertoire... ... It presents the cell with the signals that ultimately lead to gene regulation-the turning on or off of gene expression. ... Zieg, J., Hilmen, M., and Simon, M., 1978a, Regulation of gene expression by site-specific inversion, Cell 15: 237-244.Google ... Nieuwkoop, A. J., Boylan, S. A., and Bender, R. A., 1984, Regulation of hutUHoperon expression by the catabolite gene activator ...
Disturbed Placental Imprinting in Preeclampsia Leads to Altered Expression of DLX5, a Human-Specific Early Trophoblast Marker ... Disease Risk Variants Disrupt TEAD Transcription Factor-Dependent Transforming Growth Factor β Regulation of p16 Expression in ...
Regulation of beta-cell glucose transporter gene expression.. L Chen, T Alam, J H Johnson, S Hughes, C B Newgard, and R H Unger ... We conclude that GLUT-2 expression in beta cells, but not liver, is subject to regulation by certain perturbations in blood ... Regulation of beta-cell glucose transporter gene expression.. L Chen, T Alam, J H Johnson, S Hughes, C B Newgard, R H Unger ... Regulation of beta-cell glucose transporter gene expression.. L Chen, T Alam, J H Johnson, S Hughes, C B Newgard, R H Unger ...
Vitamin A and regulation of gene expression.. Nagpal S1, Chandraratna RA. ... These therapeutic effects are achieved by their ability to regulate complex programs of gene expression in target cells by ... This article reviews retinoid regulated genes and recently identified mechanisms which play important roles in the regulation ... Gene. *Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) Database *Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) Datasets. *Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) Profiles ...
Small molecules that target specific DNA sequences have the potential to control gene expression. Ligands designed for ... Regulation of gene expression by small molecules Nature. 1997 May 8;387(6629):202-5. doi: 10.1038/387202a0. ... Small molecules that target specific DNA sequences have the potential to control gene expression. Ligands designed for ... polyamide targeted to a specific region of the transcription factor TFIIIA binding site interferes with 5S RNA gene expression ...
... novel anticode oligomers and methods of using them for controlling the growth of cancer cells expressing the bcl-2 gene. ... bcl-2 gene expression refers to bcl-2 protein production from the human bcl-2 gene; e.g. reduced bcl-2 gene expression means ... Regulation of bcl-2 gene expression. EP0058146A1. Feb 5, 1982. Aug 18, 1982. U C B, S.A.. 2-(4-(Diphenylmethyl)-1-piperazinyl)- ... Regulation of bcl-2 gene expression. US5932697 *. Dec 23, 1991. Aug 3, 1999. Virginia Tech Intellectual Properties, Inc.. ...
Stories about Regulation of gene expression. Follow. Subscribe to Regulation of gene expression ...
Ireland Regulation of Gene Expression study abroad course, Fall 4 2020. Experience the best study abroad programs in Dublin, ... pertaining to general and specialised mechanisms of gene expression and transcriptional regulation in various prokaryotic and ... obtain a detailed understanding of the general and more specific mechanisms involved in the control of gene expression in both ...
... Regulation of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes and ... The process of transcription, which is the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template, is where the regulation of the gene expression ... Eukaryotes: Multiple Models of Gene Regulation. Unlike prokaryotes, multiple gene-regulating mechanisms operate in the nucleus ... Every trait, feature, or characteristic is controlled by genes or a combination of genes. Numerous gene-regulating mechanisms ...
... is becoming as increasingly important for the regulation of viral gene expression as it is for cellular gene expression and ... Chromatin-mediated regulation of cytomegalovirus gene expression Virus Res. 2011 May;157(2):134-43. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres. ... HCMV lytic infection is characterised by a timely and co-ordinated pattern of gene expression that now has been shown to ... Thus chromatin appears to play an important role in gene regulation in all phases of infection. Furthermore, these studies are ...
You are here: Home / Academic Departments / Molecular and Cell Biology / Research / Regulation of Gene Expression ... must be countered in order to activate a gene. We study fundamental aspects of gene regulation, from transcriptional initiation ... Structural biology of signal transduction and epigenetic gene regulation. *Andrey Revyakin - Single molecule dynamics of gene ... There are nine research groups working in the area of gene expression. We utilize bacterial and human cells to produce ...
They act as regulatory molecules as well, preventing other genes from making protein by marking their mRNA molecules for ... A novel mechanism for fast regulation of gene expression Messenger RNA normally tells cellular machinery which protein to make ... So the gene that codes for a sodium channel regulates the expression of the potassium channel gene. And it does so after the ... Does RNA interference regulate gene expression? But the scientists had also noticed that the two genes overlapped a bit at ...
Regulation of eukaryotic gene expression will be discussed. Selected examples where gene expression has been disrupted will ... BIOL3015 Regulation of Gene Expression. Module Overview. To provide an understanding of i) the regulation of transcription in ... In subsequent lectures the role of microRNAs in gene regulation and disease will be discussed, together with the factors and ... To provide an understanding of i) the regulation of transcription in eukaryotic organisms, ii) post-transcriptional regulation ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
... The survival and quality of life (QoL) of patients with hemoglobin disorder in ... Doug Higgs, will illustrates how the analysis of the globin genes switching has pioneered the application of genetic ... engineering to hemoglobinopathies which are amongst the first examples of successful gene therapy, and they provide ideal ...
Microarray-based gene expression analysis identified genes showing ploidy-dependent expression in isogenic Saccharomyces ... Moreover, ploidy regulation of the FLO11 gene had direct consequences for yeast development. ... These genes were induced or repressed in proportion to the number of chromosome sets, regardless of the mating type. Ploidy- ...
... Fumiko Taniuchi, Koji Higai, Tomomi ... supported Elk-1-dependent transcriptional regulation of FUT1 gene expression in DLD-1 cells. These results suggest that a ... which has high expression of Lewis B and Lewis Y antigens, expresses the FUT1 gene, and shows α1,2-fucosyltransferase (FUT) ... FUT1 gene expression was shown to be regulated at the region −91 to −81 nt to the transcriptional start site, which contains ...
Functional Relevance of CpG Island Length for Regulation of Gene Expression Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Functional Relevance of CpG Island Length for Regulation of Gene Expression. Navin Elango and Soojin V. Yi ... Functional Relevance of CpG Island Length for Regulation of Gene Expression. Navin Elango and Soojin V. Yi ... Functional Relevance of CpG Island Length for Regulation of Gene Expression. Navin Elango and Soojin V. Yi ...
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and secondary pulmonary embolism cause approximately 100,000 deaths per year in the United States. Physical immobility is the most significant risk factor for DVT, but a molecular and cellular basis for this link has not been defined. We found that the endothelial cells surrounding the venous valve, where DVTs originate, express high levels of FOXC2 and PROX1, transcription factors known to be activated by oscillatory shear stress. The perivalvular venous endothelial cells exhibited a powerful antithrombotic phenotype characterized by low levels of the prothrombotic proteins vWF, P-selectin, and ICAM1 and high levels of the antithrombotic proteins thrombomodulin (THBD), endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). The perivalvular antithrombotic phenotype was lost following genetic ...
... an international research team compared the expression of genes in the brains of honey bees that had different ages, genotypes ... Expression Study Links Gene Regulation and Evolution of Aggression in Bees Aug 18, 2009 ... Home » Expression Study Links Gene Regulation and Evolution of Aggression in Bees ... NEW YORK (GenomeWeb News) - Short-term aggressive behavior in European honey bees involves many of the same gene expression ...
Eukaryotic Gene ExpressionBasics Benefits by Prof.PN RANGARAJAN,Department of Biochemistry,IISC Bangalore. For more details on ... byexpressiongenekinaseofproteinbyexpressiongenekinaseofproteinregulation ... Mod-05 Lec-18 Regulation of gene expression by Protein Kinase C. More details ... Eukaryotic Gene Expression:Basics & Benefits by Prof.PN RANGARAJAN,Department of Biochemistry,IISC Bangalore. For more details ...
Sequence requirements for myosin gene expression and regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans.. P G Okkema, S W Harrison, V Plunger ... Sequence requirements for myosin gene expression and regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans.. P G Okkema, S W Harrison, V Plunger ... Sequence requirements for myosin gene expression and regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans.. P G Okkema, S W Harrison, V Plunger ... Sequence requirements for myosin gene expression and regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
Unraveling cellular gene expression regulation during viral infection. Viruses are by definition fully dependent on the ... we uncover diverse and dynamic translational regulation for subsets of host genes. Although ribosome profiling provides precise ... and quantitative analysis of genes that are translationally regulated, our molecular understanding of this type of regulation ...
Epigenetic Control, Epigenetic Gene Regulation, Epigenetic Regulation, Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation, Gene Expression, ... Eukaryotic gene expression begins with control of access to the DNA. This form of regulation, called epigenetic regulation, ... Eukaryotic gene expression is more complex than prokaryotic gene expression because the processes of transcription and ... This type of gene regulation is called epigenetic regulation. Epigenetic means "around genetics." The changes that occur to the ...
  • The better characterization of proteins that interact with MHC class I and II promoters and the isolation of genes encoding several of these transcription factors, such as H-2RIIBP/RXR beta, NK kappa B, I-kappa B, hXBP-1 and NF-Y, allow the functional analysis of these molecules in MHC gene regulation. (nih.gov)
  • Gene expression converts the information coded by our genes into proteins. (springer.com)
  • Regulation of nuclear-encoded photosynthetic proteins by nitrogen is achieved through mechanisms affecting transcription and/or mRNA stability. (pnas.org)
  • A regulatory gene , located before the operon, continually makes repressor proteins that bind with the operator and prohibit the function of RNA polymerase. (factmonster.com)
  • The 20,000 protein coding genes in the human cell produce a repertoire of ~100,000 proteins through the process of alternative splicing. (le.ac.uk)
  • Gene expression is the process in which a gene's coding sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). (yeastgenome.org)
  • PPARγ is activated by prostaglandins and leukotrienes and regulates the gene expression of proteins involved in the storage of fatty acids. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In addition, animal virus genomes contain elements and encode proteins that are very useful for the design of vectors for gene cloning and expression in mammalian cells. (waterstones.com)
  • Regulation of gene expression by regulatory proteins and non-coding RNAs enables the pathogens to adapt their metabolic needs and to coordinately express virulence determinants during different stages of infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are major modulators of alternative splicing, a key generator of proteomic diversity and flexible means of regulating gene expression likely to be crucial in plant environmental responses. (mdpi.com)
  • Computational biologists at Carnegie Mellon University have developed a more accurate computational method for reconstructing the full-length nucleotide sequences of the RNA products in cells, called transcripts, that transform information from a gene into proteins or other gene products. (outlookseries.com)
  • The aim of the research is to identify metal regulatory elements (MREs) within the promoters of two C. elegans MT genes, and isolate and characterize proteins that interact with the candidate MREs. (epa.gov)
  • Complementary DNAs (cDNAs) encoding metal-regulatory proteins will be obtained by screening C. elegans expression libraries with oligonucleotides based on the partial amino acid sequence. (epa.gov)
  • To assess whether myelin-associated neurite growth inhibitory proteins contribute to this regulation, we applied the neutralizing antibodies IN-1 against one of the main inhibitory components of central myelin (NI-250) either in vivo or in vitro to organotypic cerebellar cultures. (jneurosci.org)
  • Since then, the genes of the ancestral cyanobacterium have been either lost or transferred to the nucleus of the host cell and the chloroplast genome only encodes a fraction (50-150) of the proteins required for its own expression or for the photosynthetic function. (ibpc.fr)
  • The definition of retina-specific promoters will make possible targeted expression of heterologous and altered genes to the retina. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Interestingly, this dynamic regulation of the MIEP by chromatin structure in latency extends not only into lytic infection but also for the regulation of multiple viral promoters in all phases of infection. (nih.gov)
  • HCMV lytic infection is characterised by a timely and co-ordinated pattern of gene expression that now has been shown to correlate with active post-translational modification of the histones associated with early and late promoters. (nih.gov)
  • For each of the four genes, sequences upstream of the coding region are tissue-specific promoters, as shown by their ability to drive expression of a reporter gene (lacZ) in the appropriate muscle type. (genetics.org)
  • To further characterize the myosin gene promoters and to examine the types of enhancer sequences in the genome, we have initiated a screen of C. elegans genomic DNA for fragments capable of enhancing the myo-2 promoter. (genetics.org)
  • IL-18 gene expression may be regulated in a wide range of cell types by the activities of these two distinct promoters. (jimmunol.org)
  • The receptor dimer is then capable of interacting with specific progesterone-responsive elements (PREs) within target gene promoters. (asm.org)
  • H3K4me3-promoters H3K4me1- primed enhancers H3K36me3-gene bodies H3K27me3-polycomb repression H3K9me3-heterochromatin The human genome was annotated with chromatin states. (wikipedia.org)
  • As illustrated in Figure 1 , Rex regulates viral mRNA expression at the post-transcriptional level by interacting with a complex stem-loop RNA structure termed the Rex-responsive element (RXRE), present at the 3′ portion of all plus-strand viral transcripts. (frontiersin.org)
  • 0.01) mRNA expression was reduced in obese (nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic) subjects and was negatively correlated with the BMI of the subjects ( r = −0.63, P = 0.02). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We analyzed genome-wide mRNA expression and DNA methylation in cervical and anterior thoracal spinal cord segments of five human fetuses and show development-dependent gene expression asymmetries. (mpi.nl)
  • An analysis of mRNA expression in T47D breast cancer cells treated with the synthetic progestin R5020 revealed a subset of progesterone receptor (PR) target genes that are enriched for E2F binding sites. (asm.org)
  • Leptin mRNA expression was significantly and selectively decreased in adipose tissue and embryonic fibroblasts, along with drastically reduced plasma leptin levels, in GABA(B)R1-null mice than in wild-type mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Part I focuses on approaches for studying control of mRNA expression and determining target genes for a given transcription copy. (nhbs.com)
  • If not blocked, it passes over the operator and reaches the protein-producing genes where it creates the mRNA that instructs the ribosomes to create the desired protein. (factmonster.com)
  • Repressors bind with the operator and prevent RNA polymerase from proceeding to create mRNA by prohibiting access to the remainder of the protein-producing genes. (factmonster.com)
  • RNA polymerase must create RNA by moving along the chromosome and "reading" the genes in the process of transcription. (factmonster.com)
  • These genes were induced or repressed in proportion to the number of chromosome sets, regardless of the mating type. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the case of the non-coding Xist gene, which is the trigger of X-chromosome wide silencing, its asymmetric expression may be initiated by such fluctuations in chromatin folding. (europa.eu)
  • In the course of the ERC programme, we also demonstrated that this type of monoallelic gene expression is not just a characteristic of the X chromosome but can also be found at several hundred loci on autosomes. (europa.eu)
  • This reveals that a double dose of some X chromosome genes must provide a checkpoint, to ensure that dosage compensation is achieved, in order for development to proceed normally. (europa.eu)
  • The int gene of bacteriophage P2 is the only viral gene necessary for the integration of P2 into the Escherichia coli host chromosome. (asm.org)
  • Pathogenic bacteria have evolved numerous strategies to survive in and to attack hosts, which can be reflected by transcriptional and posttranscriptional changes in specific genes especially including those encoding virulence determinants. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, in many bacterial species, regulation of metabolic functions, particularly those relating to virulence, involves cell-to-cell signalling molecules (such as N -acylhomoserine lactones in gram-negative bacteria). (asm.org)
  • This will facilitate the generation of animal models of human disease and may have implications for future attempts towards gene therapy, particularly in light of the finding that mutations in the rhodopsin gene are responsible for some forms of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • abi3, fus3 and lec2 mutations affect At2S3 expression in seeds. (biologists.org)
  • Stephan Sanders and his colleagues have previously shown that spontaneous, or de novo , mutations (seen only in the child and not in either parent) are important risk factors for autism and can be used to find the genes involved in causing autism. (sfari.org)
  • To find these mutations, they plan to build a map of the differences in gene expression between males and females in multiple brain regions and across multiple stages of brain development. (sfari.org)
  • They hope to look for a group of genes that have mutations in girls with autism and that also show a difference in brain expression between the sexes. (sfari.org)
  • This LFY-induced expression of AP3 depends in part on the function of the APETALA1 ( AP1 ) floral homeotic gene, since mutations in AP1 reduce LFY-dependent induction of AP3 expression. (biologists.org)
  • By simultaneously examining the changes in transcription and translation along HCMV infection, using ribosome profiling and RNA-seq, we uncover diverse and dynamic translational regulation for subsets of host genes. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The expression of at least four other mitochondrially encoded cytochrome subunits is dependent upon specific translation factors, raising the potential for translational regulation as a general mechanism. (asm.org)
  • The bacterium Escherichia coli carries approximately 3000 genes, but this total repertoire describes its potential properties and, in reality, only a small subset of this genetic information is expressed at any given moment. (springer.com)
  • Genetic expression is the process where genotypes coded in the genes are exhibited by the phenotypes of the individuals. (factmonster.com)
  • This module covers the structure and expression of genetic material in eukaryotic cells. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • In this session Dr. Doug Higgs, will illustrates how the analysis of the globin genes switching has pioneered the application of genetic engineering to hemoglobinopathies which are amongst the first examples of successful gene therapy, and they provide ideal targets for current developments in therapeutic genome editing. (ehaweb.org)
  • This new method for studying globally regulated genetic systems in E. coli combines detection, cloning, and physical mapping of a battery of coregulated genes in one step. (asm.org)
  • Using real-time RT-qPCR, we analyzed total steady-state transcript levels of the 18 SR and two SR-like genes from Arabidopsis thaliana in seedlings treated with ABA and in genetic backgrounds with altered expression of the ABA-biosynthesis ABA2 and the ABA-signaling ABI1 and ABI4 genes. (mdpi.com)
  • In this paper, we propose an innovative method for finding gene specific co-regulations using genetic algorithm (GA). A sliding window is used to delimit the allowed length of conditions in which gene co-regulations occur and an ad hoc GA, called the progressive GA, is performed in each window position to find those condition subsets having high fitness. (hindawi.com)
  • Such a genetic reprogramming of gene expression in biofilms seems to result from changes in multiple environmental physicochemical conditions. (asm.org)
  • Precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing is an essential step in gene expression mediated by the spliceosome, a large protein complex in the cell nucleus that interacts with specific intronic sequences in the pre-mRNA called splice sites for the proper removal of introns and correct joining of exons. (mdpi.com)
  • A database of tissue-specific gene regulation in human tissues. (pitt.edu)
  • It has recently been discovered that internal signals arising from primary carbon metabolism directly influence photoassimilate production and utilization through the control of gene expression in source and sink tissues. (europa.eu)
  • The regulation of P450 gene expression has been well documented in experimental animals, but at present there is very little information available about the regulation of human P450 genes, particularly in extra-hepatic tissues. (bl.uk)
  • We have characterized the concerted regulation by insulin (3-h hyperinsulinemic clamp) of the expression of 10 genes related to insulin action in skeletal muscle and in subcutaneous adipose tissue, and we have verified whether a defective regulation of some of them could be specifically encountered in tissues of type 2 diabetic patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This study thus provides evidence for a specific defect in the regulation of a group of important genes in response to insulin in peripheral tissues of type 2 diabetic patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In keeping with this hypothesis, the expression of some important genes involved in insulin action and glucose metabolism has been found to be altered in peripheral tissues of type 2 diabetic patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, no prominent expression was seen with mRNA for GABA(B)R2 subunit required for heteromeric orchestration of the functional GABA(B)R by any adipocytic cells and tissues. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Any study of viral gene expression and replication is likely to lead also to new insights in cellular metabolism. (waterstones.com)
  • The other gene, OsGA2ox3, was expressed in every tissue examined and was enhanced by the application of biologically active GA. Recombinant OsGA2ox3 protein catalyzed the metabolism of GA(1) to GA(8) and GA(20) to GA(29)-catabolite. (nih.gov)
  • The discovery of the obese gene in the mouse and its conserved homologue in humans has led to important discoveries in energy metabolism. (epfl.ch)
  • One of the chief findings was the fact that the expression of the leptin gene was regulated and that it, in turn, could regulate metabolism and behavior. (epfl.ch)
  • Methods: The present review examines published data from both in vitro and in vivo studies reporting effects of nutrients and byproducts of microbial metabolism on the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in order to highlight an emerging appreciation for the role of dietary compounds in modulating the innate immune response. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Results: Vitamins A and D, dietary histone deacetylases and byproducts of intestinal microbial metabolism (butyrate and secondary bile acids) have been found to regulate the expression of AMPs in humans. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In addition, byproducts ofgut microbe metabolism could be important for communicating with intestinal epithelial and immune cells, thus affecting the expression of AMPs. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In multicellular organisms, gene regulation drives cellular differentiation and morphogenesis in the embryo, leading to the creation of different cell types that possess different gene expression profiles from the same genome sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is becoming evident is that chromatin structure is becoming as increasingly important for the regulation of viral gene expression as it is for cellular gene expression and thus understanding the mechanisms employed by HCMV to modulate chromatin function could have broader implications on our understanding of the control of gene expression in general. (nih.gov)
  • Our comprehension of the way that the genome is packaged into the nucleus in eukaryotes and of how some genes are expressed or "read" in some cells but not in others in order to produce cellular diversity, has been more challenging. (europa.eu)
  • In addition to their ability to disrupt the integrity of bacterial, viral and fungal membranes, AMPs bind lipopolysaccharides, act as chemoattractants for immune cells and bind to cellular receptors and modulate the expression of cytokines and chemokines. (oregonstate.edu)
  • These effects are mediated by the major IE products (IE72 and IE86) which physically and functionally interact with histone modifying enzymes resulting in the efficient activation of viral gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • We report here that an eight-ring polyamide targeted to a specific region of the transcription factor TFIIIA binding site interferes with 5S RNA gene expression in Xenopus kidney cells. (nih.gov)
  • At present the database contains expression profiles for 19,526 UniGene genes, combinatorial regulations for 7,341 transcription factor pairs and 6,232 putative CRMs for 2,130 RefSeq genes. (pitt.edu)
  • To determine transcription-factor dependence, gene expression changes in space were examined in strains bearing green fluorescent proteintagged (GFP-tagged) reporters for YIL052C (Sfp1 dependent with stress), YST-2 (Sfp1/Rap1 dependent with stress), or SSA4 (Msn4 dependent with stress), along with strains of SSA4-GFP and YIL052C-GFP with individual deletions of the Msn4 or Sfp1. (astrobiology.com)
  • In space, deletion of Sfp1 reversed the SSA4 gene expression effect (0.00% change), but Msn4 deletion yielded a similar decrease in SSA4 expression (34% change), which indicates that SSA4 gene expression is dependent on the Sfp1 transcription factor in space, unlike other stresses. (astrobiology.com)
  • The LFY transcription factor binds to a sequence, with dyad symmetry, that lies within a region of the AP3 promoter required for early expression of AP3 . (biologists.org)
  • Regulation of Protein Levels and Transcription Factor Function. (nhbs.com)
  • Hence these modifications may up or down regulate the expression of a gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, ploidy regulation of the FLO11 gene had direct consequences for yeast development. (sciencemag.org)
  • We also searched for ABA-responsive cis elements in the upstream regions of the 20 genes. (mdpi.com)
  • If the central dogma held in this case, the neurons might be buffering the effects of heat by altering the expression of these genes. (eurekalert.org)
  • The authors suggest that this calcium-dependent mechanism of transcriptional control may be linked to the expression of the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor and regulation of synaptic plasticity in such neurons. (sciencemag.org)
  • Axon regeneration requires that injured neurons reinitiate long-distance growth and upregulate specific genes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, the inhibitory activity of the IN-1 antigen on axon growth is not restricted to the control of growth cone motility but also involves a retrograde regulation of gene expression in adult central neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • It has been proposed that the expression of growth-associated genes is suppressed in adult neurons by retrograde inhibitory cues ( Skene, 1989 , 1992 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Upregulation of these genes was completely blunted in type 2 diabetic patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Genes encoding cellulases showed little apparent upregulation and thus may be expressed constitutively. (usda.gov)
  • However, strong upregulation of the same genes can be induced in Purkinje cells after colchicine injection into the uninjured adult cerebellum, indicating that their expression could be controlled by retrograde signals. (jneurosci.org)
  • Application of IN-1 antibodies induces the upregulation of c-Jun, JunD, and NADPH diaphorase in Purkinje cells, showing that their expression is suppressed constitutively by myelin-associated neurite growth inhibitors. (jneurosci.org)
  • Virtually any step of gene expression can be modulated, from transcriptional initiation , to RNA processing , and to the post-translational modification of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • We study fundamental aspects of gene regulation, from transcriptional initiation to histone modification and chromatin remodelling. (le.ac.uk)
  • We report here that the level of int expression is affected by several different mechanisms after transcriptional initiation. (asm.org)
  • We found that members of the plant-specific SC35-Like (SCL) Arabidopsis SR protein subfamily are distinctively responsive to exogenous ABA, while the expression of seven SR and SR-related genes is affected by alterations in key components of the ABA pathway. (mdpi.com)
  • Finally, despite pervasiveness of established ABA-responsive promoter elements in Arabidopsis SR and SR-like genes, their expression is likely governed by additional, yet unidentified cis -acting elements. (mdpi.com)
  • The Arabidopsis APETALA3 ( AP3 ) floral homeotic gene is required for specifying petal and stamen identities, and is expressed in a spatially limited domain of cells in the floral meristem that will give rise to these organs. (biologists.org)
  • Thus chromatin appears to play an important role in gene regulation in all phases of infection. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, transfection of the dominant negative Elk-1 gene, and the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIp) assay, supported Elk-1-dependent transcriptional regulation of FUT1 gene expression in DLD-1 cells. (hindawi.com)
  • INO80 is a chromatin remodeling complex that is believed to function in both gene regulation and DNA repair by "unpacking" DNA from nucleosomes to allow access to chromosomal DNA. (phys.org)
  • The direct effects of PR on E2F1 expression were confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis, which indicated that the agonist-bound receptor was recruited to several enhancer elements proximal to the E2F1 transcript. (asm.org)
  • Positive regulation by GABA(B)R1 subunit of leptin expression through gene transactivation in adipocytes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Global regulation of gene expression in Escherichia coli. (asm.org)
  • To get further information on bacterial surface sensing and biofilm-dependent regulation of gene expression in Escherichia coli K-12, random insertion mutagenesis with Mu dX, a mini-Mu carrying the promoterless lacZ gene, was performed with an ompR234 adherent strain, and a simple screen was developed to assess changes in gene expression in biofilm cells versus planktonic cells. (asm.org)
  • The problem of gene specific co-regulation discovery is to, for a particular gene of interest (called target gene), identify the condition subsets where strong gene co-regulations of the target gene are observed and its co-regulated genes in these condition subsets. (hindawi.com)
  • The co-regulations are local in the sense that they occur in some subsets of full experimental conditions. (hindawi.com)
  • The initiating event leading to a change in gene expression includes activation or deactivation of receptors . (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple tissue-specific activation elements are present for all four genes. (genetics.org)
  • Our findings suggest that activation of INO80-associated Uch37 by transient association of proteasomes with the INO80 complex could be one way proteasomes help to regulate gene expression," said Tingting Yao, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Research Fellow and lead author on the paper. (phys.org)
  • The widespread IL-18 mRNA distribution and the special relationship with ICE lead us to the hypothesis that IL-18 expression may be coupled with apoptotic processes involving activation of ICE or ICE-like proteinase. (jimmunol.org)
  • The signals that determine activation and repression of specific genes in response to appropriate stimuli are one of the most important, but least understood, types of information encoded in genomic DNA. (psu.edu)
  • stimulated activation of genes downstream of NF-?B. J Cell Sci. (labome.org)
  • Here we show that the floral meristem identity genes LEAFY ( LFY ) and APETALA1 ( AP1 ) are required for the activation of AP3 . (biologists.org)
  • Experiments using a steroid-inducible form of LFY show that, in contrast to its direct transcriptional activation of other floral homeotic genes, LFY acts in both a direct and an indirect manner to regulate AP3 expression. (biologists.org)
  • LFY is required for AP3 expression, since a loss-of-function lfy-6 mutant shows a dramatic reduction in the levels and domain of AP3 activation ( Weigel and Meyerowitz, 1993 ). (biologists.org)
  • Specific patterns of neural impulses regulate genes controlling nervous system development and plasticity, but it is not known how intracellular signaling cascades and transcriptional activation mechanisms can regulate specific genes in response to specific patterns of action potentials. (jneurosci.org)
  • High expression of c-fos was dependent on the combined activation of the MAPK pathway and phosphorylation of CREB. (jneurosci.org)
  • The objective of the present study was to investigate whether differences in the temporal dynamics of the second messenger Ca 2+ and integration by downstream signaling elements could contribute to specific activation of genes in response to specific patterns of neuronal firing. (jneurosci.org)
  • When compared to two leading assemblers, StringTie and TransComb, Scallop is 34.5 percent and 36.3 percent more accurate for transcripts consisting of multiple exons subunits of a gene that encode part of the gene product. (outlookseries.com)
  • Epigenetic profiling of the gene-dense region in LPS-activated B cells showed that B cells have a very similar histone modification profile to ES cells. (bl.uk)
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb News) - Short-term aggressive behavior in European honey bees involves many of the same gene expression patterns found in the inherently more aggressive Africanized bees, according to research scheduled to appear online this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . (genomeweb.com)
  • TCPOBOP was shown to be equally effective at influencing human P450 gene expression and, in most cases, the patterns of gene regulation observed in experimental animals were also seen in the human tumours. (bl.uk)
  • The analysis was mainly focused on a 2 Mb gene-dense region containing 68 known closely situated genes, having very diverse expression patterns. (bl.uk)
  • Gene Expr Patterns. (labome.org)
  • These kinetics limited the fidelity with which P-CREB could follow different patterns of action potentials, and P-CREB levels were not well correlated with c-fos expression. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thereafter, specific aspects pertaining to general and specialised mechanisms of gene expression and transcriptional regulation in various prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems will be examined.This module is highly recommended for students intending to take GENE40030 in Stage 4. (studiesabroad.com)
  • Regulation of Gene Expression: Molecular Mechanisms presents a comprehensive overview of methods and approaches for characterizing mechanisms of gene regulation. (nhbs.com)
  • Each of three sections explores mechanisms of gene regulation and expression, and presents methods and protocols for achieving specific experimental goals. (nhbs.com)
  • Shukunami C, Takimoto A, Oro M, Hiraki Y. Scleraxis positively regulates the expression of tenomodulin, a differentiation marker of tenocytes. (labome.org)
  • These findings suggest that TeM is a late marker of tendon formation and that Scx positively regulates TeM expression in a tendon cell lineage-dependent manner. (labome.org)
  • Our study indicates that, in addition to its role in preventing premature differentiation of early endocrine cells, Rbp-j regulates epithelial growth, Pdx1 expression, and acinar cell differentiation during mid-pancreatic development. (labome.org)
  • Previous work has shown that PACAP can increase tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and dopamine release, and we found that the gene for GTP cyclohydrolase, which effectively regulates TH through synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin, was also upregulated by inositol depletion. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Heme repression is achieved through the action of the ROX1 repressor, the expression of which is transcriptionally activated by heme. (asm.org)
  • These different components of the tumor microenvironment could have stimulatory and inhibitory effects on tumor progression by regulating the gene expression repertoire within the tumor cells on one hand and the stroma cells on the other. (springer.com)
  • Gene regulation is essential for viruses , prokaryotes and eukaryotes as it increases the versatility and adaptability of an organism by allowing the cell to express protein when needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike prokaryotes, multiple gene-regulating mechanisms operate in the nucleus before and after RNA transcription, and in the cytoplasm both before and after translation. (factmonster.com)
  • In subsequent lectures the role of microRNAs in gene regulation and disease will be discussed, together with the factors and mechanisms that control the process of translation. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA or circRNA (for protein-coding genes) and the translation of that mRNA or circRNA into protein. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Eukaryotic gene expression is more complex than prokaryotic gene expression because the processes of transcription and translation are physically separated. (oercommons.org)
  • Second, the ribosome binding site and AUG codon of the int gene are located in a putative stem-loop structure, which may inhibit the initiation of translation. (asm.org)
  • The primary focus will be to obtain a detailed understanding of the general and more specific mechanisms involved in the control of gene expression in both prokaryotic and in eukaryotic systems. (studiesabroad.com)
  • The AP Biology, Gene Regulation and Expression Bundled Unit is a collection of resources that are useful when teaching prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene regulation. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • When the flies are too hot, they make more transcripts of the sei gene and fewer of ppk29. (eurekalert.org)
  • Alternative splicing (AS) occurs when splice sites are differentially recognized, allowing for the production of multiple transcripts from a single gene that can potentially result in different protein isoforms. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition to largely expanding the coding capacity of genomes, AS represents an important means of regulating gene expression, for instance by introducing premature termination codons (PTCs) that then target these transcripts for degradation by a process known as nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The activity of Rex is essential for expression of viral transcripts coding for the virion components and thus represents a potential target for virus eradication. (frontiersin.org)
  • Their software, called Scallop, will help scientists build a more complete library of RNA transcripts and thus help scientists better understand the regulation of gene expression. (outlookseries.com)
  • Whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses based on the v.2.2 P. chrysosporium genome identified 356 genes whose transcripts accumulated to relatively high levels at 96 h and were at least four times the levels found at 40 h. (usda.gov)
  • Transcripts corresponding to 165 genes of unknown function accumulated more than 4-fold after oxidation commenced, and some of them may merit investigation as possible contributors to ligninolysis. (usda.gov)
  • This gene is situated between the phage attachment site, attP, and the repressor C gene, and is cotranscribed with C from the Pc promoter, towards attP. (asm.org)
  • In humans, asymmetric gene expression in the fetal cortex has been suggested as the molecular basis of handedness. (mpi.nl)
  • Satoh G, Wang Y, Zhang P, Satoh N. Early development of amphioxus nervous system with special reference to segmental cell organization and putative sensory cell precursors: a study based on the expression of pan-neuronal marker gene Hu/elav. (labome.org)
  • Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products ( protein or RNA ), and is informally termed gene regulation . (wikipedia.org)
  • If DNA encoding a specific gene is to be transcribed into RNA, the nucleosomes surrounding that region of DNA can slide down the DNA to open that specific chromosomal region and allow for the transcriptional machinery (RNA polymerase) to initiate transcription ( Figure ). (oercommons.org)
  • Spatial regulation of specific gene expression through photoactivation of RNAi. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of this research project is to identify molecular mechanisms responsible for the regulation of metal-inducible metallothionein (MT) gene expression in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans . (epa.gov)
  • overall 'Regulation of Gene Expression: Molecular Mechanisms' would certainly be of use to life sciences undergraduates, it would also be a useful reference work for a Molecular Toxicology laboratory. (nhbs.com)
  • Zhou X, Feng H, Guo Q, Dai H. Identification and characterization of the first reptilian CD9, and its expression analysis in response to bacterial infection. (labome.org)
  • However, there is still limited information available on bacterial surface sensing at the gene expression level. (asm.org)
  • The finding of apparent integration site-independent expression with this same constructis suggestive of a rhodopsin locus control region (LCR), analogous to that seen with beta-globin. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Small molecules that target specific DNA sequences have the potential to control gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • Eukaryotic gene expression begins with control of access to the DNA. (oercommons.org)
  • Embryonic development requires exquisite control of the expression of large numbers of genes, integrating components from the genome, transcriptome and proteome. (findaphd.com)
  • The reactions contain in vitro transcribed and translated control plasmids (lane 1) or FUS3 expression plasmid (lanes 2-17). (biologists.org)
  • To understand how the IL-18 gene (and consequently Th1 function) is regulated, we have determined the gene structure and investigated the mechanisms of transcriptional control and cell type expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • D, the up-regulation of DEC1 in hypoxia in HeLa and MCF-7 cells serves as a positive control for confirming physiologically relevant hypoxia. (aacrjournals.org)
  • C, Western blot analysis for RAD52 expression was performed on whole-cell lysates in MCF-7 cells following pretreatment (24 h) with anti-miR-210, anti-miR-373, or negative control #1 anti-miR ( anti-miR-NC ) and exposure to normoxia or hypoxia (48 h, 0.01% O 2 ), as described in Materials and Methods. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Though the promoter binds transcription factors and drives some aspects of CFTR gene expression, it cannot alone account for tissue specific control. (luriechildrens.org)
  • This project led us not only to discover the TAD organisation that hosts the Xist gene but also to identify some of the DNA sequences that likely control the folding within TADs and ensure monoallelic expression. (europa.eu)
  • However, the third and probably most important control of int expression in P2 seems to be that of posttranscriptional autoregulation. (asm.org)
  • Part I. Gene Expression Control at the mRNA Level. (nhbs.com)
  • Chloroplast gene expression now relies on a mosaic of mechanisms inherited from the cyanobacterial ancestor or acquired after -endosymbiosis, to allow the host cell to tightly control the activity of its symbiont. (ibpc.fr)
  • 2) The nuclear control of chloroplast gene expression and how trans-acting factors recognize their chloroplast target. (ibpc.fr)
  • A wide variety of mechanisms that control gene expression in bacteria are based on conditional transcription termination. (asm.org)