The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Research using processes by which the reliability and relevance of a procedure for a specific purpose are established.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.
Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Sets of structured vocabularies used for describing and categorizing genes, and gene products by their molecular function, involvement in biological processes, and cellular location. These vocabularies and their associations to genes and gene products (Gene Ontology annotations) are generated and curated by the Gene Ontology Consortium.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Techniques using a laser to cut away and harvest a specific cell or cluster of cells from a tissue section while viewing it under the microscope.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
Malignant lymphoma composed of large B lymphoid cells whose nuclear size can exceed normal macrophage nuclei, or more than twice the size of a normal lymphocyte. The pattern is predominantly diffuse. Most of these lymphomas represent the malignant counterpart of B-lymphocytes at midstage in the process of differentiation.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Neoplasms associated with a proliferation of a single clone of PLASMA CELLS and characterized by the secretion of PARAPROTEINS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Genes that determine the fate of a cell or CELLS in a region of the embryo during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Measurable biological parameters that serve for drug development, safety and dosing (DRUG MONITORING).
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
A mixture of solid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It has a wide range of uses including as a stiffening agent in ointments, as a lubricant, and as a topical anti-inflammatory. It is also commonly used as an embedding material in histology.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Assaying the products of or monitoring various biochemical processes and reactions in an individual cell.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Thinly cut sections of frozen tissue specimens prepared with a cryostat or freezing microtome.
Neoplasms composed of cells from the deepest layer of the epidermis. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the stratum basale.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.

Sensitivity issues in DNA array-based expression measurements and performance of nylon microarrays for small samples. (1/41147)

DNA or oligonucleotide arrays are widely used for large-scale expression measurements, using various implementations: macroarrays in which DNA is spotted onto nylon membranes of relatively large dimensions (with radioactive detection) on the one hand; microarrays on glass slides and oligonucleotide chips, both used with fluorescent probes, on the other hand. Nylon micro-arrays with colourimetric detection have also been described recently. The small physical dimensions of miniaturized systems allow small hybridization volumes (2-100 microl) and provide high probe concentrations, in contrast to macroarrays. We show, however, that actual sensitivity (defined as the amount of sample necessary for detection of a given mRNA species) is in fact similar for all these systems and that this is mostly due to the very different amounts of target material present on the respective arrays. We then demonstrate that the combination of nylon microarrays with(33)P-labelled radioactive probes provides 100-fold better sensitivity, making it possible to perform expression profiling experiments using submicrogram amounts of unamplified total RNA from small biological samples. This has important implications in basic and clinical research and makes this alternative approach particularly suitable for groups operating in an academic context.  (+info)

On-line monitoring of gene expression. (2/41147)

Gene expression in cultures of Escherichia coli has been determined in situ and on-line by the use of an electrochemical sensor. Intact bacteria were used to monitor the induction of the lacZ gene; the onset of stationary phase was also monitored, using a reporter gene fused to the RpoS-dependent promoter of the osmY gene. The technique described can in principle be used to determine the activity of any promoter, with a variety of reporter genes. This technology is non-intrusive, allows real-time monitoring of gene expression, and will be useful in the study of growth regulation and development.  (+info)

Computational methods for the identification of differential and coordinated gene expression. (3/41147)

With the first complete 'draft' of the human genome sequence expected for Spring 2000, the three basic challenges for today's bioinformatics are more than ever: (i) finding the genes; (ii) locating their coding regions; and (iii) predicting their functions. However, our capacity for interpreting vertebrate genomic and transcript (cDNA) sequences using experimental or computational means very much lags behind our raw sequencing power. If the performances of current programs in identifying internal coding exons are good, the precise 5'-->3' delineation of transcription units (and promoters) still requires additional experiments. Similarly, functional predictions made with reference to previously characterized homologues are leaving >50% of human genes unannotated or classified in uninformative categories ('kinase', 'ATP-binding', etc.). In the context of functional genomics, large-scale gene expression studies using massive cDNA tag sequencing, two-dimensional gel proteome analysis or microarray technologies are the only approaches providing genome-scale experimental information at a pace consistent with the progress of sequencing. Given the difficulty and cost of characterizing genes one by one, academic and industrial researchers are increasingly relying on those methods to prioritize their studies and choose their targets. The study of expression patterns can also provide some insight into the function, reveal regulatory pathways, indicate side effects of drugs or serve as a diagnostic tool. In this article, I review the theoretical and computational approaches used to: (i) identify genes differentially expressed (across cell types, developmental stages, pathological conditions, etc.); (ii) identify genes expressed in a coordinated manner across a set of conditions; and (iii) delineate clusters of genes sharing coherent expression features, eventually defining global biological pathways.  (+info)

Genome-wide expression profiling in Escherichia coli K-12. (4/41147)

We have established high resolution methods for global monitoring of gene expression in Escherichia coli. Hybridization of radiolabeled cDNA to spot blots on nylon membranes was compared to hybridization of fluorescently-labeled cDNA to glass microarrays for efficiency and reproducibility. A complete set of PCR primers was created for all 4290 annotated open reading frames (ORFs) from the complete genome sequence of E.coli K-12 (MG1655). Glass- and nylon-based arrays of PCR products were prepared and used to assess global changes in gene expression. Full-length coding sequences for array printing were generated by two-step PCR amplification. In this study we measured changes in RNA levels after exposure to heat shock and following treatment with isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Both radioactive and fluorescence-based methods showed comparable results. Treatment with IPTG resulted in high level induction of the lacZYA and melAB operons. Following heat shock treatment 119 genes were shown to have significantly altered expression levels, including 35 previously uncharacterized ORFs and most genes of the heat shock stimulon. Analysis of spot intensities from hybridization to replicate arrays identified sets of genes with signals consistently above background suggesting that at least 25% of genes were expressed at detectable levels during growth in rich media.  (+info)

Yeast Upf proteins required for RNA surveillance affect global expression of the yeast transcriptome. (5/41147)

mRNAs are monitored for errors in gene expression by RNA surveillance, in which mRNAs that cannot be fully translated are degraded by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway (NMD). RNA surveillance ensures that potentially deleterious truncated proteins are seldom made. NMD pathways that promote surveillance have been found in a wide range of eukaryotes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the proteins encoded by the UPF1, UPF2, and UPF3 genes catalyze steps in NMD and are required for RNA surveillance. In this report, we show that the Upf proteins are also required to control the total accumulation of a large number of mRNAs in addition to their role in RNA surveillance. High-density oligonucleotide arrays were used to monitor global changes in the yeast transcriptome caused by loss of UPF gene function. Null mutations in the UPF genes caused altered accumulation of hundreds of mRNAs. The majority were increased in abundance, but some were decreased. The same mRNAs were affected regardless of which of the three UPF gene was inactivated. The proteins encoded by UPF-dependent mRNAs were broadly distributed by function but were underrepresented in two MIPS (Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences) categories: protein synthesis and protein destination. In a UPF(+) strain, the average level of expression of UPF-dependent mRNAs was threefold lower than the average level of expression of all mRNAs in the transcriptome, suggesting that highly abundant mRNAs were underrepresented. We suggest a model for how the abundance of hundreds of mRNAs might be controlled by the Upf proteins.  (+info)

NORF5/HUG1 is a component of the MEC1-mediated checkpoint response to DNA damage and replication arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/41147)

Analysis of global gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the serial analysis of gene expression technique has permitted the identification of at least 302 previously unidentified transcripts from nonannotated open reading frames (NORFs). Transcription of one of these, NORF5/HUG1 (hydroxyurea and UV and gamma radiation induced), is induced by DNA damage, and this induction requires MEC1, a homolog of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. DNA damage-specific induction of HUG1, which is independent of the cell cycle stage, is due to the alleviation of repression by the Crt1p-Ssn6p-Tup1p complex. Overexpression of HUG1 is lethal in combination with a mec1 mutation in the presence of DNA damage or replication arrest, whereas a deletion of HUG1 rescues the lethality due to a mec1 null allele. HUG1 is the first example of a NORF with important biological functional properties and defines a novel component of the MEC1 checkpoint pathway.  (+info)

Microarray analysis of replicative senescence. (7/41147)

BACKGROUND: Limited replicative capacity is a defining characteristic of most normal human cells and culminates in senescence, an arrested state in which cells remain viable but display an altered pattern of gene and protein expression. To survey widely the alterations in gene expression, we have developed a DNA microarray analysis system that contains genes previously reported to be involved in aging, as well as those involved in many of the major biochemical signaling pathways. RESULTS: Senescence-associated gene expression was assessed in three cell types: dermal fibroblasts, retinal pigment epithelial cells, and vascular endothelial cells. Fibroblasts demonstrated a strong inflammatory-type response, but shared limited overlap in senescent gene expression patterns with the other two cell types. The characteristics of the senescence response were highly cell-type specific. A comparison of early- and late-passage cells stimulated with serum showed specific deficits in the early and mid G1 response of senescent cells. Several genes that are constitutively overexpressed in senescent fibroblasts are regulated during the cell cycle in early-passage cells, suggesting that senescent cells are locked in an activated state that mimics the early remodeling phase of wound repair. CONCLUSIONS: Replicative senescence triggers mRNA expression patterns that vary widely and cell lineage strongly influences these patterns. In fibroblasts, the senescent state mimics inflammatory wound repair processes and, as such, senescent cells may contribute to chronic wound pathologies.  (+info)

Functional genomics: expression analysis of Escherichia coli growing on minimal and rich media. (8/41147)

DNA arrays of the entire set of Escherichia coli genes were used to measure the genomic expression patterns of cells growing in late logarithmic phase on minimal glucose medium and on Luria broth containing glucose. Ratios of the transcript levels for all 4,290 E. coli protein-encoding genes (cds) were obtained, and analysis of the expression ratio data indicated that the physiological state of the cells under the two growth conditions could be ascertained. The cells in the rich medium grew faster, and expression of the majority of the translation apparatus genes was significantly elevated under this growth condition, consistent with known patterns of growth rate-dependent regulation and increased rate of protein synthesis in rapidly growing cells. The cells grown on minimal medium showed significantly elevated expression of many genes involved in biosynthesis of building blocks, most notably the amino acid biosynthetic pathways. Nearly half of the known RpoS-dependent genes were expressed at significantly higher levels in minimal medium than in rich medium, and rpoS expression was similarly elevated. The role of RpoS regulation in these logarithmic phase cells was suggested by the functions of the RpoS dependent genes that were induced. The hallmark features of E. coli cells growing on glucose minimal medium appeared to be the formation and excretion of acetate, metabolism of the acetate, and protection of the cells from acid stress. A hypothesis invoking RpoS and UspA (universal stress protein, also significantly elevated in minimal glucose medium) as playing a role in coordinating these various aspects and consequences of glucose and acetate metabolism was generated. This experiment demonstrates that genomic expression assays can be applied in a meaningful way to the study of whole-bacterial-cell physiology for the generation of hypotheses and as a guide for more detailed studies of particular genes of interest.  (+info)

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Explanation: Neoplastic cell transformation is a complex process that involves multiple steps and can occur as a result of genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The process typically begins with a series of subtle changes in the DNA of individual cells, which can lead to the loss of normal cellular functions and the acquisition of abnormal growth and reproduction patterns.

Over time, these transformed cells can accumulate further mutations that allow them to survive and proliferate despite adverse conditions. As the transformed cells continue to divide and grow, they can eventually form a tumor, which is a mass of abnormal cells that can invade and damage surrounding tissues.

In some cases, cancer cells can also break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they can establish new tumors. This process, known as metastasis, is a major cause of death in many types of cancer.

It's worth noting that not all transformed cells will become cancerous. Some forms of cellular transformation, such as those that occur during embryonic development or tissue regeneration, are normal and necessary for the proper functioning of the body. However, when these transformations occur in adult tissues, they can be a sign of cancer.

See also: Cancer, Tumor

Word count: 190

DLBCL is characterized by the rapid growth of malignant B cells in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and other organs. These cells can also spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. The disease is often aggressive and can progress quickly without treatment.

The symptoms of DLBCL vary depending on the location and extent of the disease, but they may include:

* Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, or groin
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Night sweats
* Weight loss
* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Itching

The diagnosis of DLBCL is based on a combination of physical examination findings, imaging studies (such as CT scans or PET scans), and biopsy results. Treatment typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and in some cases, immunotherapy or targeted therapy. The prognosis for DLBCL has improved significantly over the past few decades, with overall survival rates ranging from 60% to 80%, depending on the stage and other factors.

Multiple myeloma is the second most common type of hematologic cancer after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, accounting for approximately 1% of all cancer deaths worldwide. It is more common in older adults, with most patients being diagnosed over the age of 65.

The exact cause of multiple myeloma is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations that occur in the plasma cells. There are several risk factors that have been associated with an increased risk of developing multiple myeloma, including:

1. Family history: Having a family history of multiple myeloma or other plasma cell disorders increases the risk of developing the disease.
2. Age: The risk of developing multiple myeloma increases with age, with most patients being diagnosed over the age of 65.
3. Race: African Americans are at higher risk of developing multiple myeloma than other races.
4. Obesity: Being overweight or obese may increase the risk of developing multiple myeloma.
5. Exposure to certain chemicals: Exposure to certain chemicals such as pesticides, solvents, and heavy metals has been linked to an increased risk of developing multiple myeloma.

The symptoms of multiple myeloma can vary depending on the severity of the disease and the organs affected. Common symptoms include:

1. Bone pain: Pain in the bones, particularly in the spine, ribs, or long bones, is a common symptom of multiple myeloma.
2. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak is another common symptom of the disease.
3. Infections: Patients with multiple myeloma may be more susceptible to infections due to the impaired functioning of their immune system.
4. Bone fractures: Weakened bones can lead to an increased risk of fractures, particularly in the spine, hips, or ribs.
5. Kidney problems: Multiple myeloma can cause damage to the kidneys, leading to problems such as kidney failure or proteinuria (excess protein in the urine).
6. Anemia: A low red blood cell count can cause anemia, which can lead to fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
7. Increased calcium levels: High levels of calcium in the blood can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, and confusion.
8. Neurological problems: Multiple myeloma can cause neurological problems such as headaches, numbness or tingling in the arms and legs, and difficulty with coordination and balance.

The diagnosis of multiple myeloma typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. These may include:

1. Complete blood count (CBC): A CBC can help identify abnormalities in the numbers and characteristics of different types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
2. Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP): This test measures the levels of different proteins in the blood, including immunoglobulins (antibodies) and abnormal proteins produced by myeloma cells.
3. Urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP): This test measures the levels of different proteins in the urine.
4. Immunofixation: This test is used to identify the type of antibody produced by myeloma cells and to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.
5. Bone marrow biopsy: A bone marrow biopsy involves removing a sample of tissue from the bone marrow for examination under a microscope. This can help confirm the diagnosis of multiple myeloma and determine the extent of the disease.
6. Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans may be used to assess the extent of bone damage or other complications of multiple myeloma.
7. Genetic testing: Genetic testing may be used to identify specific genetic abnormalities that are associated with multiple myeloma and to monitor the response of the disease to treatment.

It's important to note that not all patients with MGUS or smoldering myeloma will develop multiple myeloma, and some patients with multiple myeloma may not have any symptoms at all. However, if you are experiencing any of the symptoms listed above or have a family history of multiple myeloma, it's important to talk to your doctor about your risk and any tests that may be appropriate for you.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:

1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.

Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:

1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.

Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.

Malignant prostatic neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). The most common type of malignant prostatic neoplasm is adenocarcinoma of the prostate, which accounts for approximately 95% of all prostate cancers. Other types of malignant prostatic neoplasms include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas.

Prostatic neoplasms can be diagnosed through a variety of tests such as digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, imaging studies (ultrasound, CT scan or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options for prostatic neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options can include active surveillance, surgery (robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy or open prostatectomy), radiation therapy (external beam radiation therapy or brachytherapy), and hormone therapy.

In summary, Prostatic Neoplasms are tumors that occur in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The most common types of malignant prostatic neoplasms are adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and other types include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas. Diagnosis is done through a variety of tests, and treatment options depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health.

Neoplasms, plasma cell, are tumors that arise from plasma cells and can be either benign or malignant. They are relatively rare and tend to affect older adults.

Symptoms of neoplasms, plasma cell, include bone pain, tiredness, fever, and weight loss. Treatment options vary depending on the type and stage of the tumor but may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery.

Neoplasms, plasma cells are classified as either extramedullary (outside the bone marrow) or intramedullary (within the bone marrow). The most common type of plasma cell neoplasm is multiple myeloma, which is a malignant tumor that affects the bone marrow and can cause bone pain, infections, and other complications.

Adenocarcinoma is a term used to describe a variety of different types of cancer that arise in glandular tissue, including:

1. Colorectal adenocarcinoma (cancer of the colon or rectum)
2. Breast adenocarcinoma (cancer of the breast)
3. Prostate adenocarcinoma (cancer of the prostate gland)
4. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (cancer of the pancreas)
5. Lung adenocarcinoma (cancer of the lung)
6. Thyroid adenocarcinoma (cancer of the thyroid gland)
7. Skin adenocarcinoma (cancer of the skin)

The symptoms of adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:

1. Blood in the stool or urine
2. Abdominal pain or discomfort
3. Changes in bowel habits
4. Unusual vaginal bleeding (in the case of endometrial adenocarcinoma)
5. A lump or thickening in the breast or elsewhere
6. Weight loss
7. Fatigue
8. Coughing up blood (in the case of lung adenocarcinoma)

The diagnosis of adenocarcinoma is typically made through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the affected area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

Treatment options for adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:

1. Surgery to remove the tumor
2. Chemotherapy, which involves using drugs to kill cancer cells
3. Radiation therapy, which involves using high-energy X-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells
4. Targeted therapy, which involves using drugs that target specific molecules on cancer cells to kill them
5. Immunotherapy, which involves using drugs that stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells.

The prognosis for adenocarcinoma is generally good if the cancer is detected and treated early, but it can be more challenging to treat if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

1. Tumor size and location: Larger tumors that have spread to nearby tissues or organs are generally considered more invasive than smaller tumors that are confined to the original site.
2. Cellular growth patterns: The way in which cancer cells grow and divide can also contribute to the overall invasiveness of a neoplasm. For example, cells that grow in a disorganized or chaotic manner may be more likely to invade surrounding tissues.
3. Mitotic index: The mitotic index is a measure of how quickly the cancer cells are dividing. A higher mitotic index is generally associated with more aggressive and invasive cancers.
4. Necrosis: Necrosis, or the death of cells, can be an indication of the level of invasiveness of a neoplasm. The presence of significant necrosis in a tumor is often a sign that the cancer has invaded surrounding tissues and organs.
5. Lymphovascular invasion: Cancer cells that have invaded lymphatic vessels or blood vessels are considered more invasive than those that have not.
6. Perineural invasion: Cancer cells that have invaded nerve fibers are also considered more invasive.
7. Histological grade: The histological grade of a neoplasm is a measure of how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Higher-grade cancers are generally considered more aggressive and invasive than lower-grade cancers.
8. Immunohistochemical markers: Certain immunohistochemical markers, such as Ki-67, can be used to evaluate the proliferative activity of cancer cells. Higher levels of these markers are generally associated with more aggressive and invasive cancers.

Overall, the degree of neoplasm invasiveness is an important factor in determining the likelihood of the cancer spreading to other parts of the body (metastasizing) and in determining the appropriate treatment strategy for the patient.

There are several types of lung neoplasms, including:

1. Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for approximately 40% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the glands of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of lung cancer accounts for approximately 25% of all lung cancers and is more common in men than women. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the squamous cells lining the airways of the lungs.
3. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC): This is a highly aggressive form of lung cancer that accounts for approximately 15% of all lung cancers. It is often found in the central parts of the lungs and can spread quickly to other parts of the body.
4. Large cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of lung cancer that accounts for only about 5% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the large cells of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
5. Bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC): This is a rare type of lung cancer that originates in the cells lining the airways and alveoli of the lungs. It is more common in women than men and tends to affect older individuals.
6. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): This is a rare, progressive, and often fatal lung disease that primarily affects women of childbearing age. It is characterized by the growth of smooth muscle-like cells in the lungs and can lead to cysts, lung collapse, and respiratory failure.
7. Hamartoma: This is a benign tumor that originates in the tissue of the lungs and is usually found in children. It is characterized by an overgrowth of normal lung tissue and can be treated with surgery.
8. Secondary lung cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
9. Metastatic cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
10. Mesothelioma: This is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that originates in the lining of the lungs or abdomen. It is caused by asbestos exposure and can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

Lung diseases can also be classified based on their cause, such as:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms and can include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and bronchitis.
2. Autoimmune diseases: These are caused by an overactive immune system and can include conditions such as sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
3. Genetic diseases: These are caused by inherited mutations in genes that affect the lungs and can include cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia.
4. Environmental diseases: These are caused by exposure to harmful substances such as tobacco smoke, air pollution, and asbestos.
5. Radiological diseases: These are caused by exposure to ionizing radiation and can include conditions such as radiographic breast cancer and lung cancer.
6. Vascular diseases: These are caused by problems with the blood vessels in the lungs and can include conditions such as pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension.
7. Tumors: These can be benign or malignant and can include conditions such as lung metastases and lung cancer.
8. Trauma: This can include injuries to the chest or lungs caused by accidents or other forms of trauma.
9. Congenital diseases: These are present at birth and can include conditions such as bronchopulmonary foregut malformations and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation.

Each type of lung disease has its own set of symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe respiratory symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.

Early Postmortem Changes:

1. Cessation of metabolic processes: After death, the body's metabolic processes come to a standstill, leading to a decrease in body temperature, cellular respiration, and other physiological functions.
2. Decline in blood pressure: The heart stops pumping blood, causing a rapid decline in blood pressure.
3. Cardiac arrest: The heart stops beating, leading to a lack of oxygen supply to the body's tissues.
4. Brain death: The brain ceases to function, causing a loss of consciousness and reflexes.
5. Rigor mortis: The muscles become stiff and rigid due to the buildup of lactic acid and other metabolic byproducts.
6. Livor mortis: Blood settles in the dependent parts of the body, causing discoloration and swelling.
7. Algor mortis: The body's temperature cools, causing the skin to feel cool to the touch.

Late Postmortem Changes:

1. Decomposition: Bacteria and other microorganisms begin to break down the body's tissues, leading to putrefaction and decay.
2. Autolysis: Enzymes within the body's cells break down cellular components, causing self-digestion and softening of the tissues.
3. Lipid decomposition: Fats and oils in the body undergo oxidation, leading to the formation of offensive odors.
4. Coagulative necrosis: Blood pools in the body's tissues, causing damage to the cells and tissues.
5. Putrefaction: Bacteria in the gut and other parts of the body cause the breakdown of tissues, leading to the formation of gases and fluids.

It is important to note that postmortem changes can significantly impact the interpretation of autopsy findings and the determination of cause of death. Therefore, it is essential to consider these changes when performing an autopsy and interpreting the results.

There are several subtypes of lymphoma, B-cell, including:

1. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL): This is the most common type of B-cell lymphoma and typically affects older adults.
2. Follicular lymphoma: This type of lymphoma grows slowly and often does not require treatment for several years.
3. Marginal zone lymphoma: This type of lymphoma develops in the marginal zone of the spleen or other lymphoid tissues.
4. Hodgkin lymphoma: This is a type of B-cell lymphoma that is characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells, which are abnormal cells that can be identified under a microscope.

The symptoms of lymphoma, B-cell can vary depending on the subtype and the location of the tumor. Common symptoms include swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, fever, night sweats, and weight loss.

Treatment for lymphoma, B-cell usually involves chemotherapy, which is a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy may also be used in some cases. In some cases, bone marrow or stem cell transplantation may be recommended.

Prognosis for lymphoma, B-cell depends on the subtype and the stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis. In general, the prognosis is good for patients with early-stage disease, but the cancer can be more difficult to treat if it has spread to other parts of the body.

Prevention of lymphoma, B-cell is not possible, as the exact cause of the disease is not known. However, avoiding exposure to certain risk factors, such as viral infections and pesticides, may help reduce the risk of developing the disease. Early detection and treatment can also improve outcomes for patients with lymphoma, B-cell.

Lymphoma, B-cell is a type of cancer that affects the immune system and can be treated with chemotherapy and other therapies. The prognosis varies depending on the subtype and stage of the disease at diagnosis. Prevention is not possible, but early detection and treatment can improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

Liver neoplasms, also known as liver tumors or hepatic tumors, are abnormal growths of tissue in the liver. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant liver tumors can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or metastatic, meaning they spread to the liver from another part of the body.

There are several types of liver neoplasms, including:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and arises from the main cells of the liver (hepatocytes). HCC is often associated with cirrhosis and can be caused by viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer arises from the cells lining the bile ducts within the liver (cholangiocytes). Cholangiocarcinoma is rare and often diagnosed at an advanced stage.
3. Hemangiosarcoma: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the blood vessels of the liver. It is most commonly seen in dogs but can also occur in humans.
4. Fibromas: These are benign tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the liver (fibrocytes). Fibromas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
5. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells of the liver (hepatocytes). Adenomas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.

The symptoms of liver neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and whether they are benign or malignant. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment options for liver neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery may be an option for some patients with small, localized tumors, while others may require chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the tumor before surgery can be performed. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.

Prognosis for liver neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the cancer. In general, early detection and treatment improve the prognosis, while advanced-stage disease is associated with a poorer prognosis.

Explanation: Genetic predisposition to disease is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of inherited genetic mutations or variations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The likelihood of developing a particular disease can be increased by inherited genetic mutations that affect the functioning of specific genes or biological pathways. For example, inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

The expression of genetic predisposition to disease can vary widely, and not all individuals with a genetic predisposition will develop the disease. Additionally, many factors can influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and other health conditions.

Inheritance patterns: Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or multifactorial pattern, depending on the specific disease and the genetic mutations involved. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disease, while autosomal recessive inheritance requires two copies of the mutated gene. Multifactorial inheritance involves multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to the development of the disease.

Examples of diseases with a known genetic predisposition:

1. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
2. Cystic fibrosis: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to respiratory and digestive problems.
3. BRCA1/2-related breast and ovarian cancer: An inherited increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
4. Sickle cell anemia: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene, leading to defective hemoglobin production and red blood cell sickling.
5. Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including multiple genes in the HLA complex.

Understanding the genetic basis of disease can help with early detection, prevention, and treatment. For example, genetic testing can identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the genetic basis of a disease can inform the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine."


Synonyms: BCC, basalioma.

Note: This definition is intended for use in medical settings and may not be suitable for lay audiences. It should not be relied upon as the sole source of information for diagnosis or treatment.

There are several risk factors for developing HCC, including:

* Cirrhosis, which can be caused by heavy alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis (such as hepatitis B and C), or fatty liver disease
* Family history of liver disease
* Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
* Diabetes
* Obesity

HCC can be challenging to diagnose, as the symptoms are non-specific and can be similar to those of other conditions. However, some common symptoms of HCC include:

* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite
* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Weight loss

If HCC is suspected, a doctor may perform several tests to confirm the diagnosis, including:

* Imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, to look for tumors in the liver
* Blood tests to check for liver function and detect certain substances that are produced by the liver
* Biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue from the liver to examine under a microscope

Once HCC is diagnosed, treatment options will depend on several factors, including the stage and location of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and their personal preferences. Treatment options may include:

* Surgery to remove the tumor or parts of the liver
* Ablation, which involves destroying the cancer cells using heat or cold
* Chemoembolization, which involves injecting chemotherapy drugs into the hepatic artery to reach the cancer cells
* Targeted therapy, which uses drugs or other substances to target specific molecules that are involved in the growth and spread of the cancer

Overall, the prognosis for HCC is poor, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 20%. However, early detection and treatment can improve outcomes. It is important for individuals at high risk for HCC to be monitored regularly by a healthcare provider, and to seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms.

Benign ovarian neoplasms include:

1. Serous cystadenoma: A fluid-filled sac that develops on the surface of the ovary.
2. Mucinous cystadenoma: A tumor that is filled with mucin, a type of protein.
3. Endometrioid tumors: Tumors that are similar to endometrial tissue (the lining of the uterus).
4. Theca cell tumors: Tumors that develop in the supportive tissue of the ovary called theca cells.

Malignant ovarian neoplasms include:

1. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC): The most common type of ovarian cancer, which arises from the surface epithelium of the ovary.
2. Germ cell tumors: Tumors that develop from germ cells, which are the cells that give rise to eggs.
3. Stromal sarcomas: Tumors that develop in the supportive tissue of the ovary.

Ovarian neoplasms can cause symptoms such as pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, and abdominal swelling. They can also be detected through pelvic examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound and CT scan, and biopsy. Treatment options for ovarian neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

Neoplastic metastasis can occur in any type of cancer but are more common in solid tumors such as carcinomas (breast, lung, colon). It is important for cancer diagnosis and prognosis because metastasis indicates that the cancer has spread beyond its original site and may be more difficult to treat.

Metastases can appear at any distant location but commonly found sites include the liver, lungs, bones, brain, and lymph nodes. The presence of metastases indicates a higher stage of cancer which is associated with lower survival rates compared to localized cancer.

There are several types of melanoma, including:

1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.

The risk factors for developing melanoma include:

1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma

The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:

1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole

If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.

In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.

Source: National Cancer Institute (www.cancer.gov)

The above definition is given by the National Cancer Institute, which is an authoritative source of information on cancer and lymphoma. It provides a concise overview of follicular lymphoma, including its characteristics, diagnosis, treatment options, and prognosis. The definition includes key terms such as "slow-growing," "B cells," "lymph nodes," and "five-year survival rate," which are important to understand when discussing this type of cancer.

There are several subtypes of carcinoma, including:

1. Adenocarcinoma: This type of carcinoma originates in glandular cells, which produce fluids or mucus. Examples include breast cancer, prostate cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of carcinoma originates in squamous cells, which are found on the surface layers of skin and mucous membranes. Examples include head and neck cancers, cervical cancer, and anal cancer.
3. Basal cell carcinoma: This type of carcinoma originates in the deepest layer of skin, called the basal layer. It is the most common type of skin cancer and tends to grow slowly.
4. Neuroendocrine carcinoma: This type of carcinoma originates in cells that produce hormones and neurotransmitters. Examples include lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and thyroid cancer.
5. Small cell carcinoma: This type of carcinoma is a highly aggressive form of lung cancer that spreads quickly to other parts of the body.

The signs and symptoms of carcinoma depend on the location and stage of the cancer. Some common symptoms include:

* A lump or mass
* Pain
* Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the color or texture of the skin
* Changes in bowel or bladder habits
* Abnormal bleeding

The diagnosis of carcinoma typically involves a combination of imaging tests, such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope. Treatment options for carcinoma depend on the location and stage of the cancer and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these.

In conclusion, carcinoma is a type of cancer that originates in epithelial cells and can occur in various parts of the body. Early detection and treatment are important for improving outcomes.

References:

1. American Cancer Society. (2022). Carcinoma. Retrieved from
2. Mayo Clinic. (2022). Carcinoma. Retrieved from
3. MedlinePlus. (2022). Carcinoma. Retrieved from

There are several types of chromosome aberrations, including:

1. Chromosomal deletions: Loss of a portion of a chromosome.
2. Chromosomal duplications: Extra copies of a chromosome or a portion of a chromosome.
3. Chromosomal translocations: A change in the position of a chromosome or a portion of a chromosome.
4. Chromosomal inversions: A reversal of a segment of a chromosome.
5. Chromosomal amplifications: An increase in the number of copies of a particular chromosome or gene.

Chromosome aberrations can be detected through various techniques, such as karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), or array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). These tests can help identify changes in the chromosomal makeup of cells and provide information about the underlying genetic causes of disease.

Chromosome aberrations are associated with a wide range of diseases, including:

1. Cancer: Chromosome abnormalities are common in cancer cells and can contribute to the development and progression of cancer.
2. Birth defects: Many birth defects are caused by chromosome abnormalities, such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21), which is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.
3. Neurological disorders: Chromosome aberrations have been linked to various neurological disorders, including autism and intellectual disability.
4. Immunodeficiency diseases: Some immunodeficiency diseases, such as X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), are caused by chromosome abnormalities.
5. Infectious diseases: Chromosome aberrations can increase the risk of infection with certain viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
6. Ageing: Chromosome aberrations have been linked to the ageing process and may contribute to the development of age-related diseases.
7. Radiation exposure: Exposure to radiation can cause chromosome abnormalities, which can increase the risk of cancer and other diseases.
8. Genetic disorders: Many genetic disorders are caused by chromosome aberrations, such as Turner syndrome (45,X), which is caused by a missing X chromosome.
9. Rare diseases: Chromosome aberrations can cause rare diseases, such as Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), which is caused by an extra copy of the X chromosome.
10. Infertility: Chromosome abnormalities can contribute to infertility in both men and women.

Understanding the causes and consequences of chromosome aberrations is important for developing effective treatments and improving human health.

Symptoms of Kidney Neoplasms can include blood in the urine, pain in the flank or abdomen, weight loss, fever, and fatigue. Diagnosis is made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT scans or ultrasound, and tissue biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the type and stage of the neoplasm, but may include surgery, ablation therapy, targeted therapy, or chemotherapy.

It is important for individuals with a history of Kidney Neoplasms to follow up with their healthcare provider regularly for monitoring and check-ups to ensure early detection of any recurrences or new tumors.

There are several different types of leukemia, including:

1. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): This is the most common type of leukemia in children, but it can also occur in adults. It is characterized by an overproduction of immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts.
2. Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): This type of leukemia affects the bone marrow's ability to produce red blood cells, platelets, and other white blood cells. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults.
3. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): This type of leukemia affects older adults and is characterized by the slow growth of abnormal white blood cells called lymphocytes.
4. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): This type of leukemia is caused by a genetic mutation in a gene called BCR-ABL. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults.
5. Hairy Cell Leukemia: This is a rare type of leukemia that affects older adults and is characterized by the presence of abnormal white blood cells called hairy cells.
6. Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS): This is a group of disorders that occur when the bone marrow is unable to produce healthy blood cells. It can lead to leukemia if left untreated.

Treatment for leukemia depends on the type and severity of the disease, but may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, or stem cell transplantation.

There are several types of colonic neoplasms, including:

1. Adenomas: These are benign growths that are usually precursors to colorectal cancer.
2. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from the epithelial lining of the colon.
3. Sarcomas: These are rare malignant tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the colon.
4. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system that can affect the colon.

Colonic neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including bleeding, abdominal pain, and changes in bowel habits. They are often diagnosed through a combination of medical imaging tests (such as colonoscopy or CT scan) and biopsy. Treatment for colonic neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.

Overall, colonic neoplasms are a common condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is important for individuals to be aware of their risk factors and to undergo regular screening for colon cancer to help detect and treat any abnormal growths or tumors in the colon.

AML is a fast-growing and aggressive form of leukemia that can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream. It is most commonly seen in adults over the age of 60, but it can also occur in children.

There are several subtypes of AML, including:

1. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL): This is a subtype of AML that is characterized by the presence of a specific genetic abnormality called the PML-RARA fusion gene. It is usually responsive to treatment with chemotherapy and has a good prognosis.
2. Acute myeloid leukemia, not otherwise specified (NOS): This is the most common subtype of AML and does not have any specific genetic abnormalities. It can be more difficult to treat and has a poorer prognosis than other subtypes.
3. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML): This is a subtype of AML that is characterized by the presence of too many immature white blood cells called monocytes in the blood and bone marrow. It can progress slowly over time and may require ongoing treatment.
4. Juvenile myeloid leukemia (JMML): This is a rare subtype of AML that occurs in children under the age of 18. It is characterized by the presence of too many immature white blood cells called blasts in the blood and bone marrow.

The symptoms of AML can vary depending on the subtype and the severity of the disease, but they may include:

* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Shortness of breath
* Pale skin
* Easy bruising or bleeding
* Swollen lymph nodes, liver, or spleen
* Bone pain
* Headache
* Confusion or seizures

AML is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:

1. Complete blood count (CBC): This test measures the number and types of cells in the blood, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
2. Bone marrow biopsy: This test involves removing a small sample of bone marrow tissue from the hipbone or breastbone to examine under a microscope for signs of leukemia cells.
3. Genetic testing: This test can help identify specific genetic abnormalities that are associated with AML.
4. Immunophenotyping: This test uses antibodies to identify the surface proteins on leukemia cells, which can help diagnose the subtype of AML.
5. Cytogenetics: This test involves staining the bone marrow cells with dyes to look for specific changes in the chromosomes that are associated with AML.

Treatment for AML typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and in some cases, bone marrow transplantation. The specific treatment plan will depend on the subtype of AML, the patient's age and overall health, and other factors. Some common treatments for AML include:

1. Chemotherapy: This involves using drugs to kill cancer cells. The most commonly used chemotherapy drugs for AML are cytarabine (Ara-C) and anthracyclines such as daunorubicin (DaunoXome) and idarubicin (Idamycin).
2. Targeted therapy: This involves using drugs that specifically target the genetic abnormalities that are causing the cancer. Examples of targeted therapies used for AML include midostaurin (Rydapt) and gilteritinib (Xospata).
3. Bone marrow transplantation: This involves replacing the diseased bone marrow with healthy bone marrow from a donor. This is typically done after high-dose chemotherapy to destroy the cancer cells.
4. Supportive care: This includes treatments to manage symptoms and side effects of the disease and its treatment, such as anemia, infection, and bleeding. Examples of supportive care for AML include blood transfusions, antibiotics, and platelet transfusions.
5. Clinical trials: These are research studies that involve testing new treatments for AML. Participating in a clinical trial may give patients access to innovative therapies that are not yet widely available.

It's important to note that the treatment plan for AML is highly individualized, and the specific treatments used will depend on the patient's age, overall health, and other factors. Patients should work closely with their healthcare team to determine the best course of treatment for their specific needs.

In LLCB, the B cells undergo a mutation that causes them to become cancerous and multiply rapidly. This can lead to an overproduction of these cells in the bone marrow, causing the bone marrow to become crowded and unable to produce healthy red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells.

LLCB is typically a slow-growing cancer, and it can take years for symptoms to develop. However, as the cancer progresses, it can lead to a range of symptoms including fatigue, weakness, weight loss, fever, night sweats, and swollen lymph nodes.

LLCB is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, bone marrow biopsy, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment options for LLCB include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and in some cases, stem cell transplantation.

Overall, while LLCB is a serious condition, it is typically slow-growing and can be managed with appropriate treatment. With current treatments, many people with LLCB can achieve long-term remission and a good quality of life.

Neoplasms, unknown primary can occur in any organ or tissue in the body and can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender. The symptoms and treatment options for these types of neoplasms depend on the location and size of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history.

Some common types of neoplasms, unknown primary include:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that originate in the skin or organs.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that originate in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, such as Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow.

The diagnosis of a neoplasm, unknown primary is typically made through a combination of imaging tests, such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue from the tumor for examination under a microscope. Treatment options for these types of neoplasms can include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these methods.

It is important to note that not all neoplasms, unknown primary are cancerous, and some may be benign but still require treatment to remove the tumor. In some cases, the tumor may be monitored with regular check-ups and imaging tests to ensure that it does not grow or spread.

Overall, the prognosis for neoplasms, unknown primary depends on several factors, including the type of tumor, its size and location, and the effectiveness of treatment. In general, early detection and prompt treatment can improve outcomes for these types of conditions.

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the most common type of malignant pancreatic neoplasm and accounts for approximately 85% of all pancreatic cancers. It originates in the glandular tissue of the pancreas and has a poor prognosis, with a five-year survival rate of less than 10%.

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are less common but more treatable than pancreatic adenocarcinoma. These tumors originate in the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas and can produce excess hormones that cause a variety of symptoms, such as diabetes or high blood sugar. PNETs are classified into two main types: functional and non-functional. Functional PNETs produce excess hormones and are more aggressive than non-functional tumors.

Other rare types of pancreatic neoplasms include acinar cell carcinoma, ampullary cancer, and oncocytic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. These tumors are less common than pancreatic adenocarcinoma and PNETs but can be equally aggressive and difficult to treat.

The symptoms of pancreatic neoplasms vary depending on the type and location of the tumor, but they often include abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice, and fatigue. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, endoscopic ultrasound, and biopsy. Treatment options for pancreatic neoplasms depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.

Prognosis for patients with pancreatic neoplasms is generally poor, especially for those with advanced stages of disease. However, early detection and treatment can improve survival rates. Research into the causes and mechanisms of pancreatic neoplasms is ongoing, with a focus on developing new and more effective treatments for these devastating diseases.




The prognosis for mantle-cell lymphoma is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of approximately 40%. Treatment options include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and autologous stem-cell transplantation. The disease often recurs after initial therapy, and subsequent treatments may be less effective.

Mantle-cell lymphoma can be difficult to distinguish from other types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, such as follicular lymphoma or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and a correct diagnosis is important for determining appropriate treatment.

Slide: Mantle Cell Lymphoma (Image courtesy of Nephron/Wikimedia Commons)

SCC typically appears as a firm, flat, or raised bump on the skin, and may be pink, red, or scaly. The cancer cells are usually well-differentiated, meaning they resemble normal squamous cells, but they can grow rapidly and invade surrounding tissues if left untreated.

SCC is more common in fair-skinned individuals and those who spend a lot of time in the sun, as UV radiation can damage the skin cells and increase the risk of cancer. The cancer can also spread to other parts of the body, such as lymph nodes or organs, and can be life-threatening if not treated promptly and effectively.

Treatment for SCC usually involves surgery to remove the cancerous tissue, and may also include radiation therapy or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. Early detection and treatment are important to improve outcomes for patients with SCC.

There are several subtypes of RCC, including clear cell, papillary, chromophobe, and collecting duct carcinoma. The most common subtype is clear cell RCC, which accounts for approximately 70-80% of all RCC cases.

RCC can be difficult to diagnose as it may not cause any symptoms in its early stages. However, some common symptoms of RCC include blood in the urine (hematuria), pain in the flank or abdomen, weight loss, and fatigue. RCC is typically diagnosed through a combination of imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) scans, along with a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment for RCC depends on the stage and location of the cancer. Surgery is the primary treatment for localized RCC, and may involve a partial or complete nephrectomy (removal of the affected kidney). For more advanced cases, treatment may involve a combination of surgery and systemic therapies such as targeted therapy or immunotherapy. Targeted therapy drugs, such as sunitinib and pazopanib, work by blocking specific molecules that promote the growth and spread of cancer cells. Immunotherapy drugs, such as checkpoint inhibitors, work by stimulating the body's immune system to attack cancer cells.

The prognosis for RCC is generally good if the cancer is detected early and treated promptly. However, the cancer can be aggressive and may spread to other parts of the body (metastasize) if left untreated. The 5-year survival rate for RCC is about 73% for patients with localized disease, but it drops to about 12% for those with distant metastases.

There are several risk factors for developing RCC, including:

* Age: RCC is more common in people over the age of 50.
* Gender: Men are slightly more likely to develop RCC than women.
* Family history: People with a family history of RCC or other kidney diseases may be at increased risk.
* Chronic kidney disease: Patients with chronic kidney disease are at higher risk for developing RCC.
* Hypertension: High blood pressure is a common risk factor for RCC.
* Smoking: Smoking may increase the risk of developing RCC.
* Obesity: Being overweight or obese may increase the risk of developing RCC.

There are several complications associated with RCC, including:

* Metastasis: RCC can spread to other parts of the body, such as the lymph nodes, liver, and bones.
* Hematuria: Blood in the urine is a common complication of RCC.
* Pain: RCC can cause pain in the flank or abdomen.
* Fatigue: RCC can cause fatigue and weakness.
* Weight loss: RCC can cause weight loss and loss of appetite.

There are several treatment options for RCC, including:

* Surgery: Surgery is often the first line of treatment for RCC that is localized and has not spread to other parts of the body.
* Ablation: Ablation therapies, such as cryotherapy or radiofrequency ablation, can be used to destroy the tumor.
* Targeted therapy: Targeted therapies, such as sunitinib or pazopanib, can be used to slow the growth of the tumor.
* Immunotherapy: Immunotherapies, such as checkpoint inhibitors, can be used to stimulate the immune system to attack the tumor.
* Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used in combination with other treatments or as a last resort for patients with advanced RCC.

The prognosis for RCC varies depending on the stage and location of the cancer, but in general, the earlier the cancer is detected and treated, the better the outcome. According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for RCC is about 73% for patients with localized disease (cancer that has not spread beyond the kidney) and about 12% for patients with distant disease (cancer that has spread to other parts of the body).

There are several subtypes of liposarcoma, including:

1. Well-differentiated liposarcoma (WDLS): This is the most common type of liposarcoma and tends to grow slowly.
2. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLS): This type of liposarcoma grows more quickly than WDLS and can be more aggressive.
3. Myxoid liposarcoma: This is a rare subtype that tends to grow slowly and has a good prognosis.
4. Pleomorphic liposarcoma: This is the most aggressive type of liposarcoma and can be difficult to treat.

The exact cause of liposarcoma is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations that occur in the fat cells. Risk factors for developing liposarcoma include a family history of the condition, previous radiation exposure, and certain inherited conditions such as neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) or Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

Symptoms of liposarcoma may include a soft tissue mass, pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected area. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, as well as a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment for liposarcoma depends on the size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery is the primary treatment, and may involve removing the tumor and some surrounding tissue. In some cases, radiation therapy or chemotherapy may also be used to shrink the tumor before surgery or to kill any remaining cancer cells after surgery. The prognosis for liposarcoma varies depending on the subtype and stage of the cancer, but in general, the earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the outlook.

Uveal neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including blurred vision, flashes of light, floaters, and eye pain. These tumors can also cause inflammation and swelling in the eye, which can lead to glaucoma or other complications.

Diagnosis of uveal neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound and MRI, and biopsy. Treatment options for uveal neoplasms depend on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the severity of the disease. Surgery is often the first line of treatment for these tumors, and may involve removal of the affected tissue or the entire eye. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy may also be used in some cases.

Overall, uveal neoplasms are serious conditions that can have a significant impact on vision and eye health. Early diagnosis and treatment are key to improving outcomes for patients with these tumors.

The term "serous" refers to the fact that the tumor produces a fluid-filled cyst, which typically contains a clear, serous (watery) liquid. The cancer cells are typically found in the outer layer of the ovary, near the surface of the organ.

Cystadenocarcinoma, serous is the most common type of ovarian cancer, accounting for about 50-60% of all cases. It is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, as it can be difficult to detect in its early stages. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel or bladder habits.

Treatment for cystadenocarcinoma, serous usually involves a combination of surgery and chemotherapy. Surgery may involve removing the uterus, ovaries, and other affected tissues, followed by chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. In some cases, radiation therapy may also be used.

Prognosis for cystadenocarcinoma, serous varies depending on the stage of the cancer at diagnosis. Women with early-stage disease have a good prognosis, while those with advanced-stage disease have a poorer outlook. However, overall survival rates have improved in recent years due to advances in treatment and screening.

In summary, cystadenocarcinoma, serous is a type of ovarian cancer that originates in the lining of the ovary and grows slowly over time. It can be difficult to detect in its early stages, but treatment typically involves surgery and chemotherapy. Prognosis varies depending on the stage of the cancer at diagnosis.

The symptoms of DMD typically become apparent in early childhood and progress rapidly. They include:

* Delayed motor development
* Weakness and wasting of muscles, particularly in the legs and pelvis
* Muscle weakness that worsens over time
* Loss of muscle mass and fatigue
* Difficulty walking, running, or standing
* Heart problems, such as cardiomyopathy and arrhythmias
* Respiratory difficulties, such as breathing problems and pneumonia

DMD is diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, muscle biopsy, and genetic testing. Treatment options are limited and focus on managing symptoms and improving quality of life. These may include:

* Physical therapy to maintain muscle strength and function
* Medications to manage pain, spasms, and other symptoms
* Assistive devices, such as braces and wheelchairs, to improve mobility and independence
* Respiratory support, such as ventilation assistance, to manage breathing difficulties

The progression of DMD is highly variable, with some individuals experiencing a more rapid decline in muscle function than others. The average life expectancy for individuals with DMD is approximately 25-30 years, although some may live into their 40s or 50s with appropriate medical care and support.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a devastating and debilitating condition that affects thousands of individuals worldwide. While there is currently no cure for the disorder, ongoing research and advancements in gene therapy and other treatments offer hope for improving the lives of those affected by DMD.

Brain neoplasms can arise from various types of cells in the brain, including glial cells (such as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), neurons, and vascular tissues. The symptoms of brain neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and type, but may include headaches, seizures, weakness or numbness in the limbs, and changes in personality or cognitive function.

There are several different types of brain neoplasms, including:

1. Meningiomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the meninges, the thin layers of tissue that cover the brain and spinal cord.
2. Gliomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from glial cells in the brain. The most common type of glioma is a glioblastoma, which is aggressive and hard to treat.
3. Pineal parenchymal tumors: These are rare tumors that arise in the pineal gland, a small endocrine gland in the brain.
4. Craniopharyngiomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the epithelial cells of the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus.
5. Medulloblastomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the cerebellum, specifically in the medulla oblongata. They are most common in children.
6. Acoustic neurinomas: These are benign tumors that arise on the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain.
7. Oligodendrogliomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from oligodendrocytes, the cells that produce the fatty substance called myelin that insulates nerve fibers.
8. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system that can arise in the brain and spinal cord. The most common type of lymphoma in the CNS is primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma, which is usually a type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
9. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that have spread to the brain from another part of the body. The most common types of metastatic tumors in the CNS are breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma.

These are just a few examples of the many types of brain and spinal cord tumors that can occur. Each type of tumor has its own unique characteristics, such as its location, size, growth rate, and biological behavior. These factors can help doctors determine the best course of treatment for each patient.

The exact cause of leiomyosarcoma is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations that occur in the smooth muscle cells. It can occur at any age, but it is more common in women, especially after menopause.

Symptoms of leiomyosarcoma may include:

* Abnormal bleeding or discharge from the uterus or cervix
* Pelvic pain or discomfort
* A mass or lump in the abdomen or pelvis
* Weakness, fatigue, or fever

If leiomyosarcoma is suspected, a healthcare provider may perform a variety of tests to confirm the diagnosis, including:

* Pelvic examination and imaging tests, such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scan, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the tumor.
* Biopsy, where a sample of tissue is removed from the suspected tumor and examined under a microscope for cancer cells.

Treatment options for leiomyosarcoma depend on the location, size, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Surgery is often the primary treatment, and may involve removing the uterus, cervix, or other affected organs. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy may also be used to kill any remaining cancer cells.

Overall, leiomyosarcoma is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that requires prompt medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. With proper treatment, many people with leiomyosarcoma can achieve long-term survival and a good quality of life.

Examples of mammary neoplasms in animals include:

* Mammary adenocarcinoma: A type of tumor that develops in the mammary gland of animals and is characterized by the growth of abnormal cells that produce milk.
* Mammary fibroadenoma: A benign tumor that develops in the mammary gland of animals and is characterized by the growth of fibrous and glandular tissue.
* Inflammatory mammary carcinoma: A type of tumor that develops in the mammary gland of animals and is characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells and abnormal cells.

These tumors can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, hormonal imbalances, and exposure to certain environmental agents. They can also be induced experimentally using chemical carcinogens or viruses.

The study of mammary neoplasms in animals is important for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying breast cancer development and progression, as well as for identifying potential therapeutic targets and developing new treatments.

There are several types of skin neoplasms, including:

1. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC): This is the most common type of skin cancer, and it usually appears as a small, fleshy bump or a flat, scaly patch. BCC is highly treatable, but if left untreated, it can grow and invade surrounding tissue.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): This type of skin cancer is less common than BCC but more aggressive. It typically appears as a firm, flat, or raised bump on sun-exposed areas. SCC can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
3. Melanoma: This is the most serious type of skin cancer, accounting for only 1% of all skin neoplasms but responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. Melanoma can appear as a new or changing mole, and it's essential to recognize the ABCDE signs (Asymmetry, Border irregularity, Color variation, Diameter >6mm, Evolving size, shape, or color) to detect it early.
4. Sebaceous gland carcinoma: This rare type of skin cancer originates in the oil-producing glands of the skin and can appear as a firm, painless nodule on the forehead, nose, or other oily areas.
5. Merkel cell carcinoma: This is a rare and aggressive skin cancer that typically appears as a firm, shiny bump on the skin. It's more common in older adults and those with a history of sun exposure.
6. Cutaneous lymphoma: This type of cancer affects the immune system and can appear as a rash, nodules, or tumors on the skin.
7. Kaposi sarcoma: This is a rare type of skin cancer that affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS. It typically appears as a flat, red or purple lesion on the skin.

While skin cancers are generally curable when detected early, it's important to be aware of your skin and notice any changes or unusual spots, especially if you have a history of sun exposure or other risk factors. If you suspect anything suspicious, see a dermatologist for an evaluation and potential biopsy. Remember, prevention is key to avoiding the harmful effects of UV radiation and reducing your risk of developing skin cancer.

... in cancer Spatiotemporal gene expression Transcriptomics Splice variant analysis "Microarrays ... gene expression profiling is the measurement of the activity (the expression) of thousands of genes at once, to create a global ... Gene expression profiling may become an important diagnostic test. The human genome contains on the order of 25,000 genes which ... Therefore, an expression profile allows one to deduce a cell's type, state, environment, and so forth. Expression profiling ...
... the majority of cells within a tumor will share a common profile of gene expression. Gene expression profiling is a technique ... Gene expression profiling is a technique used in molecular biology to query the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously ... gene expression profiling has been used to more accurately classify tumors. The information derived from gene expression ... This allows for reliable identification of tumor type based on gene expression. A more powerful result of gene expression ...
Leach, Martin (2004). "Gene Expression Informatics". Gene Expression Profiling. Methods in Molecular Biology. Vol. 258. pp. 153 ... GeneSweep or Gene Sweepstake was a sweepstake and scientific wager for scientists to bet on the total number of genes in the ... Wade, Nicholas (2003). "Gene Sweepstakes Ends, but Winner May Well Be Wrong". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved ... Birney noted that, though the exact number was still unknown, there was no doubt that the number of human genes was much less ...
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Although these gene-expression profiles look at different individual genes, they seem to classify a given tumor into similar ... October 2005). "Gene expression profiles in paraffin-embedded core biopsy tissue predict response to chemotherapy in women with ... When specific DNA mutations or gene expression profiles are identified in the cancer cells this may guide the selection of ... This remains the most common method of testing for receptor status, but DNA multi-gene expression profiles can categorize ...
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... expression profiling of stress responsive genes. Currently, he is a Professor Emeritus, School of Life Sciences, University of ... His research interests are: capturing differentially expressed genes during drought stress, cloning and functional analysis of ... promoter regions of target genes of drought response; isolation and characterization of family of drought responsive ...
Gheith OA (2011). "Gene expression profiling in organ transplantation". International Journal of Nephrology. 2011: 180201. doi: ... Cellular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of immune cells radiolabeled in vivo might-similarly to Gene Expression Profiling ( ... Bagley J, Iacomini J (April 2003). "Gene therapy progress and prospects: gene therapy in organ transplantation". Gene Therapy. ... Gene therapy is another method that can be used. In this method, the genes that cause the body to reject transplants would be ...
"NHLRC2". Gene Expression Omnibus. Retrieved 4 Apr 2015. "NHLRC2". UniGene EST Profiles. Retrieved 4 Apr 2015. "BLAST". NCBI ... NCBI GEO Profiles detailed several conditions under which NHLRC2 expression is increase in comparison to base expression levels ... According to NCBI GEO microarray expression patterns, as well as UniGene's Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) profiles, NHLRC2 is ... The full gene spans 62,533 base pairs (bp). Eleven exons are transcribe in the protein-coding mRNA.[failed verification] There ...
... regulation of gene expression, protein structure and function; and analytical biochemistry. Her honors include a DuPont Young ... Profiles in Biophysics. Academic Tree. NIH Milestones. IPST People. Publications. (BLP articles lacking sources from May 2021, ...
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"NCBI Gene KIAA1107". Retrieved 2016-05-08. "NCBI EST Profile KIAA1107". Retrieved 2016-05-08. "BioGPS KIAA1107 Gene Expression ... KIAA1107 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIAA1107 gene. KIAA1107 is a Serine-rich protein, whose expression was ... while in the diseased sample it was expressed higher than almost any other gene (95th-98th percentile of expression). Orthologs ... Genes on human chromosome, All stub articles, Human chromosome 1 gene stubs). ...
"High glucose-altered gene expression in mesangial cells. Actin-regulatory protein gene expression is triggered by oxidative ... ". "NCBI PRR12 Gene". "Genomatix Tools: El Dorado". "NCBI GeoProfiles db; QSER1 GDS596". "NCBI EST Profile db; QSER1". Clarkson ... This condition was studied as differential expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation had been noted in these cells ... "ExPASy SUMOplot". Dombroski BA, Nayak RR, Ewens KG, Ankener W, Cheung VG, Spielman RS (May 2010). "Gene expression and genetic ...
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Warden, A (2017). "Gene expression profiling in the human alcoholic brain". Neuropharmacology. 122: 161-174. doi:10.1016/j. ... Differences in DNA, gene expression, and gene-environment interactions help explain the differences between the function of the ... and some 400 of these genes are brain-specific. The data that has been provided on gene expression in the brain has fuelled ... Changes in gene expression alter the levels of proteins in various neural pathways and this has been shown to be evident in ...
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Forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization were used to generate profiles of gene over and under expression, and ... This allows for significantly expanded gene expression profiling. Arrays may be purchased from commercial suppliers tailored to ... Protocol for differential display, reverse northern and qPCR analysis of expression screening of gene expression difference ... Gene expression Northern blot RNA Seq Southern blot Primrose, Sandy B.; Twyman, Richard (2009-04-01). Principles of Genome ...
Tarca AL, Romero R, Draghici S (August 2006). "Analysis of microarray experiments of gene expression profiling". American ... The procedure is commonly used to study when and how much gene expression is occurring by measuring how much of that RNA is ... Also, one can measure what genes are expressed and how that expression changes with time or with other factors. There are many ... A variation of this technique allows the gene expression of an organism at a particular stage in development to be qualified ( ...
Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) Profiles. "Large-scale analysis of the human transcriptome (HG-U133A)". https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. ... Only one other gene in the study had the same trend of increased expression in lower protein diets in both groups: THOC4. THOC4 ... In a study that looked at differences in expression levels of certain genes (including FAM98A) in both young and old men with ... According to Aceview, FAM98A is expressed at 3.9 times the expression of the average gene. Eleven transcripts have been ...
"Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) Profile For GDS3834". National Center For Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Retrieved 9 May 2016 ... "Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) Profile". National Center For Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 6 May 2016. "c10orf35". The ... This gene is located at locus 10q22.1. The physical properties of the c10orf35 protein were analyzed, and the molecular weight ... Chromosome 10 open reading frame 35 (c10orf35) is a gene that in humans, encodes for a protein-binding, transmembrane protein. ...
Lakhotia's researches are focused on cytogenetics, gene expression, cell and developmental biology. He carried out pioneering ... "Brief Profile of the Awardee". Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize. 2016. Retrieved 28 September 2016. "Indian Fellow - Lakhotia". ... In 2019, he was awarded the SERB Distinguished Fellowship (2019). Gene expression India portal Biology portal "Distinguished ... "Fellow profile - Indian Academy of Sciences". Indian Academy of Sciences. 2016. Retrieved 30 September 2016. "NASI fellows". ...
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"Paul Salomon Mischel's Profile , Stanford Profiles". profiles.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2021-04-15. "Paul Mischel , ChEM-H". ... "Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations and Gene Fusions in Cancer". cgap.nci.nih.gov. Retrieved 2018-11-27. Nathanson, ... "Circular ecDNA promotes accessible chromatin and high oncogene expression". Nature. 575 (7784): 699-703. Bibcode:2019Natur.575 ... Fikes, Bradley J. (9 February 2017). "Cancer genes hide outside chromosomes". sandiegouniontribune.com. Retrieved 2019-01-31. " ...
"Both gene expression for orotate phosphoribosyltransferase and its ratio to dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase influence outcome ... functional expression, characterization of kinetic reaction mechanism and inhibition profile". Molecular and Biochemical ... Gene. 394 (1-2): 78-86. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2007.02.009. PMID 17383832. Lin T, Suttle DP (May 1995). "UMP synthase activity ... In humans, the gene that codes for this enzyme is located on the long arm of chromosome 3 (3q13). This bifunctional enzyme has ...
Residents urged an end to the occupation as did rallies held by opponents in Eugene and Portland, Oregon, and in Idaho. On ... The event alternated between expressions of sympathy for the Hammonds and suggestions that a peaceful rally could be beneficial ... Zaitz, Les (January 5, 2016). "Militants continue occupation of Oregon refuge, police keep low profile". The Oregonian/ ... Through his lawyer, Michael Arnold of Eugene, Oregon, Ammon Bundy on January 27 urged those remaining at the refuge to stand ...
Graham, I. A.; Denby, K. J.; Leaver, C. J. (1994). "Carbon Catabolite Repression Regulates Glyoxylate Cycle Gene Expression in ... on Fellow profile pages is available under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License." --"Royal Society Terms, ... Structure and function of the cucumber malate synthase gene and expression during plant development. ethos.bl.uk (PhD thesis). ... The discovery of a 10 gene cluster responsible for the production of the anti-cancer compound noscapine in opium poppy provided ...
A functional analysis of these types of genes revealed that they often have tissue-specific expression in tissues such as the ... Furthermore, NCBI Geo profiles indicated that PANO1 is highly expressed in B-lymphocytes, liposarcomas, and the testis cell ... When PANO1 is over-expressed, as a direct result, p14ARF expression also increases. When there is an abnormal expression of ... PANO1 is an intron-less gene. Intron-less genes only make up about 3% of the human genome. ...
Dehm SM, Bonham K (April 2004). "SRC gene expression in human cancer: the role of transcriptional activation". Biochem. Cell ... Zan L, Wu H, Jiang J, Zhao S, Song Y, Teng G, Li H, Jia Y, Zhou M, Zhang X, Qi J, Wang J (2011). "Temporal profile of Src, ... a viral gene) to one where a gene that is normally present in the cell can cause cancer. It is believed that at one point an ... a novel human intracellular SRC-like tyrosine kinase-encoding gene". Gene. 138 (1-2): 247-51. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90817-6 ...
When a sequence motif appears in the exon of a gene, it may encode the "structural motif" of a protein; that is a stereotypical ... Several notations for describing motifs are in use but most of them are variants of standard notations for regular expressions ... Altarawy D, Ismail MA, Ghanem S (2009). "MProfiler: A Profile-Based Method for DNA Motif Discovery". Pattern Recognition in ... The E. coli lactose operon repressor LacI (PDB: 1lcc​ chain A) and E. coli catabolite gene activator (PDB: 3gap​ chain A) both ...
Weinstein, Eugene A.; Beckhouse, Lawrence S.; Blumstein, Philip W.; Stein, Robert B. (December 1968). "Interpersonal strategies ... While these sites may be useful to verify resume information, profiles with pictures also may reveal much more information ... Narcissists also tend to be neater and flashier dressers, display friendlier facial expressions, and exhibit more self-assured ... For example, the Multidimensional Work Ethic Profile (MWEP), is a scale demonstrated to work across many countries. However, in ...
... vaccine both of which lead to the insertion of genes into primate DNA which leads to foreign protein expression. With the ... Preliminary results indicate an excellent safety profile and highly reproducible immunogenicity subsequently confirmed by the ... Pol and Gag genes. GeoVax is currently conducting multiple site Phase 2 Human clinical trials for HIV/AIDS preventive vaccine ... GeoVax vaccine a variety of HIV proteins (both surface and internal) are expressed from genes which include the Env, ...
... mutations in the PIK3CA gene (~40% of cases), and the expression of neuroendocrine differentiation-related proteins such as the ... Clinicopathological Features and Hormone Receptor Profile". Cureus. 13 (2): e13480. doi:10.7759/cureus.13480. PMC 7989971. PMID ... ASCL1 protein encoded by the ASCL1 gene, Dok-7 protein encoded by the DOK7 gene, enolase 2 encoded by the ENOL2 gene, ... Alterations in these two genes are, similar to alterations in the PIK3CA gene, associated with the development and/or ...
... expression profile, and protein structure". Genomics. 81 (2): 234-44. doi:10.1016/S0888-7543(03)00002-8. PMID 12620401. "Entrez ... This gene encodes a protein that is related to epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (EPS8), a substrate for the ... 1999). "[Cloning and expression analyses of down-regulated cDNA C6-2A in human esophageal cancer]". Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan ... Epidermal growth factor receptor kinase substrate 8-like protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the EPS8L1 gene. ...
... expression of mRNAs from control fetuses and parthenogenetic or androgenetic fetuses hybridized to gene expression profiling ... Parthenogenetic/gynogenetic embryos have twice the normal expression level of maternally derived genes, and lack expression of ... among imprinted genes. It has also been postulated that if the retrotransposed gene is inserted close to another imprinted gene ... "Allelic expression of mammalian imprinted genes in a matrotrophic lizard, Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii". Development Genes and ...
... evidence from endocrine and gene expression studies". Arch Gen Psychiatry. 68 (9): 901-910. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry. ... "Childhood maltreatment is associated with distinct genomic and epigenetic profiles in posttraumatic stress disorder" (PDF). ... "Allele-specific FKBP5 DNA demethylation mediates gene-childhood trauma interactions". Nature Neuroscience. Nature Publishing ...
"Entrez Gene: ICOS inducible T-cell co-stimulator". Rudd CE, Schneider H (Jul 2003). "Unifying concepts in CD28, ICOS and CTLA4 ... "Modulation of TCR-induced transcriptional profiles by ligation of CD28, ICOS, and CTLA-4 receptors". Proceedings of the ... "Characterization of human inducible costimulator ligand expression and function". Journal of Immunology. 164 (9): 4689-96. doi: ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the CD28 and CTLA-4 cell-surface receptor family. It forms homodimers and plays an ...
Their main goal is to develop drugs that can re-wire gene expression in diseased cells while leaving the rest intact. "Anna ... Academic Family Tree Life Sciences Institute faculty profile Department of Chemistry Faculty Profile (Articles with short ... Mapp's research group employs synthetic tools to study biological systems to understand how genes are regulated. The group ... identifies key protein-protein interactions vital for gene activation in yeast (S. cerevisiae). ...
December 1977). "Expression in Escherichia coli of a chemically synthesized gene for the hormone somatostatin". Science. 198 ( ... Scholia has a profile for Herbert Boyer (Q354878). (Webarchive template wayback links, Articles with short description, Short ... where he discovered that genes from bacteria could be combined with genes from eukaryotes. In 1977, Boyer's laboratory and ... Boyer built his gene from its individual nucleotides. In 1990, Boyer and his wife Grace gave the single largest donation ($ ...
There are also studies that measured gene expression in synthetic genes or from one to a few genes controlled by bidirectional ... "Automated model-predictive design of synthetic promoters to control transcriptional profiles in bacteria". Nature ... Activator (genetics) Enhancer (genetics) Glossary of gene expression terms Operon Regulation of gene expression Repressor ... Promoters control gene expression in bacteria and eukaryotes. RNA polymerase must attach to DNA near a gene for transcription ...
"MicroRNA gene expression profile of hepatitis C virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma". Hepatology. 47 (4): 1223-32. doi: ... MicroRNAs function to regulate the expression levels of other genes by several mechanisms. MicroRNA Lu J, Kwan BC, Lai FM, Tam ... Sung TL, Rice AP (January 2009). Hope TJ (ed.). "miR-198 inhibits HIV-1 gene expression and replication in monocytes and its ... Carter CJ (November 2009). "Schizophrenia susceptibility genes directly implicated in the life cycles of pathogens: ...
"The mostly South Asian origins of Indian Muslims". Gene Expression. Retrieved 6 May 2015. Kashif-ul-Huda (6 May 2007). " ... During the 2002 Gujarat riots, several such ghettos became easy targets for the rioting mobs, as they enabled the profiling of ... Gene Diversity in Some Muslim Populations of North India Human Biology - Volume 77, Number 3, June 2005, pp. 343-353 - Wayne ... However, some Indian Muslims were found with detectable, traceable, minor to some levels of gene flow from outside, primarily ...
This gene encodes a highly phosphorylated nonstructural protein (NP1). ORF1 encodes a nonstructural protein (NS1) that is ... "ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Parvoviridae". Journal of General Virology. 100 (3): 367-368. doi:10.1099/jgv.0.001212. PMC ... replication and is also required for the read through of an internal polyadenylation site that is essential for expression of ...
The dolphin "smile" makes them popular attractions, as this is a welcoming facial expression in humans; however the smile is ... Zimmer, Carl (9 August 2018). "Marine Mammals Have Lost a Gene That Now They May Desperately Need". The New York Times. ... "Aquatic Species at Risk - Species Profile - Sea Otter". Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Retrieved 29 November 2007. Lepak, Jesse M ... due to a lack of facial muscles and subsequent lack of facial expressions. Organizations such as World Animal Protection and ...
MicroRNAs function to regulate the expression levels of other genes by several mechanisms. MicroRNA Huang HC, Yu HR, Huang LT, ... "Accurate prediction of neuroblastoma outcome based on miRNA expression profiles". International Journal of Cancer. 127 (10): ... Sand M, Skrygan M, Sand D, Georgas D, Hahn SA, Gambichler T, Altmeyer P, Bechara FG (October 2012). "Expression of microRNAs in ... "Deep sequencing reveals differential expression of microRNAs in favorable versus unfavorable neuroblastoma". Nucleic Acids ...
In a study by Lee et al., higher expression level of hnRNP A2/B1 and Hsp90 were observed in human hepatoma HepG2 cells than in ... With the human genome sequenced, the next step is the verification and functional annotation of all predicted genes and their ... This analysis allows researchers to profile various biological systems. Peptides that are degenerate (shared by two or more ... Shotgun proteomics allows global protein identification as well as the ability to systematically profile dynamic proteomes. It ...
Interestingly, while the expression of protein-encoding genes was stimulated by ACTH, the levels of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA ... Davis, C. Leland (1998). "Mitochondrial DNA: State of Tennessee v. Paul Ware" (PDF). Profiles in DNA. 1 (3): 6-7. Archived (PDF ... As demonstrated by the effect of the trophic hormone ACTH on adrenal cortex cells, the expression of the mitochondrial genes ... Endosymbiotic gene transfer, the process by which genes that were coded in the mitochondrial genome are transferred to the ...
... of many SARMs may also allow for the treatment of prostate cancer through the activation of AR-induced expression profiles, ... this consequentially alters surface topology which will lead to tissue-specific gene regulation. This tissue-specific ...
... based gene expression assays, as well as cell viability, cytotoxicity, and biorhythm assays based on the luminescent detection ... "Novel Bead-Based Epitope Assay is a sensitive and reliable tool for profiling epitope-specific antibody repertoire in food ...
Early examples of artistic expression, such as the Venus of Tan-Tan and the patterns found on elephant bones from Bilzingsleben ... It is thought that wild foods can have a significantly different nutritional profile than cultivated foods. The greater amount ... ISBN 978-0-8133-3936-8. Lovgren, Stefan (31 August 2005). "Chimps, Humans 96 Percent the Same, Gene Study Finds". National ...
2001). "Clustering of hepatotoxins based on mechanism of toxicity using gene expression profiles". Toxicology and Applied ...
Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock. ISBN 978-1-62564-440-4. Hind, Emily (2006). "Being Jean Franco: Mastering Reading and "Plotting ... Colombian-American translator Jaime Manrique described her poetry thus: "her love poems are expressions of a complex and ... Includes the handwritten professions of famous poet Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz Juana Inés de la Cruz profile and works on ...
Fan, Jinhong; Ngai, John (2001). "Onset of Odorant Receptor Gene Expression during Olfactory Sensory Neuron Regeneration". ... The difference in affinities causes differences in activation patterns resulting in unique odorant profiles. The activated OR ... There are approximately 1000 different genes that code for the ORs, making them the largest gene family. An odorant will ... Bieri, S.; Monastyrskaia, K; Schilling, B (2004). "Olfactory Receptor Neuron Profiling using Sandalwood Odorants". Chemical ...
... of phthalate toxicity in normal human cells and to provide information concerning inter-individual variation and gene- ... Gwinn MR, Whipkey DL, Tennant LB, Weston A [2007]. Gene expression profiling of di-n-butyl phthalate in normal human mammary ... Gene Expression Profiles of Di-n-butyl Phthalate in Normal Human Mammary Epithelial Cells. ... Data Mining Tool software (Affymetrix) was used to separate genes in clusters based on their expression patterns over time. ...
... expression profiles of genes in mammalian neural tissue. These projects may utilize existing gene profiling resources, e.g., ... This RFA, Gene Expression Profiling in the Nervous System, is related to one or more priority areas. Applicants may obtain a ... GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Release Date: November 22, 1999 RFA: MH-00-002 National Institute of Mental ... In addition, the RFA number and title, "MH-00-002: Gene Expression Profiling in the Nervous System," must be typed on line 2 of ...
To gain insight into the pathogenesis of PAPS, we have investigated the gene expression profiles that characterize periph … ... Innate immune response gene expression profiles characterize primary antiphospholipid syndrome Genes Immun. 2008 Jan;9(1):38-46 ... To gain insight into the pathogenesis of PAPS, we have investigated the gene expression profiles that characterize peripheral ... Finally, microarray analyses also revealed a reduced expression of genes coding for proteins involved in transcriptional ...
"microarray analysis"[MeSH Terms] OR "gene expression profiling"[MeSH Terms] OR Gene Expression Profiling[Text Word]. Search. ... Gene Expression Profiling. The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under ...
Service Profile for Targeted RNA Sequencing service. Get more details about our convenient, all-in-one Targeted RNA Sequencing ... Targeted approach for profiling low-abundance transcripts. Despite the advantages of next-generation sequencing (NGS), not ... Targeted approach for profiling low-abundance transcripts ...
... Review publications at Sutter Health. ... Use of gene expression profiling and chemotherapy in early-stage breast cancer: a study of linked electronic medical records, ... PURPOSE: The 21-gene recurrence score (RS) identifies patients with breast cancer who derive little benefit from chemotherapy; ...
The mRNA samples were evaluated for gene expression with the use of GeneChip® Human Gene 1.0 ST microarrays. The infants were ... expression of nearly all human genes can be reliably evaluated. ObjectiveTo compare whole genome expression in the first month ... However, the expression of genes depended on both factors: immaturity and disease severity. The most significantly down- ... ConclusionThe results of the whole genome expression study revealed alteration of the expression of nearly 10% of the genome in ...
The bioinformatics of microarray gene expression profiling John N Weinstein 1 , Uwe Scherf, Jae K Lee, Satoshi Nishizuka, Fuad ... The bioinformatics of microarray gene expression profiling John N Weinstein et al. Cytometry. 2002. . ... Li X, Quigg RJ. Li X, et al. Gene Expr. 2005;12(4-6):223-30. doi: 10.3727/000000005783991990. Gene Expr. 2005. PMID: 16355722 ... Microarray Data Analysis for Transcriptome Profiling. Sun MA, Shao X, Wang Y. Sun MA, et al. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1751:17-33 ...
Gene Expression Profiles as Markers of PTSD Risk and Resilience in WTC Responders. ... including measuring differences in whole-blood gene expression and other blood biomarkers of key neurobiological systems, an ...
Novel Cancer Types and Mechanisms Defined by Gene Expression Profiling ... Gene Expression Profiling. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell--genetics. Lymphoma--genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence ... Novel cancer types and mechanisms defined by gene expression profiling / presented by the National Human Genome Research ...
The qRT-PCR and in situ RNA hybridization results verified the key differentially expressed genes. The feature of distinct ... We showed eosinophilic CRSwNP (ECRSwNP) and noneosinophilic CRSwNP (non-ECRSwNP) display distinct transcriptome profiles. We ... performed next-generation RNA sequencing and a comprehensive bioinformatics analyses to characterize the transcriptome profiles ... Gene profiling reveals increased expression of uteroglobin and other anti-inflammatory genes in glucocorticoid-treated nasal ...
Special controls guidance to support the classification of gene expression profiling test systems for breast cancer prognosis ... A gene expression profiling test system for breast cancer prognosis is a device that measures the RNA expression level of ... A gene expression profiling test system for breast cancer prognosis is a device that measures the RNA expression level of ... and gene expression microarrays. In gene expression test systems for breast cancer prognosis, an algorithm is applied to such ...
Gene expression profile could enable rapid identification of anti-tumor immune cells for personalized immunotherapy What. ... But after years of effort, the team developed this new assay that identifies the gene expression profiles of a few rare ... have found unique expression profiles in 50 genes that help identify rare anti-tumor lymphocytes that can infiltrate and help ... To develop these profiles, a highly sensitive assay was designed that identified tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) with cell ...
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of DADS, DATS, and DTS on the gene expression profiling of human ... the occurrence or metabolism of these diseases is related to the differential expression of the above-mentioned related genes ... HSPA1B gene, FOS gene, and NCF2 gene. The gene expression change multiples are more than 3 times, and the F2RL2 gene expression ... Gene Expression Profiling. In the source data of the gene chip by DADS treatment, the expression of 3 genes changed by 5 times ...
After gene expression profiling, 6 studies [27, 29, 30, 36-38] proceeded with the identification of a prognostic gene signature ... Gene expression and survival. The 9 studies [19, 25, 27, 29, 30, 36-38, 40] that studied gene expression in association with ... Gene expression and response to chemo(radio)therapy. The 7 studies [24, 27, 28, 32, 34, 35, 39] that analyzed gene expression ... This systematic review aimed at elucidating the prognostic role of gene expression profiles and at identifying gene signatures ...
This lecture slide offers a schematic depiction of the expression of genes in Avian Sarcoma Virus. ASV has only four genes, ... Tentative Model for ASV Gene Expression Creator:. UCSF Date:. [1978] Description:. ... Profiles Collection:. The Harold Varmus Papers Shareable Link:. https://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/101584926X130. Story Section:. ... Tentative Model for ASV Gene Expression. body { margin: 0; padding: 0; overflow: hidden; } ...
Investigating Tissue- and Organ-specific Phytochrome Responses using FACS-assisted Cell-type Specific Expression Profiling in ... Investigating Tissue- and Organ-specific Phytochrome Responses using FACS-assisted Cell-type Specific Expression Profiling in ...
We showed, gene expression profiling using microarray or Real-Time PCR assay is a valuable research tool for investigation of ... Gene expression profiling in breast cancer after neoadjuvant treatment -preliminary report. Konference: 2010 6. sympózium a ... Our preliminary data showed that over-expression of caspase 14 together with under-expression of MCL1 gene correlated well with ... In contrast, the expression of BCL2-related gene MCL1 was down-regulated due to the treatment.. Conclusion: Breast cancer is a ...
This lecture slide offers a schematic depiction of the expression of genes in Avian Sarcoma Virus. ASV has only four genes, ... Tentative Model for ASV Gene Expression Creator:. UCSF Date:. [1978] Description:. ... Profiles Collection:. The Harold Varmus Papers Shareable Link:. https://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/101584926X130. Story Section:. ... Tentative Model for ASV Gene Expression. body { margin: 0; padding: 0; overflow: hidden; } ...
Expression of FGFs in PAAD (Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis). Expression of (A) FGF2, (B) FGF8, (C) FGF9, (D) ... Expression and prognostic value of the six FGF genes in PAAD. The mRNA expression levels of the six FGF genes were compared ... Prognostic value of FGFs in PAAD (Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis). Prognostic value of the mRNA expression of ( ... Red indicates high expression and blue indicates low expression (gene expression level varies from −2 to 2). (F) Survival ...
The gene expression profiles were generated using the Agilent-021193 Canine (V2) Gene Expression Microarray (GPL15379). The raw ... and normalized microarray data have been deposited with the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession number ... This article describes the genes ,2 fold up- or down-regulated in the first- and repeated-infection groups compared to the ... The gene expression profiles were generated using the Agilent-021193 Canine (V2) Gene Expression Microarray (GPL15379). The raw ...
Global profiling of gene expression at the genomic level using DNA microarrays and at the protein level using a variety of ... Studies of gene expression for several types of tumors, using DNA microarrays, have been published recently that are ... Proteomics-based profiling uniquely allows delineation of global changes in protein expression patterns resulting from ... Given that comprehensive expression profiles obtained using genomics and proteomics are highly complementary, a combined ...
Here, we applied classical survival analysis to genome-wide gene expression profiles of prostate cancers and preoperative ... Thus, our findings demonstrate that multivariable survival analysis can be applied to gene expression profiles of prostate ... Three of approximately 200 probesets showing strongest correlation with relapse were identified as the gene for the putative ... calcium channel protein, trp-p8, with loss of trp-p8 mRNA expression associated with a significantly shorter time to PSA ...
Comparative Transcriptomic Profiling and Gene Expression for Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease in the Dog and Human. ... Dive into the research topics of Comparative Transcriptomic Profiling and Gene Expression for Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease ...
Comparative Analysis between Gene Expression Profile and Genomic Profile in Adrenocortical Carcinoma Samples. Wednesday, ... Analysis of CNA was evaluated by CytoScan HD Array (Affymetrix) and gene expression was evaluated by microarray (4x44K, Agilent ... and to compare the results with global gene expression analysis. ...
Gene expression profiles and risk stratification in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. * Mendeley ...
Provenance Expression Profiling. To detect genes that evolve by natural selection among spruce species, which can serve to ... QTL and Association Studies of Resistance and Mapping of Gene Expression Profiles ... identify candidate genes for SNP association studies, we have designed and conducted an expression profiling study involving ... within-species variation of gene expression levels. Among the 21,334 clones in the spruce microarray, 42% were inferred to be ...
View the review history for Genome-wide identification and expression profile analysis of CCH gene family in Populus ... Genome-wide identification and expression profile analysis of CCH gene family in Populus All reviews of published articles are ... Anonymous Reviewer (2017) Peer Review #1 of Genome-wide identification and expression profile analysis of CCH gene family in ... Anonymous Reviewer (2017) Peer Review #2 of Genome-wide identification and expression profile analysis of CCH gene family in ...
  • The qRT-PCR and in situ RNA hybridization results verified the key differentially expressed genes. (nature.com)
  • Differentially expressed genes and gene signatures were extracted from each study and combined to construct a list of prognostic genes per outcome and histological tumor type. (oncotarget.com)
  • The studies proposed many differentially expressed genes. (oncotarget.com)
  • After normalization and statistical analysis of data, 631 differentially expressed genes were sorted into clusters based on their levels and kinetics of expression using Spotfire ® profile search and K-mean cluster analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We hypothesized RNA-Seq would reveal more differentially expressed genes (DEG) than microarray analysis, including low copy and novel transcripts related to AFB1's carcinogenic activity compared to feed controls (CTRL). (nih.gov)
  • Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified from RNA-Seq by DESeq and Cuffdiff compared to microarray. (nih.gov)
  • Such feasibility studies will permit functional analyses of mouse and human neural tissue that aim to understand genes influencing the nervous system in their full biological context. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, microarray analyses also revealed a reduced expression of genes coding for proteins involved in transcriptional control. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we performed next-generation RNA sequencing and a comprehensive bioinformatics analyses to characterize the transcriptome profiles, including mRNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), in patients with eosinophilic and noneosinophilic CRSwNP. (nature.com)
  • The Assistant for Clinical Bioinformatics database, Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis, Kaplan‑Meier plotter and Tumor Immune Estimation Resource were utilized to perform the protein‑protein interaction network, functional enrichment, univariate Cox regression, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox, differential expression, prognostic value and immune cell infiltration analyses of FGFs in patients with PAAD. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Expression analyses were done using Agilent 44 K oligoarrays, and selected genes were screened for mutations by direct sequencing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tissue gene expression analyses provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. (nih.gov)
  • But after years of effort, the team developed this new assay that identifies the gene expression profiles of a few rare lymphocytes that recognize mutated cell surface proteins of cancerous cells, thereby negating the need for a mutation-by-mutation search. (nih.gov)
  • Identifies "driver genes" by modeling the effects of genetic and epigenetic alterations to predict cancer outcomes. (nih.gov)
  • Microarray Data Analysis for Transcriptome Profiling. (nih.gov)
  • We showed eosinophilic CRSwNP (ECRSwNP) and noneosinophilic CRSwNP (non-ECRSwNP) display distinct transcriptome profiles. (nature.com)
  • National Institutes of Health researchers, led by Dr. Steven Rosenberg, MD, Ph.D., chief of the Surgery Branch at the Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute (NCI), have found unique expression profiles in 50 genes that help identify rare anti-tumor lymphocytes that can infiltrate and help defeat metastatic solid epithelial tumors. (nih.gov)
  • To develop these profiles, a highly sensitive assay was designed that identified tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) with cell surface receptors that can recognize the products of the very mutations that caused the cancer. (nih.gov)
  • We showed, gene expression profiling using microarray or Real-Time PCR assay is a valuable research tool for investigation of molecular markers and prognostic factors which may better reflect tumor biology and treatment response. (linkos.cz)
  • Our preliminary data showed that over-expression of caspase 14 together with under-expression of MCL1 gene correlated well with regression of tumor after neoadjuvant anti-EGFR chemotherapy. (linkos.cz)
  • Some of the current technologies for proteome profiling and the application of proteomics to the analysis of tumor tissues are reviewed. (nih.gov)
  • Mutations, especially nonsense mutations, in tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) are common in the development and progression of cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene transcription in each of 4 cell strains was analyzed using high-density oligonucleotide DNA microarrays (U133A, Affymetrix™) and changes in the expression of selected genes were verified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. (cdc.gov)
  • The recommendations in this document are applicable to RNA expression assays used for cancer prognosis, such as reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and gene expression microarrays. (fda.gov)
  • Global profiling of gene expression at the genomic level using DNA microarrays and at the protein level using a variety of technologies have followed separate paths. (nih.gov)
  • Studies of gene expression for several types of tumors, using DNA microarrays, have been published recently that are informative with respect to delineating distinct patterns of gene expression among subsets of related tumors. (nih.gov)
  • A conventional strategy for the identification of disease genes is to use microarrays to compare the levels of gene-specific mRNA expression between patient and control samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, more patients, more tumors, more genes have to be investigated in correlation with findings of routine histopathology and with clinical outcome before any conclusions can be made. (linkos.cz)
  • We will explore the distribution of SARS-CoV-2 and Flu reactive cells within gene expression clusters in the Barcode Enabled Antigen Mapping (BEAM) tutorial dataset and identify genes that are upregulated in these antigen reactive cells. (10xgenomics.com)
  • We have manually annotated this dataset in Loupe Browser, using gene markers (also saved with the dataset) to determine cell types. (10xgenomics.com)
  • The numbers to the right of the clonotype list are the number of cells within that V(D)J clonotype that were also found in the Gene Expression dataset. (10xgenomics.com)
  • Expression levels of 47,289 transcripts were characterized for lymphocytes in 1243 Mexican American participants in the San Antonio Family Heart Study. (edu.au)
  • NMD is a complex process in mammalian mRNA metabolism, and its function is to eliminate faulty transcripts and control the expression of normal genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Panel C. Principal component (PC) analysis was performed for all samples using the gene expression values for DEGs found by microarray and DESeq (on Cufflinks assembled transcripts) analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Test and validation of differential expression between qPCR, RNA-Seq and microarray by select transcripts. (nih.gov)
  • The mean fold changes for each group were compared in the bar chart for eight high to medium fold change transcripts and three low expression change transcripts (inset). (nih.gov)
  • Numbered Cufflinks assembled transcripts and the corresponding RefSeq (gene abbreviation) or Ensembl annotated transcripts (ENSRNOT) identifiers are displayed under the RNA-Seq tracks. (nih.gov)
  • Three of approximately 200 probesets showing strongest correlation with relapse were identified as the gene for the putative calcium channel protein, trp-p8, with loss of trp-p8 mRNA expression associated with a significantly shorter time to PSA relapse-free survival. (garvan.org.au)
  • For construction of the genetic map of white spruce for both COS markers and candidate genes for resistance and adaptation, we work with two 90-member full sib families, both of which share "PG29" as the female parent (the two male parents are different). (treenomix.ca)
  • Many of our candidate genes that we work with have SNPs that can be identified in silico from this collection, for high throughput SNP assay via the Illumina system. (treenomix.ca)
  • To detect genes that evolve by natural selection among spruce species, which can serve to identify candidate genes for SNP association studies, we have designed and conducted an expression profiling study involving seven spruce species. (treenomix.ca)
  • Overall, 16 studies reported a prognostic gene signature, which was externally validated in 10 studies. (oncotarget.com)
  • Based on the results of LASSO Cox regression analysis, a total of six genes, including FGF2, FGF8, FGF9, FGF13, FGF17 and FGF22, were selected for the establishment of the prognostic gene signature. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • the molecular functions with the highest scores affected by DTS are cancer, cell apoptosis, and cell proliferation, which imply that the occurrence or metabolism of these diseases is related to the differential expression of the above-mentioned related genes and the activation of signaling channels, and the core of the most significant molecular network is inflammation. (hindawi.com)
  • The expressional profiles were clustered, and differential expression analysis was performed on the model development group, using 63 endometrial biopsies spanning over proliferative (PE, n = 18), early-secretory (ESE, n = 18), mid-secretory (MSE, n = 17) and late-secretory (LSE, n = 10) endometrial phases of the natural cycle. (bvsalud.org)
  • The raw and normalized microarray data have been deposited with the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession number GSE105098. (unl.edu)
  • To gain insight into the pathogenesis of PAPS, we have investigated the gene expression profiles that characterize peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from PAPS patients. (nih.gov)
  • We show that the transcriptional activity of genes involved in innate immune responses, such as toll-like receptor 8 and CD14, as well as downstream genes of this pathway, such as STAT1, OAS2, TNFSF13 and PLSCR1 are significantly increased in PAPS patients. (nih.gov)
  • A gene expression profiling test system for breast cancer prognosis is not intended for diagnosis, or to predict or detect response to therapy, or to select the optimal therapy for patients. (fda.gov)
  • Articles associating gene expression profiles in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma to survival, response to chemo(radio)therapy and/or lymph node metastasis were identified. (oncotarget.com)
  • Overexpression of ANGPT and a strong positive correlation between ITGA5 and PAI scores in the non-healing group of patients may suggest these genes to be a potential prognostic biomarker for periapical wound non-healing after surgical endodontic treatment. (aku.edu)
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine if tissue gene array analysis would identify novel genes engaged in inflammation and lung remodeling in patients with sarcoidosis. (nih.gov)
  • METHODS: Gene expression analysis was performed on tissues obtained from patients with sarcoidosis at the time of diagnosis (untreated) (n = 6) compared with normal lung tissue (n = 6). (nih.gov)
  • Expression of select genes was further confirmed in lung tissue from a second series of patients with sarcoidosis and disease-free control subjects (n = 11 per group) by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. (nih.gov)
  • Interactive gene networks were identified in patients with sarcoidosis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (Ingenuity Systems, Inc., Redwood, CA) software. (nih.gov)
  • Selected genes and proteins were then analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in an independent series of patients with sarcoidosis (n = 36) and control subjects (n = 12). (nih.gov)
  • MMP-12 and ADAMDEC1 gene and protein expression were increased in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from patients with sarcoidosis, correlating with disease severity. (nih.gov)
  • Gene expression in five specimens from adult patients with different DV200 values was assessed using the PanCancer IO360 Panel on a nCounter Digital Analyzer at 555 fields of view. (nih.gov)
  • Data Mining Tool software (Affymetrix) was used to separate genes in clusters based on their expression patterns over time. (cdc.gov)
  • Analysis of CNA was evaluated by CytoScan HD Array (Affymetrix) and gene expression was evaluated by microarray (4x44K, Agilent Technologies). (nih.gov)
  • In order to characterize the temporal gene expression profile in joints from the reactivation model of streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis in Lewis (LEW/N) rats, total RNA was extracted from ankle joints from naïve, SCW injected, or phosphate buffered saline injected animals (time course study) and gene expression was analyzed using Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray technology (RAE230A). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The majority of the downregulated genes were associated with metabolism, transport and regulation of muscle development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prior studies have demonstrated that preclinical models do not recapitulate all biological aspects of human tissues, particularly with respect to the tissue of origin gene expression signatures. (nih.gov)
  • MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A gene network engaged in Th1-type responses was most significantly overexpressed in the sarcoidosis lung tissues, including genes not previously reported in the context of sarcoidosis (e.g. (nih.gov)
  • 25-fold) in sarcoidosis lung tissues, corresponding with increased protein expression by immunohistochemistry. (nih.gov)
  • Transcriptional profile of the biomarkers were determined by DNA microarray technology (SABiosciences) with biochips including 84 human genes associated with apoptosis. (linkos.cz)
  • Proteomics-based profiling uniquely allows delineation of global changes in protein expression patterns resulting from transcriptional and post-transcriptional control, post-translational modifications and shifts in proteins between different cellular compartments. (nih.gov)
  • iEDGE is an R-package for performing integrative analysis of epi-genomic data, such as methylation, mutation, or microRNA, and gene-expression data from paired samples. (nih.gov)
  • Gene Expression Profiling of FFPE Samples: A Titration Test. (nih.gov)
  • file into the workspace allows you to explore the clonotypes within gene expression clusters. (10xgenomics.com)
  • Periapical Index scores 3-5 exhibited a positive correlation with ITGA-5 expression. (aku.edu)
  • As expected, the number of genes detected above background and the expression correlation for housekeeping genes increased for all five specimens when twice as much RNA was used as input. (nih.gov)
  • Use of gene expression profiling and chemotherapy in early-stage breast cancer: a study of linked electronic medical records, cancer registry data, and genomic data across two health care systems. (sutterhealth.org)
  • The factors that lead to the development of ADR in some carriers while others carriers remain asymptomatic is unclear, therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the copy number alterations (CNA) of ADR who were either positive (N=3) or negative (N=4) for p.R337H mutation, and to compare the results with global gene expression analysis. (nih.gov)
  • In recent years, emerging data have demonstrated that essential genes and signaling pathways, including KRAS, p53, SMAD4, Wnt, PI3K/AKT and Notch signaling, are critical in the tumorigenesis and progression of PAAD ( 10 , 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, at present, there is no effective clinical treatment for PAAD that targets these genes and signaling pathways. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Global profiling of gene expression in cancer using genomics and proteomics. (nih.gov)
  • Given that comprehensive expression profiles obtained using genomics and proteomics are highly complementary, a combined approach to profiling may well uncover expression patterns that could not be predicted using a single approach. (nih.gov)
  • The expression of proteins corresponding to selected overexpressed genes was determined using fluorokine multiplex analysis, and immunohistochemistry. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we applied classical survival analysis to genome-wide gene expression profiles of prostate cancers and preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels from each patient, to identify prognostic markers of disease relapse that provide additional predictive value relative to PSA concentration. (garvan.org.au)
  • We identified genes that evolve via expression more rapidly than expected (diversifying selection), or less rapidly than expected (normalizing selection), by comparing among vs. within-species variation of gene expression levels. (treenomix.ca)
  • Table S5: Thank you for including a new table presenting more data regarding gene expression levels. (peerj.com)
  • While the anti-atherosclerotic role of HDL is well documented and focuses predominantly on inflammation, the genetic correlations between variation in expression of these genes and HDL levels suggest an additional role for HDL in immune cell function. (edu.au)
  • In addition, microRNA expression levels in the lymphoblastic cells were analyzed to trace variants that might alter miRNA expression and explain partly an inherited genetic predisposion to PC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analysis of baseline expression levels of the tested genes with healing status showed the mean relative expression of VTN, VEGFA, ANGPT, TNF, and CTGF to be significantly different (p (aku.edu)
  • 30%, levels of genes with low expression (bottom 50%) were only strongly correlated between the two RNA input amounts. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate mechanisms of phthalate toxicity in normal human cells and to provide information concerning inter-individual variation and gene-environment interactions. (cdc.gov)
  • However, identification of the mutated gene can be obscured by inter-individual variation and secondary changes in gene expression caused by the disease process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, our findings demonstrate that multivariable survival analysis can be applied to gene expression profiles of prostate cancers with censored follow-up data and used to identify molecular markers of prostate cancer relapse with strong predictive power and relevance to the etiology of this disease. (garvan.org.au)
  • For more information on how to create cell types using gene markers, visit the Exploring Substructure tutorial in the Loupe Browser documentation. (10xgenomics.com)
  • The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell. (nih.gov)
  • The rooted cuttings will also provide genetic material for a growth chamber experiment designed to separate candidate gene expression and cold acclimation phenotype responses to low temperature and critical night length. (treenomix.ca)
  • iEDGE integrated data on genetic changes and gene expression from breast and 18 other cancers to successfully identify known cancer driver genes and recognized cancer therapeutic targets. (nih.gov)
  • Most of the genes that are involved in the causation of hereditary cancers have been identified by linkage analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The quantification of the changes in expression of individual genes due to the treatment was performed by Real-Time PCR assay (SABiosciences). (linkos.cz)
  • 2016). This article describes the genes >2 fold up- or down-regulated in the first- and repeated-infection groups compared to the healthy controls group. (unl.edu)
  • The genes exhibiting the highest fold increase in expression on days -13.8, -13, or 3 were involved in chemotaxis, inflammatory response, cell adhesion and extracellular matrix remodelling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 10-fold different from the average regardless of input amount, after normalization of data to the geometric mean of the housekeeping genes. (nih.gov)
  • The method can easily be applied to integrate gene expression profiles with other assays in a variety of disease contexts. (nih.gov)
  • The widespread availability of innovative methods for gene expression profiling will stimulate many avenues of research on nervous system functioning and complex behavioral disorders. (nih.gov)
  • Exploratory research projects supported under this RFA will utilize neural tissue-specific cDNA reagents and state-of-the-art microarray technologies, in order to quantify in a highly parallel way expression profiles of genes in mammalian neural tissue. (nih.gov)
  • We will investigate the clonality and diversity of lymphocytes within a non-small cell lung carcinoma sample, look at the distribution of clonotypes within two T cell phenotypes, and explore a well-conserved clonotype motif in the gene expression data. (10xgenomics.com)
  • In conclusion, the present study describes the temporal expression of multiple disease-associated genes with potential pathophysiological roles in the reactivation model of SCW-induced arthritis in Lewis (LEW/N) rat. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One key benefit of running an integrated 5' Gene Expression and V(D)J experiment is the ability to associate phenotypes with clonotypes of interest. (10xgenomics.com)
  • Microarray-based data for a subset of genes were validated using real-time PCR TaqMan ® analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because barcoding happened before the sample was divided into V(D)J and Gene Expression libraries, the same cells appear in both data sets, and the barcodes match. (10xgenomics.com)
  • Gene expression data were log2 transformed and then quantile normalized prior to generating the Heatmap for direct comparison of data. (nih.gov)
  • qPCR data were normalized to β-actin expression for each sample. (nih.gov)
  • This systematic review aimed at elucidating the prognostic role of gene expression profiles and at identifying gene signatures to predict clinical outcome. (oncotarget.com)
  • In each cases, analysis of the transcription profile was performed before and after the treatment, respectively. (linkos.cz)
  • Pathway analysis was used to identify biological domains enriched for these 99 genes. (edu.au)
  • The analysis showed that the expression of caspase 14 was significantly up-regulated at the RNA level after the treatment. (linkos.cz)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of DADS, DATS, and DTS on the gene expression profiling of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) by application of microarray and specialized analysis software, GO, Bio-Plex-based cytokines assay and IPA and analyze their structure-activity relationship according to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and metabolic-related properties. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, we have investigated the association between the baseline gene expression profile in periapical granuloma and periapical wound healing after surgical endodontic treatment. (aku.edu)
  • Conclusion: This systematic review shows heterogeneous findings in associating gene expression with clinical outcome in esophageal cancer. (oncotarget.com)
  • This guidance document was developed as a special controls guidance to support the classification of gene expression profiling test systems for breast cancer prognosis into class II (special controls). (fda.gov)
  • A gene expression profiling test system for breast cancer prognosis is a device that measures the RNA expression level of multiple genes and combines this information to yield a signature (pattern or classifier or index) to aid in prognosis of previously diagnosed breast cancer. (fda.gov)
  • This guidance provides recommendations to manufacturers regarding preparation of premarket notifications and labeling for a gene expression profiling test system for breast cancer prognosis. (fda.gov)
  • In gene expression test systems for breast cancer prognosis, an algorithm is applied to such measurements to yield a result that can be used by physicians as a prognostic marker, in combination with clinicopathological factors, to assess the risk of cancer recurrence (e.g., distant metastasis). (fda.gov)
  • This guidance is issued in conjunction with a Federal Register notice announcing the classification of gene expression profiling test systems for breast cancer prognosis. (fda.gov)
  • Any firm submitting a 510(k) premarket notification for a gene expression profiling test system for breast cancer prognosis will need to address the issues covered in this special controls guidance. (fda.gov)
  • Several predisposition loci for hereditary prostate cancer (HPC) have been suggested, including HPCX1 at Xq27-q28, but due to the complex structure of the region, the susceptibility gene has not yet been identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The impact of RNA integrity and input amount on expression profiling using NanoString was investigated by comparing results obtained using two different input amounts and from five FFPE gut specimens with different DV200 values. (nih.gov)