Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors: A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Birth Injuries: Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.Smad1 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Smad Proteins: A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3: A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Smad5 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and is essential for PHYSIOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15: A protein that plays a role in GRANULOSA CELLS where it regulates folliculogenesis. Mutations in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein 15 are linked to reproductive abnormalities such as PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1: A bone morphogenetic protein family member that includes an active tolloid-like metalloproteinase domain. The metalloproteinase activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is specific for the removal of the C-propeptide of PROCOLLAGEN and may act as a regulator of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX deposition. Alternative splicing of MRNA for bone morphogenetic protein 1 results in the production of several PROTEIN ISOFORMS.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Smad6 Protein: An inhibitory Smad protein that negatively regulates the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS from BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. Smad6 inhibits PHOSPHORYLATION of SMAD2 PROTEIN and SMAD3 PROTEIN.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Smad8 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS and regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Growth Differentiation Factor 2: A growth differentiation factor that plays a regulatory role as a paracrine factor for a diverse array of cell types during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult tissues. Growth differentiation factor 2 is also a potent regulator of CHONDROGENESIS and was previously referred to as bone morphogenetic protein 9.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Growth Differentiation Factors: A family of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN-related proteins that are primarily involved in regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Growth Differentiation Factor 5: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Growth Differentiation Factor 9: A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Etilefrine: A phenylephrine-related beta-1 adrenergic and alpha adrenergic agonist used as a cardiotonic and antihypotensive agent.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Activin Receptors, Type I: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).Bone Diseases, MetabolicActivins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Lateral Line System: Aquatic vertebrate sensory system in fish and amphibians. It is composed of sense organs (canal organs and pit organs) containing neuromasts (MECHANORECEPTORS) that detect water displacement caused by moving objects.Growth Differentiation Factor 6: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in the neural differentiation, specifically in the retinal development of the EYE.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Femoral Fractures: Fractures of the femur.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.alpha-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the alpha chains of hemoglobin. The severity of this condition can vary from mild anemia to death, depending on the number of genes deleted.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Smad4 Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Activin Receptors, Type II: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.Mice, Inbred C57BLTibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Follistatin: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Activin Receptors: Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1: A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that blocks activation of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and is de-regulated in a variety of NEOPLASMS.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Haversian System: A circular structural unit of bone tissue. It consists of a central hole, the Haversian canal through which blood vessels run, surrounded by concentric rings, called lamellae.Smad Proteins, Receptor-Regulated: A family of smad proteins that undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS in response to TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA; ACTIVIN; or BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).MSX1 Transcription Factor: A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Tolloid-Like Metalloproteinases: A family of metalloproteases that are related to the DROSOPHILA protein tolloid, which is a gene product necessary for dorsal-ventral patterning in early Drosophila embryogenesis. Many members of the group may play a significant role in intercellular signaling.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Smad7 Protein: An inhibitory smad protein that associates with TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA RECEPTORS and BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It negatively regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS by inhibiting PHOSPHORYLATION of RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Myositis Ossificans: A disease characterized by bony deposits or the ossification of muscle tissue.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nanofibers: Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Wnt3A Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein: A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Wnt3 Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE. Defects in Wnt3 protein are associated with autosomal recessive tetra-AMELIA in humans.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Implants, Experimental: Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Osteopontin: A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Chlorphenamidine: An acaricide used against many organophosphate and carbamate resistant pests. It acts as an uncoupling agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Smad2 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Diaphyses: The shaft of long bones.Biomimetic Materials: Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Apatites: A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Bone Demineralization Technique: Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Nodal Protein: The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Endocarditis: Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.

*Cementoblast

More specifically, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) acts on the cementoblasts in the periodontal tissue. The effect of BMP- ... Noggin (protein) is a BMP inhibitor that correlates with BMP-2 to regulate gene expression and mineral nodule formation. BMP-2 ... Osteocalcin and sialoprotein are bone morphogenetic proteins (also known as BMPs) that are often linked to the development and ... Zhao, M.; Berry, J.E.; Somerman, M.J. (1 January 2003). "Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Inhibits Differentiation and ...

*Growth differentiation factor

Truksa J, Peng H, Lee P, Beutler E (2006). "Bone morphogenetic proteins 2, 4, and 9 stimulate murine hepcidin 1 expression ... GDF3 is also known as "Vg-related gene 2" (Vgr-2). Expression of GDF3 occurs in ossifying bone during embryonic development and ... in the thymus, spleen, bone marrow brain, and adipose tissue of adults. It has a dual nature of function; it both inhibits and ... GDF6 interacts with bone morphogenetic proteins to regulate ectoderm patterning, and controls eye development. GDF8 is now ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 5

"Decrease in expression of bone morphogenetic proteins 4 and 5 in synovial tissue of patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid ... Bone morphogenetic protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... "Effect of bone morphogenetic proteins-4, -5 and -6 on DNA synthesis and expression of bone-related proteins in cultured human ... "Entrez Gene: BMP5 bone morphogenetic protein 5". Human BMP5 genome location and BMP5 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ...

*BMPR1A

"Transcriptional mechanisms of bone morphogenetic protein-induced osteoprotegrin gene expression". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (13): ... II correlates with tumor grade in human prostate cancer tissues". Cancer Res. 60 (11): 2840-4. PMID 10850425. Kirsch T, Sebald ... "Enhanced expression of type I receptors for bone morphogenetic proteins during bone formation". J. Bone Miner. Res. 10 (11): ... The bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA also known as BMPR1A is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BMPR1A ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 4

"Effect of extracellular calcium on the gene expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and -4 of normal human bone cells". J. ... "The human bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) gene: molecular structure and transcriptional regulation". Calcif. Tissue Int. ... "Entrez Gene: BMP4 bone morphogenetic protein 4". Miyazono K, Kamiya Y, Morikawa M (January 2010). "Bone morphogenetic protein ... Bone morphogenetic protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by BMP4 gene. BMP4 is found on chromosome 14q22-q23 BMP4 is ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 8B

Based on its expression early in embryogenesis, the BMP encoded by this gene has a proposed role in early development. In ... "The Bmp8 gene is expressed in developing skeletal tissue and maps near the Achondroplasia locus on mouse chromosome 4". ... Bone morphogenetic protein 8B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP8B gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... "Entrez Gene: BMP8B bone morphogenetic protein 8b (osteogenic protein 2)". Human BMP8B genome location and BMP8B gene details ...

*PRRX1

... in developing and adult tissues in mice and regulation of its mRNA expression in osteoblasts by bone morphogenetic protein 2 ... The DNA-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the paired family of homeobox proteins localized to the nucleus ... Hu YS, Zhou H, Kartsogiannis V, Eisman JA, Martin TJ, Ng KW (November 1998). "Expression of rat homeobox gene, rHOX, ... Paired related homeobox 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRRX1 gene. ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 3

"Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins, receptors, and tissue inhibitors in human fetal, adult, and osteoarthritic articular ... Bone morphogenetic protein 3, also known as osteogenin, is a protein in humans that is encoded by the BMP3 gene. The protein ... "Entrez Gene: BMP3 bone morphogenetic protein 3 (osteogenic)". Human BMP3 genome location and BMP3 gene details page in the UCSC ... It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP's) is known for its ability to induce bone and cartilage development. It is a ...

*Paracrine signalling

The BMPs bind to the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2). Some of the proteins of the BMP family are BMP4 and ... The STAT proteins dimerize and enter the nucleus to act as transcription factors to alter gene expression. In particular, the ... The Hedgehog protein family is involved in induction of cell types and the creation of tissue boundaries and patterning and are ... Then active Smoothened protein is able to inhibit PKA and Slimb, so that the Ci protein is not cleaved. This intact Ci protein ...

*Noggin (protein)

BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki Noggin publications, gene expression data, sequences and interactants from ... "Activin and bone morphogenetic proteins are present in perinatal sensory neuron target tissues that induce neuropeptides". ... superfamily signaling proteins, such as bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4). By diffusing through extracellular matrices more ... Noggin, also known as NOG, is a protein that is involved in the development of many body tissues, including nerve tissue, ...

*Olfactory epithelium

... beginning with signals from bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), retinoic acid (RA), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF), ... The specification of the olfactory placode tissue involves signaling of multiple gene networks, ... Early cranial sensory placodes are marked by expression of Six1, part of the Six family of transcription factors that regulate ... The olfactory epithelium is a specialized epithelial tissue inside the nasal cavity that is involved in smell. In humans, it ...

*Tendon

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a subgroup of TGF-β superfamily that can induce bone and cartilage formation as well as ... have been proposed as reasons for the response of tenocytes to mechanical force that enable them to alter their gene expression ... A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of ... Ligaments join one bone to another bone, while tendons connect muscle to bone. Histologically, tendons consist of dense regular ...

*Ceramide synthase 1

This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family and the TGF-beta superfamily. This group of proteins ... based on the information that C18 ceramide levels are lower in HNSCC tissues than in normal tissue. CerS1, in particular ... Lee SJ (Jun 1991). "Expression of growth/differentiation factor 1 in the nervous system: conservation of a bicistronic ... Studies in yeast suggest that the encoded protein is involved in aging. This protein is transcribed from a monocistronic mRNA ...

*Decapentaplegic

Dpp is the Drosophila homolog of the vertebrate bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are members of the TGF-β superfamily ... The most studied tissue in which Dpp is found is the wing. In the wing, Dpp is strongly expressed in a narrow stripe of cells ... Activated Mad is able to bind to DNA and act as a transcription factor to affect the expression of different genes in response ... Another gene with a more complicated regulatory interaction with Dpp is brinker. Brinker is a transcription factor that ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 6

"Immunolocalization and messenger RNA expression of bone morphogenetic protein-6 in human benign and malignant prostatic tissue ... Bone morphogenetic protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP6 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... "Entrez Gene: BMP6 bone morphogenetic protein 6". Human BMP6 genome location and BMP6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... 2003). "Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 6 in healthy and osteoarthritic human articular chondrocytes and stimulation ...

*Keutel syndrome

... in the extracellular matrix and is implicated in inhibiting calcification though the repression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 ... Keutel syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a novel loss-of-function mutation in the matrix Gla protein gene ( ... Conversely, over expression of extracellular MGP effectively abolishes calcification in chondrocytes, suggesting that MGP may ... function in inhibiting passive calcification in soft tissues. Recent evidence suggests MGP is a vitamin K dependent protein ...

*Bat wing development

"Regulation of growth plate chondrogenesis by bone morphogenetic protein-2". Endocrinology. 142 (1): 430-436. doi:10.1210/en. ... a gene belonging to the Hox gene family. In situ hybridization studies have found that the Hoxd13 expression domain in bat ... Interestingly, fgf8 is expressed in bat interdigit tissue during a time when apoptosis occurs which does not occur in mice. ... In mice, one gene known to regulate limb growth is prx1, which encodes a transcription factor. The expression patterns of prx1 ...

*GDF5

The protein encoded by this gene is closely related to the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family and is a member of the TGF- ... The members of this family are regulators of cell growth and differentiation in both embryonic and adult tissues. Mutations in ... Hötten G, Neidhardt H, Jacobowsky B, Pohl J (1994). "Cloning and expression of recombinant human growth/differentiation factor ... 1998). "Cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins and osteogenic protein-1 differentially regulate osteogenesis". J. Bone Miner ...

*Dally (gene)

It must be said that in vertebrates the equivalent to Dpp are Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, and the mammalian equal to Wg might ... Also the expression of mutated dally proteins alters Wnt signalling pathways, which leads to anomalies in Drosophila ... Tissue malformations occur in various situations. As said in the introduction, the sgl enzyme is essential for a normal ... is the name of a gene that encodes a HS-modified-protein found in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster). The protein has to ...

*Perlecan

Timing of gene expression during development varies from tissue to tissue. Basement membranes are often the driving force ... the Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1/Tolloid-like family, releases the c-terminal endorepellin domain of the perlecan core protein ... Cartilage and bone development have proven to be dependent upon perlecan expression. The protein becomes visible by ... although expression can be transient and precisely timed in certain tissue predecessors. In the rat embryo, perlecan expression ...

*GDF10

... also known as bone morphogenetic protein 3B (BMP-3B) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GDF10 gene. GDF10 belongs to ... blood vessels and adipose tissue with low expression in spleen and liver. It is also present in bone of both adults and ... 11 (3): 232-8. doi:10.1038/gene.2010.1. PMID 20237496. Ducy P, Karsenty G (2000). "The family of bone morphogenetic proteins". ... Hino J, Kangawa K, Matsuo H, Nohno T, Nishimatsu S (2004). "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 family members and their biological ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 7

2010). "Enhanced healing of goat femur-defect using BMP7 gene-modified BMSCs and load-bearing tissue-engineered bone". J. ... "Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) increases the expression of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor in human granulosa ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TGF-β superfamily. Like other members of the bone morphogenetic protein ... Bone morphogenetic protein 7 or BMP7 (also known as osteogenic protein-1 or OP-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...

*Chordin

... is a bone morphogenetic protein antagonist composed of four small cysteine-rich domains, whose function is not known. ... De Robertis as a key developmental protein that dorsalizes early vertebrate embryonic tissues. The polypeptide is 941 amino ... In humans, the chordin peptide is encoded by the CHRD gene. Chordin is also involved in avian gastrulation. It is expressed in ... Pappano WN, Scott IC, Clark TG, Eddy RL, Shows TB, Greenspan DS (September 1998). "Coding sequence and expression patterns of ...

*Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome

... especially in tissues derived from the mesoderm during fetal development. The function of this gene is to produce a protein ... and skeletal development may also go awry when GCP3 mutations inhibit regulations of responses to bone morphogenetic proteins, ... Possible explanations include promoter mutation or silencing of the GPC3 gene causing reduced expression in these patients. The ... one cause of SGBS type I is a mutation of the glypican-3 gene (GPC3) on the X chromosome locus q26.1. This particular gene is ...

*BMPR2

Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II or BMPR2 is a serine/threonine receptor kinase. It binds Bone morphogenetic ... When this gene is inhibited, vascular smooth muscle proliferates and can cause pulmonary hypertension, which, among other ... It appears that the hormones estrogen and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) have roles in regulating expression of BMPR2 in ... BMPR2 functions to inhibit the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle tissue. It functions by promoting the survival of ...
DOI: 10.11607/jomi.3543 To successfully rehabilitate edentulous patients using endosseous implants, there must be enough available bone. Several techniques have been proposed for augmentation of sites with insufficient bone volume. Although autogenous bone has long been considered the gold standard for such procedures, the limited availability of graft material and a high morbidity rate are potential disadvantages of this type of graft. An alternative is to use recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2), which is able to support bone regeneration in the oral environment. These cases demonstrate the applicability of rhBMP-2 in maxillary sinus elevation and augmentation procedures in the maxilla to enable dental implant placement. The use of rhBMP-2 in alveolar augmentation procedures had several ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alveolar ridge augmentation using implants coated with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. T2 - Histologic observations. AU - Wikesjö, Ulf M E. AU - Qahash, Mohammed. AU - Polimeni, Giuseppe. AU - Susin, Cristiano. AU - Shanaman, Richard H.. AU - Rohrer, Michael D.. AU - Wozney, John M.. AU - Hall, Jan. PY - 2008/11/1. Y1 - 2008/11/1. N2 - Background: Studies using ectopic rodent, orthotopic canine, and non-human primate models show that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) coated onto titanium surfaces induce local bone formation. The objective of this study was to examine the ability of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) coated onto a titanium porous oxide implant surface to stimulate local bone formation including osseointegration and vertical augmentation of the alveolar ridge. Material and ...
BACKGROUND CONTEXT Increasingly, reports of frequent and occasionally catastrophic complications associated with use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in spinal fusion surgeries are being published. In the original peer review, industry-sponsored publications describing the use of rhBMP-2 in spinal fusion, adverse events of these types and frequency were either not reported at all or not reported to be associated with rhBMP-2 use. Some authors and investigators have suggested that these discrepancies were related to inadequate peer review and editorial oversight. PURPOSE To compare the conclusions regarding the safety and related efficacy published in the original rhBMP-2 industry-sponsored trials with subsequently available Food and Drug Administration (FDA) data summaries, follow-up publications, and administrative and organizational databases. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review. METHODS Results and conclusions from original ...
Looking for online definition of bone morphogenetic protein 2B in the Medical Dictionary? bone morphogenetic protein 2B explanation free. What is bone morphogenetic protein 2B? Meaning of bone morphogenetic protein 2B medical term. What does bone morphogenetic protein 2B mean?
Bone morphogenetic protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is member of the TGFβ superfamily. Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP5 may play a role in certain cancers. Like other BMPs BMP5 is inhibited by chordin and noggin. It is expressed in the trabecular meshwork and optic nerve head and may have a role in the development and normal function. It is also expressed in the lung and liver. This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. The superfamily includes large families of growth and differentiation factors. ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene.[1][2][3] The protein encoded by this gene is member of the TGFβ superfamily. Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP5 may play a role in certain cancers. Like other BMPs BMP5 is inhibited by chordin and noggin. It is expressed in the trabecular meshwork and optic nerve head and may have a role in the development and normal function. It is also expressed in the lung and liver. This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. The superfamily includes large families of growth and differentiation factors. ...
BMP-14 is expressed in long bones during embryonic development and postnatally in articular cartilage. Mutations in the BMP-14 gene have been implicated in Grebe Syndrome, which is characterized by short stature, extra digits, short and deformed extremities, and in Hunter- Thompson type dwarfism. The mature and functional form of BMP-14 is a homodimer of two 120 amino-acid polypeptide chain (monomers) linked by a single disulfide bond. Each BMP-14 monomer is expressed as the C-terminal part of a precursor polypeptide, which also contains a 27 amino-acid signal peptide and a 354 amino-acid propeptide. This precursor undergoes intracellular dimerization, and upon secretion it is processed by a furin-type protease. Recombinant human BMP-14 is a 27.0 kDa homodimeric disulfide-linked protein consisting of two 120 amino acids ...
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a chronic pathological process involving inflammation, fibrosis and calcification. Pharmacological intervention for prevention of CAVD progression remains unavailable. Calcified aortic valves display higher levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), and oxLDL has the potential to interact with Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Interleukin (IL)-37 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine and has been shown to inhibit TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses. We tested the hypotheses that oxLDL induces the osteogenic responses in human aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) via TLRs and that IL-37 suppresses the responses and may have therapeutic potential for suppression of CAVD progression.. Methods and Results: Human AVICs from normal valves were treated with oxLDL (20-80 μg/ml) for 72 hours in vitro. OxLDL up-regulated the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in a ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 3, also known as osteogenin, is a protein in humans that is encoded by the BMP3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) is known for its ability to induce bone and cartilage development. It is a disulfide-linked homodimer. It negatively regulates bone density. BMP3 is an antagonist to other BMPs in the differentiation of osteogenic progenitors. It is highly expressed in fractured tissues. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000152785 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000029335 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: BMP3 ...
|p|Bone morphogenetic protein 2 or BMP-2 belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. BMP-2 like other bone morphogenetic proteins, plays an important role in the development of bone and cartilage. It is involved in the hedgehog pathway, TGF beta signaling pathway, and in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. It is involved also in cardiac cell differentiation and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. BMP-2 and BMP-7 are osteogenic BMPs: they have been demonstrated to potently induce osteoblast differentiation in a variety of cell types.|/p||p|Bone morphogenetic protein 2 is shown to stimulate the production of bone and recombinant human protein (rhBMP-2) and is currently available for orthopaedic usage in the United States.|/p|
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Sclerostin is a potent inhibitor of Wnt signaling and bone formation. However, there is currently no information on the relation of circulating sclerostin levels to age, gender, or bone mass in humans. Thus we measured serum sclerostin levels in a population-based sample of 362 women [123 premenopausal, 152 postmenopausal not on estrogen treatment (ET), and 87 postmenopausal on ET] and 318 men, aged 21 to 97 years. Sclerostin levels (mean ± SEM) were significantly higher in men than women (33.3 ± 1.0 pmol/L versus 23.7 ± 0.6 pmol/L, p , .001). In pre- and postmenopausal women not on ET combined (n = 275) as well as in men, sclerostin levels were positively associated with age (r = 0.52 and r = 0.64, respectively, p , .001 for both). Over life, serum sclerostin levels increased by 2.4- and 4.6-fold in the women and men, respectively. Moreover, for a given total-body bone mineral content, elderly subjects (age ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The bone morphogenetic protein type Ib receptor is a major mediator of glial differentiation and cell survival in adult hippocampal progenitor cell culture. AU - Brederlau, A.. AU - Faigle, Romanus. AU - Elmi, M.. AU - Zarebski, A.. AU - Sjöberg, S.. AU - Fujii, M.. AU - Miyazono, K.. AU - Funa, K.. PY - 2004/8. Y1 - 2004/8. N2 - Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) act as growth regulators and inducers of differentiation. They transduce their signal via three different type I receptors, termed activin receptor-like kinase 2 (Alk2), Alk3, or bone morphogenetic protein receptor Ia (BMPRIa) and Alk6 or BMPRIb. Little is known about functional differences between the three type I receptors. Here, we have investigated consequences of constitutively active (ca) and dominant negative (dn) type I receptor ...
The molecular factors that regulate cardiac differentiation have been extensively studied, yet, relatively little is known about how cardiomyocytes acquire atrial versus ventricular characteristics. Embryonic stem (ES) cells, which have the potential to differentiate to a wide array of distinct cell types, including most types of cardiovascular cells, offer a pertinent in vitro model to work out the molecular mechanisms of atrial specification and differentiation. We discovered that the secreted antagonist of BMP signaling, Protein Related to Dan and Cerberus (PRDC, also called Gremlin2) leads to a surge in cardiomyocytic differentiation when applied to mouse ES-derived cardiac progenitor cells. This property is unique to PRDC among tested BMP antagonists. Lineage expansion is restricted to cardiomyocytes, with the differentiation of endodermal, blood, endothelial and neuronal cells being unaffected. Using molecular and electrophysiological analyses, we show that PRDC-induced cardiomyocytes ...
Buy anti-BMP7 antibody, Mouse anti-Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP7) Monoclonal Antibody-NP_001710.1 (MBS2090573) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. Application: Western Blot (WB), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Immunocytochemistry (ICC), Immunoprecipitation (IP)
To examine the local effects of bone morphogenetic protein-4 on diverse skeletal tissues in vivo, Chinese hamster ovary tumor cells transfected with the murine bone morphogenetic protein-4 gene were implanted into athymic nude mice by injection into the subcutaneous space of the skull, intra- and extraarticular spaces of the knee, paravertebral muscles, and intramedullary space in the femur, to form experimental tumors secreting bone morphogenetic protein-4. As a control, mock vector-transfected Chinese hamster ovary tumor cells were used. Three weeks after injection, the newly formed Chinese hamster ovary tumors together with the skeletal tissues adjacent to the tumor were recovered from each site and processed for histologic examination. On the periosteum of calvaria, new ...
Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family involved in de novo bone induction. Successful use of rhBMP-2 requires implantation with a biomaterial which can act as a scaffold for cell invasion for osteoinduction and retains rhBMP-2 at …
Treatment with 0.4mg/mL rhBMP-2 resulted in significant growth changes and fusion of the coronal sutures bilaterally, anterior sagittal suture, and frontonasal suture by cephalometric analyses at 42 days postoperatively (p,0.05). Growth changes appeared greatest in the nasal region and less in the bicoronal and anterior sagittal regions. No significant differences in cranial growth were noted with use of 100-ug/mL biopatterned rhBMP-2 when compared to the empty defect group. Qualitative uCT analysis revealed comparable bony defect healing between rhBMP-2 groups. Application of high-dose, 0.4mg/mL rhBMP-2 resulted in pansynostosis upon uCT analysis, further verifying cranial growth restriction. Low-dose, 100-ug/mL biopatterned rhBMP-2 consistently regenerated bone within the surgical defect margin without evidence of extra-sutural invasion ...
Looking for online definition of osteogenic protein 2 in the Medical Dictionary? osteogenic protein 2 explanation free. What is osteogenic protein 2? Meaning of osteogenic protein 2 medical term. What does osteogenic protein 2 mean?
Sclerostin, the product of the SOST gene, located on chromosome 17, locus q11.2 in humans, was originally believed to be a non-classical Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist.More recently Sclerostin has been identified as binding to LRP5/6 receptors and inhibiting the Wnt signalling pathway .Wnt activation under these circumstances is antagonistic to bone formation. Although the underlying mechanisms are unclear, it is believed that the antagonism of BMP-induced bone formation by sclerostin is mediated by Wnt signalling, but not BMP signalling pathways.. Sclerostin is produced by the osteocyte and has catabolic effects on bone formation. This protein, with a length of 113 residues, has a dssp secondary structure that is 28% beta sheet (6 strands; 32 residues. Sclerostin has an inhibitory effect on the lifetime of the osteoblast. ...
Information about the use of INFUSE® Bone Graft with the LT-CAGE® Lumbar Tapered Fusion Device to treat degenerative disc disease; its estimated that, in 2002, more than 190,000 Americans will undergo lumbar spinal fusion surgeries to ease their debilitating back pain and get them back on their feet. INFUSE® Bone Graft contains recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2), the genetically engineered version of a naturally occurring protein that is capable of initiating bone growth, or bone regeneration, in specific, targeted areas in the spine. Using INFUSE® Bone Graft with the LT-CAGE® device in spine surgery reduces the pain and complications associated with treating degenerative disc disease by eliminating the ...
Sclerostin, the product of the SOST gene, located on chromosome 17, locus q11.2 in humans, was originally believed to be a non-classical Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist.More recently Sclerostin has been identified as binding to LRP5/6 receptors and inhibiting the Wnt signalling pathway .Wnt activation under these circumstances is antagonistic to bone formation. Although the underlying mechanisms are unclear, it is believed that the antagonism of BMP-induced bone formation by sclerostin is mediated by Wnt signalling, but not BMP signalling pathways.. Sclerostin is produced by the osteocyte and has catabolic effects on bone formation. This protein, with a length of 113 residues, has a dssp secondary structure that is 28% beta sheet (6 strands; 32 residues. Sclerostin has an inhibitory effect on the lifetime of the osteoblast. ...
Smad proteins transduce transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signals that regulate cell growth and differentiation. We have identified YY1, a transcription factor that positively or negatively regulates transcription of many genes, as a novel Smad-interacting protein. YY1 represses the induction of immediate-early genes to TGF-beta and BMP, such as the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 gene (PAI-1) and the inhibitor of differentiation/inhibitor of DNA binding 1 gene (Id-1). YY1 inhibits binding of Smads to their cognate DNA elements in vitro and blocks Smad recruitment to the Smad-binding element-rich region of the PAI-1 promoter in vivo. YY1 interacts with the conserved N-terminal Mad homology 1 domain of Smad4 and to a lesser extent with Smad1, Smad2, and Smad3. The YY1 zinc finger domain mediates the association with Smads and is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Targeted delivery system for juxtacrine signaling growth factor based on rhBMP-2-mediated carrier-protein conjugation. AU - Liu, Hsia Wei. AU - Chen, Chih Hwa. AU - Tsai, Ching Lin. AU - Hsiue, Ging Ho. PY - 2006/10. Y1 - 2006/10. N2 - We propose a model of artificial juxtacrine signaling for the controlled release of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) suitable for guided bone regeneration. A porous three-dimensional scaffold of poly-(lactide-co-glycolide) was fabricated by means of gel molding and particulate leaching. Collagen immobilization onto the scaffold surface was produced by performing photo-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid, and rhBMP-2 was tethered to the collagenous surface by covalent conjugation. On pharmacokinetic analysis, in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent and alkaline phosphatase assays revealed sustained, slow release of rhBMP-2 over 28 ...
Our data revealed that deficiency in CIZ increased basal bone mass in adult mice. This phenotype was through the enhancement of bone formation in vivo, increased mineralized nodule formation in bone marrow cells, and elevated expression levels of the genes encoding osteoblastic phenotype-related marker proteins including COL1, ALP, OPN, and OSX in bone in vivo. CIZ deficiency also enhanced bone marrow ablation-induced new bone formation in vivo as well as BMP injection-induced de novo osteogenesis in adult mice. Thus, CIZ acts as an inhibitor of bone formation in adult mice in vivo at least in part through its suppression of BMP actions.. CIZ localizes at adhesion plaques, transfers into nuclear ...
Ivković, Alan and Franić, Miljenko and Bojanić, Ivan and Pećina, Marko (2007) Overuse injuries in female athletes. Croatian medical journal, 48 (6). pp. 767-778. ISSN 0353-9504 (Print) 1332-8166 (Electronic) Pećina, Marko and Vukičević, Slobodan (2007) Biological aspects of bone, cartilage and tendon regeneration. International Orthopaedics, 31 (6). pp. 719-720. ISSN 0341-2695 (Print) 1432-5195 (Electronic) Pećina, Marko and Đapić, Tomislav (2007) More than 20-year follow-up Harrington instrumentation in the treatment of severe idiopathic scoliosis. European spine journal, 16 (2). pp. 299-300. ISSN 0940-6719 (Print) 1432-0932 (Electronic) Smoljanović, Tomislav and Grgurević, Lovorka and Jelić, Mislav and Kreszinger, Mario and Hašpl, Miroslav and Matičić, Dražen and Vukičević, Slobodan and Pećina, Marko (2007) Regeneration of the skeleton by recombinant human bone morphogenetic ...
Our results identify BMPR2/ALK2 and BMPR2/ALK3 as key receptors that mediate proangiogenic BMP signaling in the early postnatal retina and reveal regional differences among BMPR1s by analysis of parallel genetic experiments in a defined vascular bed. Deletion of the common BMPR2 receptor reduced vascular sprouting and density. Deletion of ALK3, which is ubiquitously expressed in retinal endothelial cells, also dramatically reduced vascular sprouting and density, while loss of ALK2, which is enriched behind the vascular front, did not significantly affect sprouting but reduced overall vessel density. Therefore, we propose that spatially regulated BMPR1 expression fine-tunes endothelial cell responses to proangiogenic BMP ligands in development. Since expression of BMP ligands selective for ALK2 and ALK3 is elevated during retinal angiogenesis, it is tempting to speculate that BMP6/7-ALK2/3-BMPR2 signaling axis may provide essential input for ...
1. Bajaj AK, Wongworawat AA, Punjabi A. Management of alveolar clefts. J Craniofac Surg. 2003;14:840-46 2. Matic DB, Power SM. Evaluating the success of gingivoperiosteoplasty versus secondary bone grafting in patients with unilateral clefts. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121:1343-353 3. Sato Y, Grayson BH, Garfinkle JS, Barillas I, Maki K, Cutting CB. Success rate of gingivoperiosteoplasty with and without secondary bone grafts compared with secondary alveolar bone grafts alone. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121:1356-369 4. Levenberg S, Langer R. Advances in tissue engineering. Current Topics in Developmental Biology. (61) 113-134. 2004 5. Ikeuchi M, Dohi Y, Horiuchi K, Ohgushi H, Noshi T, Yoshikawa T, Yamamoto K, Sugimura M. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 promotes osteogensisw withing ateolpeptide type I collagen solution by ...
Sclerostin is a secreted Wnt antagonist produced almost exclusively by osteocytes that regulates bone mass. However, there is currently limited information on the determinants of sclerostin in a large population-based study. The main objectives of the present study were to: (1) establish reference normative interval values for serum sclerostin in randomly selected healthy premenopausal women; (2) study the changes in serum sclerostin in relation to age in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and the factors that may influence bone turnover; and (3) determine the effect of menopausal status on serum sclerostin. A total of 1803 women were studied (including [n = 1235] premenopausal, and [n = 568] postmenopausal women, respectively, aged 20 to 79 years). A total of 443 healthy premenopausal women (aged 35 to 45 years) were used to establish reference normative intervals for serum sclerostin. All women studied were medically examined and had ...
Reliable and effective communication between neurons and their postsynaptic targets across the synaptic cleft is critical for the formation, growth, and plasticity of neuronal synapses. One mode of this transsynaptic communication is retrograde signaling, in which target cells provide molecular signals to influence presynaptic neurons (Tao and Poo, 2001; Marqués and Zhang, 2006). In Drosophila melanogaster, Glass bottom boat (Gbb), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), acts as a critical retrograde signal that promotes synaptic growth and neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ; Haghighi et al., 2003; McCabe et al., 2003; Goold and Davis, 2007). Genetic experiments have shown that the retrograde Gbb signal is sensed by a presynaptic receptor complex formed by the type II BMP receptor wishful thinking (Wit) and either of two type I BMP receptors, thick veins (Tkv) and saxophone (Sax; Aberle et al., 2002; Marqués et al., ...
The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily comprises more than 30 ligands that play essential roles during early vertebrate development in the specification and subsequent patterning of the germ layers and in tissue homeostasis in adult organisms. Deregulation of signaling downstream of many of these ligands has been implicated in human diseases such as cancer and fibrosis, in wound healing disorders, and in several hereditary conditions (7, 37). The TGF-β superfamily ligands elicit their pleiotropic effects by signaling to the nucleus and inducing new programs of gene expression. The large number of ligands in this superfamily signal to the nucleus through a much smaller number of receptors and Smads, which act as intracellular signal transducers (14). Thus, different ligands utilize common pathway components. This raises important questions about how cells respond specifically to individual ligands and how cells integrate and interpret signals ...
The importance of morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists in vascular development is increasingly being recognized. BMP-4 is essential for angiogenesis and is antagonized by matrix Gla protein (MGP) and crossveinless 2 (CV2), both induced in a staged fashion by the activin-like kinase receptor 1 (ALK1) after stimulation by BMP-9. In this study, however, we show that CV2 preferentially binds and inhibits BMP-9 thereby providing strong feedback inhibition for BMP-9/ALK1 signaling rather than for BMP-4/ALK2 signaling. CV2 disrupts complex formation by ALK2, ALK1, BMP-4 and BMP-9 required for the induction of both BMP antagonists. It also limits VEGF expression and proliferation of ALK1-expressing endothelial cells. In vivo, CV2 deficiency translates into a dysregulation of vascular BMP signaling, resulting in a thickened, abnormal endothelium with increased markers of endothelial differentiation. Thus, mutual regulation by BMP-9 and ...
[101 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) Market Research Report 2018 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) market...
BACKGROUND: Research has indicated that adverse effects terms are increasingly prevalent in the title, abstract or indexing terms of articles that contain adverse drug effects data in MEDLINE and Embase. However, it is unknown whether adverse effects terms are present in the database records of articles that contain adverse effects data of medical devices, and thus, to what extent the development of an adverse effects search filter for medical devices may be feasible. METHODS: A case study systematic review of a medical device was selected. The included studies from a systematic review of the safety of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) for spinal fusion were used in the analysis. For each included study, the corresponding database record on MEDLINE and Embase was assessed to measure the presence or absence of adverse effects terms in the title, abstract or indexing. The performance of each potential adverse effects search term was also ...
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of cells of an early mesenchymal lineage, as judged by the expression of bone morphogenetic protein receptors (BMPRs), in the joints of normal individuals and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Synovial fluids, single cell suspensions of cultured fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), and synovial tissues were examined by immunohistology with antibodies to BMPR type IA (BMPRIA), BMPRIB, and BMPRII and then quantified using computerized image analysis. Other antibodies were evaluated by cytofluorography. RESULTS: In primary cultures of joint effusions from patients with RA and other forms of inflammatory arthritis, there were large adherent cells with the appearance of either fibroblasts or stromal cells that stained with antibodies to mesenchymal elements-CD44, type I collagen, alpha-actin, and vimentin-but not with antibodies to hematopoietic markers. These cells proliferated ...
The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors are a family of transmembrane serine/threonine kinases that include the type I receptors BMPR1A and BMPR1B and the type II receptor BMPR2. These receptors are also closely related to the activin receptors, ACVR1 and ACVR2. The ligands of these receptors are members of the TGF-beta superfamily. TGF-betas and activins transduce their signals through the formation of heteromeric complexes with 2 different types of serine (threonine) kinase receptors: type I receptors of about 50-55 kD and type II receptors of about 70-80 kD. Type II receptors bind ligands in the absence of type I receptors, but they require their respective type I receptors for signaling, whereas type I receptors require their respective type II receptors for ligand binding ...
In drug repositioning research, a new concept in drug discovery and new therapeutic opportunities have been identified for existing drugs. Midazolam (MDZ) is an anesthetic inducer used for general anesthesia. Here, we demonstrate the combined effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and MDZ on osteogenic differentiation. An immortalized mouse myoblast cell line (C2C12 cell) was cultured in the combination of BMP-2 and MDZ (BMP-2+MDZ). The differentiation and signal transduction of C2C12 cells into osteoblasts were investigated at biological, immunohistochemical, and genetic cell levels. Mineralized nodules formed in C2C12 cells were characterized at the crystal engineering level. BMP-2+MDZ treatment decreased the myotube cell formation of C2C12 cells, and enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and expression levels of osteoblastic differentiation marker genes. The precipitated nodules ...
Aim: Effective treatment of premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is lacking. We hypothesize that bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), a ligand of the TGF-β family that binds to the activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1)-BMP receptor type 2 (BMPR2) receptor complex, may be a novel therapeutic option for BPD. Therefore, we investigated the cardiopulmonary effects of BMP9 in neonatal Wistar rats with hyperoxia-induced BPD. Methods: Directly after birth Wistar rat pups were exposed to 100% oxygen for 10 days. From day 2 rat pups received BMP9 (2.5 µg/kg, twice a day) or 0.9% NaCl by subcutaneous injection. Beneficial effects of BMP9 on aberrant alveolar development, lung inflammation and fibrosis, and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) were investigated by morphometric analysis and cytokine production. In addition, differential mRNA expression of BMP9 and its receptor complex: ALK1, BMPR2 and Endoglin, and of the ALK1 ...
A correctly functioning nervous system requires that neural circuits be precisely wired during development. A growing axon must travel through a constantly changing environment, bypassing inappropriate targets to make the correct synapse. To accomplish this feat, axons are directed along the proper path by attractive and repellent cues in the embryonic environment. In addition to directional information, it is critical that axons receive such guidance input at the appropriate time to correctly advance. ❧ Morphogens, signaling molecules that specify cell identity, have been found to also act as axon guidance cues, raising the possibility that the mechanisms that establish neural cell fate are also utilized to assemble neuronal circuits. In the embryonic vertebrate spinal cord, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) initially induce the identity of dorsal interneuron type 1 (dI1) commissural neurons, then subsequently repel their axons - two ...
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP; MIM 135100) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification of soft connective tissues including skeletal muscle, tendons and ligaments. Individuals with FOP appear normal at birth, except for malformed great toes and thumbs. The ossification begins in early childhood and progresses over the course of a lifetime. It leads to a debilitating ankylosis of all major joints of the axial and appendicular skeleton and most patients will be confined to wheelchair by the third decade of life. Most FOP cases are sporadic, but there are reports of affected siblings. FOP is caused by mutations in the ACVR1 gene that codes for activin A receptor, type I. It belongs to the protein kinase superfamily and functions as a receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). BMPs are extracellular signaling proteins that are ...
Recombinant Human BMP-10 (carrier-free) - Bone morphogenetic protein 10 (BMP-10) was initially cloned from embryonic heart, and expression data suggests that it plays a key role in the trabeculation of the embryonic heart.
Winner of a World Class Product of Korea award, Novosis is the first South Korean bone graft containing recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2).
Mutations in HFE are the most common cause of the iron-overload disorder hereditary hemochromatosis. Levels of the main iron regulatory hormone, hepcidin, are inappropriately low in hereditary hemochromatosis mouse models and patients with HFE mutations, indicating that HFE regulates hepcidin. The bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6)-SMAD signaling pathway is an important endogenous regulator of hepcidin expression. We investigated whether HFE is involved in BMP6-SMAD regulation of hepcidin expression. METHODS: The BMP6-SMAD pathway was examined in Hfe knockout (KO) mice and in wild-type (WT) mice as controls. Mice were placed on diets of varying iron content. Hepcidin induction by BMP6 was examined in primary hepatocytes from Hfe KO mice; data were compared with those of WT mice. RESULTS: Liver levels of Bmp6 messenger RNA (mRNA) were higher in Hfe KO mice; these were appropriate for the increased hepatic levels of iron in ...
BACKGROUND: Differences in duration of bone healing in various parts of the human skeleton are common experience for orthopaedic surgeons. The reason for these differences is not obvious and not clear.METHODS: In this paper we decided to measure by the use of real-time RT-PCR technique the level of expression of genes for some isoforms of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), whose role is proven in bone formation, bone induction and bone turnover. Seven bone samples recovered from various parts of skeletons from six cadavers of young healthy men who died in traffic accidents were collected. Activity of genes for BMP-2, -4 and -6 was measured by the use of fluorescent SYBR Green I.RESULTS: It was found that ...
Gjoksi, B; Ruangsawasdi, N; Ghayor, C; Siegenthaler, B; Zenobi-Wong, M; Weber, Franz E (2017). Influence of N-methyl pyrrolidone on the activity of the pulp-dentine complex and bone integrity during osteoporosis. International Endodontic Journal, 50(3):271-280.. Thoma, D S; Kruse, A; Ghayor, C; Jung, R E; Weber, Franz E (2015). Bone augmentation using a synthetic hydroxyapatite/silica oxide-based and a xenogenic hydroxyapatite-based bone substitute materials with and without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Clinical Oral Implants Research, 26(5):592-598.. Ghayor, C; Correro, R M; Lange, K; Karfeld-Sulzer, L S; Grätz, K W; Weber, Franz E (2011). Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption by N-methylpyrrolidone. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 286(27):24458-24466.. San Miguel, B; Kriauciunas, ...
The included studies from a systematic review of the safety of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) for spinal fusion were used for analysis. For each study, it was investigated in whichc sources they were available and where they were identified. If a study was available on a database but not retrieved by the original search strategy, the bibliographic record was examined to determine why it was not retrieved. The sensitivity, precision, and numbers needed to read for searches in each of the databases was calculated, as well as sensitivity*precision. The minimum combination of sources required to identify all the included publications using the original search strategies used was recorded.. The minimum combination of sources to identify all the publications was Science Citation Index (SCI), Embase, CENTRAL and either MEDLINE or PubMed, in addition to reference checking, contacting authors and using automated current awareness service.. ...
This dissertation describes observations made on the effect of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in an aggressive human prostate cancer cell line, C4-2B, two murine prostate cancer cell lines, E8 and cE1, derived from the primary site of androgen dependent and recurrent tumors of prostate cancer, respectively, and primary cultures of murine cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs). We previously described that BMP7 could protect C4-2B cells from serum starvation induced apoptosis by sustaining Survivin expression. We further examine the mechanisms behind BMP7 mediated protection from stress induced apoptosis. When C4-2B cells are treated with BMP7, we find that Survivin promoter activity correlates with Smad activation and is ameliorated by dominant negative Smad5. Furthermore JNK activity is also observed to be sustained by BMP7 treatment in the face of serum starvation and co-treatment with a JNK inhibitor abolished the anti-apoptotic ...
Reporting of industry funded study outcome data: comparison of confidential and published data on the safety and effectiveness of rhBMP-2 for spinal fusion. Rodgers, Mark A.; Brown, Jennifer V. E.; Heirs, Morag K.; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Mannion, Richard J.; Simmonds, Mark C.; Stewart, Lesley A. // BMJ: British Medical Journal;7/6/2013, Vol. 347 Issue 7915, p12 The article summarizes a research study which compared confidential and published clinical trials and adverse event data on the safety and effectiveness of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) for spinal fusion. An overview of the study participants, setting, design and... ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The spatial patterning of mouse cone opsin expression is regulated by bone morphogenetic protein signaling through downstream effector COUP-TF nuclear receptors. AU - Satoh, Shinya. AU - Tang, Ke. AU - Iida, Atsumi. AU - Inoue, Mariko. AU - Kodama, Tatsuhiko. AU - Tsai, Sophia Y.. AU - Tsai, Ming Jer. AU - Furuta, Yasuhide. AU - Watanabe, Sumiko. PY - 2009/10/7. Y1 - 2009/10/7. N2 - Cone photopigments, known as opsins, are pivotal elements and the first detection module used in color vision. In mice, cone photoreceptors are distributed throughout the retina, and short-wavelength (S) and medium-wavelength (M) opsins have unique expression patterns in the retina with a gradient along the dorsoventral axis; however, the mechanisms regulating the spatial patterning of cone opsin expression have not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to define the mechanisms regulating the spatial ...
Ye, Minglu. Noggin - an antagonist of bone morphogenetic protein - is crucial for tooth hard tissue and periodontium development. 2015, University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine. ...
A highly conserved TGF-β signaling pathway is involved in the establishment of the dorsoventral axis of the vertebrate embryo. Specifically, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (Bmps) pattern ventral tissues of the embryo while inhibitors of Bmps, such as Chordin, Noggin and Follistatin, are implicated in dorsal mesodermal and neural development. We investigated the role of Tolloid, a metalloprotease that can cleave Chordin and increase Bmp activity, in patterning the dorsoventral axis of the zebrafish embryo. Injection of tolloid mRNA into six dorsalized mutants rescued only one of these mutants, mini fin. Through chromosomal mapping, linkage and cDNA sequence analysis of several mini fin alleles, we demonstrate that mini fin encodes the tolloid gene. Characterization of the mini fin mutant phenotype reveals that Mini fin/Tolloid activity is required for patterning ventral tissues of the tail: the ...
Sclerostin is an inhibitor of bone formation expressed by osteocytes. We hypothesized that sclerostin is expressed by cells of the same origin and also embedded within mineralized matrices. In this study, we analyzed (a) sclerostin expression using immunohistochemistry, (b) whether the genomic defect in individuals with van Buchem disease (VBD) was associated with the absence of sclerostin expression, and (c) whether this was associated with hypercementosis. Sclerostin was expressed by cementocytes in mouse and human teeth and by mineralized hypertrophic chondrocytes in the human growth plate. In individuals with VBD, sclerostin expression was absent or strongly decreased in osteocytes and cementocytes. This was associated with increased bone formation, but no overt changes in cementum thickness. In conclusion, sclerostin is expressed by all 3 terminally differentiated cell types embedded ...
Methods are described for controlling exocrine pancreatic function, for reducing the level of amylase in the blood, and for treating pancreatitis in an individual comprising administering to the individual a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). Methods for identifying candidate molecules for use in treating diabetes are also described.
DOI: 10.11607/jomi.te56 Purpose: This study investigated the role of the bone marrow derived CD34+ cell in a milieu of osteoprogenitor cells, bone marrow plasma cell adhesion molecules, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP), and a matrix of crushed cancellous allogeneic bone in the clinical regeneration of functionally useful bone in craniomandibular reconstructions. The history and current concepts of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells are reviewed as they relate to bone regeneration in large continuity defects of the mandible. Materials and Methods: Patients with 6- to 8-cm continuity defects of the mandible with retained proximal and distal segments were ...
thoroughly and pour plates. YEPD (YPD) PLATES: Agar 20 g. Peptone 10 g. Yeast Extract 900 ml distilled water: 5 ml of 1 M HCl (do not mouth pipette) 20 g. Agar Autoclave.Préparation de membranes pour. Ampicilline A~P 100 Carbeniciline Cb 40 Kanam ycine Km 20. - Milieu LB agar:.Lb agar with ampicillin, ampicillin agar plates - wwgcsa. What is the best ampicillin to chloramphenicol ratio for.. TP biorad (B)TP sauce Paul Éluard (PE) Jour 1 Préparation de 8 milieux LB (B)Couler. Ampicilline et Arabinose. de soja 5 g Chlorure de sodium 5 g Agar.Periplasmic Expression of a Novel Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 Mutant in. of a Novel Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 Mutant in. in LB agar and LB Broth.Préparation de la recette: Râpez la plaquette de chocolat blanc en fins copeaux ou hachez-la à laide dun couteaux-scie. Rassemblez les copeaux dans un saladier.Inoculum and plasmid preparation. ...
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare and disabling genetic condition characterized by congenital malformations of the great toes and progressive heterotopic ossification (HO) in specific anatomic patterns. {file27251}{file27252}Most cases arise as a result of a spontaneous new mutation.
MONTREAL, CANADA, June 13, 2016 - Clementia is pleased to announce that the Phase 2 Open-label Extension Trial (PVO-1A-202) has been modified to enroll up to 20 new participants and to investigate new palovarotene dosing regimens in participants with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP). The modification to the Phase 2 Open-label extension trial is designated as Part B.. The Phase 2 Trial (Study PVO-1A-201), which is now complete, was designed as an exploratory dose-ranging study that examined the safety and efficacy of two different dosing regimens of palovarotene in participants for acute flare-up. All 40 individuals who completed the Phase 2 trial have enrolled into the Phase 2 Open-label Extension Trial, which provides access to palovarotene to any participant experiencing an eligible flare-up and continues to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of palovarotene.. Much has been learned from these studies. Emerging data suggests that the risk to develop heterotopic ossification ...
... (FOP), also known as Stone Man Syndrome, is a very rare inherited disorder in which muscle tissue and connective tis
A scandal involving Medtronic Inc.s <"http://www.yourlawyer.com/topics/overview/Medtronic_Infuse_Bone_Graft">Infuse Bone Graft has erupted in the U.S. Army. According to The Wall Street Journal, "a number of serious questions" have been raised about an Infuse study conducted by Dr. Timothy R. Kuklo, former surgeon at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, D.C.. Infuse Bone Graft contains recombinant human Bone Morphogenetic Protein (rhBMP-2), a protein released naturally by the body. It is approved to treat a spinal condition called Degenerative Disc Disease, as well as open fractures of the tibia. It is also approved for use in two dental bone grafting procedures: sinus augmentation and localized alveolar ridge augmentation. In July, the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) warned that the use of Infuse ...
On ligand binding, forms a receptor complex consisting of two type II and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. Type II receptors phosphorylate and activate type I receptors which autophosphorylate, then bind and activate SMAD transcriptional regulators. Receptor for BMP2, BMP4, GDF5 and GDF6. Positively regulates chondrocyte differentiation through GDF5 interaction (PubMed:24098149). Mediates induction of adipogenesis by GDF6 (PubMed:23527555).
The variety of species in the animal kingdom notwithstanding, early embryogenesis frequently relies on the same set of molecules. These highly conserved molecules are considered genetic toolkit genes; a set of genes that determines the body plan in various species. For example, the determination of the dorsal-ventral (D/V) axis often relies on bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Studies in various organisms, vertebrates as well as invertebrates, established that the BMP signaling network is crucial for localizing the position of the central nervous system. Given that the same set of molecules is used repeatedly in different species, the question of how animal diversity could evolve arises. In this study, I focused on BMP signaling in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In Drosophila, BMP signaling takes place at various stages of development. Amongst others, it is crucial ...
Reconstruction of the mandible following various mandibulectomy procedures has been an area of interest in both cats and dogs. There are six published case reports on reconstruction of segmental mandibular defects in dogs with autografts (rib or ulna, and with or without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 [rhBMP-2]) or absorpbable compression resistant matrix with rhBMP-2. However, dogs typically have few complications following mandibulectomy and the need to reconstruct a segmental defect is really aimed at preventing mandibular drift which is usually a cosmetic rather than a functional problem.. In contrast, cats have a high complication rate following any type of mandibulectomy. Eating difficulties are seen in 72% cats and the median time to return to voluntary eating is 4 weeks following surgery, which means these cats require supplemental nutrition via either a esophagostomy or gastrostomy tube until voluntary eating returns. Furtnerore, 12% ...
In the present study, we found that (1) the protein expression of BMPR2 is modulated by the miR-17/92 cluster without affecting the BMPR2 mRNA levels; (2) this regulatory effect is driven by 2 distinct miRNAs, ie, miR-17-5 and miR-20a, through conserved seed matches within the 3′UTR of BMPR2; and (3) IL-6 regulates the expression of the miR-17/92 in HPAEC by signaling through STAT3. Moreover, we could show that (4) the promoter region of C13orf25 exhibits an evolutionary conserved STAT3-binding site and, finally, that (5) persistent activation of STAT3 leads to a strong upregulation of mature miR-20a, which, in turn, reduces the expression of BMPR2 protein. Taken together, our findings offer a novel mechanistic explanation for the downregulation of BMPR2, which has been repeatedly described as important feature in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension.. The cell surface receptor BMPR2 is essential for the modulation of differentiation, ...
A BMP regulatory network controls ectodermal cell fate decisions at the neural plate border.[1] "During ectodermal patterning the neural crest and preplacodal ectoderm are specified in adjacent domains at the neural plate border. BMP signalling is required for specification of both tissues, but how it is spatially and temporally regulated to achieve this is not understood. Here, using a transgenic zebrafish BMP reporter line in conjunction with double-fluorescent in situ hybridisation, we show that, at the beginning of neurulation, the ventral-to-dorsal gradient of BMP activity evolves into two distinct domains at the neural plate border: one coinciding with the neural crest and the other abutting the epidermis. In between is a region devoid of BMP activity, which is specified as the preplacodal ectoderm. We identify the ligands required for these domains of BMP activity. We show that the BMP-interacting protein Crossveinless 2 is expressed in the BMP activity domains and is under the ...
A BMP regulatory network controls ectodermal cell fate decisions at the neural plate border.[2] "During ectodermal patterning the neural crest and preplacodal ectoderm are specified in adjacent domains at the neural plate border. BMP signalling is required for specification of both tissues, but how it is spatially and temporally regulated to achieve this is not understood. Here, using a transgenic zebrafish BMP reporter line in conjunction with double-fluorescent in situ hybridisation, we show that, at the beginning of neurulation, the ventral-to-dorsal gradient of BMP activity evolves into two distinct domains at the neural plate border: one coinciding with the neural crest and the other abutting the epidermis. In between is a region devoid of BMP activity, which is specified as the preplacodal ectoderm. We identify the ligands required for these domains of BMP activity. We show that the BMP-interacting protein Crossveinless 2 is expressed in the BMP activity domains and is under the ...
Recent studies have suggested the existence of osteoblastic cells in the circulation, but the origin and role of these cells in vivo are not clear. Here, we examined how these cells contribute to osteogenesis in a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced model of ectopic bone formation. Following lethal dose-irradiation and subsequent green fluorescent protein-transgenic bone marrow cell-transplantation (GFP-BMT) in mice, a BMP-2-containing collagen pellet was implanted into muscle. Three weeks later, a significant number of GFP-positive osteoblastic cells were present in the newly generated ectopic bone. Moreover, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) from the BMP-2-implanted mouse were then shown to include osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) in culture. Passive transfer of the PBMNCs isolated from the BMP-2-implanted ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Improvement of osteoblast functions by sustained release of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) from heparin-coated chitosan scaffold. AU - Yun, Young Pil. AU - Lee, Su Young. AU - Kim, Hak Jun. AU - Song, Jae-Jun. AU - Kim, Sung Eun. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - The aim of this study was to investigate the improvement in osteoblast functions by using bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) immobilized heparin-coated chitosan scaffolds and comparing it with that using chitosan scaffold or BMP-2/chitosan scaffold in vitro. BMP-2 was released from the heparin-coated chitosan scaffold in a sustained manner compared to that released from the chitosan scaffold. The osteoblast functions of MG-63 cells grown on the chitosan scaffold, the BMP-2/chitosan scaffold, the BMP-2/Hep/chitosan scaffold were investigated by assessing cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium ...
Significant progress in the knowledge about the role of TGF-β in the response to pressure overload has been achieved by studies in left heart failure. Although it is known that TGF-β is associated with maladaptive hypertrophy, inflammation, and fibrosis in various models and diseases, the study of Koitabashi et al was the first to show that TGF-β plays a central role in the cardiac maladaptive response to pressure overload.32-36 However, because the LV has a different embryological origin and the amount of pressure overload in right and left heart failure is not comparable, these results cannot be directly extrapolated.37,38. Until recently, little was known about the effects of BMPR2 mutations on RV adaptation in PAH. First, Megalou et al39 showed the importance of TGF-β in the hypertrophic response in the myocardium of pulmonary hypertensive monocrotaline rats, and, more recently, Hemnes et al24 demonstrated impaired hypertrophy attributable to an altered cardiac energy metabolism in the ...
BMP-dependent patterning in the Drosophila melanogaster wing imaginal disc serves as a paradigm to understand how morphogens specify cell fates. Profile of the transcriptional response to the graded signal of BMP, relies upon two counter active gradients of pMad and Brinker (Brk). This patterning model is inadequate to explain the expression of target genes, like vestigial and spalt, in lateral regions of the wing disc where BMP signal decline and Brk levels peak. Here we show that in contrast to the reciprocal repressor gradient mechanism, where Brk represses BMP targets in medial regions, in lateral regions target expression is downregulated by BMP signaling and activated by Brk. Brk induces lateral expression indirectly apparently through repression of a negative regulator. Our findings provide a model explaining how the expression of an established BMP target is differentially and inversely regulated along the ...
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can be induced to differentiate to trophoblast by bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and by aggregation to form embryoid bodies (EB), but there are many differences and controversies regarding the nature of the differentiated cells. Our goals herein were to determine if BG02 cells form trophoblast-like cells (a) in the presence of BMP4-plus-basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and (b) upon EB formation, and (c) whether the BMP4 antagonist noggin elicits direct effects on gene expression and hormone production in the cells. Transcriptome profiling of hESC incubated with BMP4/FGF-2 showed a down-regulation of pluripotency-associated genes, an up-regulation of trophoblast-associated genes, and either a down-regulation or no change in gene expression for many markers of the three embryonic germ layers. Yet, ...
The neural crest is a multipotent cell population that migrates from the dorsal edge of the neural tube to various parts of the embryo where it differentiates into a remarkable variety of different cell types. Initial induction of neural crest is mediated by a combination of BMP, Wnt, FGF, Retinoic acid and Notch/Delta signaling. The two-signal model for neural crest induction suggests that BMP signaling induces the competence to become neural crest. The second signal involves Wnt acting through the canonical pathway and leads to expression of neural crest markers such as slug. Wnt signals from the neural plate, non-neural ectoderm and paraxial mesoderm have all been suggested to play a role in neural crest induction. We show that Xenopus frizzled7 (Xfz7) is expressed in the dorsal ectoderm including early neural crest progenitors and is a key mediator of the Wnt inductive signal. We demonstrate that Xfz7 expression is induced in response to a BMP antagonist, noggin, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neogenin inhibits HJV secretion and regulates BMP-induced hepcidin expression and iron homeostasis. AU - Lee, Dai Hoon. AU - Zhou, Li Juau. AU - Zhou, Zheng. AU - Xie, Jiau Xiu. AU - Jung, Ji Ung. AU - Liu, Yu. AU - Xi, Cai Xia. AU - Mei, Lin. AU - Xiong, Wen Cheng. PY - 2010/4/15. Y1 - 2010/4/15. N2 - Neogenin, a deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) family member, has been identified as a receptor for the neuronal axon guidance cues netrins and repulsive guidance molecules repulsive guidance molecules (RGM). RGMc, also called hemojuvelin (HJV), is essential for iron homeostasis. Here we provide evidence that neogenin plays a critical role in iron homeostasis by regulation of HJV secretion and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. Livers of neogenin mutant mice exhibit iron overload, low levels of hepcidin, and reduced BMP signaling. Mutant hepatocytes in vitro show impaired BMP2 induction of Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and ...
Inactivation of Gli3, a key component of Hedgehog signaling in vertebrates, results in formation of additional digits (polydactyly) during limb bud development. The analysis of mouse embryos constitutively lacking Gli3 has revealed the essential GLI3 functions in specifying the anteroposterior (AP) limb axis and digit identities. We conditionally inactivated Gli3 during mouse hand plate development, which uncoupled the resulting preaxial polydactyly from known GLI3 functions in establishing AP and digit identities. Our analysis revealed that GLI3 directly restricts the expression of regulators of the G(1)-S cell-cycle transition such as Cdk6 and constrains S phase entry of digit progenitors in the anterior hand plate. Furthermore, GLI3 promotes the exit of proliferating progenitors toward BMP-dependent chondrogenic differentiation by spatiotemporally restricting and terminating the expression of the BMP antagonist Gremlin1. Thus, Gli3 is a negative regulator of the ...
Dr Edmond Bedrossian uses bone morphogenic protein to stimulate the cells to produce new bone during bone grafting surgery in San Francisco. 415-956-6610
0061]In certain embodiments, a device of the invention will include one or more substances, additional to the osteoinductive DBM material that induces or generates the formation of bone. Suitable osteogenic materials may include a growth factor that is effective in inducing formation of bone. Desirably, the growth factor will be from a class of proteins known generally as bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs), and may in certain embodiments be recombinant human (rh) BMPs. These BMP proteins, which are known to have osteogenic, chondrogenic and other growth and differentiation activities, include rhBMP-2, rhBMP-3, rhBMP4 (also referred to as rhBMP-2B), rhBMP-5, rhBMP-6, rhBMP-7 (rhOP-1), rhBMP-8, rhBMP-9, rhBMP-12, rhBMP-13, rhBMP-15, rhBMP-16, rhBMP-17, rhBMP-18, rhGDF-1, rhGDF-3, rhGDF-5, rhGDF-6, rhGDF-7, rhGDF-8, rhGDF-9, ...
Successful Fusion of the Proximal Tibiofibular Joint with Osteogenic Protein-1 (OP-1) Augmentation featured in HSS Journal Volume 9, Issue 1, February 2013.
The adult mammalian dermis contains a subpopulation of precursor cells that possess the capacity to differentiate into different lineages (16-18). These fibroblastic MSCs have attracted attention for their plasticity and, therefore, their potential therapeutic applications, including in transplantation for bone formation (19). In the present study, the role of BMP7 in the osteogenic differentiation of CD105+ hDDFCs was examined in vitro and in vivo, and the underlying Smad-dependent and -independent mechanisms were identified.. Conflicting reports exist on the differentiation potential of dermal fibroblasts, with certain studies suggesting limited potential and others demonstrating adipocytic, osteocytic and chondrocytic differentiation capacities (20-23). One reason for these controversial results is the heterogeneity of isolated dermal fibroblasts, which include populations with different differentiation capacities (5,13). Although dermal fibroblasts have ...
Rationale: The emergence of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) appears to be highly regulated during development. While several factors that promote the differentiation of LECs in embryonic development have been identified, those that negatively regulate this process are largely unknown. Objective: To delineate the role of BMP2 signaling on lymphatic development. Methods and Results: BMP2 signaling negatively regulates the formation of LECs. Developing LECs lack any detectable BMP signaling activity in both zebrafish and mouse embryos, and excess BMP2 signaling in zebrafish embryos and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived embryoid bodies (EBs) substantially decrease the emergence of LECs. Mechanistically, BMP2 signaling induces expression of miR-31 and miR-181a in a SMAD-dependent mechanism, which in turn, result attenuated expression of PROX1 during development. Conclusions: Our data identify BMP2 as a key negative regulator for the emergence of the lymphatic lineage ...
Transcriptional modulator activated by BMP (bone morphogenetic proteins) type 1 receptor kinase. SMAD1 is a receptor-regulated SMAD (R-SMAD) (By similarity). May play a role in the initiation and maintenance of spermatogenesis. SMAD1/OAZ1/PSMB4 complex mediates the degradation of the CREBBP/EP300 repressor SNIP1 (By similarity). May act synergistically with SMAD4 and YY1 in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-mediated cardiac-specific gene expression (PubMed:15329343).
Heterotopic ossification is a pathological, non neoplastic process of bone formation at ectopic sites, especially inside mesenchymal soft tissues. The disorder can occur localized or generalized.. Local forms are mostly assigned to the entity of Myositis ossificans circumscripta and involve the skeletal muscles. As a result of trauma, often following total hip replacement, or due to neuropathic disorders, e.g. spinal cord lesions, an intramuscular osteogenesis occurs. The osteogenic stimulation of mesenchymal stem cells seems to be the cause, but the pathobiochemical pathways are not known exactly [1].. The generalized disorder Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP, syn. Myositis ossificans progressiva) is a rare connective tissue desease with autosomal dominant heredity. It is characterized by enchondral ossification of muscle, tendons and ligaments after simple injuries, e.g. ...
https://my.vanderbilt.edu/chemicalphenomics/ As a way of introduction, I do chemical genetics of zebrafish early development. https://medschool.vanderbilt.edu/chaz-hong-lab/. Briefly, in a manner analogous to classic mutagenesis screens, we conduct high-throughput chemical screens using zebrafish to discover small molecules that specifically perturb embryonic pattern formation. Using the interdisciplinary chemical genetic approach, we have discovered exquisitely selective modulators of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP), Wnt and Hedgehog pathways, as well as important new signaling components that direct early vertebrate development. For example, I discovered dorsomorphin, the first small molecule inhibitor of BMP signaling. The technology from this effort is nearing an Investigational New Drug (IND) stage for several devastating human diseases, such as fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, and incurable ...
Protein BM-1 (bahasa Inggris: procollagen C-peptidase, bone morphogenetic protein 1, mammalian tolloid, mTLD, procollagen C-proteinase, procollagen C-terminal proteinase; carboxyprocollagen peptidase; procollagen C-terminal peptidase; procollagen C-proteinase; procollagen C-terminal proteinase; procollagen carboxypeptidase; procollagen carboxy-terminal proteinase; procollagen peptidase, BMP-1, EC 3.4.24.19) merupakan enzim metaloprotease yang mengiris terminus-C pada posisi Ala-Asp pada prokolagen tipe I dan II, dan pada posisi arg-Asp pada prokolagen tipe III,[1] dalam proses aktivasi prekursor protein yang berperan dalam pembentukan jaringan matriks ekstraselular, termasuk aktivasi protelitik terhadap zimogen dari oksidase lisil.[2] Marimastat merupakan senyawa penghambat aktivitas BMP-1.[3] Aktivitas BMP-1 akan meningkat oleh kalsium, fibronektin,[2] sFRP,[4] dan sejenis glikoprotein dengan kofaktor berupa Zn,[5] Protein sFR merupakan target terapi ...
Purpose: To evaluate bone graft substitutes used in spine fusion surgery and determine the feasibility of studying the use of adult stem cells. Hypothesis: Using a well designed, randomized clinical trial to compare bone graft substitutes used in spine fusion surgery will help determine the best alternative to autologous bone graft. Design: Retrospective data on two bone graft substitutes will be evaluated. A protocol for studying stem cells in spine fusion will be drafted and the feasibility of implementing the trial will be analyzed. Results: It is difficult to design a randomized clinical trial to investigate a new surgical technique. The lack of standardization among spine surgeons makes it difficult to control for confounding variables.
For neural crest cells to engage in migration, it is necessary that epithelial premigratory crest cells convert into mesenchyme. The mechanisms that trigger cell delamination from the dorsal neural tube remain poorly understood. We find that, in 15- to 40-somite-stage avian embryos, BMP4 mRNA is homogeneously distributed along the longitudinal extent of the dorsal neural tube, whereas its specific inhibitor noggin exists in a gradient of expression that decreases caudorostrally. This rostralward reduction in signal intensity coincides with the onset of emigration of neural crest cells. Hence, we hypothesized that an interplay between Noggin and BMP4 in the dorsal tube generates graded concentrations of the latter that in turn triggers the delamination of neural crest progenitors. Consistent with this suggestion, disruption of the gradient by grafting Noggin-producing cells dorsal to the neural tube at levels opposite the segmental plate or newly formed ...
Bone infections due to trauma and subsequent delayed or impaired fracture healing represent a great challenge in orthopedics and trauma surgery. The prevalence of such bacterial infection-related types of delayed non-union is high in complex fractures, particularly in open fractures with additional extensive soft-tissue damage. The aim of this study was to establish a rat model of delayed osseous union secondary to bacterial osteitis and investigate the impact of rhBMP-7 and rhBMP-2 on fracture healing in the situation of an ongoing infection. After randomization to four groups 72 Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a transverse fracture of the midshaft tibia stabilized by intramedullary titanium K-wires. Three groups received an intramedullary inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus (103 colony-forming units) before stabilization and the group without bacteria inoculation served as healing control. After 5 weeks, a second surgery was performed with irrigation of ...
Purpose.: There are limited studies on the factors that regulate the processing of TGF-β2 and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins into their mature form. Bone morphogenic protein 1 (BMP1) is an enzyme responsible for the cleavage and maturation of growth factors and ECM proteins. The purpose of our study was to determine whether cultured human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells express BMP1, BMP1 expression is regulated by TGF-β2, BMP1 is biologically active, and BMP1 regulates LOX activity. Methods.: Primary human TM cells were isolated and subjected to quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Western immunoblotting (WB) for BMP1. BMP1 immunolocalization was performed in TM tissues. qPCR was used to determine BMP1 mRNA expression and WB results were used to determine BMP1 protein expression. BMP1 activity was measured in TM cells treated with TGF-β2 or with a combination of TGF-β2/UK383367. ...
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family members, which include TGF-betas, activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), are structurally related secreted cytokines found in species ranging from worms and insects to mammals. A wide spectrum of cellular functions such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and migration are regulated by TGF-beta family members. TGF-beta family member binds to the Type II receptor and recruits Type I, whereby Type II receptor phosphorylates and activates Type I. The Type I receptor, in turn, phosphorylates receptor-activated Smads ( R-Smads: Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad5, and Smad8). Once phosphorylated, R-Smads associate with the co-mediator Smad, Smad4, and the heteromeric complex then translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, Smad complexes activate specific genes through cooperative interactions with other DNA-binding and coactivator (or co-repressor) ...
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family members, which include TGF-betas, activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), are structurally related secreted cytokines found in species ranging from worms and insects to mammals. A wide spectrum of cellular functions such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and migration are regulated by TGF-beta family members. TGF-beta family member binds to the Type II receptor and recruits Type I, whereby Type II receptor phosphorylates and activates Type I. The Type I receptor, in turn, phosphorylates receptor-activated Smads ( R-Smads: Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad5, and Smad8). Once phosphorylated, R-Smads associate with the co-mediator Smad, Smad4, and the heteromeric complex then translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, Smad complexes activate specific genes through cooperative interactions with other DNA-binding and coactivator (or co-repressor) ...
PHILADELPHIA - An international team of scientists, led by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, is taking the first step in developing a treatment for a rare genetic disorder called fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), in which the bodys skeletal muscles and soft connective tissue turns to bone, immobilizing patients over a lifetime with a second skeleton.. Reporting in the November issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation senior authors Eileen Shore, PhD, Professor of Genetics and Orthopedics, and Mary Mullins, PhD, Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology, with scientists in Japan and Germany, demonstrated that the mutation that causes FOP mistakenly activates a cascade of biochemical events in soft tissues that kicks off the process of bone development. The linchpin of the cellular signaling gone awry is a receptor for a ...
To explore the influence of inflammatory processes on bone formation, we applied a new in vivo screening model. Confined biological pockets were first created in rabbits as a response to implanted bone cement discs. These biomembrane pockets were subsequently used to study the effects of inflammatory stimuli on ectopic bone ... read more formation within biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) constructs loaded with TNF-α, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA), all with or without bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. Analysis of bone formation after 12 weeks demonstrated that the inflammatory mediators were not bone-inductive in combination with the BCP alone, but inhibited or enhanced BMP-induced bone formation. LPS was associated with a strong ...
OBJECTIVE: Bone morphogenetic proteins can serve as adjuncts to autologous bone to achieve bony fusion, and recombinant BMPs such as osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) have the potential to replace autologous bone altogether as fusion substrate. However, relatively little is known about the safety of OP-1 for spinal fusion procedures. This study examined the effects of OP-1 intentionally placed in the subarachnoid space following thecal sac decompression, and used as graft substrate in a canine dorsolateral lumbar spine fusion model. METHODS: Lumbar decompression with dorsolateral fusion was performed on 30 canines. The dura was opened to simulate an intraoperative rent and OP-1 was placed in the subarachnoid space and in the fusion bed. Animals were sacrificed after 16 weeks and the spines were examined manually, radiographically and pathologically. RESULTS: All animals treated ...
Neural crest cells are both highly migratory and significant to vertebrate organogenesis. However, the signals that regulate neural crest cell migration remain unclear. In this study, we test the function of differential screening-selected gene aberrant in neuroblastoma (DAN), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist we detected by analysis of the chick cranial mesoderm. Our analysis shows that, before neural crest cell exit from the hindbrain, DAN is expressed in the mesoderm, and then it becomes absent along cell migratory pathways. Cranial neural crest and metastatic melanoma cells avoid DAN protein stripes in vitro. Addition of DAN reduces the speed of migrating cells in vivo and in vitro, respectively. In vivo loss of function of DAN results in enhanced neural crest cell migration by increasing speed and directionality. Computer model simulations support the hypothesis that DAN restrains cell migration by ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Bone morphogenetic protein-2 and pulsed electromagnetic field stimulate osteoblastic cell proliferation and differentiation. AU - Partridge, Nicola. AU - Selvamurugan, Nagarajan. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. M3 - Conference contribution. SP - 38. EP - 45. BT - Proceedings of the International Conference on Bio-Engineering 2010. ER - ...
Rachana Sainger, Juan B. Grau, Emanuela Branchetti, Paolo Poggio, William F. Seefried, Benjamin C. Field, Michael A. Acker, Robert C. Gorman, Joseph H. Gorman, III, Clark W. Hargrove, III, Joseph E. Bavaria, Giovanni Ferrari. J Cell Physiol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2013 June 1.. Published in final edited form as: J Cell Physiol. 2012 June; 227(6): 2595-2604. doi: 10.1002/jcp.22999. PMCID: PMC3288540 ...
(HealthDay)-For patients with lumbar spondylosis or spondylolisthesis of the lowest lumbar levels who undergo open anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) ...
Exogenous bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmp) are well known to induce ectopic bone formation, but the physiological effect of Bmp signaling on normal bone is not completely understood. By deleting the receptor Bmpr1a in osteoblast-lineage cells with Dmp1-Cre, we observed a dramatic increase in trabecular bone mass in postnatal mice, due to a marked increase in osteoblast number likely driven by hyperproliferation of Sp7+ preosteoblasts. Similarly, inducible deletion of Bmpr1a in Sp7-positive cells specifically in postnatal mice increased trabecular bone mass. However, deletion of Smad4 by the same approaches had only a minor effect, indicating that Bmpr1a signaling suppresses trabecular bone formation through effectors beyond Smad4. Besides increasing osteoblast number in the ...
The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) treated with a combination of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein‑6 (BMP‑6) genes for the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH). Rat BMSCs were isolated and purified using a density gradient centrifugation method. The purity and characteristics of the BMSCs were detected by cell surface antigens identification using flow cytometry. The experimental groups were administered with one of the following adeno‑associated virus (AAV) vector constructs: AAV‑green fluorescent protein (AAV‑GFP), AAV‑BMP‑6, AAV‑VEGF or AAV‑VEGF‑BMP‑6. The expression of VEGF and BMP‑6 was detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and ELISA assays. The effects of VEGF and BMP‑6 on BMSCs were evaluated by angiogenic ...
Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is a member of the TGF-β cytokine superfamily that is widely expressed and may be induced in response to tissue injury. Elevations in GDF-15 may identify a novel pathway involved in loss of kidney function among patients with CKD. Among participants in the Clinical Phenotyping and Resource Biobank (C-PROBE) study and the Seattle Kidney Study (SKS), we tested whether kidney tissue expression of GDF15 mRNA correlates with circulating levels of GDF-15 and whether elevations in circulating GDF-15 are associated with decline in kidney function. In matching samples of 24 patients with CKD from the C-PROBE study, circulating GDF-15 levels significantly correlated with intrarenal GDF15 transcript levels (r=0.54, P=0.01). Among the 224 C-PROBE and 297 SKS participants, 72 (32.1%) and 94 (32.0%) patients, respectively, reached a composite end point of 30% decline in eGFR or progression to ESRD over a median of 1.8 and 2.0 ...
Principal Investigator:Kitoh Hiroshi, Project Period (FY):2015-04-01 - 2018-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research, Research Field:Orthopaedic surgery
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) activated gene (NAG-1) is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily. NAG-1 is also known as Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine-1 (MIC-1), Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF15), Placental Bone Morphogenetic Protein (PLAB), or Prostate Derived Factor (PDF). NAG-1 is expressed in human placenta, prostate and colon. It possesses antitumorigenic and proapoptotic activities. NAG-1 expression is dramatically increased in inflammation, injury and malignancy. Increase of NAG-1 expression is a feature of many cancers including breast, colon, pancreas and prostate. In a number of studies, NAG-1 expression was increased by a number of NSAIDs. This increase in expression may correlate with the chemopreventive effect NSAIDs seem to have with certain cancers. NAG-1 expression is also induced ...

Biological activity of a genetically modified BMP-2 variant with inhibitory activity | Head & Face Medicine | Full TextBiological activity of a genetically modified BMP-2 variant with inhibitory activity | Head & Face Medicine | Full Text

Differential gene expression and regulation of the bone morphogenetic protein antagonists follistatin and gremlin in normal and ... Most pores of the test scaffolds were filled with connective tissue. The control implants showed much more bone formation, not ... Origin of the proteins. The developement and expression of the utilized proteins in a bacterial expression system was performed ... Paresis of a bone morphogenetic protein-antagonist response in a genetic disorder of heterotopic skeletogenesis. J Bone Joint ...
more infohttps://head-face-med.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1746-160X-5-6

Customized Ca-P/PHBV nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: design, fabrication, surface modification and...Customized Ca-P/PHBV nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: design, fabrication, surface modification and...

2007 Enhancement of ectopic bone formation by bone morphogenetic protein-2 released from a heparin-conjugated poly(l-lactic-co- ... rhBMP-2 release from scaffolds as well as further gene expression. Expression of collagen IA1 was slightly higher in the cells ... 1993 Bone morphogenetic protein-2 causes commitment and differentiation in C3H10T1/2 and 3T3 cells. Growth Factors 9, 57-&71. ( ... Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) was incorporated in the scaffolds using its binding affinity with ...
more infohttp://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2010/05/20/rsif.2010.0127.focus

KAKEN - Research Projects | The Analysis of Gene Expression of Morphogenetic Factors Implicated Development of Tooth Germ and...KAKEN - Research Projects | The Analysis of Gene Expression of Morphogenetic Factors Implicated Development of Tooth Germ and...

Bone morphogenetic protein(BMP)stimulates cytological and functional differentiation of preodontoblasts in vitro J.Hard Tissue ... Publications] Qin C.L.: Aging and ectopic bone formation induced by partially purified bone morphogenetic protein Jpn.J.Oral ... Publications] Qin C.L.: Aging and ectopic bone formation induced by partially purified bone morphogenetic protein:blood vessel ... Publications] Qin, C.L.: Aging and ectopic bone formation induced by partially purified bone morphogenetic protein : Blood ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-09470391/

bmp4 bone morphogenetic protein 4) gene express... - 
		
		
			
				Xenbase Expression Image
			
			
		
	bmp4 bone morphogenetic protein 4) gene express... - Xenbase Expression Image

Gene. Clone. Synonyms. Species. Stage(s). Tissue. bmp4. XBMP-4, bmp-4, xbmp4, bone morphogenetic protein-4, zyme, bmp2b, ofc11 ... bmp4 bone morphogenetic protein 4) gene expression in Xenopus laevis embryo via in situ hybridization, NF stage 26, lateral ... When using the Xenbase gene expression search we felt it would be most valufuable if high quality images appeared near the top ...
more infohttp://www.xenbase.org/common/ViewImageActionNonAdmin.do?imageId=3236

bmp7.1 (bone morphogenetic protein 7, gene 1) e... - 
		
		
			
				Xenbase Expression Image
			
			
		
	bmp7.1 (bone morphogenetic protein 7, gene 1) e... - Xenbase Expression Image

Gene. Clone. Synonyms. Species. Stage(s). Tissue. bmp7.1.L. bmp7, bmp-7, op-1. X.laevis. Throughout NF stage 28. ... bmp7.1 (bone morphogenetic protein 7, gene 1) expressed in Xenopus laevis embryo via in situ hybridization, stage 28, lateral ... When using the Xenbase gene expression search we felt it would be most valufuable if high quality images appeared near the top ...
more infohttp://www.xenbase.org/common/ViewImageActionNonAdmin.do?imageId=38361

rs10788528 - SNPediars10788528 - SNPedia

Adipose tissue expression and genetic variants of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1A gene (BMPR1A) are associated with ...
more infohttps://snpedia.com/index.php/Rs10788528

rs11202222 - SNPediars11202222 - SNPedia

Adipose tissue expression and genetic variants of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1A gene (BMPR1A) are associated with ...
more infohttps://snpedia.com/index.php/Rs11202222

Growth differentiation factor - WikipediaGrowth differentiation factor - Wikipedia

Truksa J, Peng H, Lee P, Beutler E (2006). "Bone morphogenetic proteins 2, 4, and 9 stimulate murine hepcidin 1 expression ... GDF3 is also known as "Vg-related gene 2" (Vgr-2). Expression of GDF3 occurs in ossifying bone during embryonic development and ... in the thymus, spleen, bone marrow brain, and adipose tissue of adults. It has a dual nature of function; it both inhibits and ... GDF6 interacts with bone morphogenetic proteins to regulate ectoderm patterning, and controls eye development. GDF8 is now ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Growth_differentiation_factor

BMP3 Gene - GeneCards | BMP3 Protein | BMP3 AntibodyBMP3 Gene - GeneCards | BMP3 Protein | BMP3 Antibody

Protein Coding), Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins, receptors, and tissue inhibitors in human fetal, adult, and osteoarthritic articular ... Domains & Families for BMP3 Gene Gene Families for BMP3 Gene. HGNC:. *455 : Bone morphogenetic proteins ... GeneCards Summary for BMP3 Gene BMP3 (Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with BMP3 ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=BMP3

BMP7 - Bone morphogenetic protein 7 - Homo sapiens (Human) - BMP7 gene & proteinBMP7 - Bone morphogenetic protein 7 - Homo sapiens (Human) - BMP7 gene & protein

p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of ... Expressioni. Gene expression databases. Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution ... Bone morphogenetic protein 7, BMP-7 (Osteogenic protein 1, OP-1) (Eptotermin alfa) ... Bone morphogenetic protein 7Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/B1AL00

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 Mediates Estrogen-Regulated Sensory Axon Plasticity in the Adult Female Reproductive Tract |...Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 Mediates Estrogen-Regulated Sensory Axon Plasticity in the Adult Female Reproductive Tract |...

Effects of estrogen on BMP4 gene expression were assessed in vaginal tissue ex vivo. Vaginas from 8-week-old OVX rats were cut ... 2008) Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins 4 and 7 and their receptors IA, IB, and II in human ovaries from fetuses and ... 1999) Activin and bone morphogenetic proteins induce calcitonin gene-related peptide in embryonic sensory neurons in vitro. Mol ... 2002) Activin and bone morphogenetic proteins are present in perinatal sensory neuron target tissues that induce neuropeptides ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/33/3/1050

Roeland Nusse | Stanford Medicine ProfilesRoeland Nusse | Stanford Medicine Profiles

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are key signaling molecules required for normal development of bones and other tissues. ... A distinct regulatory region of the Bmp5 locus activates gene expression following adult bone fracture or soft tissue injury. ... A distinct regulatory region of the Bmp5 locus activates gene expression following adult bone fracture or soft tissue injury ... The wingless gene encodes a secreted protein that affects gene expression in surrounding cells but does not spread far from the ...
more infohttps://med.stanford.edu/profiles/roeland-nusse

Roeland Nusse | Stanford Medicine ProfilesRoeland Nusse | Stanford Medicine Profiles

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are key signaling molecules required for normal development of bones and other tissues. ... A distinct regulatory region of the Bmp5 locus activates gene expression following adult bone fracture or soft tissue injury. ... Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are key signaling molecules required for normal development of bones and other tissues. ... A distinct regulatory region of the Bmp5 locus activates gene expression following adult bone fracture or soft tissue injury ...
more infohttps://med.stanford.edu/profiles/roeland-nusse?tab=teaching

IJMS  | Free Full-Text | Comparative Analysis of Osteogenic/Chondrogenic Differentiation Potential in Primary Limb Bud-Derived...IJMS | Free Full-Text | Comparative Analysis of Osteogenic/Chondrogenic Differentiation Potential in Primary Limb Bud-Derived...

Although the adipogenic lineage-specific marker gene FABP4 was also expressed in micromass cultures, Oil Red O-positive cells ... while notable lubricin expression was only detected in primary cultures. Furthermore, mRNA transcripts for markers of ... models have been extensively applied to study chondrogenesis and osteogenesis to elucidate pathways of endochondral bone ... Stimulation by bone morphogenetic protein-2 requires modulation of N-cadherin expression and function. Differentiation 1999, 64 ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/14/8/16141/htm

The role of bone morphogenetic protein 2 in the reprogramming of cancer stem cellsThe role of bone morphogenetic protein 2 in the reprogramming of cancer stem cells

... , Muhammad Fawwaz Abdullah, Mudiana Muhamad, ... Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) enhances BMP-3, BMP-4, and bone cell differentiation marker gene expression during the ... Ex vivo gene therapy in autologous bone marrow stromal stem cells for tissue-engineered maxillofacial bone regeneration. Gene ... bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1A (BMPR1A), bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1B (BMPR1B) and transforming ...
more infohttp://www.alliedacademies.org/articles/the-role-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-in-the-reprogramming-of-cancer-stem-cells-11296.html

Bmpr2 bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type II (serine/threonine kinase) [Mus musculus (house mouse)] - Gene - NCBIBmpr2 bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type II (serine/threonine kinase) [Mus musculus (house mouse)] - Gene - NCBI

Expression. Broad expression in lung adult (RPKM 22.1), frontal lobe adult (RPKM 8.3) and 19 other tissues See more. Orthologs ... Bmpr2 bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type II (serine/threonine kinase) [Mu... Bmpr2 bone morphogenetic protein receptor, ... bone morphogenetic protein receptor type-2. Names. BMP type II receptor. BMP type-2 receptor. bone morphogenic protein receptor ... Bmpr2 bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type II (serine/threonine kinase) [ Mus musculus (house mouse) ] Gene ID: 12168, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene?cmd=search&term=NM_007561

Genetic and evolutionary analyses of the human bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) in the pathophysiology of obesity....Genetic and evolutionary analyses of the human bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) in the pathophysiology of obesity....

BMPR2 mRNA expression was measured in 190 paired samples of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The gene was sequenced in ... Human bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) is essential for BMP signalling and may be involved in the regulation of ... Genetic and evolutionary analyses of the human bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) in the pathophysiology of obesity. ... Genetic and Evolutionary Analyses of the Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 2 (BMPR2) in the Pathophysiology of Obesity ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21311592

OPUS Würzburg | Gene expression profiling of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) stimulated primary human tenon fibroblasts...OPUS Würzburg | Gene expression profiling of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) stimulated primary human tenon fibroblasts...

The RNA expression profile yields new insights into the relevance of hCTGF in influencing biologic processes like wound healing ... For RNA expression profiling HTFs were stimulated with hCTGF for 48h and analyzed using affymetrix (TM) oligonucleotide array ... was investigated by RNA expression profiling using affymetrix (TM) oligonucleotide array technology to identify genes that are ... The biologic relevance of human connective tissue growth factor (hCTGF) for primary human tenon fibroblasts (HTFs) ...
more infohttps://opus.bibliothek.uni-wuerzburg.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/14018

Growth factor gene expression profiles of bone morphogenetic protein-2-treated human adipose stem cells seeded on calcium
     ...Growth factor gene expression profiles of bone morphogenetic protein-2-treated human adipose stem cells seeded on calcium ...

The secretome of stem cells strongly determines the outcome of tissue engineering strategies. We investigated how the secretome ... Growth factor gene expression profiles of bone morphogenetic protein-2-treated human adipose stem cells seeded on calcium ... expression of factors associated with angiogenesis and bone remodeling by hASCs, future bone regeneration studies should focus ... BMP-2-treatment increased the expression of ∼30 factors by hASCs seeded on BCP, while it decreased the expression of only PGF, ...
more infohttp://dare.uva.nl/search?metis.record.id=403446

Cementoblast - WikipediaCementoblast - Wikipedia

More specifically, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) acts on the cementoblasts in the periodontal tissue. The effect of BMP- ... Noggin (protein) is a BMP inhibitor that correlates with BMP-2 to regulate gene expression and mineral nodule formation. BMP-2 ... Osteocalcin and sialoprotein are bone morphogenetic proteins (also known as BMPs) that are often linked to the development and ... Zhao, M.; Berry, J.E.; Somerman, M.J. (1 January 2003). "Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Inhibits Differentiation and ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cementoblast

Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Mary A. Hall (Translated to Swedish)Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Mary A. Hall (Translated to Swedish)

Tissue Engineering. Part A. Dec, 2010 , Pubmed ID: 20673027 Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are well known for their ... This study evaluates the in vitro and in vivo viability, gene expression, and bone formation from transgenic fibroblasts ... Thus, incorporation of PEGDA hydrogels significantly advances current gene therapy bone repair approaches. ... Transgene Expression, and Bone Volume in a Model of Heterotopic Ossification ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/author/Mary+A._Hall?language=Swedish

A 5-mC Dot Blot Assay Quantifying the DNA Methylation Level of Chondrocyte Dedifferentiation In Vitro | Protocol (Translated to...A 5-mC Dot Blot Assay Quantifying the DNA Methylation Level of Chondrocyte Dedifferentiation In Vitro | Protocol (Translated to...

... in collagen sponge scaffolds by using siRNA to stabilizechondrocytes phenotype cultured with bone morphogenetic protein-2 under ... Ma, B., et al. Gene expression profiling of dedifferentiated human articular chondrocytes in monolayer culture. Osteoarthritis ... 1Guangzhou Medical University, 2Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Shenzhen Laboratory of Digital Orthopeadic ... Single-cell Quantitation of mRNA and Surface Protein Expression in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-infected CD4+ T Cells Isolated ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/video/55565/-dna-5-mc-dot-blot-assay?language=Korean

Robert Thomas Grant, MD, MSc, FACS | Columbia University Department of SurgeryRobert Thomas Grant, MD, MSc, FACS | Columbia University Department of Surgery

Expression of human bone morphogenetic protein 7 in primary rabbit periosteal cells: Potential utility in gene therapy for ... Gene-enhanced tissue engineering: Application for bone healing using cultured periosteal cells transduced retrovirally with the ... Tissue engineered bone repair of calvarial defects using cultured periosteal cells. Plast Reconstr Surg 1998;101: 567-574. ... The repair of bone defects using periosteal tissue constructs. Trans Ortp Res Soc 1996:21(2):616. ...
more infohttp://columbiasurgery.org/node/1319

Adipokines, Inflammation, and Insulin Resistance in Obesity | SpringerLinkAdipokines, Inflammation, and Insulin Resistance in Obesity | SpringerLink

Adipose tissue is a major depot to store triglycerides during energy excess and release fatty acids and glycerol for... ... Bone morphogenetic proteins in inflammation, glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue energy metabolism. Cytokine & Growth Factor ... 2007). Omentin plasma levels and gene expression are decreased in obesity. Diabetes, 56, 1655-1661.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentral ... 2012). Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) reverses obesity and regulates appetite through a central mTOR pathway. The FASEB ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-89506-2_9

Patent US6858431 - Bone mineralization proteins, DNA, vectors expression systems - Google PatentsPatent US6858431 - Bone mineralization proteins, DNA, vectors expression systems - Google Patents

Finally, the invention relates to methods for inducing systemic bone formation by stable transfection of host cells with the ... Moreover, the present invention relates to methods of inducing bone formation by transfecting osteogenic precursor cells with ... The present invention is directed to isolated nucleic acid molecules that encode LIM mineralization protein, or LMP. The ... an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding LIM mineralization protein. The transfection may ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US6858431?dq=5,890,152
  • however, the mechanisms regulating adult bone mass are poorly understood. (rupress.org)
  • However, limitation in the knowledge on the molecules acting as signaling factors to determine adult bone mass has hampered the progress in understanding the mechanisms that control adult bone mass levels. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, the present invention relates to methods of inducing bone formation by transfecting osteogenic precursor cells with an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding LIM mineralization protein. (google.com)
  • In a particular embodiment, the invention provides a method of fusing a spine by transfecting osteogenic precursor cells with an isolated nucleic acid molecule having a nucleotide sequence encoding LIM mineralization protein, admixing the transfected osteogenic precursor cells with a matrix and contacting the matrix with the spine. (google.com)
  • 1. A method of inducing bone formation comprising transfecting osteogenic precursor cells with an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding LIM mineralization protein, wherein said nucleic acid molecule is SEQ ID NO: 22 or SEQ ID NO: 33. (google.com)
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • Recently, it has gradually been ascertained that some growth factors secreted by epithelial or mesenchymal tissue bind to type IV collagen with greater affinity, condens there and contribute to organ morphogenesis in cooperation with basement membrane. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Iliac bone marrow samples were collected from individuals aged 18-65 years during the first steps of pelvic surgery, under IRB approval with informed consent. (hindawi.com)
  • Patients with active infectious or neoplastic disease, a history of cytotoxic or radiation therapy, primary or secondary metabolic bone disease, or bone marrow dysfunction were excluded. (hindawi.com)
  • We have developed a safe and effective method for rapid isolation of CD105 + BMPCs from bone marrow aspirate. (hindawi.com)
  • This method enables us to obtain large numbers of BMPCs for both research and clinical use from a relatively small sample of bone marrow aspirate. (hindawi.com)
  • Bone marrow cells obtained from the femora of CIZ-deficient mice revealed higher ALP activity in culture and formed more mineralized nodules than wild-type cells. (rupress.org)
  • CIZ deficiency enhanced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced osteoblastic differentiation in bone marrow cells in cultures, indicating that BMP is the target of CIZ action. (rupress.org)
  • CIZ deficiency increased newly formed bone mass after femoral bone marrow ablation in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • This protein may act as an important signaling molecule within the trabecular meshwork and optic nerve head, and may play a potential role in glaucoma pathogenesis. (wikidoc.org)
  • The secretome of stem cells strongly determines the outcome of tissue engineering strategies. (uva.nl)
  • In most organs, different cell types are generated by stem cells - cells that also make copies of themselves and thereby maintain the tissue. (stanford.edu)
  • Work from many laboratories, including our own, has shown that Wnt proteins are essential for the control over stem cells. (stanford.edu)
  • In vivo, a particular question we address is how physiological changes, such as those occurring during hormonal stimuli, injury or programmed tissue degeneration have an impact on the self-renewal signals and on stem cell biology. (stanford.edu)
  • We identified Wnt-responsive stem cells by their expression of Axin2 (a common Wnt target gene) and generated a mouse strain with the CreERT2 recombination signal inserted into the Axin2 locus, Axin2-Cre. (stanford.edu)
  • By clonal labeling, we showed that single stem cells differentiate into different cell types of the tissues of interest. (stanford.edu)
  • Biological alchemy: Engineering bone and fat from fat-derived stem cells. (columbiasurgery.org)
  • With low estrogen, BMP4 expression was elevated, indicating negative regulation by this hormone. (jneurosci.org)
  • Plays a role in calcium regulation and bone homeostasis. (mybiosource.com)
  • Therefore, molecules that could localize at adhesion plaques and, at the same time, modulate transcription in nuclei are intriguing candidates that participate in the regulation of osteoblastic function and bone mass. (rupress.org)
  • Down-regulation of BMP-2 characterized 7% HA/CC constructs preloaded with 125 μg hNoggin with Noggin down-regulated on day 60 and 90 together with lack of TGF-β3 expression. (naver.com)
  • Down-regulation of BMP-2 correlated with minimal bone formation by induction. (naver.com)
  • hTGF-β3/hNoggin pre-treated bioreactors up-regulated BMP-2 but only on day 90 together with a significant down-regulation of Noggin on day 60 and 90, correlating with the induction of bone formation, albeit limited, on day 90 at the periphery of the macroporous bioreactors only. (naver.com)
  • hTGF-β3 treated bioreactors significantly down-regulated BMP-2 on day 15 whilst up-regulating BMP-2 on day 60 and 90, together with down-regulation of Noggin on day 60 and 90 correlating with the prominent induction of bone formation. (naver.com)
  • These results unequivocally demonstrate that hTGF-β3 elicits bone induction by up-regulation of endogenous BMP-2 and is blocked by hNoggin. (naver.com)
  • Finally, BMP-2-induced bone formation on adult mouse calvariae in vivo was enhanced by CIZ deficiency. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, in vivo physiological function of CIZ in bone has not yet been determined. (rupress.org)
  • To obtain insights into the role of CIZ in bone in vivo, we investigated the bone in the CIZ-deficient mice. (rupress.org)
  • Combined BMPR2 genotype-phenotype-mRNA expression data as well as evolutionary aspects suggest a role of BMPR2 in the pathophysiology of obesity. (nih.gov)
  • Although the adipogenic lineage-specific marker gene FABP4 was also expressed in micromass cultures, Oil Red O-positive cells along with PPARγ2 transcripts were only detected in C3H10T1/2-derived micromass cultures. (mdpi.com)
  • To investigate the potential role of CIZ in regulating adult bone mass, we examined the bones in CIZ-deficient mice. (rupress.org)
  • These results establish that CIZ suppresses the levels of adult bone mass through inhibition of BMP-induced activation of osteoblasts. (rupress.org)
  • More importantly, low levels of adult (peak) bone mass also increase the risk of fractures. (rupress.org)
  • Osteoblasts attach to bone and regulate extracellular environment, while they are also controlled by bone via membrane-bound attachment proteins, which form adhesion plaques in these cells. (rupress.org)
  • In addition, SB203580 and PD98059 were employed to block the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), respectively. (medsci.org)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • They possess all the organelles associated with protein synthesis such as RER and Golgi apparatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The invention provides methods for treating a variety of pathological conditions associated bone and boney tissue, such as, for example, spine fusion, fracture repair and osteoporosis. (google.com)
  • It is therefore important to note that a bone fracture, like any other musculoskeletal injury, should be considered a systemic event, resulting in a systemic response [ 25 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • However, adipose tissues have also been shown as highly active endocrine and metabolically important organs to modulate energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis. (springer.com)
  • GDF15 (also known as TGF-PL, MIC-1, PDF, PLAB, and PTGFB) has a role in regulating inflammatory and apoptotic pathways during tissue injury and certain disease processes. (wikipedia.org)