The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (fos) originally isolated from the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses. The proto-oncogene protein c-fos codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. The insertion of c-fos into FBJ-MSV or FBR-MSV induces osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The human c-fos gene is located at 14q21-31 on the long arm of chromosome 14.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
... s can also be used to alter gene expression in a host cell to promote pathogenesis. A well studied example ... "Regulation of gene expression and transcription factor binding activity during cellular aging". Biological Signals. 5 (3): 130- ... gene expression - the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product such as a ... Groups of TFs function in a coordinated fashion to direct cell division, cell growth, and cell death throughout life; cell ...
"Regulation of gene expression and transcription factor binding activity during cellular aging". Biol. Signals 5 (3): 130-8. doi ... Wheaton K, Atadja P, Riabowol K (1996). "Regulation of transcription factor activity during cellular aging". Biochem. Cell Biol ... 가 나 Robert O. J. Weinzierl (1999). Mechanisms of Gene Expression: Structure, Function and Evolution of the Basal ... Evan G, Harrington E, Fanidi A, Land H, Amati B, Bennett M (August 1994). "Integrated control of cell proliferation and cell ...
Mantle cell lymphoma is excluded due to the lack of CD5 and cyclin-D1 expression. Clonal rearrangements of the immunoglobulin ... The deletion 7q21-32 is seen in 40% of SMZL patients, and translocations of the CDK6 gene located at 7q21 have also been ... The typical patient is over the age of 50, and gender preference has been described. List of hematologic conditions Elaine ... The cell of origin is postulated to be a post-germinal center B-cell with an unknown degree of differentiation. SMZL is a form ...
2013) found that, as humans (and mice) age, expression of four key DNA repair genes necessary for homologous recombinational ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.06.031. PMID 16051153. Johnson J, Canning J, Kaneko T, Pru J, Tilly J (2004). "Germline stem cells and ... Each type of cell behaves differently in response to FSH. Theca interna cells express receptors for luteinizing hormone (LH). ... In addition, as more estrogen is secreted, more LH receptors are made by the theca cells, inciting theca cells to create more ...
... rather than chondrocyte via the Runx2 gene expression.[24] Potential therapeutic application in aiding bone degenerative ... The osteoblast cell is derived from the Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) which can also differentiate into a chondrocyte.[23] The ... diseases, age related changes as well as injury repair. A3 adenosine receptor[edit]. Main article: Adenosine A3 receptor ... "Entrez Gene: ADORA2A adenosine A2A receptor".. *^ a b Jacobson KA, Gao ZG (2006). "Adenosine receptors as therapeutic targets" ...
The tubules are lined with a layer of cells (germ cells) that develop from puberty through old age into sperm cells (also known ... Gene and protein expression. Further information: Bioinformatics § Gene and protein expression. The human genome includes ... Peritubular myoid cells surround the seminiferous tubules.[4]. Between tubules (interstitial cells). *Leydig cells - cells ... Primary cell types. Within the seminiferous tubules. *Here, germ cells develop into spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids ...
The main focus of his experimental work was the epigenetic control of gene expression by DNA methylation in CHO cells. These ... Genes, Proteins and Cellular Aging, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1986. *Understanding Aging, Cambridge University Press, ... In 1975 he suggested that DNA methylation could be an important mechanism for the control of gene expression in higher ... Aging: The Paradox of Life: Why We Age, Springer, Dordrecht, 2007. *Origins & Outcomes: An Autobiography, Longueville, Sydney, ...
... proteins in the nucleus of living mammalian cells allowing for the first time to study gene expression in intact cells. His ... His cell biological elucidation of the mechanisms involved in the pre-mature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome ... He was the Editor-in-Chief of The Journal of Cell Biology (2009-2015) and is the editor of Current Opinion in Cell Biology. He ... Tom Misteli, Ph.D. is a Swiss-born (Solothurn) cell biologist and pioneer in the field of genome cell biology. ...
"Cell-specific prediction and application of drug-induced gene expression profiles". Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing. Pacific ... "Age-Stratified Risk of Unexpected Uterine Sarcoma Following Surgery for Presumed Benign Leiomyoma". The Oncologist. 20 (4): ... "Predicting age by mining electronic medical records with deep learning characterizes differences between chronological and ... physiological age". Journal of Biomedical Informatics. 76: 59-68. doi:10.1016/j.jbi.2017.11.003. PMC 5716867. PMID 29113935.. ...
Expression of four key DNA repair genes that are necessary for homologous recombinational repair during meiosis (BRCA1, MRE11, ... Age[edit]. Menopause typically occurs between 49 and 52 years of age.[2] Half of women have their last period between the ages ... Meiosis is the general process by which germ cells are formed in all sexual eukaryotes; it appears to be an adaptation for ... In rare cases, a woman's ovaries stop working at a very early age, ranging anywhere from the age of puberty to age 40. This is ...
... enhances the proliferation of brain endothelial cells throughout the brain (113), hippocampal IGF gene expression (47 ... "Aging and Disease. 3 (1): 130-40. PMC 3320801. PMID 22500274.. *^ a b Kyu, Hmwe H; Bachman, Victoria F; Alexander, Lily T; ... healthy alterations in gene expression in the brain, and beneficial forms of neuroplasticity and behavioral plasticity; some of ... Aging. 35 Suppl 2: S20-528. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.03.034. PMC 4094356. PMID 24952993. Retrieved 9 December 2014.. ...
... including monocytes and activated T and B cells.[22] In vitro, vitamin D increases expression of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene ... to 2,500 IU per day for ages 1-3 years, 3,000 IU per day for ages 4-8 years and 4,000 IU per day for ages 9-71+ years ( ... "Vitamin D increases expression of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene in adrenal medullary cells". Brain Research. Molecular Brain ... Vitamin D receptor expression decreases with age and findings suggest that vitamin D is directly related to muscle strength, ...
There may be some effect of age in levels of DNA methylation at specific gene promoters, as one study found greater levels of ... 351 represses BACE1 expression in mouse BV-2 microglial cells". primary. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. ... Hallmarks include mutations to the alpha-synuclein gene, SNCA, as well as PARK2, PINK1, UCHL1, DJ1, and LRRK2 genes, and ... Therefore, the addition or removal of an acetyl group to a histone can alter the expression of nearby genes. The majority of ...
... generally reversing gene expression to a healthier state. Synthetic GHK-Cu is used in cosmetics as a reparative and anti-aging ... This GHK-Cu enriched material stimulated wound contraction and cell proliferation, as well as increased expression of ... The gene expression signature associated with emphysema severity included 127 genes, involved in inflammation and repair. Using ... demonstrated that GHK-Cu is able to reverse the expression of certain genes involved in metastatic spreading of colon cancer. ...
... with decreased GSTO gene expression resulting in a lowered age of onset for the diseases.[29] ... "Glutathione transferases as mediators of signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation and cell death". Cell Death and ... while glucagon decreases such gene expression.[28] Omega-class GST (GSTO) genes, in particular, are associated with ... In addition, insulin administration is known to result in increased GST gene expression through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and ...
In these cells the viral genes that encode envelope proteins have restricted expression.[4] As a result, infectious particles ... Characterized by a history of primary measles infection usually before the age of 2 years, followed by several asymptomatic ... Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. MCPyV Merkel-cell carcinoma. RNA virus. HCV ... A large number of nucleocapsids are produced in the neurons and the glial cells. ...
Sickle cell anemia is a pleiotropic disease because the expression of a single mutated HBB gene produces numerous consequences ... Selectional pleiotropy occurs when the resulting phenotype has many effects on fitness (depending on factors such as age and ... Such a gene that exhibits multiple phenotypic expression is called a pleiotropic gene . Therefore mutation in a pleiotropic ... which is the protein red blood cells use to carry oxygen throughout the body. Sickle cell anemia occurs when the HBB gene ...
Gene expression of the insulin-like growth factors and their receptors in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells. ... A common haplotype in the complement regulatory gene factor H (HF1/CFH) predisposes individuals to age-related macular ... Cellular adhesion regulates bFGF gene expression in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Exp Eye Res 58: 545-552, 1994 ... Hasler J, Strub K, (2006). "Alu elements as regulators of gene expression". Nucleic Acids Research 34 (19): 5491-5497 ...
Heat shock is used to induce Flp recombinase marker gene expression is activated in dividing cells due to recombination. ... Expression of p16INK4a in peripheral blood T-cells is a biomarker of human aging Aging Cell doi:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2009.00489. ... "Stem Cells and Aging: A Chicken-Or-Egg Issue?". Aging and Disease. 3 (3): 260-268. Liang Y, Zant GV (2008). "Aging stem cells, ... The stem cell theory of aging is also a sub-category of cellular theories. Smith J., A., Daniel R. "Stem Cells and Aging: A ...
Gene and protein expressionEdit. About 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells and 60% of these genes are ... AgingEdit. Aging of salivary glands show some structural changes, such as:[18][19][19] ... Since iron is a major component of bacterial cell walls, removal of iron breaks down the cell wall, which in turn breaks down ... The salivary gland specific genes are mainly genes that encode for secreted proteins and compared to other organs in the human ...
It is thought that a histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... McBride, A.; Silver, P. (2001). "State of the Arg: Protein Methylation at Arginine Comes of Age". Cell. 106 (1): 5-8. doi: ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. As of March 2021, PRMT6 ... Huang, Suming; Litt, Michael D.; Ann Blakey, C. (30 November 2015). Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation. pp. 21-38. ISBN ...
It is thought that a histone code dictates the expression of genes by a complex interaction between the histones in a ... McBride, A.; Silver, P. (2001). "State of the Arg: Protein Methylation at Arginine Comes of Age". Cell. 106 (1): 5-8. doi: ... There are several ways that H3R26 could change gene expression. The post-translational modification of histone tails by either ... This additional level of annotation allows for a deeper understanding of cell specific gene regulation. CARM1 knockout mice are ...
... enhances the proliferation of brain endothelial cells throughout the brain (113), hippocampal IGF gene expression (47 ... "Aging and Disease. 3 (1): 130-40. PMC 3320801. PMID 22500274.. *^ a b Kyu, Hmwe H; Bachman, Victoria F; Alexander, Lily T; ... healthy alterations in gene expression in the brain, and beneficial forms of neuroplasticity and behavioral plasticity; some of ... "Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands). 36 (2): 665-76. doi:10.1007/s11357-013-9596-x. PMC 4039249. PMID 24243396.. ...
"Gene expression profiles associated with aging and mortality in humans". Aging Cell. 8 (3): 239-50. doi:10.1111/j.1474- ... Coronin-1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CORO1A gene. It has been implicated in both T-cell mediated immunity ... In a recent genome-wide longevity study, its expression levels were found to be negatively associated both with age at the time ... When the cell is at rest, Coronin-1a is spread out throughout the cytoplasm and the cell cortex. Therefore, when a pathogen ...
regulation of gene expression. • striated muscle cell differentiation. • cellular response to oxygen levels. • myoblast fusion ... Wnt plays a crucial role in satellite cell regulation and skeletal muscle aging and also regeneration. Wnts are known to active ... Sustained MyoD expression is necessary for retaining the expression of muscle-related genes.[12] ... The effect of MyoD on satellite cells is dose-dependent; high MyoD expression represses cell renewal, promotes terminal ...
Titus et al.[19] also found that expression of 4 key genes necessary for homologous recombinational repair of DNA double-strand ... Ovarian aging[edit]. As women age, they experience a decline in reproductive performance leading to menopause. This decline is ... Germ cell tumor Seen most often in young women or adolescent girls. Other germ cell tumors are: Endodermal sinus tumor and ... Follicular cells flat epithelial cells that originate from surface epithelium covering the ovary, are surrounded by Granulosa ...
"Gene body methylation can alter gene expression and is a therapeutic target in cancer". Cancer Cell. 26 (4): 577-90. doi: ... "Regulation of gene expression and transcription factor binding activity during cellular aging". Biological Signals. 5 (3): 130- ... Groups of TFs function in a coordinated fashion to direct cell division, cell growth, and cell death throughout life; cell ... Transcription factors can also be used to alter gene expression in a host cell to promote pathogenesis. A well studied example ...
Laplante M, Sabatini DM (April 2013). "Regulation of mTORC1 and its impact on gene expression at a glance". Journal of Cell ... Kennedy BK, Lamming DW (June 2016). "The Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin: The Grand ConducTOR of Metabolism and Aging". Cell ... dependent gene transcription. This gene represents a candidate gene for human lipodystrophy, characterized by loss of body fat ... V. The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0161-KIAA0200) deduced by analysis of cDNA clones from human cell line KG-1". DNA ...
... subsets were initially defined by function, but also have associated gene or protein expression patterns. ... The thymus contributes fewer cells as a person ages. As the thymus shrinks by about 3%[9] a year throughout middle age, a ... Cytotoxic T cells (TC cells, CTLs, T-killer cells, killer T cells) destroy virus-infected cells and tumor cells, and are also ... cells. A T cell becomes a CD4+ cell by down-regulating expression of its CD8 cell surface receptors. If the cell does not lose ...
... can cause abnormal gene expression. DNA damage causes the cells to stop dividing or induces apoptosis, often affecting stem ... These age specifications include voting age, drinking age, age of consent, age of majority, age of criminal responsibility, ... Senescent cells: most of the cells with DNA damages that can't be fixed do apoptosis but some cells don't. Those cells are ... "Aging (Dec).. *^ Ocampo, A.; et al. (2016). "In Vivo Amelioration of Age-Associated Hallmarks by Partial Reprogramming". Cell. ...
... appearance-observable traits caused by the expression of a condition's genes. The features of craniosynostosis' particular ... Most surgeons will not intervene until after the age of six months due to the heightened risk which blood loss poses before ... Certain cells in the brain respond specifically to an increase of CO2 in the blood.[4][24] The response involves vasodilatation ... in FGFR genes) and mutations that lead to loss of function (in TWIST genes).[38][39] Craniosynostosis is therefore likely the ...
2009). «Fibulin-4 regulates expression of the tropoelastin gene and consequent elastic-fibre formation by human fibroblasts». ... cell proliferation. •organ morphogenesis. •extracellular matrix organization. •regulation of actin filament polymerization. • ... Tzaphlidou M (2004). «The role of collagen and elastin in aged skin: an image processing approach». Micron. 35 (3): 173-7. PMID ... Ontologia do gene. Função molecular. •extracellular matrix structural constituent. •protein binding. •extracellular matrix ...
"Expression profile of active genes in human periodontal ligament and isolation of PLAP-1, a novel SLRP family gene". Gene. 275 ... "Regulation of PLAP-1 expression in periodontal ligament cells". Journal of Dental Research. 85 (5): 447-51. PMID 16632759. doi: ... "Association of the aspartic acid-repeat polymorphism in the asporin gene with age at onset of knee osteoarthritis in Han ... "Expression pattern and gene characterization of asporin. a newly discovered member of the leucine-rich repeat protein family". ...
"DnaA couples DNA replication and the expression of two cell cycle master regulators". The EMBO Journal. 25 (2): 346-56. doi: ... Caulobacter agingEdit. Caulobacter was the first asymmetric bacterium shown to age. Reproductive senescence was measured as the ... These five proteins directly control the timing of expression of over 200 genes. The five master regulatory proteins are ... Role of the swarmer cell stageEdit. The Caulobacter stalked cell stage provides a fitness advantage by anchoring the cell to ...
Down regulation of the PAX gene expression inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis. This could be a possible avenue for ... aka Hurthle-Cell Neoplasms).[15] Tumors expressing the PAX8/PPARy are usually present in at a young age, small in size, present ... This nuclear protein is involved in thyroid follicular cell development and expression of thyroid-specific genes. PAX8 releases ... it is possible that it regulates expression of genes other than thyroid-specific. Several known tumor suppressor genes like ...
Pays, E. (2005). "Regulation of antigen gene expression in Trypanosoma brucei". Trends Parasitol. 21 (11): 517-20. doi:10.1016/ ... with properties such as gene content, the number of cell types or morphology all proposed as possible metrics.[2][3][4] ... According to this model, new genes are created by non-adaptive processes, such as by random gene duplication. These novel ... All changes in the gene frequencies of populations--and quite often in the traits those genes influence--are by definition ...
Molecular genetic testing on a blood specimen or cells from a cheek swab is available to identify mutations in the RSK2 gene. ... 3 years of age. Rehabilitation Inability to ingest food. Inability to eat food easily. Common. Common. 3 years of age. ... Mutations in the RPS6KA3 gene can result in expression of an RSK2 protein (ribosomal S6 kinase 2) with reduced or absent kinase ... The syndrome is caused by mutations in the RPS6KA3 gene.[1] This gene is located on the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp22.2 ...
... as the inbreeding first removes many deleterious genes, and permits the expression of genes that allow a population to adapt to ... The females die at the age of 4 days, when their own offspring eat them alive from the inside.[51] ... "The evolution of hermaphroditism by an infectious male-derived cell lineage: an inclusive-fitness analysis" (PDF). The ... s genes in the offspring. 87.5% of D3's genes would come from S, while D4 would receive 93.75% of their genes from S.[54] ...
Odontocetes, such as the sperm whale, possess teeth with cementum cells overlying dentine cells. Unlike human teeth, which are ... Stone Age people may have started hunting whales as early as 6,000 BC, new evidence from South Korea suggests.. ... The beluga's popularity is due to its unique colour and its facial expressions. The latter is possible because while most ... "More DNA support for a Cetacea/Hippopotamidae clade: the blood-clotting protein gene gamma-fibrinogen" (PDF). Molecular ...
"Notch1 regulates the expression of the multidrug resistance gene ABCC1/MRP1 in cultured cancer cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U ... modulation of age-related behavioral decline. • cell-cell adhesion. • cellular response to amyloid-beta. • negative regulation ... "Two types of human malignant melanoma cell lines revealed by expression patterns of mitochondrial and survival-apoptosis genes ... cell nucleus. • kinetochore. • centrosome. • rough endoplasmic reticulum. • dendritic shaft. • aggresome. • cell surface. • ...
For example, increased maternal licking and grooming has been shown to alter expression of the glutocorticoid receptor gene ... Spencer RL, Hutchison KE (1999). "Alcohol, aging, and the stress response". Alcohol Research & Health. 23 (4): 272-83. PMID ... There, CRH and vasopressin act synergistically to stimulate the secretion of stored ACTH from corticotrope cells. ACTH is ... de Kloet ER, Sibug RM, Helmerhorst FM, Schmidt MV, Schmidt M (April 2005). "Stress, genes and the mechanism of programming the ...
Due to the age of the patients and the degenerative nature of LCA, the improvement of vision in gene therapy patients is ... Lack of facial expressions, mimics, or body gestures/responses. *Non-verbal gestures that could imply the visually impaired ... For example, the Canadian currency tactile feature is a system of raised dots in one corner, based on Braille cells but not ... By age: Visual impairment is unequally distributed across age groups. More than 82% of all people who are blind are 50 years of ...
Esophageal squamous cell cancer. Over-expression. 47%. Immunohistochemistry. [24]. Renal cell carcinoma. Under-expression. 100% ... In aged and chemotherapy treated females, oocytes and follicles are depleted by apoptosis (programmed cell death) leading to ... RAD51 is a eukaryotic gene. The enzyme encoded by this gene is a member of the RAD51 protein family which assists in repair of ... Over-expression. 33%. Immunohistochemistry. [21]. Non-small-cell lung cancer. Over-expression. 29%. Immunohistochemistry. [22] ...
... and gene expression. Nickel deficiency depressed growth in goats, pigs, and sheep, and diminished circulating thyroid hormone ... "Cell. 157 (6): 1380-1392. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.05.009. PMC 4144415 . PMID 24906154.. ... RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance; UL = Tolerable Upper Intake Level; Figures shown are for adults age 31-50, male or female ... Boron is an essential plant nutrient, required primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls.[45][46][47] Boron has ...
... while most genes involved in genome expression are common between Archaea and Eukarya.[66] Within prokaryotes, archaeal cell ... The age of the Earth is about 4.54 billion years.[34][35][36] Scientific evidence suggests that life began on Earth at least ... Further information: Cell wall § Archaeal cell walls. Most archaea (but not Thermoplasma and Ferroplasma) possess a cell wall.[ ... is that this occurred before the evolution of cells, when the lack of a typical cell membrane allowed unrestricted lateral gene ...
"The Drosophila Clock Gene double-time Encodes a Protein Closely Related to Human Casein Kinase Iε" (PDF). Cell. 94 (1): 97-107 ... "Rhythmic expression of timeless: a basis for promoting circadian cycles in period gene autoregulation". Science. 270 (5237): ... The location and composition of these clocks were unknown, and this sparked Michael Young's interest at an early age.[6] ... A new gene located on chromosome 2 was named timeless (tim) and was successfully cloned and sequenced. They found strong ...
... giving researchers the ability to switch genes on and off in living cells;[38] ... In 2004 he was named chancellor, a position he held until October 2007,[47] when he retired at the age of 79 after views ... 21] See the classic paper McClintock B 1951 "Chromosome Organization and Genic Expression" (Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. ... "Cell. 171 (3): 522-539.e20. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2017.08.032. ISSN 0092-8674.. ...
Their subsequent work shows how the SREBP pathway regulates expression of many genes that control lipid formation and ... if a man over age 45 or a woman over age 50, has HDL (good) cholesterol less than 40 mg/dL, or other risk factors for heart ... Cholesterol is primarily synthesized from acetyl CoA through the HMG-CoA reductase pathway in many cells and tissues. About 20- ... of a number of genes to stimulate their transcription. Among the genes transcribed are the LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase. ...
The hair cells in the cochlea release neurotransmitter as a result, causing action potentials down the auditory nerve. The ... Schlaug also found that there was a strong correlation of musical exposure before the age of seven, and a great increase in the ... Peretz, Isabelle (2008). "Musical Disorders: From Behavior to Genes". Current Directions in Psychological Science. 17 (5): 329- ... Sequencing and spatial organization relate to the expression of individual notes on a musical instrument. ...
The genes OXTR, CD38, COMT, DRD4, DRD5, IGF2, GABRB2 have been found to be candidate genes for altruism.[64] ... One way is a sincere expression of Christian love, "motivated by a powerful feeling of security, strength, and inner salvation ... Moen, P.; Dempster-Mcclain, D.; Williams, R. M. (1992). "Successful aging: A life-course perspective on women's multiple roles ... and form a multicellular fruiting body in which some cells sacrifice themselves to promote the survival of other cells in the ...
Transcription and mRNA splicing - Gene expression.. Notable cell biologistsEdit. *Jean Baptiste Carnoy ... Cell Biology at Curlie (based on DMOZ). *Aging Cell. *"Francis Harry Compton Crick (1916-2004)" by A. Andrei at the Embryo ... Cell movement - Chemotaxis, contraction, cilia and flagella.. *Cell signaling - Regulation of cell behavior by signals from ... Prokaryotic cells are much smaller than eukaryotic cells, making prokaryotic cells the smallest form of life.[11] Cytologists ...
Age-dependent expression of LCT in mice intestinal epithelium has been DNA methylation in the gene enhancer.[26] ... "Transcriptional heterogeneity in the lactase gene within cell-type is linked to the epigenome". Scientific Reports. 7: 41843. ... Hargrove JL, Berdanier CD (1993). Nutrition and gene expression. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-6961-2. .. [page needed ... "Gene-culture coevolution between cattle milk protein genes and human lactase genes". Nature Genetics. 35 (4): 311-3. doi: ...
More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 activator activity. • ... Humbert S, Dhavan R, Tsai L (2000). "p39 activates cdk5 in neurons, and is associated with the actin cytoskeleton". J. Cell Sci ... Aging. 26 (8): 1145-51. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2004.10.003. PMID 15917097.. ... This article on a gene on human chromosome 2 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
positive regulation of cell proliferation. • posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. • negative regulation of gene ... cell aging. • positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity. • protein oligomerization. • negative regulation ... J Cell Biol. 183 (4): 589-95. PMC 2582899. . PMID 19015314. doi:10.1083/jcb.200807185. !CS1 manut: Uso explícito de et al. ( ... Cell. Biol. 11 (5): 2567-75. PMC 360026. . PMID 2017166. !CS1 manut: Uso explícito de et al. (link) !CS1 manut: Nomes múltiplos ...
"Index of CD34+ Cells and Mononuclear Cells in the Bone Marrow of Spinal Cord Injury Patients of Different Age Groups: A ... "Functional expression cloning of Nanog, a pluripotency sustaining factor in embryonic stem cells". Cell 113 (5): 643-55. 2003. ... Gene therapy is first deafness 'cure'». New Scientist. 2005. gada 14. februāris. ... 2] These cells are produced from the fusion of an egg and sperm cell. Cells produced by the first few divisions of the ...
Joseph also claims that 40 years of the search for the schizophrenia gene has not found a single gene that independent research ... and in females it is 26 to 32 years of age.[64] Symptoms that start in childhood,[65] middle or old age are much rarer.[66] ... but clozapine can lower the white blood cell count in 1 to 4 percent of people who take it. This is a serious side effect.[16][ ... less expression of feelings, and not doing much. ... 4.0 4.1 Joseph, J. (2003). The Gene Illusion: Genetic Research ...
Expression[edit]. The BDNF protein is encoded by a gene that is also called BDNF, found in humans on chromosome 11.[7][8] ... cell-cell signaling. • positive regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • collateral ... Aging[edit]. BDNF levels appear to be highly regulated throughout the lifetime both in the early developmental stages and in ... The calcium influx triggered through NMDA receptors can lead to expression of BDNF, as well as other genes thought to be ...
The gap genes act at the top of this regulatory hierarchy. Expression of the gap genes occurs in discrete domains along the ... division of the cell) in the zygote to form a multi-nucleated cell (a cell containing multiple nuclei) known as a syncytium.[8] ... "Cell. 40 (1): 3-5. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(85)90300-9. PMID 3967292. Development is based on the differential expression of the ... Zygotic expression of the gap genes is thought to be required for the subdivision of the embryo into several units of adjacent ...
... expressions associated with the translator Eugene Nida and originally coined to describe ways of translating the Bible; but the ... Only at the end of the 15th century did the great age of English prose translation begin with Thomas Malory's Le Morte Darthur- ... According to legend, each translator worked in solitary confinement in his own cell, and, according to legend, all seventy ... Throughout the Middle Ages, Latin was the lingua franca of the western learned world. The 9th-century Alfred the Great, king of ...
... Tamadir Al-Edani,1,2 Said ... D. Brisard, A. Desmarchais, J. L. Touze et al., "Alteration of energy metabolism gene expression in cumulus cells affects ... "Gene expression profiles of single human mature oocytes in relation to age," Human Reproduction, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 957-968, ... "Comparative gene expression profiling in human cumulus cells according to ovarian gonadotropin treatments," BioMed Research ...
Expression of p16INK4a and other cell cycle regulator and senescence associated genes in aging human kidney.. Melk A1, Schmidt ... associated with increased protein expression. Comparison of gene expression with age-related histologic changes revealed that ... Among the candidate genes surveyed, the cell cycle regulator p16INK4a emerged with the strongest association with renal aging ... P16INK4a emerged with the most consistent correlations with age and histologic changes and inversely correlated with cell ...
These data suggest that ARID3a-expressing HSCs from aged individuals differ at both molecular and functional levels compared to ... ARID3a expression in human hematopoietic stem cells is associated with distinct gene patterns in aged individuals Immun Ageing ... Effects of ARID3a expression in adult-derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have not been analyzed, nor has ARID3a expression ... HSCs from young versus aged donors identify a number of differentially expressed genes in aged ARID3A-expressing cells versus ...
1995). CUE1: A mesophyll cell-specific positive regulator of light-controlled gene expression in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 7, ... age Mutants of Arabidopsis Exhibit Altered Auxin-Regulated Gene Expression. Yutaka Oono, Qianhong G. Chen, Paul J. Overvoorde, ... age Mutants of Arabidopsis Exhibit Altered Auxin-Regulated Gene Expression. Yutaka Oono, Qianhong G. Chen, Paul J. Overvoorde, ... age Mutants of Arabidopsis Exhibit Altered Auxin-Regulated Gene Expression. Yutaka Oono, Qianhong G. Chen, Paul J. Overvoorde, ...
Microarray analysis of gene expression in blood cells detected disease-specific expression patterns in several pathologic ... Association of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Specific Gene Expression Patterns in Peripheral White Blood ... Association of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Specific Gene Expression Patterns in Peripheral White Blood ... Bernstein SL Liu AM Hansen BC Somiari RI . Heat shock cognate-70 gene expression declines during normal aging of the primate ...
Nuclear Gene Expression Changes Due to Mitochondrial Dysfunction in ARPE-19 Cells: Implications for Age-Related Macular ... Nuclear Gene Expression Changes Due to Mitochondrial Dysfunction in ARPE-19 Cells: Implications for Age-Related Macular ... Changes in gene expression determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Shown is the percentage change in gene expression of ... Changes in gene expression determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Shown is the percentage change in gene expression of ...
Here, we explored associations between clinical and immune features and B7-CD28 gene family expression in Gene Expression ... ultimately establishing a three-gene risk signature. Risk scores assigned based on expression of these genes were validated by ... Additionally, expression of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), as well as ... as did the proportions of various immune-infiltrating cells. Finally, further analysis confirmed that these B7-CD28 genes play ...
... and to a more myoepithelial-like expression profile. Primary luminal cells lineage-specific gene expression could be ... and that states of aging are cell non-autonomously communicated through microenvironment cues over at least one cell diameter. ... Mixed-age luminal-myoepithelial bilayers revealed that luminal cells adopt transcription and methylation patterns consistent ... and age-related microenvironment changes cause altered luminal cell phenotypes. To evaluate the effects of different ...
Such expression reversals could imply loss of cellular identity in the aging brain, and provide a link between aging-related ... Across all 19 datasets, 25 genes were consistently up-regulated during postnatal development and down-regulated in aging, ... Here we analyzed 19 brain transcriptome age-series datasets, comprising 17 diverse brain regions, to investigate the ubiquity ... It was previously reported that mRNA expression levels in the prefrontal cortex at old age start to resemble pre-adult levels. ...
From analyzing CHO cell lines, researchers found that the transcriptome of each subclone also had a significant number of ... individual changes and that such changes indicate that epigenetic regulation is a hidden but important player in cell line ... Phenotypic variations in the cells arise from changes in their DNA, including differences in methylation patterns. ... Biological Age Measured Precisely by Gene Expression. Inhaled CRISPR Treatment Targets Influenza and SARS-CoV-2 Infections. ...
Background Large-scale molecular changes occur during aging and have many downstream consequences on whole-organism function, ... Additional genes with increased expression in AII PVC neurons that have been implicated in stress, chemoprotection, and cell ... Gene expression changes in aged animals. The correlation between the biological replicates within each age group was calculated ... Expression ratios were calculated for genes between M and AII using the Gene Expressions CT Difference formula [24], a ...
We utilized global gene expression analysis and gene set enrichment analysis to characterize gene expression changes in aging ... We utilized global gene expression analysis and gene set enrichment analysis to characterize gene expression changes in aging ... for 14 mouse muscle satellite cell samples (5 young, 4 middle-aged, and 5 aged), were retrieved from public Gene Expression ... for 14 mouse muscle satellite cell samples (5 young, 4 middle-aged, and 5 aged), were retrieved from public Gene Expression ...
Brain aging and diet. Analysis of resting-state fMRI data from 928 people raises the possibility that dietary interventions ... Tight control of gene expression in mammalian cells by tetracycline-responsive promoters.. M Gossen and H Bujard ... Tight control of gene expression in mammalian cells by tetracycline-responsive promoters. ... Tight control of gene expression in mammalian cells by tetracycline-responsive promoters. ...
Genes and aging. [M S Kanungo] -- The maximum life span of multicellular organisms varies greatly: for a fruitfly it is about ... Changes in gene expression during aging --. Programmed cell death --. Gene expression in vivo --. Genes for enzymes --. Genes ... Changes in gene expression during aging -- Programmed cell death -- Gene expression in vivo -- Genes for enzymes -- Genes for ... Changes in gene expression -- Reactivation of genes in old age -- Genes in X chromosomes -- Increased activation of other genes ...
Aging Cell. 2009 Jun;8(3):239-50. doi: 10.1111/j.1474-9726.2009.00467.x. Epub 2009 Feb 26. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural ... of 2151 expression levels were associated with donor age: 10% decreased in expression with age, and 6% increased with age. Cell ... gene expressions that increased with age were associated with increased mortality. Gene expressions that decreased with age ... We investigated the hypothesis that gene expression profiles in cultured cell lines from adults, aged 57-97 years, contain ...
... by means of their gene expression profile. Fibroblast primary cultures were established from negative and... ... Our aim was to evaluate the interaction between breast cancer cells and nodal fibroblasts, ... a link between cancer and aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001;98:12072-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... found just subtle differences on their gene expression profiles.. Effects of breast cancer cells on gene expression of nodal ...
Shared signatures of social stress and aging in peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression profiles. In: Aging Cell. ... Shared signatures of social stress and aging in peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression profiles. Aging Cell, 13(5), ... Shared signatures of social stress and aging in peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression profiles, Aging Cell, vol. ... Shared signatures of social stress and aging in peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression profiles. Aging Cell. 2014 ...
... or checkpoint inhibition because of age-related changes i ... Specifically, of 532 genes tied to programmed cell death ... This possibility was raised by in silico results from a broader study of gene expression patterns in clear cell renal carcinoma ... The investigators reported that age-related gene expression patterns occurred commonly in both normal and tumor tissues. ... Similarly, connectivity map analysis showed that age-dependent gene expression may improve candidacy of older ccRCC patients ...
Reducing mTOR signaling restores the gene expression profile of the Tg2576 mice to CTL levels. We next examined global gene ... Aging cell 12:370-380, doi:10.1111/acel.12057, pmid:23425014.. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMed ... removing one copy of the mTOR gene was sufficient to reverse the expression of many of the genes altered in the APP mice to CTL ... Removing one copy of the mTOR gene restores the hippocampal expression profiles of the APP mice to the CTL levels. A, The graph ...
Medical Advancements in Aging and Regenerative Technologies: Clinical Tools and Applications: 9781466625068: Medicine & ... Gene Expression. *Immunotherapy. *Regeneration and Aging Applications. *Regenerative Medicine. *Stem Cell Research ... Current research on aging will attempt to reverse visible aging characteristics of somatic cells using cellular reprogramming ... "Variance analysis of multifactor models in gene expression experiments with application to the identification of genetic ...
1997). Regulation of heat shock gene induction and expression during Drosophila development. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 53, 104-113. ... Induced hsp22 expression also varied with age, with high expression being found in the most cold-tolerant phenotypes. The genes ... The mRNA cold-induced level of expression of the assayed genes in the six age groups tested (0-5 days). The expression level ... Stress gene expression. We focused on eight cold-responsive genes and tested whether they exhibited plasticity of expression ( ...
Age-related variations in the methylome associated with gene expression in human monocytes and T cells The functional relevance ... analyze how patterns of genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation data vary with age in circulating monocytes and T cells ... and report age-associated methylation signals that are correlated with cis-gene expression and vascular aging.. ... Epigenome: The symphony in your cells A slew of papers reveals the chemical tweaks to DNA in a wealth of different cells - as ...
Aging islets exhibit gene expression program changes consistent with reduced cell cycle entry.. To further characterize the ... role of aging in adaptive β-cell proliferation capacity, we compared gene expression in islets from young (2 months) and aged ( ... The total β-cell area and β-cell area mass continuously increased with age in control mice (Table 2). β-Cell area and mass also ... To test the hypothesis that β-cell regeneration is restricted with advanced age, we analyzed β-cell proliferation in aged mice ...
As the Brain Ages, Glial-Cell Gene Expression Changes Most. By Ashley P. Taylor , January 10, 2017 ... Researchers describe how gene expression in different human brain regions is altered with age. ... News Analysis Antiviral Immunotherapy Comes of Age T-cell therapies are not just for cancer. Researchers are also advancing ... Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until ...
As the Brain Ages, Glial-Cell Gene Expression Changes Most. By Ashley P. Taylor , January 10, 2017 ... Researchers describe how gene expression in different human brain regions is altered with age. ... Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until ... Daily News Can Young Stem Cells Make Older People Stronger? Small trials using younger donors and elderly recipients hint that ...
Sex differences in metabolic brain aging. Brain metabolism scans in individuals aged 20-82 years revealed that compared with ... Ectopic expression of retinoic acid early inducible-1 gene (RAE-1) permits natural killer cell-mediated rejection of a MHC ... Ectopic expression of retinoic acid early inducible-1 gene (RAE-1) permits natural killer cell-mediated rejection of a MHC ... Ectopic expression of retinoic acid early inducible-1 gene (RAE-1) permits natural killer cell-mediated rejection of a MHC ...
Scientists have devised a method to measure the impact of age on the growth rates of cellular populations, a development that ... Flip-Flopping Gene Expression Can Be Advantageous. November 21, 2007 One gene for pea pod color generates green pods while a ... When bacterial cells age, their capacity for reproduction is reduced. Individual cells within populations are subject to the ... Gene-edited immune cells could help wipe out deadly tumors. Jan 19, 2018 ...
The protein (FMRP) encoded by the fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR1), is an RNA-binding protein linked to translational ... Middle Aged * Primary Cell Culture * Signal Transduction / physiology* * TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / antagonists & ... Altered mTOR signaling and enhanced CYFIP2 expression levels in subjects with fragile X syndrome Genes Brain Behav. 2012 Apr;11 ... compared to normal age-matched controls (n = 4). Finally, we detected increased expression of the cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting ...
Klotho, a recently discovered aging-suppressor gene, was believed to be expressed in kidneys (21). Our most recent study ... 7E and F). These data suggest that β-cell-specific expression of mKL preserves β-cells through regulating the gene expression ... Effects of β-Cell-Specific Expression of mKL on Gene Expression in Islets of Diabetic Mice. We also assessed whether Klotho ... In Vivo Pancreatic β-Cell-Specific Expression of Antiaging Gene Klotho: A Novel Approach for Preserving β-Cells in Type 2 ...
p16(INK4a)-mediated suppression of telomerase in normal and malignant human breast cells. Aging Cell 2010;9:736-46. ... In our data, age-associated gene expression was functionally linked with "aging" gene expression categories, but also included ... Menopause-associated gene expression in reduction mammoplasty patients. In contrast to a broad gene expression response to age ... Age-associated gene expression in reduction mammoplasty patients. A substantial proportion of genes had expression changes ...
  • MIC proteins can be induced by "heat shock" of epithelial cell lines ( 19 ). (
  • Although similar to class I MHC molecules in their α1 and α2 domains, the genes encoding these proteins are not localized within the MHC. (
  • Although we did not observe any difference in the expression level of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for translational initiation control proteins isolated from participant with FXS, we found increased phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) substrate, p70 ribosomal subunit 6 kinase1 (S6K1) and of the mTOR regulator, the serine/threonine protein kinase (Akt), in their protein lysates. (
  • The effects of aging on stem cell properties and indicators of stem cell fitness such as proliferation, differentiation, circadian rhythms, stress response proteins, miRNA expression, and global histone modifications in rBMSCs were analyzed. (
  • However, there were no significant age-related changes in the global histone modification profiles of the four histone core proteins: H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 on rBMSCs. (
  • Expression levels of the inflammasome components are generally low and require a two phase induction: A priming phase stimulates gene expression of inactive precursors before a second signal can stimulate assembly of the multiprotein complex consisting of sensor proteins, the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein with a caspase activation and recruitment domain (ASC) and inflammatory caspases (Caspase-1 or Caspase-5). (
  • Nikolaos K. Robakis on Cell activation by glycated proteins. (
  • COMMENT This is a good review for the production and clearance of cellular proteins modified by advanced glycation endproducts (AGE). (
  • As described in this review, multiple factors contribute to such age-related loss, including altered nasal engorgement, increased propensity for nasal disease, cumulative damage to the olfactory epithelium from viral and other environmental insults, decrements in mucosal metabolizing enzymes, ossification of cribriform plate foramina, loss of selectivity of receptor cells to odorants, changes in neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems, and neuronal expression of aberrant proteins associated with neurodegenerative disease. (
  • Serotonin can chemically attach to histone proteins in the cell nucleus to help regulate gene expression. (
  • This DNA is wound around spools of histone proteins (proteins that package DNA in the nucleus of cells, and are heavily prone to chemical modifications that aid in the regulation of gene expression) into structures referred to as nucleosomes. (
  • The research team discovered that a protein called tissue transglutaminase 2 can directly attach serotonin molecules to histone proteins (a process called histone serotonylation), which in turn loosens the spool to enable more robust gene expression. (
  • The activity of transcribing and regulating molecules, which moderate the expression of genes - the conversion into functioning proteins - over time. (
  • Similarly, while your genes are "fixed", the expression of those genes - the amount of proteins they cause to be made, whether or not they are even switched on or off at all - depends on the "environment," the circumstances surrounding those genes . (
  • They hint that it might be possible one day to forestall the biological declines associated with aging by delivering a shot of youthful vigor, particularly if specific rejuvenating proteins or molecules produced by the stem cells could be identified and isolated. (
  • Eukaryotic cells histones and non-histone proteins that form chromatin fiber are closely associated with DNA and the determination of the senescent phenotype has been linked with chromatin involvement. (
  • Evidence points to the loss of heterochromatin structure, altered patterns of histone modification, loss of key heterochromatin proteins and increased levels of persistent DNA damage to be common signs of both normal and premature aging. (
  • They found that genes vital to a cell's energy production are less active in young killifish that go on to be long-lived, and that inhibiting the proteins those genes make with a drug extends lifespan . (
  • Although several biomarkers of lymphocyte senescence have been identified, these proteins in isolation are not sufficient to determine the age-dependent responsiveness of T cells. (
  • Furthermore, we found that impairment of early signaling events following T cell receptor stimulation because of long term culture allows prediction of costimulatory molecules CD28 and CD27 expression levels and the number of population divisions in culture from a limited subset of signaling proteins. (
  • The process starts with the end of growing season, which negative impact appears gradually in old age through the system disorders, the decline of organ function, degeneration, and changes in the molecular structure of proteins and enzymes. (
  • For the first time, we provide evidence that MGAT3 expression may be epigenetically regulated by DNA hypomethylation, leading to the synthesis of the unique "bisecting GlcNAc" type N -glycans on the membrane proteins of ovarian cancer cells. (
  • Smooth muscle cells (SMCs), the major cellular constituents of the medial layer of an artery, are responsible for synthesis and deposition of connective tissue proteins (including types I and V collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans) during artery development. (
  • Cultured vascular SMCs from adult animals exhibit predominantly a synthetic phenotype, expressing genes encoding types I, III, and V/XI collagen at confluence or when deprived of serum growth factors, 8-10 whereas during exponential growth, only low levels of matrix proteins are produced. (
  • Because each cell is powered by its own set of expressed genes-genes that are turned into proteins-we can view them as a society of different individuals subject to grave competition pressure. (
  • Later on, the complementary DNA (cDNA) of coronin-1a was cloned in an expression library, this led to the conclusion that coronin-1a has very similar structure to the beta (β) subunits of the G proteins (Gβ). (
  • A non-invasive test for assessing embryo potential by gene expression profiles of human cumulus cells: a proof of concept study," Molecular Human Reproduction , vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 711-719, 2008. (
  • Impact of maternal aging on the molecular signature of human cumulus cells," Fertility and Sterility , vol. 98, no. 6, pp. 1574.e5-1580.e5, 2012. (
  • The differential transcriptome and ontology profiles of floating and cumulus granulosa cells in stimulated human antral follicles," Molecular Human Reproduction , vol. 16, no. 4, Article ID gap103, pp. 229-240, 2009. (
  • Transcriptomic profiling of human oocytes: association of meiotic aneuploidy and altered oocyte gene expression," Molecular Human Reproduction , vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 570-582, 2010. (
  • These data suggest that ARID3a-expressing HSCs from aged individuals differ at both molecular and functional levels compared to ARID3a-expressing HSCs from young individuals. (
  • Morphological and molecular analyses indicated that the age1 and age2 alleles are involved in the regulation of gene expression in response to IAA. (
  • Due to the limitations of monomolecular targeted therapies, combined multi-molecular therapies and overall B7-CD28 expression patterns warrant further investigation. (
  • Such expression reversals could imply loss of cellular identity in the aging brain, and provide a link between aging-related molecular changes and functional decline. (
  • Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms behind aging-related phenotypic changes are only barely understood. (
  • One method to study molecular mechanisms of aging is transcriptome analysis, i.e . investigating how mRNA levels change with adult age. (
  • These molecular and morphological changes are thought to help constitute the cellular identity of neurons, that is, the molecular and physiological characteristics that define a mature, differentiated cell. (
  • Large-scale molecular changes occur during aging and have many downstream consequences on whole-organism function, such as motor function, learning, and memory. (
  • The marine mollusk Aplysia californica can be used to study transcriptional changes that occur with age in identified neurons of the brain, because its simplified nervous system allows for more direct correlations between molecular changes, physiological changes, and their phenotypic outcomes. (
  • Significantly altered expression of many genes between sexually mature and aged Aplysia suggests large molecular changes that may impact neuronal function. (
  • Changes in behavior with age can be studied at the physiological and molecular level in individual neurons that control the behaviors. (
  • This book reviews the molecular biology of the gene in relation to aging. (
  • Genes and Aging is for all students and researchers interested in the molecular biology of aging. (
  • and (iii) molecular pathways implicated in aging. (
  • Furthermore, hyperactive mTOR signaling may represent a molecular pathway by which aging contributes to the development of AD. (
  • Nevertheless, molecular changes that occur in the brain as a function of age may facilitate the development of AD. (
  • One of the main molecular signs of skin aging is the decrease and disorganization of functional collagen in the dermis. (
  • The inflammasomes are a family of multiprotein complexes for danger signal recognition that are induced by pathogens or cell debris (damage associated molecular patterns, DAMPS) [ 10 , 11 ]. (
  • To assess the molecular effects of aging on B cell development, we profiled gene expression and chromatin features genome-wide, including histone modifications and chromosome conformation, in bone marrow pro-B and pre-B cells from young and aged mice. (
  • Unravelling the molecular changes and mechanisms underlying aging phenotypes is thus an important task for biology. (
  • Program specifically designed for students seeking more instruction in Molecular and Cell Biology for professional or secondary school, including health professional (e.g. medical, or veterinary) schools. (
  • Thus, the systemic role of the molecular clock in the biology of aging requires reinvestigation in order to increase the likelihood of translation for preclinical studies of the aging process. (
  • Differential age-dependent contraction-induced muscle injury has been reported to result in soft-tissue trauma at the physiological level, but no consensus exists at the molecular level to a genomic signature accounting for these disparities. (
  • These data suggest that, at the molecular level, old rats may be desensitized to launch an appropriate response to an injury stimulus compared with young rats, and the disparity in these specific molecular signals could impact recovery kinetics following contraction-induced injury with aging. (
  • Here, we examine how Hcy-thiolactone, N -Hcy-protein, and Hcy affect gene expression and molecular pathways in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. (
  • To assess the molecular changes associated with this loss of thymic function, we used cDNA microarray analyses to examine the transcriptomes of thymocytes from mice of various ages ranging from very young (1 month) to very old (24 months). (
  • Genes associated with various biological and molecular processes including oxidative phosphorylation, T- and B- cell receptor signaling and antigen presentation were observed to significantly change with thymocyte age. (
  • These studies provide valuable insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with thymic aging. (
  • In addition to the affect of aging on integrated systems, the journal also covers original articles on recent research in fast emerging areas of adults stem cells, brain imaging, calorie restriction, immunosenescence, molecular diagnostics, pharmacology and clinical aspects of aging. (
  • We now know that these migratory cells are essential in the formation of haematopoietic stem cells , and we have described some of the molecular processes involved. (
  • Although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, a growing literature documents contributions from age-associated changes at the systemic, molecular, and cellular levels. (
  • Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) may play a wide-ranging role in staving off aging, according to a paper published online ahead of print in the journal Molecular and Cellular Biology . (
  • Particular attention will be given to the molecular biology of mitochondria, the gene expression changes that occur in metabolic diseases, and the effect of exercise on them. (
  • The student must show competences of basic knowledge about the fundamental processes of molecular biology of eukaryotes, the gene expression changes in response to immobility and chronic diseases, and the benefits induced by exercise in the prevention and treatment of such conditions. (
  • The investigational agents' library enabled comparison of several compounds targeting the same molecular entity allowing comparison of target specificity and heterogeneity of cell line response. (
  • The ability to safely collect a larger quantity of blood will allow researchers to track animals longitudinally and relate molecular changes to changes in phenotypic characteristics-including in vivo brain imaging or individual differences in age-related cognitive decline, for which rats may be better models than mice ( Ellenbroek and Youn, 2016 ). (
  • Just before the immature egg cell divides, a molecular machine called 'the spindle' attaches to the chromosome handles. (
  • In a refreshing approach to the subject of metabolism, Navigating Metabolism provides a conceptual framework for navigating these pathways, showing how cells generate energy and synthesize cellular constituents and then further relating metabolic reactions to molecular, genetic, and signaling underpinnings. (
  • In mammals, aging is a complex event that is probably a result of a wide variety of molecular changes interacting with each other. (
  • There is a proposal stating that aging is due to the change from a youthful chromatin configuration to one that helps bring about molecular signatures of aging. (
  • It is possible to obtain a more thorough molecular profile of aging by examining gene expression changes in multiple tissues throughout multiple time points in the lifespan of the animal and determining genes that are perturbed in a consistent direction-in other words-genes that consistently increase in expression throughout life or genes that consistently decrease in expression. (
  • Thus, this study was designed to compare, at molecular level, two OSCC cell lines, both derived from drinking and smoking individuals and differing for presence/absence of HPV infection. (
  • The gene expression/molecular abundance repository supporting MIAME compliant data submissions, and a curated, online resource for gene expression data browsing, query and retrieval. (
  • Identifying the principal molecular players and providing an in-depth knowledge of the mechanisms that induce and regulate the underlying PR cell death will provide essential insight into disease progression. (
  • However, up to date very little is known about the molecular events driving age-related HSC changes and how they contribute to disease. (
  • Understanding age-associated molecular alterations will not only uncover fundamental mechanisms guiding function of HSCs, but may also allow for therapeutic intervention to "rejuvenate" aged hematopoietic systems and possibly even prevent age-associated hematopoietic diseases. (
  • We develop innovative genetic mouse models, use ex vivo and in vivo primary mouse and human stem cell assay systems, exploit lentiviral gene transfer, and apply state-of-the-art molecular biology and next generation sequencing techniques. (
  • We are currently investigating the precise molecular mechanism of action, particularly focusing on metabolic and non-enzymatic molecular pathways relying on iron - a completely uncharted territory for healthy as well as leukemic stem cells. (
  • Molecular safeguards in cancer stem cells. (
  • Teamed-up with Dr. Ana Maria Cuervo (Dept. of Developmental & Molecular Biology), the discoverer of a highly precise protein degradation pathway named chaperone-mediated autophagy, we are investigating the role of this stress-related molecular defense mechanism in leukemic stem cell evolution and maintenance. (
  • Nowadays, with the progress of the research of the cellular and molecular biology, the study of aging mechanism has been from the overall level up to the molecular levels. (
  • Although research on stress-induced aging mechanism is not so much as replicative aging mechanism, phenotypic characteristics and molecular signals from these two types of aging are very similar. (
  • Finally, single cell analyses of ARID3a-expressing HSCs from young versus aged donors identify a number of differentially expressed genes in aged ARID3A -expressing cells versus young ARID3A -expressing HSCs, as well as between ARID3A -expressing and non-expressing cells in both young and aged donor HSCs. (
  • List of differentially expressed genes was generated based on 0.05 multiple-testing-adjusted p-value and 2-fold FC cut-off values. (
  • Results: We have found several differentially expressed genes in satellite cells derived from aged mice compared to young ones. (
  • The gene expression changes increased progressively with time, and the majority of the differentially expressed genes were upregulated during aging. (
  • GEO currently stores approximately a billion individual gene expression … mRNA expression data from blood samples taken from patients with sepsis and healthy individuals was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two groups were identified. (
  • We also observed decreased expression of genes and pathways involved in learning and memory. (
  • Significant changes in other genes and pathways, such as stress response and learning and memory, have previously been shown to occur with age in many vertebrate organisms. (
  • Among cellular pathways, the investigators found opposite age-relationship patterns. (
  • For example, normal tissues upregulated extracellular matrix and cell adhesion pathways with age, whereas tumor tissues downregulated the same pathways. (
  • Other age-related patterns were noted in some immune pathways, such as upregulation of toll-like receptor and tumor necrosis factor 2 noncanonical NF-kappa-B signaling in tumors, which became more common with age. (
  • Components of the insulin-like growth factor signaling pathways are key targets of epigenetic regulation in aging in bone marrow B cell precursors. (
  • Despite the importance of these costimulatory pathways in T cell triggering, inhibition of T cell stimulation has not reproducibly been seen by blocking costimulation alone. (
  • These results indicate that each Hcy metabolite uniquely modulates gene expression in pathways important for vascular homeostasis and identify new genes and pathways that are linked to HHcy-induced endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. (
  • In this review article, a team from China explores the compound's plethora of potential anti-aging pathways. (
  • The gene, klotho, which appears to be upregulated by hydrogen sulfide, is thought to extend lifespan via a number of different pathways, some of which promote production of endogenous antioxidants, according to the report. (
  • On the other hand, a woman with no risk factors can still get breast cancer if she directs gene expression towards pro-inflammatory pathways, then down-regulates other parts of her immune system. (
  • This rendering of a cell illustrates the metabolism of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids through glycolysis and mitochondria and symbolizes the book's exploration of how anabolic and catabolic pathways. (
  • The last few decades have brought metabolism to the fore, with new results suggesting that it plays a regulatory role in signaling pathways and gene expression. (
  • The pathways perturbed because of chronological age demonstrate organ-specific and more-global effects of aging and point to mechanisms that could potentially be counter-regulated pharmacologically to treat age-associated diseases. (
  • Increasing evidence suggests that aging occurs in a regulated manner and that perturbation of discrete cell-signaling pathways can extend lifespan and delay age-related diseases and co-morbidities (Bitto et al. (
  • Proliferation as measured by Ki-67 expression was inversely correlated with p16INK4a expression, compatible with a role for p16INK4a as an irreversible cell cycle inhibitor. (
  • A few studies have explored the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions through co-culture systems and their results suggest that fibroblasts originated from normal tissue tend to inhibit, contrary to fibroblasts obtained from tumors, which tend to induce, epithelial cell proliferation. (
  • β-Cell proliferation can be acutely stimulated by a variety of stimuli in young rodents. (
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We assessed adaptive β-cell proliferation capacity in adult mice across a wide range of ages with a variety of stimuli: partial pancreatectomy, low-dose administration of the β-cell toxin streptozotocin, and exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonist. (
  • β-Cell proliferation was measured by administration of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in the drinking water. (
  • RESULTS Basal β-cell proliferation was severely decreased with advanced age. (
  • Partial pancreatectomy greatly stimulated β-cell proliferation in young mice but failed to increase β-cell replication in old mice. (
  • Moreover, administration of GLP-1 agonist exendin-4 stimulated β-cell proliferation in young but not in old mice. (
  • Surprisingly, adaptive β-cell proliferation capacity was minimal after 12 months of age, which is early middle age for the adult mouse life span. (
  • CONCLUSIONS Adaptive β-cell proliferation is severely restricted with advanced age in mice, whether stimulated by partial pancreatectomy, low-dose streptozotocin, or exendin-4. (
  • Furthermore, β-cell-specific expression of Klotho increased expression levels of Pdx-1 (insulin transcription factor), PCNA (a marker of cell proliferation), and LC3 (a marker of autophagy) in pancreatic islets in db/db mice. (
  • rBMSCs demonstrated decreased capacities for proliferation and differentiation as a function of age. (
  • Previous research has shown that TGF-β helps control the growth and proliferation of cells, the process by which cells mature to carry out specific functions (differentiation), cell movement, and the self-destruction of cells. (
  • Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are a heterogeneous cell population that may be enriched by positive selection with antibodies against the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (LNGFR or CD271), yielding a selective cell universe with higher proliferation and differentiation potential. (
  • Balancing proliferation and quiescence along with homing (See niche) and self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells are favoring elements of stem cell pool maintenance while differentiation, mobilization and senescence are detrimental elements. (
  • While stimulating the proliferation of diseased yet functional PRs to maintain the PR layer would likely be therapeutically beneficial in some retinal degenerative diseases, the proliferative potential of PR cells is controversial, and not well understood. (
  • Extensive ex vivo proliferation and clonal expansion result in T cell differentiation and ultimately replicative senescence ( 9 ). (
  • Furthermore, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a potent inducer of SMC proliferation, decreased α1(I) and α2(V) collagen gene expression at the transcriptional level in bovine SMCs. (
  • 13,14 B- myb expression is linked tightly with proliferation, with mRNA and protein levels increasing in late G1 and S phase. (
  • 12,15 Although B-Myb promotes G1/S phase transition in some cells, it does not induce proliferation of bovine SMCs and fails to cooperate with c-Myc to promote entry into S phase, unlike c-Myb and A-Myb. (
  • Screening a mutagenized population of plants containing this transgene led to the isolation of two mutations, age1 and age2 (for a uxin-responsive g ene e xpression), that exhibited altered patterns of IAA-induced gene expression and novel morphological phenotypes. (
  • The activity of the constructs was tested in both the Nossen (No-0) and Columbia (Col-0) Arabidopsis ecotypes, and similar levels and patterns of GUS expression were observed (data not shown). (
  • The authors evaluated whether AMD is associated with gene expression patterns in white blood cells (WBCs) and whether such a pattern may serve as a biomarker for the disease. (
  • Microarray analysis of gene expression in blood cells detected disease-specific expression patterns in several pathologic conditions-among them lupus, 25 multiple sclerosis, 26 stroke, 27 schizophrenia, 28 and Huntington's disease 29 -in which inflammation may play a role. (
  • Chronological age of the apical microenvironment determines age-dependent gene expression patterns in luminal cells. (
  • These scientists showed that phenotypic variations arise from changes in the DNA of the cells, including differences in methylation patterns. (
  • This possibility was raised by in silico results from a broader study of gene expression patterns in clear cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC) and normal kidney tissues, reported lead author, Lara Feulner, MD , of the department of human genetics at McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre in Montreal. (
  • The investigators reported that age-related gene expression patterns occurred commonly in both normal and tumor tissues. (
  • Induced expression of hsp22 and hsp70Aa was high in newly enclosed phenotypes before declining dramatically, whilst opposite age-related patterns were found for hsp23 , hsp68 , Starvin and Frost . (
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the gene expression patterns associated with various microenvironmental stresses in tumors to understand their roles in tumor progression and treatment responses. (
  • These gene signatures will be used to analyze and annotate the gene expression patterns in the tumor samples and whether hyperthermia will affect the physiological parameters and the corresponding gene signatures. (
  • In humans and other multi-cell creatures, nearly every cell contains the same genes, but different cells show different patterns of gene expression. (
  • Expression from both alleles is generally observed in analyses of diploid cell populations, but studies addressing allelic expression patterns genome-wide in single cells are lacking. (
  • Similar patterns of monoallelic expression were observed in mature cells. (
  • Publications] Taniguchi, K.: 'The relation between the growth patterns of gastric carcinoma and the expression of hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-met), autocrine motility factor receptor, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor'Cancer. (
  • other biological data: Patterns of gene expression from single cells. (
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of age, sex, and strength training (ST) on large-scale gene expression patterns in vastus lateralis muscle biopsies using high-density cDNA microarrays and quantitative PCR. (
  • One example of this can be found in monozygotic twins, whose chromatin modification patterns diverge increasingly with age. (
  • for example, researchers have determined DNA methylation patterns that correlate with biological age. (
  • Profiles: GEO profiles are expression patterns for specific genes over a … Value measurements for each Sample within In addition, a number of cluster generation, refinement and visualization techniques have been implemented. (
  • abstract = "Chronic social stress is a predictor of both aging-related disease and mortality risk. (
  • Abstract In the aortic wall of mammalian species, the maturation phase of smooth muscle cell (SMC) lineage is characterized by two temporally correlated but opposite regulatory processes of gene expression: upregulation of SM type SM2 myosin isoform and downregulation of brain (myosin heavy chain B)- and platelet (myosin heavy chain A pla )-type nonmuscle myosins. (
  • Among the candidate genes surveyed, the cell cycle regulator p16INK4a emerged with the strongest association with renal aging for both mRNA and protein expression. (
  • Choosing so-called candidate genes up front proved to be fruitless. (
  • The expression of selected candidate genes were confirmed using a published dataset and Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). (
  • Furthermore, they provide the framework for the selection of candidate genes for further investigation as potential targets of therapy. (
  • 17 Although the clinical manifestations of RPE aging are well described and several theories have been proposed to explain the cause of AMD, none of these theories has led to a satisfactory understanding of this unique aging phenotype. (
  • The latter two processes encompass the senescence-associated secretory phenotype for satellite cells which alters the tissue microenvironment and contributes to inflammation and fibrosis observed in aging muscle. (
  • We identify transcriptional downregulation of components of the insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway, in particular downregulation of Irs1 and upregulation of Let-7 microRNA expression, as a signature of the aged phenotype. (
  • The expression of miR-21 was upregulated in aged hearts and the miR-21-induced fibroblastic phenotype in cardiac fibroblasts [ 17 ]. (
  • Furthermore, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have similar differentiation capability, morphology, and phenotype as mesenchymal stem cells collected from umbilical cord blood or bone marrow [ 1 - 5 ]. (
  • However, time and culture conditions may cause changes in their phenotype due to sequential differences in antigen expression [ 12 ]. (
  • A newly discovered B cell subset, age-associated B cells, expresses the transcription factor T-bet, has a unique surface phenotype, and accumulates progressively with age. (
  • In accord with this notion, the ratio of T cells displaying naive versus memory phenotype inverts with age. (
  • For awhile Chromatin has been known to have a correlative relation to just about every process in the mammalian nucleus, but recent advances in technology allowing loss-of-function experiments and genome-wide approaches have given light to the identification of a causal relationship between specific changes in the chromatin structure and the aging phenotype. (
  • Aging in this case is the progressive decline in vitality that eventually ends in death and an aging phenotype being some outward sign usually associated with aging such as osteoporosis, sarcopenia, declining immune function, cancer and many others. (
  • Instead, expression reversals may be associated with aging-related accumulation of stochastic effects that lead to loss of functional and structural identity in neurons. (
  • Aging-related expression reversal among genes involved in these processes may represent the loss of cellular identity and/or declining physiological activity in old neurons, and a possible link to functional cognitive decline with age. (
  • Behavioral deficits in the tail-withdrawal reflex of aged animals have been correlated with reduced excitation in sensory neurons that control the reflex. (
  • RNASeq was used to investigate whole-transcriptome changes in tail-withdrawal sensory neurons of sexually mature and aged Aplysia to correlate transcriptional changes with reduced behavioral and physiological responses. (
  • Aging significantly altered expression of 1202 transcripts in sensory neurons underlying the tail-withdrawal reflex, with an approximately equal number of these genes up- and down regulated with age. (
  • Genes involved in the stress response showed increased expression in aged Aplysia neurons. (
  • Decreased ion channel mRNA observed could mean fewer receptors present in aged neurons, resulting in reduced excitability of PVC sensory neurons, ultimately leading to reduced tail-withdrawal reflex observed in aged Aplysia. (
  • Neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells fill in for lost dopamine neurons in a primate model of the disease. (
  • Nikolaos K. Robakis on Expression profiles of multiple genes in single neurons of Alzheimer's disease. (
  • The brain chemical serotonin, a neurotransmitter long known for its role in passing signals between neurons in the brain, can also regulate expression of genes within neurons in an unexpected way, according to research conducted by neuroscientists at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published on March 13 in the journal Nature . (
  • Specifically, they found that in developing rodent brains and human neurons, genes near the part of the spool loosened by the serotonin are more likely to be expressed. (
  • Photoreceptor (PR) cells are specialized retinal neurons that efficiently capture light and transduce it into a neural signal. (
  • Axon regeneration requires that injured neurons reinitiate long-distance growth and upregulate specific genes. (
  • Thus, the inhibitory activity of the IN-1 antigen on axon growth is not restricted to the control of growth cone motility but also involves a retrograde regulation of gene expression in adult central neurons. (
  • It has been proposed that the expression of growth-associated genes is suppressed in adult neurons by retrograde inhibitory cues ( Skene, 1989 , 1992 ). (
  • We first compared Purkinje cell response to axotomy with that of other cerebellar or precerebellar neurons endowed with robust regenerative capabilities, and we found that the regenerative properties of these neuron populations parallel the strength of their reaction to injury. (
  • Several mechanisms have been invoked to explain adult β-cell mass expansion, including neogenesis from pancreatic ducts or hematopoietic tissues, replication of specialized β-cell progenitors, and self-renewal by β-cells ( 5 - 7 ). (
  • The genomewide correlation between the density of hypomethylated intragenic and 3'-end regions and gene expression suggests previously unexplored mechanisms linking epigenome structure to age-related physiology and pathology. (
  • The key to understanding mechanisms by which HHcy disrupts normal cellular function and ultimately causes disease is to identify genes whose expression is affected by individual Hcy metabolites. (
  • Early in the exposure, the predominant effect was on metabolic processes, while at later times, an immune-like response and cellular repair mechanisms dominated the expression pattern. (
  • The changes in gene expression observed in the worms following exposure to dichlorvos point towards two potential mechanisms of toxicity: inhibition of AChE and mitochondrial disruption. (
  • It identifies for the first time mechanisms in the body that trigger haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) production. (
  • We also suggest that the protective versus pathogenic actions of these cells reflect appropriate versus aberrant engagement of regulatory mechanisms that control the Ab responses to nucleic acid-containing Ags. (
  • At a cellular level, the output of primary lymphoid organs wanes, reflecting a shift toward myeloid lineage preference in hematopoietic stem cell specification ( 13 , 14 ), reductions in key developmental gene expression ( 15 - 17 ), and altered microenvironmental and homeostatic feedback mechanisms ( 18 , 19 ). (
  • but the intricate mechanisms by which all those genes somehow led to symptoms such as psychosis or mania were a complete mystery. (
  • But people don't have any clue about mechanisms between the underlying gene variants" and the symptoms, for disorders such as schizophrenia or autism. (
  • Gene expression profiling of wild type aging, and of strains with increased life spans, has provided some insight into potential mechanisms, and more can be expected in the future. (
  • natural selection cannot act on post-reproductive animals, hence there is no selection for mechanisms to maintain an organism past reproductive age. (
  • and perhaps most importantly, they will help uncover the underlying mechanisms driving biological aging. (
  • The mechanisms that lead to an increase in aneuploidy with advanced maternal age are largely unclear. (
  • A characteristic of aging is the loss of homeostatic mechanisms that once acted to offset the macromolecular wear and tear that occurs during an organism's lifetime. (
  • This evidence suggests that aging may be the job of chromatin-based epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. (
  • We were curious to know whether examination of multiple tissues at multiple times could lead to new insights into the possible global and tissue-specific mechanisms of aging that might be causal for age-related pathologies. (
  • data deposits from the research community (see, Provide user-friendly mechanisms that allow users to query, locate, review and download Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) Join NCBI at PAG in San Diego, January 12-16, 2019. (
  • Although they have protective mechanisms, they still age and lose function. (
  • Diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, end-stage renal failure and heart disease are caused by different mechanisms that are not related to stem cells. (
  • compensatory neurogenesis mechanisms do not exist to replace all dying cells in the normal retina [ 1 ]. (
  • Immune cell-based therapies hold promise in cancer therapy by harnessing the body's natural defense mechanisms against tumors, while leaving healthy cells unharmed ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Our mission is to clarify the central mechanisms establishing and guarding sustained hematopoietic stem cell function, particular those that drive leukemogenesis, if disrupted. (
  • Exploring the mechanisms of aging is an ancient and new field of scientific research. (
  • Mechanisms of Gene Expression: Structure, Function and Evolution of the Basal Transcriptional Machinery. (
  • Genes up-regulated during in vitro neuronal differentiation also displayed a tendency for up-down reversal, although at levels comparable to other genes. (
  • While the downregulated genes could not be correlated with specific biological processes the upregulated ones could be associated with muscle differentiation-, inflammation- or fibrosis-related processes. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Cell differentiation" applicable to this article? (
  • Among the various SMC differentiation markers, myosin appears to be a powerful tool to study the structural modifications that these cells undergo during development, in vitro, and in vascular disease. (
  • Multipotency capacity was tested by the expression of stemness genes and through differentiation into preosteoblasts and adipocytes. (
  • CD271 + ADSCs from all age groups showed differentiation capabilities as well as expression of typical multipotent stem cell genes. (
  • Similarly, CD271 + cells immunomagnetically selected from ADSCs showed a higher clonogenic and differentiation potential compared to plastic adherent ADSCs [ 15 ]. (
  • 18 ] isolated CD271 + cells from mouse subcutaneous adipose tissue and demonstrated that their differentiation capability into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and neuronal cells was higher when compared to plastic adherent ADSCs. (
  • 0.001) and cells from all groups demonstrated similar potential for osteogenic differentiation. (
  • Their intricate and highly specific structure is dependent on the expression of multiple genes, including those involved in PR specification, differentiation and maintenance [ 1 ]. (
  • Balancing stem cell regeneration and differentiation commitment to produce mature blood cells is quintessential for a healthy hematopoietic system. (
  • Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 suppresses vascular endothelial growth factor expression and tumor angiogenesis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma," Cancer Science , vol. 103, no. 7, pp. 1259-1266, 2012. (
  • IGF binding protein-6 expression in vascular endothelial cells is induced by hypoxia and plays a negative role in tumor angiogenesis," International Journal of Cancer , vol. 130, no. 9, pp. 2003-2012, 2012. (
  • Cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2) mRNA expression was elevated in older kidneys, associated with increased protein expression. (
  • Comparison of gene expression with age-related histologic changes revealed that glomerulosclerosis correlated with p16INK4a and p53, whereas interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy were associated with p16INK4a, p53, COX-1, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), and heat shock protein A5 (HSPA5). (
  • By fusing the tet repressor with the activating domain of virion protein 16 of herpes simplex virus, a tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA) was generated that is constitutively expressed in HeLa cells. (
  • 95%) of AD cases are sporadic and of unknown etiology, whereas the remaining cases are caused by mutations in one of three genes, presenilin 1 and 2, and amyloid precursor protein ( Querfurth and LaFerla, 2010 ). (
  • The protein (FMRP) encoded by the fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR1), is an RNA-binding protein linked to translational control. (
  • Finally, we detected increased expression of the cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 2 (CYFIP2), a known FMRP interactor. (
  • Protein expression of an antiaging gene, Klotho , was depleted in pancreatic islets in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and in db/db mice, an animal model of T2DM. (
  • The mouse Klotho (also called α Klotho ) gene contains five exons and encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein with 1,014 amino acids predominantly expressed in the kidney and the brain choroid plexus ( 6 ). (
  • The production of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) were also reduced with increasing age. (
  • Remarkably, genes involved in ionic homeostasis and protein synthesis were ectopically expressed, whereas genes in ionic homeostasis, protein transport, and plant hormonal regulation were repressed in athd1-t1 leaves or flowers, suggesting a role of AtHD1 in developmental and environmental regulation of gene expression. (
  • To assess the role of circadian rhythms in the aging process, the authors made conditional Bmal1 knockout mice that are missing the BMAL1 protein only during adult life. (
  • We identified 47, 113, and 30 mRNAs regulated by N -Hcy-protein, Hcy-thiolactone, and Hcy, respectively, and found that each metabolite induced a unique pattern of gene expression. (
  • However, it is not known what mechanism(s) are involved and which metabolite-Hcy itself, Hcy-thiolactone, or N -Hcy-protein-is responsible for changes in gene expression. (
  • In the comment section [2] of last week's post, Ed was interested in other concrete examples of gene expression (the ability of a gene to produce a biologically active protein). (
  • The protein expressions of CXCR4/Janus kinase-2 (JAK-2) signaling ofin vitro EPCs were detected by Western blot analysis.ResultsCXCR4 signaling and alteration in migration and adhesion functions of EPCs were evaluated. (
  • Disease-specific survival was lowest in ccRCC patients with high human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein expression. (
  • Although extensively cultured CTLs retain antigen specificity for the tumor ( 10 ), they present striking alterations in function and gene and protein expressions ( 8 ), e.g. they are in an irreversible cell cycle arrest, resistant to apoptosis, with short telomeres and unable to respond to antigenic cues or IL-2 stimulation. (
  • We found that expression of FasL protein was detected marginally in the fresh PBL and was induced upon mitogen activation in normal individuals without smoking. (
  • In contrast, fresh PBL from those with chronic cigarette smoking exhibited enhanced expression of FasL protein without in vitro mitogen stimulation. (
  • Moreover, mitogen stimulation failed to augment FasL protein expression of their lymphocytes, suggesting dysregulation of FasL expression of PBL in individuals with cigarette smoking. (
  • In addition, we found that in vitro brief treatment with nicotine induces and/or enhances FasL mRNA and protein expression of lymphocytes from normal donors without smoking. (
  • A divalent major histocompatibility complex/IgG1 fusion protein induces antigen-specific T cell acti. (
  • 12 The B- myb gene was isolated on the basis of its homology with c- myb in its DNA-binding region and encodes a 3.3- to 3.5-kb mRNA and ≈704-aa protein. (
  • Coronin-1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CORO1A gene. (
  • These protein were named Corona, which is the Latin word for crown, because of the crown-like shape that it forms when making contact with the surface of the cell. (
  • Glucose metabolism in mouse cumulus cells prevents oocyte aging by maintaining both energy supply and the intracellular redox potential," Biology of Reproduction , vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 1111-1118, 2011. (
  • 7 Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 USA. (
  • Whether and how aging and comorbidities such as atherosclerosis may affect the biology and therapy of ccRCC has scarcely been considered," they wrote. (
  • This multidisciplinary journal will help in understanding the biology and mechanism of aging, genetics, pathogenesis, intervention of normal aging process and preventive strategies of age-related disorders. (
  • Prostaglandin D2: a Cinderella of vascular cell biology? (
  • Lead researcher Professor Peter Currie, from ARMI explained that understanding how HSCs self-renew to replenish blood cells is a "Holy Grail" of stem cell biology . (
  • The $50 million project , initiated in 2015 and financed by the National Institute of Mental Health, involves more than a dozen research centers and scores of specialists in cell biology, genetics and bioinformatics, the application of advanced computer learning to huge data sets. (
  • While up to this point, the vast majority of epigenetic clock studies have been conducted using human cohorts, our ability to elucidate the underlying biology of epigenetic aging will require mechanistic studies using mammalian animal models. (
  • Navdeep S. Chandel is a Professor in the Department of Medicine and Cell Biology at Northwestern University. (
  • In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between renal age in humans and a number of phenomena associated with cellular senescence in vitro. (
  • Gene expression profiles associated with aging and mortality in humans. (
  • Why is β-cell regeneration easily stimulated in rodents, yet difficult to achieve in humans? (
  • Is rodent β-cell replication regulated in fundamentally different ways compared with that of humans? (
  • In the arterial vessels, two isoforms of SM-MyHC, SM1 (204 kD) and SM2 (200 kD), are the products of an alternative mRNA splicing process at the 3′ C terminus of a primary transcript obtained from a single gene 3 6 that has been localized to chromosome 16q12 in humans. (
  • But as humans age, the percentage of new heart cells decreases markedly. (
  • Using the Laboratory's Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Buchholz measured the amount of carbon 14 in DNA to establish the age of caridiomyocytes (cardiac muscle cells) in humans. (
  • Because DNA is stable after a cell has gone through its last cell division, the concentration of carbon 14 in DNA serves as a date mark for when a cell was born and can be used to date cells in humans. (
  • The limited recovery in humans after a heart injury, such as a heart attack, demonstrates failing regeneration of heart cells. (
  • Moreover, B cells with these general features are associated with viral infections and autoimmunity in both mice and humans. (
  • Robust biomarkers of aging have been developed from DNA methylation in humans and more recently, in mice. (
  • At some point a multicellular organism like us humans will develop either senescent cells or cancerous ones, the authors explain to Singularity Hub . (
  • Probable serine carboxypeptidase CPVL is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CPVL gene. (
  • From analyzing CHO cell lines, Weinguny and his colleagues found that "the transcriptome of each subclone also had a significant number of individual changes," and the scientists pointed out that such changes "indicate that epigenetic regulation is a hidden, but important player in cell line development with a major role in the establishment of high performing clones with improved characteristics for bioprocessing. (
  • Here, Alexander Meissner and colleagues characterize the transcriptional and epigenetic landscape of six consecutive stages as human embryonic stem cells differentiate along the neuronal lineage. (
  • There is epigenetic variability in the same cell type among healthy individuals, but the mechanism or significance of this variability is not clear. (
  • Here, the authors purify CD34+ cells from different individuals and use meta-epigenomic approaches to analyse and explain the epigenetic variability observed. (
  • Called "epigenetic" changes, these modifications affect gene expression. (
  • A new analysis of mouse HSC transcriptomes and various epigenetic markers identified many genes that were expressed differently by old and young mice. (
  • In addition, the researchers confirmed and extended previous studies by identifying epigenetic changes in young versus old HSCs that are consistent with the aging HSCs' inability to develop into other types of blood cells. (
  • While recent advancements let us map the epigenome of a single-cell , the same studies can leave us a bit single-minded when facing the many layers of the epigenetic landscape. (
  • Research in gene expression is exploding right now and is examining both the impact of environmental factors and the promise of epigenetic therapies. (
  • This study aimed to generate a novel epigenetic clock in rats-a model with unique physical, physiological, and biochemical advantages-by incorporating behavioral data, unsupervised machine learning, and network analysis to identify epigenetic signals that not only track with age, but also relates to phenotypic aging. (
  • Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) data was used to train an epigenetic age (DNAmAge) measure in Fischer 344 CDF (F344) rats. (
  • epigenetic clocks' have emerged as some of the most promising potential biomarkers of aging ( Horvath and Raj, 2018 ). (
  • Epigenetic clocks are traditionally measured by combining information on DNA methylation (DNAm) levels at hundreds of cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpGs) to produce age predictions. (
  • leading to the growing enthusiasm surrounding the application of epigenetic clocks as powerful biomarkers in aging research. (
  • Thus, the use of mice presents a problem when it comes to tracking epigenetic aging longitudinally or using it as a prognostic indicator. (
  • Current efforts research focus on understanding (1) how such slight deviations from optimal PU.1 dosage lead to the erosion of PU.1-dependent gene expression programs, and (2) in which way a slightly altered PU.1 gene expression network can functionally cooperate with age-associated inactivation of epigenetic regulators (TET2 and DNMT3A). (
  • We further evaluated the potential epigenetic influence on MGAT3 expression by treating the cell lines with 5-azacytidine, a DNA methylation inhibitor. (
  • We have been working to understand how changes in mitochondrial function contribute to aging phenotypes in eukaryotic cells. (
  • As Weinguny notes, the cells "display a wide array of observed phenotypes. (
  • Overexpression of Klotho extends life span in mice, whereas mutation of the Klotho gene causes multiple premature aging phenotypes and shortened life span ( 6 , 8 ). (
  • The thymic aging phenotypes were clearly observable as early as at 3-6 months of age, resembling the naturally aged (18-22-month-old) murine thymus. (
  • MDA-MB231 gene expression profile, as evaluated by cDNA microarray, was influenced by the fibroblasts presence, and HNMT , COMT , FN3K , and SOD2 were confirmed downregulated in MDA-MB231 co-cultured cells with fibroblasts from both negative and positive nodes, in a new series of RT-PCR assays. (
  • In the first part of the proposal, we will determine the cellular responses to various microenvironmental factors (such as lactosis, acidosis, hypoxia, glucose deprivation) in cultured epithelial cells (commercially obtained) making use of DNA microarray analysis. (
  • From the analysis of these microarray assays, we will obtain the gene signatures reflecting how cells respond to these environments stresses. (
  • A. The research materials will include the tumor biopsy obtained before and after HT treatments to be used for gene expression studies as well as for the IHC and ISH studies to the findings from our microarray analysis. (
  • Bone marrow mesenchymal cells were isolated from mice (4 per group) at age 2mo, 8mo and 26mo and replicate mRNA samples were subjected to microarray and real time (RT) PCR analysis. (
  • Homo sapiens: GPL10558: GSE68849: 10: GDS6010: … The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) is an online database for microarray, next generation sequencing and other forms of high-throughput functional genomic data. (
  • The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) is the largest data repository designed for archiving and distributing microarray, next-generation sequencing, and other functional high-throughput genomics data (1, 5, 6). (
  • Age-related changes in mesenchymal stem cells derived from rhesus macaque bone marrow. (
  • Study of DNA Copy Numbers Variations and Gene Expression Profile of Bone Marrow Plasma Cells From MGUS and SMM. (
  • The purpose of this study is to describe DNA copy number variations and gene expression profiles of bone marrow plasma cells of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM). (
  • Large Scale Study of DNA Copy Numbers Variations and Gene Expression Profile of Bone Marrow Plasma Cells From Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) and Indolent Myeloma (SMM). (
  • B cells develop continuously in the bone marrow from hematopoietic stem cells through several precursor stages, including pro-B cells, where immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) recombination occurs, followed by pre-B cells in which the immunoglobulin light chains (IgK or IgL) recombine. (
  • Therefore, we investigated and compared cytokine and gene expression levels from adipose (AD) and bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs relevant to immune modulation from early to late passages. (
  • Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells inhibit the response of naive and memory antigen-specific T cells to their cognate peptide. (
  • Biologic properties of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue. (
  • However, the ability to obtain these cells was maintained through all age ranges with a yield higher than what has been reported from bone marrow. (
  • It has been demonstrated that adipose tissue represents an abundant source of mesenchymal stem cells as well as those obtained from bone marrow. (
  • ADSCs, like bone marrow derived stem cells, adhere to plastic producing fibroblast-like colonies, have a high proliferative capacity, express common surface antigens, and can differentiate in vitro and in vivo toward cells of mesodermal lineage [ 6 ]. (
  • This cell surface marker defines a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) subpopulation and has been used for the enrichment of cells collected from bone marrow aspirates [ 13 , 14 ] and lipoaspirates [ 15 ]. (
  • Found in the bone marrow and in umbilical cord blood , HSCs are critically important because they can replenish the body's supply of blood cells . (
  • Clinical trials of autologous bone marrow derived stem cells (BMDSC) for the treatment of ischemic cardiovascular disease have confirmed a therapeutic benefit but in most cases the improvements have been modest. (
  • Also, some diseases related to hematopoietic system, such as aplastic anemia and complete bone marrow failure, are not especially age-dependent. (
  • Dysregulation of such HSC fate determination processes can lead to loss of immune function, bone marrow failure, and malignant transformation during aging. (
  • Conclusion: Our analysis reveals that by altering gene expression pattern and expressing inflammatory mediators and extracellular matrix components, these cells can directly contribute to muscle wasting in aged mice. (
  • Mechanistically, the reduction in mTOR signaling led to an increase in autophagy induction and restored the hippocampal gene expression signature of the Tg2576 mice to wild-type levels. (
  • Streptozotocin stimulated β-cell replication in young mice but had little effect in old mice. (
  • Thus, β-cells in middle-aged mice appear to be largely postmitotic. (
  • Young rodents may not faithfully model the regenerative capacity of β-cells in mature adult mice. (
  • In contrast, we recently discovered that aged mice have very little evidence of β-cell turnover ( 17 ). (
  • To test this hypothesis, we investigated β-cell regeneration as a function of age in adult mice. (
  • The first set of experiments included male F1 hybrid B6129SF1/J mice (stock 101043), obtained at 1 and 8 months of age from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME). (
  • The second set of experiments used male F1 hybrid B6129SF1/J mice obtained at 1 month of age from the Taconic Farms (Hudson, NY). (
  • The objective of this study was to investigate whether in vivo expression of Klotho would preserve pancreatic β-cell function in db/db mice. (
  • We report for the first time that β-cell-specific expression of Klotho attenuated the development of diabetes in db/db mice. (
  • The beneficial effects of Klotho were associated with significant improvements in T2DM-induced decreases in number of β-cells, insulin storage levels in pancreatic islets, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic islets, which led to increased blood insulin levels in diabetic mice. (
  • Using our recently generated loxP-floxed-FoxN1(fx) mouse carrying the ubiquitous CreER T (uCreER T ) transgene with a low dose of spontaneous activation, which causes gradual FoxN1 deletion with age, we found that the uCreER T -fx/fx mice showed an accelerated age-related thymic involution owing to progressive loss of FoxN1 + TECs. (
  • By intrathymically supplying aged wild-type mice with exogenous FoxN1-cDNA, thymic involution and defective peripheral CD4 + T-cell function could be partially rescued. (
  • The results support the notion that decline of a single epithelial cell-autonomous gene FoxN1 levels with age causes primary deterioration in TECs followed by impairment of the total postnatal thymic microenvironment, and potentially triggers agerelated thymic involution in mice. (
  • Our analysis reveals that the expression levels of most genes are generally preserved in B cell precursors isolated from aged compared with young mice. (
  • New research has provided insight into the HSC's aging process by systematically evaluating the gene expression (whether genes are turned "off" or "on") in cells from both young and old male mice. (
  • But abolishing the circadian clock-for example, by knocking out Bmal1 , a core clock gene-accelerates aging and shortens the life span in mice. (
  • As a result, Bmal1 knockout mice often serve as a model system in studies of the role of circadian rhythms in the aging process. (
  • Another surprising observation was little changes in overall gene expression in the livers of adult-life Bmal1 knockout mice, even though there's a quelling of expression of oscillating genes. (
  • Using a DNA subtractive hybridization approach, we showed that immunoregulation in pv-immunized mice is associated with increased expression of a number of distinct mRNAs in the liver ( 15 ). (
  • Publications] Takamura, T,: 'Transgenic mice overexpressing type 2 nitric oxide synthase in pancreatic β cells develop insulin-dependent diabetes without insulitis'J. (
  • Researchers at Boston Children's Hospital have reprogrammed mature blood cells from mice into blood-forming hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), using a cocktail of eight genetic switches called transcription factors. (
  • Our experiments showed that mice that have progeria, a disorder of premature aging, were healthier and lived longer after an injection of stem cells from young, healthy animals," Dr. Niedernhofer said. (
  • Their team examined a stem/progenitor cell population derived from the muscle of progeria mice and found that compared to those from normal rodents, the cells were fewer in number, did not replicate as often, didn't differentiate as readily into specialized cells and were impaired in their ability to regenerate damaged muscle. (
  • The same defects were discovered in the stem/progenitor cells isolated from very old mice. (
  • We wanted to see if we could rescue these rapidly aging animals, so we injected stem/progenitor cells from young, healthy mice into the abdomens of 17-day-old progeria mice," Dr. Huard said. (
  • Typically the progeria mice die at around 21 to 28 days of age, but the treated animals lived far longer - some even lived beyond 66 days. (
  • As the progeria mice age, they lose muscle mass in their hind limbs, hunch over, tremble, and move slowly and awkwardly. (
  • Affected mice that got a shot of stem cells just before showing the first signs of aging were more like normal mice, and they grew almost as large. (
  • DNAmAge was also found to correlate with age in male C57BL/6 mice (r = 0.79), and was decreased in response to caloric restriction. (
  • Multiple analyses of age-related changes in gene expression have been conducted in various tissues in mice (Barns et al. (
  • Methods and Results- Mice were generated in which the human B -myb gene was driven by the basal cytomegalovirus promoter, and 3 founders were identified. (
  • Among the approximately 1000 differentially responsive genes expressed in both injured groups, there was an intense upregulation of genes related to the inflammatory response (i.e. (
  • Furthermore, miRNA let-7e was identified as potential upstream regulator responsible for the downregulation of Wnt/βCatenin signaling cascade since its silencing in UPCI-SCC-154 cell resulted in upregulation of Wnt-target genes. (
  • However, strong upregulation of the same genes can be induced in Purkinje cells after colchicine injection into the uninjured adult cerebellum, indicating that their expression could be controlled by retrograde signals. (
  • Application of IN-1 antibodies induces the upregulation of c-Jun, JunD, and NADPH diaphorase in Purkinje cells, showing that their expression is suppressed constitutively by myelin-associated neurite growth inhibitors. (
  • We conclude that some changes observed in cellular senescence in vitro do occur in human kidney with age, particularly in the renal cortex, in some cases correlating with histologic features. (
  • The B7-CD28 gene family plays a key role in regulating cellular immunity and is closely related to tumorigenesis and immune evasion. (
  • Using regression, pathway enrichment, and connectivity mapping analyses, they were able to determine associations between age and gene expression, cellular processes, and drug treatment responses, respectively. (
  • Current research on aging will attempt to reverse visible aging characteristics of somatic cells using cellular reprogramming to by-pass senescence. (
  • Scientists have devised a method to measure the impact of age on the growth rates of cellular populations, a development that offers new ways to understand and model the growth of bacteria, and could provide new insights into how genetic factors affect their life cycle. (
  • The study centered on understanding two types of cellular strategies responsive switching, in which cells change their state by reacting to environmental change, and stochastic switching, in which cells randomly activate certain genes, independent of external forces. (
  • The regeneration potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) diminishes with advanced age and this diminished potential is associated with changes in cellular functions. (
  • How to track cellular aging of mesenchymal stromal cells? (
  • Senescence is the biological aging of cells and represents the gradual deterioration of cellular function. (
  • In a series of 11 papers, published in Science and related journals, a consortium of researchers has produced the most richly detailed model of the brain's genetic landscape to date, one that incorporates not only genes but also gene regulators, cellular data and developmental information across the human life span. (
  • In culture it has been observed that cells undergo an irreversible cell cycle arrest known as replicative senescence which is believed to reflect the aging process at a cellular level. (
  • Cellular senescence is an irreversible state of cell cycle arrest. (
  • Aging of the hair follicle appears to be primed by a sustained cellular response to the DNA damage that accumulates in renewing stem cells during aging. (
  • Quantitative methods for assessing cellular age and responsiveness will facilitate the development of appropriate cell expansion and selection protocols. (
  • We have developed a multivariate model capable of extracting combinations of markers that are the most informative to predict cellular age. (
  • The multivariate analysis highlights the information content of both averaged biomarker values and heterogeneity metrics for prediction of cellular age within a T cell population. (
  • Cell membrane glycans mediate various cellular processes such as cell signaling and become altered during carcinogenesis. (
  • By applying the concept of evolution to the cellular denizens in our bodies, the team built a mathematical model that looks at how cells behave as we get older. (
  • In other words, scientists have assumed that we age because the selection pressure isn't perfect: evolution at the cellular level isn't doing its job. (
  • To measure changes in nuclear gene expression resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction in retinal pigment epithelial cells. (
  • ARPE-19 retinal pigment epithelial cells were depleted of their mitochondrial (mt)DNA by passaging in a low concentration of ethidium bromide. (
  • Stromal-epithelial cell interactions also take place in the involved lymph nodes, where some carcinoma cells may attach and grow, in contrast with others that are not capable of establishing regional metastases. (
  • Age-related thymic involution may be triggered by gene expression changes in lymphohematopoietic and/or nonhematopoietic thymic epithelial cells (TECs). (
  • The role of epithelial cell-autonomous gene FoxN1 may be involved in the process, but it is still a puzzle because of the shortage of evidence from gradual loss-of-function and exogenous gain-of-function studies. (
  • GSE140734 Nanopore sequencing reveals isoform-specific alterations in human bronchial epithelial cells … Read on to learn more about what you can look forward to if you're attending PAG this year. (
  • To address this effect, we analyzed the membrane glycosylation of non-cancerous ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE 6.3 and HOSE 17.1) and serous ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV 3, IGROV1, A2780, and OVCAR 3), the most common histotype among epithelial ovarian cancers. (
  • Immunologic aging leads to immune dysfunction, significantly reducing the quality of life of the elderly. (
  • Aged-related defects in early hematopoiesis result in reduced lymphoid cell development, functionally defective mature immune cells, and poor protective responses to vaccines and pathogens. (
  • Here, we explored associations between clinical and immune features and B7-CD28 gene family expression in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets representing 1812 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. (
  • Additionally, expression of programmed cell death 1 ( PD-1 ) and programmed death ligand 1 ( PD-L1 ), as well as several other important immune checkpoint genes, differed between high-risk and low-risk patients, as did the proportions of various immune-infiltrating cells. (
  • Finally, further analysis confirmed that these B7-CD28 genes play important roles in immune responses altered in DLBCL. (
  • Programmed cell death 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) and CTLA-4 are the most common targets of immune-blocking cancer treatments, and many clinical trials are currently investigating the use of corresponding monoclonal antibodies. (
  • Immune evasion is a hallmark of malignant tumors and represents an important step in tumor formation [ 5 ], and the B7-CD28 gene family plays an important role in immune evasion by tumors [ 6 ]. (
  • B7 family ligands and CD28 family receptors are essential for immune responses and proper T cell function. (
  • Their disease course could be affected not only by cell-intrinsic factors, but also by age-related changes impacting the vasculature, immune system and stroma. (
  • By profiling transcriptional and chromatin state dynamics in a mouse model, Elizabeta Gjoneska and colleagues now show that the immune response genes and their regulatory regions are upregulated, whereas those involved in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory are downregulated. (
  • Based on this observation, they proposed the concept that NK cells provide immune surveillance for "missing self," e.g., they eliminate cells that have lost class I MHC antigens. (
  • A number of reports have provided experimental evidence for this hypothesis and remodeling of the immune system was postulated to drive many age-related disorders [ 2 ]. (
  • Aging is characterized by loss of function of the adaptive immune system, but the underlying causes are poorly understood. (
  • The B cell population is a critical pillar of adaptive immunity, involved in generating protective antibodies, presenting antigens, and regulating immune responses. (
  • The function of APC in inducing immune responses depends on the regulated expression of both cytokines (which act on T cells) and costimulatory molecules. (
  • Le Blanc K, Mougiakakos D. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells and the innate immune system. (
  • The aging immune system is often characterized by a general decline in the ability to resist infection and an increase in autoimmune complications such as type 2 diabetes, inflammation, and cancer [ 1 - 9 ]. (
  • One of the underlying causes of the reduced effectiveness of the immune system with age is the involution of the thymus. (
  • A cure for a range of blood disorders and immune diseases is in sight, according to scientists who have unravelled the mystery of stem cell generation. (
  • Advancing age is accompanied by shifts in many qualitative and quantitative aspects of immune function. (
  • Alternatively, some of these features may instead initiate in young individuals and stem from normal immune activity, but their pathogenic actions may only become manifest once the underlying effectors reach a minimum threshold with advancing age. (
  • Although some of these age-associated changes may result from immune dysregulation, others may simply reflect the cumulative influence of antigenic experiences and normal homeostatic processes. (
  • Despite their roles in the innate immune system, myeloid cells can also function as suppressors, although that task has more traditionally been associated with regulatory T cells. (
  • Although cancer cells are less immunogenic than pathogens, the adaptive immune system is able to recognize and eliminate tumor cells. (
  • Cells derived from aged cancer patients have a skewed immune repertoire toward cells that underwent extensive clonal expansion against persistent antigens, resulting in few tumor-specific CTLs ( 6 - 8 ). (
  • We have studied Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) expression, which is involved in the cytotoxic activity, immune privilege, and self-tolerance, and other apoptosis-associated molecule expression of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in healthy subjects with/without cigarette smoking. (
  • These results suggest that aberrant FasL expression of lymphocytes is, at least in part, involved in the immune impairment in individuals with chronic cigarette smoking. (
  • From the changes of immune function theory, it points out that aging is attributed to the decline of immune responses and the increase of autoimmune reactions. (
  • Risk scores assigned based on expression of these genes were validated by Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox analyses in the remaining datasets and in important clinical subsets. (
  • Here we analyzed 19 brain transcriptome age-series datasets, comprising 17 diverse brain regions, to investigate the ubiquity and functional properties of expression reversal in the human brain. (
  • Across all 19 datasets, 25 genes were consistently up-regulated during postnatal development and down-regulated in aging, displaying an "up-down" pattern that was significant as determined by random permutations. (
  • In addition, 113 biological processes, including neuronal and synaptic functions, were consistently associated with genes showing an up-down tendency among all datasets. (
  • The prevalence of gene expression reversal in aging has not yet been systematically tested across different brain regions or in different datasets. (
  • Here we use multiple datasets that measured transcriptome profiles across postnatal development and aging in diverse brain regions, to gain insight into the prevalence and biological essence of the reversal trend. (
  • Analysis of the datasets reveals widespread differential methylation of CG sites between tissues, and methylation at regulatory elements generally has a negative correlation with gene expression as expected. (
  • Gene expression data were validated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) public datasets. (
  • Finally, the analysis of two independent gene expression public datasets of human HNSCC cell lines and tumors confirmed that Wnt/βCatenin pathway is more active in HPV-negative compared to HPV-positive tumors derived from individuals with smoking habit. (
  • In developing biological drugs, scientists often rely on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for early studies. (
  • We investigated the hypothesis that gene expression profiles in cultured cell lines from adults, aged 57-97 years, contain information about the biological age and potential longevity of the donors. (
  • A multivariate estimate of biological age modeled from expression data was dominated by CDC42 expression, and was a significant predictor of survival after blood draw. (
  • Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator model of biological age. (
  • The Biological Sciences Department is located in the Dedman Life Sciences Building on the SMU campus, adjacent to Fondren Science Library, and the closely affiliated Departments of Chemistry and Computer Science.The department has state-of-the-art equipment, including two confocal microscopes, a flow cytometer, shared cell tissue culture facilities and qRT-PCR instrumentation. (
  • UC San Francisco researchers have discovered a new biological pathway in fat cells that could explain why some people with obesity are at high risk for metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes. (
  • The ability to survey the entire genome in an unbiased way is a great asset for the study of complex biological phenomena such as aging. (
  • Lu, 2019 )-suggesting it captures differences in biological rather than chronological aging. (
  • These principles are supported by copious illustrations that clearly represent metabolic reactions, making them accessible and relating them to the ways in which cells respond to stimuli to produce specific biological outcomes. (
  • HPV-positive oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) are specific biological and clinical entities, characterized by a more favorable prognosis compared to HPV-negative OSCCs and occurring generally in non-smoking and non-drinking younger individuals. (
  • Background Estrogen receptor α (ERα) contributes to maintaining biological processes preserving health during aging. (
  • In recent years, many theories about cells aging have been proposed, such as cell damage, biological macromolecules damage, free radical, and the telomeres theory. (
  • The blood of the young , metformin , and senolytics -drugs that wipe out unhealthy "leaky" old cells like a biological spring cleaning-rebooted the faltering bones, hearts and brains of those rodent senior citizens. (
  • We argue that reversals may not represent aging-related neuronal loss. (
  • Aplysia californica (Aplysia), the California sea hare, is a marine mollusk that has been used extensively in research correlating physiological and behavioral declines with gene expression changes in neuronal circuits during aging [ 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ], due to a less complex nervous system than vertebrates. (
  • There is great interest in understanding the stages and transitions of cell development as pluripotent cells follow the neuronal lineage. (
  • COMMENT This looks very interesting as it suggests a new methodology for the analysis and detection of abnormalities in neuronal gene expression associated with AD. (
  • Insulin is the principal hormone that regulates uptake of glucose from the blood into most cells, including skeletal muscle cells and adipocytes. (
  • Insulin also is the major signal that promotes the conversion of glucose to glycogen for internal storage in liver and skeletal muscle cells. (
  • Thus, the purpose herein was to identify if a differential age-dependent genomic signature exists in skeletal muscle following contraction-induced muscle injury. (
  • Modifications of gene expression of skeletal muscle in metabolic diseases and in particular in the subject. (
  • Rats were chosen because we had previously shown that rats are an excellent model for sarcopenia-the age-related loss of skeletal muscle (Ibebunjo et al. (
  • Publication date: Available online 25 July 2019Source: Stem Cell ReportsAuthor(s): Takahiko Sato, Koki Higashioka, Hidetoshi Sakurai, Takuya Yamamoto, Naoki Goshima, Morio Ueno, Chie SotozonoSummaryThe use of adult skeletal muscle stem cells (MuSCs) for cell therapy has been attempted for decades, but still encounters considerable difficulties. (
  • The lack of functionally defined auxin receptors and simple phenotypic traits that are specifically associated with auxin action have hindered the elucidation of the auxin signaling apparatus responsible for gene activation using biochemical and genetic approaches. (
  • smaller black dots represent values generated over 100 of the 1000 random permutations of the phenotypic (age, sex, and survival) data associated with each expression vector. (
  • Such stochasticity in transcription increases the heterogeneity among cells and likely contributes to the phenotypic variance among individuals of identical genotype. (
  • 5 These data clearly indicate that myosin is a reliable marker to study the phenotypic SMC transitions and the factors that can affect the differentiative stability of these cells. (
  • These chromatin changes might be the base to subtle phenotypic variations that become more prominent as twins (as well as closely related individuals) age. (
  • Background: During aging, muscle tissue undergoes profound changes which lead to a decline in its functional and regenerative capacity. (
  • Functional profiling of genes was carried out using PANTHER Classification System. (
  • thus, one of the goals in the treatment of T2DM is to preserve functional β-cells in pancreatic islets. (
  • AGE receptors, receptor recognition factors and functional classification of AGEs. (
  • Publications] Ogawa, H.: 'Functional properties of the unc-64 gene encoding a Caenorhabditis elegans syntaxin'J. (
  • The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database is an international public repository that archives and freely distributes high-throughput gene expression and other functional genomics data sets. (
  • functional genomic data (see, Offer simple submission procedures and formats that support complete and well-annotated Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) is a database for Gene expression profiling and RNA methylation profiling managed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). (
  • Mainly contributing to this popularity is the highly parallel nature of these techniques and the concomitant conservation of time and resources brought about by the large number of simultaneous (or near-simulta… The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database is an international public repository that archives and freely distributes high-throughput gene expression and other functional genomics data sets. (
  • The stem cell theory of aging postulates that the aging process is the result of the inability of various types of stem cells to continue to replenish the tissues of an organism with functional differentiated cells capable of maintaining that tissue's (or organ's) original function. (
  • Consequently, all clone of cells derived from GSC are marked with a functional lacZ gene. (
  • Adoptive therapy with cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs) 1 relies on the isolation of functional and tumor specific T cells and large in vitro clonal expansion. (
  • Aging refers to a gradual process of functional and organic recession with the age increased after the organism maturing. (
  • The extent to which glycosylation changes are influenced by aberrant regulation of gene expression is nearly unknown for ovarian cancer and remains crucial in understanding the development and progression of this disease. (
  • obtained from Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array, for 14 mouse muscle satellite cell samples (5 young, 4 middle-aged, and 5 aged), were retrieved from public Gene Expression Omnibus repository. (
  • In this study, we hypothesized decreased DNA methylation of ESR1 associated with postmenopause, lower estradiol (E2) levels, and increased age among healthy middle-aged and older women. (
  • The results lead to the hypothesis that loss of mitochondrial function with age and resultant changes in nuclear gene expression may explain some of the changes in the macula that are associated with the known clinical manifestations of age-related macular degeneration. (
  • Here, we evaluated this hypothesis at the level of gene regulation. (
  • According to the "missing self" hypothesis proposed by Kärre and colleagues ( 5 ), NK cells might accomplish this by looking for and eliminating cells with aberrant MHC class I expression. (
  • This cross-sectional study supports the hypothesis that impaired expression of adipogenic genes may result in impaired adipogenesis, potentially leading to larger fat cells in subcutaneous adipose tissue and insulin resistance. (
  • This supports our hypothesis that autologous BMDSCs from aged subjects are therapeutically defective. (
  • This study supports the hypothesis that mitochondria, the batteries of the cells, are determinants in the ageing process," says Joao Passos at the Newcastle University Institute for Ageing, UK. (
  • However, fibroblasts effects are distinct in each one of the breast cancer lineages, suggesting that the inter-relationships between stromal and malignant cells are dependent on the intrinsic subtype of the tumor. (
  • In breast cancer primary tumor, a desmoplastic reaction usually arises, creating a suitable microenvironment for a cross-talk between stromal fibroblasts and malignant cells. (
  • Out of the top 1,000 age-associated genes in tumor samples, 383 were commonly downregulated with age and 294 were commonly upregulated with age in two large data sets ( P less than 2.2 x 10-16). (
  • In 1986, Kärre and colleagues reported that natural killer (NK) cells rejected an MHC class I-deficient tumor cell line (RMA-S) but they did not reject the same cell line if it expressed MHC class I (RMA). (
  • This seminal observation predicted the existence of inhibitory NK cell receptors for MHC class I. Here, we present evidence that NK cells are able to reject tumors expressing MHC class I if the tumor expresses a ligand for NKG2D. (
  • Mock-transfected RMA cells resulted in tumor formation. (
  • The tumor rejection was mediated by NK cells, and not by CD1-restricted NK1.1 + T cells. (
  • No T cell-mediated immunological memory against the parental tumor was generated in the animals that had rejected the RAE-1 transfected tumors, which succumbed to rechallenge with the parental RMA tumor. (
  • Therefore, NK cells are able to reject a tumor expressing RAE-1 molecules, despite expression of self MHC class I on the tumor, demonstrating the potential for NK cells to participate in immunity against class I-bearing malignancies. (
  • These are expressed on many human tumor cell lines, on several freshly isolated tumor specimens, and at low levels on gut epithelium ( 18 ). (
  • To achieve this goal, we will perform gene expression analysis of the tumor samples collected from an IRB-approved study (IRB #: 4516-05-2R2) International Phase III Study of Chemoradiotherapy versus Chemoradiotherapy Plus Hyperthermia for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer directed by Dr. Mark Dewhirst. (
  • We will correlate the gene expression signatures of different microenvironmental stresses with the measured physiological parameters to understand their role in tumor progression, treatment response and clinical outcomes. (
  • However, the gene expressions of tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene (TSG)-6 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G were decreased and gene expressions of galectin-1 and -3 were increased in both AD- and BM-MSCs with repeated passages. (
  • MDSCs are widely known for their capacity to suppress host T cell responses against tumor tissue, but they can also be generated upon other stressful conditions, from infections to autoimmunity and obesity, and suppress other cell types, including dendritic cells, NK cells, or macrophages ( 2 - 5 ). (
  • Adoptive T-cell transfer therapy relies upon in vitro expansion of autologous cytotoxic T cells that are capable of tumor recognition. (
  • Once isolated the tumor infiltrating cells go through a prolonged ex vivo culture process. (
  • To obtain sufficient number of cells before transfer, tumor specific CTLs are activated and undergo several rounds of divisions, resulting in the progressive shortening of telomeres. (
  • Once transferred in the cancer patient, these replicative senescent cells will not be able to eliminate tumor cells and further proliferate, thereby hindering the efficacy of these therapies ( 11 , 12 ). (
  • The deletion of this gene has been reported associated with Wilms tumor. (
  • We compared two data sets of genome-wide gene expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs): one that captured aging effects and another that focused on chronic social stress. (
  • Recent genome-wide association studies have shown substantial genetic variation in non-coding regions associated with Alzheimer's disease, suggesting the involvement of aberrant gene regulation. (
  • we analyzed genome-wide changes in gene expression in athd1-t1 lines during vegetative growth and flower development. (
  • In a recent genome-wide longevity study, its expression levels were found to be negatively associated both with age at the time of blood sample and the survival time after blood draw. (
  • Small trials using younger donors and elderly recipients hint that mesenchymal stem cell transfers might reduce frailty. (
  • The HSC, a type of adult stem cell, holds great promise for future biomedical applications because of its ability to self-renew and develop into any kind of blood cell. (
  • Taken together, this study provides a comprehensive analysis of the genomic properties of young and old mouse HSCs and suggests how changes in the stem cell during aging promotes self-renewal and hinders HSCs' ability to transition into other types of blood cells. (
  • Cell Stem Cell. (
  • Our findings propose CD271 + ADSCs as the primary choice for tissue regeneration and autologous stem cell therapies in older subjects. (
  • Also, ADSCs have the ability to be induced into cells derived from all three germ layers [ 6 - 10 ] and are capable of suppressing immunoreactivity [ 11 ], making them ideal for stem cell-based therapies. (
  • That tells us that stem cell dysfunction is a cause of the changes we see with aging. (
  • This leads us to think that healthy cells secrete factors to create an environment that help correct the dysfunction present in the native stem cell population and aged tissue," Dr. Niedernhofer said. (
  • HPV-negative UPCI-SCC-131 and HPV16-positive UPCI-SCC-154 cell lines were compared by whole genome gene expression profiling and subsequently studied for activation of Wnt/βCatenin signaling pathway by the expression of several Wnt-target genes, βCatenin intracellular localization, stem cell features and miRNA let-7e. (
  • Interestingly, HPV-negative OSCC cells showed higher levels of total βCatenin and its active form, increase of its nuclear accumulation and more prominent stem cell traits. (
  • MuSCs derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are promising candidates for stem cell therapy to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). (
  • Here, we demonstrate that the selective, targeted degradation by AUF1 of key muscle stem cell fate-determining checkpoint mRNAs regulates each stage of muscle. (
  • Maintaining the dynamic balance of stem cell pools requires several conditions. (
  • have reviewed evidence that age-dependent accumulation of DNA damage in both stem cells and cells that comprise the stem cell microenvironment is responsible, at least in part, for stem cell dysfunction with aging. (
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSC), Regulation of Stem Cell Fate, Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Mouse Models of Leukemogenesis, Testing of novel stem cell-directed therapeutics on primary human HSCs. (
  • The labile iron pool as a rheostat for stem cell function. (
  • Improving stem cell-directed therapies. (
  • To fully dissect the role of mTOR in the pathogenesis of AD, we used a genetic approach and selectively ablated one mTOR gene from the forebrain of an animal model of AD. (
  • Our genetic understanding of coronary artery disease, combined with increasing sophistication of gene editing technologies, have aligned to create a transformative moment in the treatment of this disease," Kathiresan said in a statement. (
  • Verve aims to commercialize genetic research conducted by its founders and others that has identified healthy adults who carry naturally occurring gene variants that dramatically lower their lifetime risk of coronary artery disease and heart attacks. (
  • Co-senior author Wolf Reik shares , "It's easy to see that different types of cells would have different genetic activity. (
  • Potentially it's imaginable that you could even correct genetic defects in cells and then transplant them back into the body," Professor Currie said. (
  • The connection between insulin resistance and genetic expression (particularly in relation to exercise) was raised in last week's comments. (
  • Damage and error accumulation in genetic material is always a problem for systems regardless of the age. (
  • For the organism, there are many factors that influence cell ageing, both inherited genetic factors and environmental factors, but the basic cause is the heredity factors. (
  • Our cells are like the protagonists of a dystopian novel: they're born into a rigid society with designated roles to play, and as they age and lose function, like clockwork, they turn on a genetic program that commands them to commit suicide for the greater good-the overall health of the organism they make up. (
  • Just like studying how genetic changes in a species drives its evolution, scientists can also use similar basic principles to track how cells behave when faced with a changing environment-for example, as we grow old. (
  • GWAS show that genetic variations of the CPVL gene are associated with susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in European Americans, Japanese and Chinese. (
  • It was previously reported that mRNA expression levels in the prefrontal cortex at old age start to resemble pre-adult levels. (
  • Publications] Nomura, M.: 'Placenta growth factor (P1GF) mRNA expression in brain tumors'Journal of Neuro-oncology. (
  • Total B-Myb levels were elevated in aortas of adult transgenic versus wild-type (WT) animals and varied inversely with α1(I) collagen mRNA expression. (
  • Control elements of the tetracycline-resistance operon encoded in Tn10 of Escherichia coli have been utilized to establish a highly efficient regulatory system in mammalian cells. (
  • Mesenchymal cells recruit and regulate T regulatory cells. (
  • A plot from Dr. Gerstein's paper showing the gene regulatory network in a specific brain cell. (
  • 1.7-fold) in relation to age, representing structural, metabolic, and regulatory gene classes. (
  • In contrast, age2 exhibited ectopic GUS expression associated with the root vascular tissue, even in the absence of exogenous IAA. (
  • The ρ 0 cells also exhibited an increased sensitivity to killing by tBH and increased migration and invasion through solubulized basement membrane-coated tissue culture inserts. (
  • 1 2 The RPE is a terminally differentiated tissue that ages in a unique fashion and in which changes with age have been implicated in the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), 3 4 the leading cause of untreatable vision loss in persons older than 65 years in developed countries. (
  • Similar to the findings in lymphocytes, we observed increased phosphorylation of S6K1 in brain tissue from patients with FXS (n = 4) compared to normal age-matched controls (n = 4). (
  • Obesity is characterized by an increase in adipose tissue mass resulting from enlargement of existing fat cells (hypertrophy) and/or from increased number of adipocytes (hyperplasia). (
  • The inability of the adipose tissue to recruit new fat cells may cause ectopic fat deposition and insulin resistance. (
  • Often researchers can count the number of different types of transcripts in the transcriptome to determine the level of activity of different genes, also called gene expression, in a certain cell or tissue type. (
  • induces various developmental abnormalities and ectopic expression of tissue-specific genes such as SUPERMAN ( T ian and C hen 2001 ). (
  • Given that the aged thymus consists of large areas of fat and connective tissue [ 26 , 27 ], we have focused our efforts on performed DNA array analysis specifically on isolated thymocyte populations in order to obtain a clearer picture of which genes or gene families may demonstrate altered expression levels with age. (
  • In fact, the cells didn't migrate to any particular tissue after injection into the abdomen. (
  • Though oxidative damage ( Beckman and Ames, 1998 ) and damaged DNA have become favored candidates to "cause" aging, it remains unknown what the most important source and targets of damage are, or if there is a common rate limiting step for aging in a given organism or tissue. (
  • However, non-deterministic changes in the chromatin structure might also be a contributing factor to the breakdown of nuclear, cell and tissue function and ultimately causing the very symptoms of aging. (
  • However there is a tendency for DNA methylation to increase at certain sites as aging progresses which supports the idea that heterochromatin accumulates with tissue aging at these sites. (
  • A small number of genes are regulated by aging in the same manner in every tissue, suggesting they may be more-universal markers of aging. (
  • An advantage of that method is that easily accessible tissue, such as blood, can be used to determine and cross-compare a human's aging status (Gross et al. (
  • 2013). Here, we applied that experience to other tissues to develop a full multi-tissue aging signature. (
  • The FDA's decision was the culmination of a string of high-profile animal studies that tried-and succeeded-in reversing tissue decay in aged rodents. (
  • Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until death. (
  • Many researchers have tried to elucidate aging mechanism which includes the free radical theory: free radicals can become lipofuscin and cause the mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and the damage of the nuclear DNA. (
  • Cancer mutations represent changes to traits [that] regulate the cell cycle and cause a cell to break the rules and divide when it's not supposed to or decline to die when it is supposed to," the team says. (
  • Aging undoubtedly involves changes in multiple genes involved in multiple processes, some of which may not yet be known. (
  • Inhibition of ARID3a in bulk human cord blood CD34 + hematopoietic progenitors led to developmental skewing toward myeloid lineage at the expense of lymphoid lineage cells in vitro. (
  • We have shown that disrupting the expression of AtHD1 that encodes a putative Arabidopsis thaliana histone deacetylase induces a variety of developmental abnormalities. (
  • The data suggest that histone acetylation and deacetylation are promoter dependent, locus specific, and genetically reversible, which provides a general mechanism for reversible gene regulation responsive to developmental and environmental changes. (
  • show that the developmental timing of Bmal1 expression influences the circadian clock's effects on aging and survival. (
  • Manuscripts are encouraged that relate to developmental programming of aging and the synergistic mechanism of aging with cardiovascular diseases, obesity and neurodegenerative disorders. (
  • Chromatin structure is dynamic and goes through extensive developmental and age-associated remodeling that appear to counter the aging and age-associated diseases, such as cancer, and extend the organismal lifespan. (
  • Our results implicate hyperactive mTOR signaling as a previous unidentified signaling pathway underlying gene-expression dysregulation and cognitive deficits in AD. (
  • Changes in cyclin expression differed across all genes, diseases and time points analyzed, although CCNA1 and CCNE1 expression increased with age in the three models suggesting that there is a dysregulation of cell cycle gene expression in all three diseases. (
  • Effects of ARID3a expression in adult-derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have not been analyzed, nor has ARID3a expression been assessed in relationship to age. (
  • Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) produce lymphoid and myeloid blood cells. (
  • Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) regenerate the blood system throughout life and maintain homeostasis. (
  • Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) maintain multi-lineage blood formation throughout our lifetime. (
  • Furthermore, a recent comprehensive analysis of different rodent retinal mutants, along with a light-induced retinal degeneration model, clearly demonstrated that reactivation of the expression of cell cycle genes did not correlate with PR cell division as determined by ethynyl deoxyuridine incorporation and phospho histone H3 (PHH3) labeling. (
  • Similarly, connectivity map analysis showed that age-dependent gene expression may improve candidacy of older ccRCC patients for PI3K inhibition. (
  • We have used antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) to MD-1 to investigate the effect of inhibition of expression of MD-1 by DC on their function as allostimulatory cells. (
  • In short, the emerging picture we are getting at is that inhibition of certain HDACs result in beneficial gene expression, while inhibition of others, such as HDAC1, leads to detrimental effects such as expression of cell cycle genes. (
  • Because Caenorhabditis elegans is relatively resistant to OP lethality-particularly through the inhibition of AChE-studies in this nematode provide an opportunity to observe alterations in global gene expression following OP exposure that cannot be readily observed in less resistant organisms. (
  • From the view of heredity, aging is the results of the activation and inhibition of a series of genes as well as the products of their interaction. (
  • A surprising amount of non-CG methylation is found in a subpopulation of cells in many tissues. (
  • A previous collaboration between the two groups gave us single cell methylome and transcriptome sequencing (scM&T-seq) , and now, the talented team throws nucleosomes occupancy into the mix by adapting Nucleosome Occupancy and Methylation sequencing (NOMe-seq) to give us Single-cell Nucleosome, Methylation, Transcription sequencing (scNMT-seq). (
  • In mammals, there is an age associated decline in genomic DNA methylation at certain DNA sequences which has been theorized to promote the deheterochromatinization of these regions. (
  • Methods We assessed DNA methylation of ESR1 promoter region from dried blood spots (DBSs) and E2 from saliva samples in 130 healthy women aged 40-73 years. (
  • We then analyzed gene expression using whole genome microarrays from RNA obtained from worms sampled at multiple time points throughout the exposure. (
  • In an effort to resolve some of the issues surrounding acute, transient, and low-level exposures to OPs, we have undertaken studies tracking both development of and recovery from OP intoxication at the global gene expression level using the genomic model organism Caenorhabditis elegans and Affymetrix whole genome C. elegans GeneChip microarrays. (
  • Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) is a database repository of high throughput gene expression data and hybridization arrays, chips, microarrays. (
  • Der Gene Expression Omnibus listet unter anderem Rohdaten aus RNA-Seq und Microarrays, welche in Hochdurchsatzverfahren erzeugt wurden. (
  • Somatic cells in vitro have a finite life expectancy before entering a state of senescence. (
  • Increasing ARID3a levels of HSCs from aged donors in vitro alters B lineage development and maturation. (
  • The really exciting thing about these results is that if we can find the signals present in the endotome cells responsible for embryonic HSC formation then we can use them in vitro to make different blood cells on demand for all sorts of blood related disorder. (
  • AbstractObjectiveTo evaluate whether the berberine treatment can improve endothelial repair capacity of early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from prehypertensive subjects through increasing CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) signaling.MethodsEPCs were isolated from prehypertensive and healthy subjects and cultured.In vivo reendothelialization capacity of EPCs from prehypertensive patients with or withoutin vitro berberine treatment was examined in a nude mouse model of carotid artery injury. (
  • Clustering was performed on transcriptome-wide log2 gene expression levels (n=26,599 gene probes, m=20,577 mapped genes) using Euclidean distance measures and complete linkage. (
  • For this study, the researchers used several techniques, including a process called transcriptome analysis, to determine the extent to which genes are on or off depending on the age of the HSCs. (
  • A transcriptome is a collection of all the transcripts present in a given cell. (
  • Independent allelic transcription generates fluctuations in the single-cell transcriptome. (
  • We assessed the nm23-H1 gene product expression and its relationship with lymphatic and blood vessel invasion in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (
  • In patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, there appears to be an inverse relationship between nm23-H1 gene product expression and lymphatic vessel invasion. (
  • What remains to be seen, however, is whether nm23-H1 gene product expression is associated with lymphatic or blood vessel invasion in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (
  • Forty-five randomly selected patients (39 men, 6 women) with primary esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who were treated surgically at Miyazaki Medical College were included in this study. (
  • β-Cell mass can slowly expand in adult rodents in response to increased insulin requirements ( 3 ) or during pregnancy ( 4 ). (
  • This regenerative capacity has prompted speculation that regeneration of β-cell function might someday be possible in adult patients with diabetes ( 8 ). (
  • A developer of gene editing-based therapies launched today with $58.5 million in Series A financing, will license CRISPR patents from the Broad Institute and Harvard University, and partner with Beam Therapeutics, to develop cardiovascular treatments based on editing the adult human genome. (
  • All therapeutics to be developed by Verve involve making edits in adult (somatic) cells, which are not passed down to offspring. (
  • To address the question of whether inhibitory environmental cues along the axon could exert a negative, tonic downregulation of growth-associated genes, we have examined adult rat Purkinje cells, which are endowed with poor regenerative capabilities. (
  • Conclusions- Data indicate that B-Myb, which inhibits matrix gene expression in the adult vessel wall, reduces neointima formation after vascular injury. (
  • 12,13,16-19 We demonstrated that B-Myb is a strong negative regulator of MBS-driven reporter activity and matrix gene promoters in cultured adult vascular SMCs. (
  • Bar graph shows differences in LEP-specific gene expression, and IGFBP6 a MEP-specific gene, in young LEP after 10 days culture on young (white) or old (black) MEP feeders. (
  • Despite these differences, all animals show a similar pattern in their life spans - growth, adulthood, and aging, followed by death. (
  • Some expression levels were negligibly associated with age in this cross-sectional dataset, but strongly associated with inter-individual differences in survival. (
  • A conversation with plant biologists on the age-old dispute over the similarities and differences between plants and animals. (
  • Individual cells within populations are subject to the force of selection, which results from differences in growth rates. (
  • They showed that individual histories of cells their lineages would reveal differences between stochastic and responsive switching. (
  • 8 Furthermore, differences in skin architecture, structure and composition depending on ethnicity can lead to different onsets of aging, 9 although UV irradiation is still the most important factor. (
  • These differences in gene expression are responsible for the many different properties and behaviors of various cells and tissues as they experience health, normal aging, and disease. (
  • Researchers found, for instance, that genes regulated by a growth factor called TGF-β showed differences in expression between young and old HSC cells. (
  • Age-dependent differences in whole-genome gene expression response to contraction-induced muscle injury. (
  • Also, differences in the expression of chromatin modifiers have been found throughout senescence and aging. (
  • In this study, we report the age-associated differences between fetal MSC (fMSC) populations and MSCs isolated from elderly donors with respect to their transcriptomes. (
  • Cellerino's team looked at differences in gene expression of individual fish that lived to different ages. (
  • One of the most significant differences was in a group of genes involved in respiration inside mitochondria, cell components involved in generating energy. (
  • interactions between these ligands and receptors can stimulate or inhibit T cell activation [ 7 , 8 ]. (
  • Recently, activating NK cell receptors specific for classic MHC class I molecules, nonclassic MHC class I molecules or MHC class I-related molecules have been described (reviewed in ref. 13 ). (
  • Some receptors on T cells, such as CTLA4, are thought to convey an inhibitory signal to the T cell following engagement by CD80/CD86. (
  • Our findings represent a dramatic divergence from the current dogma, which works primarily on the premise that neurotransmitters like serotonin and dopamine act solely through the activation of their membrane receptors in the brain to regulate brain cell activity," says Ian Maze, PhD, Assistant Professor of Neuroscience, and Pharmacological Sciences, at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, and senior author of the paper. (
  • Different cell surface receptors, such as the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (CD271), have been used as targets for ADSCs antibody based isolation. (
  • Eat a diet that is high in sugar, and gene expression moves in a direction that produces more insulin, that shuts off insulin receptors, that down-regulates lipase and other enzymes involved in fat-burning, that increases pro-inflammatory cytokines, etc. (
  • When you change to a diet low in sugars and rich in healthy fats, those or other genes are directed to reduce inflammatory expression, down-regulate insulin-producing metabolic machinery, up-regulate insulin receptors and rebuild cell membranes to reflect the presence of better building materials (omega 3 fatty acids, etc. (
  • a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More. (
  • Tight control of gene expression in mammalian cells by tetracycline-responsive promoters. (
  • Thus, the system not only allows differential control of the activity of an individual gene in mammalian cells but also is suitable for creation of "on/off" situations for such genes in a reversible way. (
  • Elevated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling has been found in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and is linked to diabetes and aging, two known risk factors for AD. (
  • Or is mammalian β-cell replication limited by unrealized factors? (
  • We conclude that independent and stochastic allelic transcription generates abundant random monoallelic expression in the mammalian cell. (
  • In most mammalian systems, the capacity of endothelial cells to divide is limited and endothelial cells are prone to be senescent. (
  • Hence, chronic stress has been hypothesized to directly exacerbate the process of physiological aging. (
  • What physiological signals regulate HDAC1 expression? (
  • Aging is not a disease, but a series of physiological events that are usually inevitable [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Endothelial cells (ECs) form monolayers and line the interior surfaces of blood vessels in the entire body. (
  • Senescence of endothelial cells (ECs) impaired vascular functions, leading to aging of tissues and organ [ 4 ]. (
  • Expression of p16INK4a and other cell cycle regulator and senescence associated genes in aging human kidney. (
  • and the second aspect is the maintenance of cells basic functions, the stop of growth, but it still maintains the metabolism. (
  • Our data reveal decreased frequencies of ARID3a-expressing peripheral blood HSCs from aged healthy individuals compared with young donor HSCs. (
  • NVAMD is associated with altered gene expression in peripheral WBCs that is not underlined by the major risk SNPs for the disease. (
  • Snyder-Mackler, N , Somel, M & Tung, J 2014, ' Shared signatures of social stress and aging in peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression profiles ', Aging Cell , vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 954-957. (
  • The decline in adaptive immunity, naïve T-cell output and a contraction in the peripheral T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire with age are largely attributable to thymic involution and the loss of critical cytokines and hormones within the thymic microenvironment. (
  • As the thymus involutes, there is a resulting decrease in naïve T cell output, and consequently memory T cells occupy a larger portion of the peripheral T cell pool [ 10 - 16 ]. (
  • However, this loss in thymic output with age does not result in any significant change in the total number of peripheral T cells. (
  • The maintenance of peripheral T-cell numbers appears to be regulated via a thymus-independent homeostatic process involving expansion of mature peripheral T cells which results in a much more limited T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire with age. (
  • Organism(s) Platform Series Samples GDS6063: Influenza A effect on plasmacytoid dendritic cells. (
  • Created in 2000 as a worldwide resource for gene expression studies, GEO has evolved with rapidly changing technologies and now accepts high-throughput data for … Use the "plus" button to add another organism or group, and the "exclude" checkbox to narrow the subset. (
  • These cancerous cells cheat the system: rather than cooperating for the greater good, they're all for themselves and harm the organism they inhabit. (
  • HSCs are one of the best therapeutic tools at our disposal because they can make any blood cell in the body. (
  • Professor Currie said when playing back these films they noticed that HSCs require a "buddy" cell type to help them form. (
  • Endotome cells act like a comfy sofa for pre HSCs to snuggle into, helping them progress to become fully fledged stem cells. (
  • DNA strand breaks accumulate in long term HSCs during aging. (
  • Lig4 deficiency in the mouse causes a progressive loss of HSCs during aging. (
  • Association of creatin kinase B and peroxiredoxin 2 expression with age and embryo quality in cumulus cells," Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics , vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 629-639, 2010. (
  • C. elegans is a powerful model system for the study of aging, because of its genetics, relatively short life span, and ease of propagation of populations of synchronized individuals. (
  • Broadly speaking, growing populations are dominated by relatively young cells. (
  • The cells best suited for given conditions survive while others die off another example of selection within populations. (
  • A typical ADSCs extraction protocol yields heterogeneous cell populations which may be homogenized through culture. (
  • With correct experimental design and statistical analysis, differential gene expression between two or more populations can be obtained with high confidence. (
  • In contrast, most axotomized Purkinje cells fail to express any of these markers, showing that the strength of this response parallels the regenerative potential of the examined neuron populations. (
  • We found that human kidneys expressed relatively constant levels of mRNAs for genes potentially related to senescence. (
  • LEP were separated by FACS after 10 days co-culture either with young MEP (Y/Y) or old MEP (Y/O). LEP from Y/Y and Y/O were further co-cultured with young MEP (Y/Y/Y and Y/O/Y) or older MEP (Y/O/O). ( E ) Bar graphs showing gene expression levels of KRT19, ELF5 and IGFBP6 in LEP following the 7-day culture experiments. (
  • Upon integration of a luciferase gene controlled by a tTA-dependent promoter into a tTA-producing HeLa cell line, high levels of luciferase expression were monitored. (
  • Approximately 16% of 2151 expression levels were associated with donor age: 10% decreased in expression with age, and 6% increased with age. (
  • The standardized linear effect of age on each of 2151 expression levels among 104 CEU grandparents is plotted on the x -axis against the standardized effect of each expression level on mortality (log hazard rate ratio). (
  • From single-cell analysis to whole-genome sequencing, this year's best new products shine on many levels. (
  • Moreover, there are many situations in which activated NK cells can kill tumors expressing normal levels of MHC class I ( 9 - 12 ). (
  • In addition, β-cell-specific expression of Klotho decreased intracellular superoxide levels, oxidative damage, apoptosis, and DNAJC3 (a marker for endoplasmic reticulum stress) in pancreatic islets. (
  • Following removal of dichlorvos, the gene expression in the worms appeared to relatively rapidly return to steady-state levels. (
  • Yet, much about aging remains a mystery, and new technologies that allow the simultaneous assay of expression levels of thousands of genes have been applied to the question of how and why aging might occur. (
  • Quantitative PCR was employed to validate expression levels for caldesmon, SWI/SNF (BAF60b), and four-and-a-half LIM domains 1. (
  • Chronic low-grade inflammation is considered a driver of many age-related disorders, including vascular diseases (inflammaging). (
  • We thus investigated gene expression of inflammasome components in PBMC of 77 vascular patients (age 22-82) in association with age. (
  • No difference in gene expression of AIM2, NLRP3, ASC CASP1 , and CASP5 was detected between PBMC of patients with advanced atherosclerosis and other vascular patients, whereas IL1B expression was increased in PBMC of the latter group ( P = 0.0005). (
  • Two genes coding for NM-MyHC isoforms, named MyHC-A (196 kD) and MyHC-B (198/200 kD), are expressed in vascular SMCs 6 7 and have been mapped to chromosomes 22q11.2 and 17p13, respectively. (
  • Aging of ECs and resultant endothelial dysfunction lead to a variety of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellites, hypertension, and ischemic injury. (
  • Endothelial mitochondrial oxidative stress is implicated in senescent vascular events and AMPK plays a defensive role in this oxidative stress in aging ECs [ 12 ]. (
  • For example, it relaxes the vascular endothelium and smooth muscle cells, which is important to maintaining clean arteries as one ages, says first author Zhi-Sheng Jiang, of the University of South China, Hunan. (
  • Objectives- The function of B-Myb, a negative regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) matrix gene transcription, was analyzed in the vasculature. (
  • Recently, we implicated B- myb , a member of the myb gene family, in repression of matrix gene expression in vascular SMCs. (
  • Here, we have collected research papers describing the main findings of the NIH Roadmap Epigenomics Program, the aim of which was to systematically characterize epigenomic landscapes in primary human tissues and cells. (
  • Therefore, NK cells need to sense if cells are transformed, infected, or "stressed" to discriminate between abnormal and healthy tissues. (
  • One of the major small non-coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been studied with focus on their function as well as their unique expression in tissues and organs for the last two decades [ 13 , 14 ]. (
  • Closer examination showed new blood vessel growth in the brain and muscle, even though the stem/progenitor cells weren't detected in those tissues. (
  • There are also several challenges when it comes to therapeutic use of stem cells and their ability to replenish organs and tissues. (
  • In a way, these cells live in a "police state" through competition: healthy cells beat out the aged ones for space and nutrients, which ensures that the societies they make up-tissues and organs-are run by healthy members and function in tip-top shape. (
  • T-cell therapies are not just for cancer. (
  • The company said it plans to build on that research by developing gene editing therapies that confer lifelong protection in adults at risk of coronary artery disease. (
  • Among those therapies, adoptive transfer of T cells has resulted in encouraging clinical trials for treating metastatic melanoma as well as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and neuroblastoma ( 3 - 5 ). (
  • Identification of differentially expressed markers in human follicular cells associated with competent oocytes," Human Reproduction , vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 1118-1127, 2008. (
  • We have previously shown that human kidney cortex displays telomere shortening with age. (
  • Sadly, expansion of bona fide human β-cells has not been convincingly demonstrated ( 13 - 15 ). (
  • Researchers describe how gene expression in different human brain regions is altered with age. (
  • Scientists use human stem cells to show that nuclear defects may play a role in Parkinson's disease, and suggest a way to reverse the problem. (
  • The company will also receive exclusive access to base editing, gene editing, and delivery technologies for human therapeutic applications against specified cardiovascular targets from Beam Therapeutics-a year-old developer of base-editing treatments that launched last year and had raised $222 million as of March . (
  • Human muscle cells were cultured in gelatin-coated plates until they formed myo-fibers without contraction. (
  • Nikolaos K. Robakis on C-terminal maturation fragments of presenilin 1 and 2 control secretion of APP alpha and A beta by human cells and are degraded by proteasome. (
  • Human mesenchymal stem cells modulate B-cell functions. (
  • Sotiropoulou PA, Perez SA, Gritzapis AD, Baxevanis CN, Papamichail M. Interactions between human mesenchymal stem cells and natural killer cells. (
  • The efficiency of mutS-dependent mismatch repair with human cell extracts was also not affected by the magnetic field exposure. (
  • Researchers have determined that cells in the human heart develop into adulthood by looking at the amount of carbon 14 in the atmosphere from above-ground nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960. (
  • About 50 percent of the heart cells a human is born with will regenerate during a lifetime. (
  • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory scientist Bruce Buchholz with colleagues from the Karolinska Institute, Université Claude Bernard Lyon, Lund University and Lund University Hospital, found that cells in a human heart can develop into adulthood and the age of heart cells is, on average, six years younger than the individual. (
  • DNA of myocardial cells is synthesized many years after birth, indicating that cells in the human heart do, in fact, renew into adulthood," Buchholz said. (
  • Citation Query GeneFriends: a human RNA-seq-based gene and transcript co-expression database. (
  • GeneFriends: a human RNA-seq-based gene and transcript co-expression database. (
  • Warner came to this conclusion after analyzing human case of Hutchinson's Gilford syndrome and mouse models of accelerated aging. (
  • Effects of cigarette smoking on Fas/Fas ligand expression of human lymphocytes. (
  • Back in 2016, when the FDA green lighted metformin-a drug that's shown to boost lifespan by up to 40 percent in animal models-for human trials, it signaled the first spark of a paradigm shift in how we view aging and longevity. (
  • With many treatments entering human trials for aging-associated diseases and unfaltering interest (and funding) from the private sector, momentum in the field shows no signs of stopping. (
  • Cells also make various modifications along the genome, such as adding chemical "markers" to their DNA. (
  • Even if you have so-called markers for "defective" genes, that doesn't mean they will be expressed. (
  • There was an enrichment of genes involved in antigen presentation among the AMD-associated genes ( P = 0.0029). (
  • Myeloid cells, such as granulocytes/neutrophils and macrophages, have responsibilities that include pathogen destruction, waste material degradation, or antigen presentation upon inflammation. (