Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Adipocytes, White: Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Mice, Inbred C57BLAdipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Microarray Analysis: The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)PhosphoproteinsBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Glucose Transporter Type 1: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.TriglyceridesGene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins: A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 18.104.22.168.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha: A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; ADIPOSE TISSUE; INTESTINES; LUNG; ADRENAL GLANDS; PLACENTA; OVARY and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (LEUKOCYTES, MONONUCLEAR). Experiments with knock-out mice have demonstrated that CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-alpha is essential for the functioning and differentiation of HEPATOCYTES and ADIPOCYTES.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESMethylglucosidesAdipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Phenylisopropyladenosine: N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
The expression of the KLF15 gene is markedly up-regulated during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes. ... Ectopic expression of KLF15 in NIH 3T3 or C2C12 cells triggered both lipid accumulation and the expression of PPAR-γ in the ... Forced expression of KLF15 in cultured hepatocytes increased both the expression and the promoter activity of the gene for ... "Overexpression of KLF15 in adipocytes of mice results in down-regulation of SCD1 expression in adipocytes and consequent ...
However, the functional significance of this differential gene expression is not yet understood. While the gene and the mRNA of ... Abdominal fat accumulation with the formation of enlarged lipid engorged adipocytes has emerged as the key risk factor for the ... Recent findings suggest that PLSCR3 and, to a lesser degree, PLSCR1 are critical to the normal regulation of fat accumulation ... Whereas hPLSCR1, -3, and -4 are expressed in a variety of tissues with few exceptions, expression of hPLSCR2 is restricted only ...
Most recently, the presence of beige adipocytes with a gene expression pattern distinct from either white or brown adipocytes ... "Bone marrow fat accumulation accelerated by high fat diet is suppressed by exercise". Bone. 64: 39-46. doi:10.1016/j.bone. ... It is then free to translocate to the nucleus and activate the expression of its target genes. Clinical studies have repeatedly ... Marrow adipocytes, like brown and white adipocytes, are derived from mesenchymal stem cells. The marrow adipose tissue depot is ...
Moreover, expression of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α is mostly derived from macrophages rather than adipocytes. It has ... Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2003; 112:1796-808. ... and lipid-handling genes (i.e. adipose differentiation-related protein (Adfp), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4), ApoE and ... Adipocyte. 2013; 2:176-83. Wagner M, Dudley AC. A three-party alliance in solid tumors: Adipocytes, macrophages and vascular ...
The miR-27 gene family has been shown to be downregulated during the differentiation of adipocytes. miR-27 inhibits adipocyte ... miR-27 has been found to target and inhibit gene expression of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein, enabling it to ... There is activation of Wnt signalling through nuclear accumulation of this protein, which is in response to inhibition of the ... 2010). "miR-27a is a negative regulator of adipocyte differentiation via suppressing PPARgamma expression". Biochem Biophys Res ...
... regulates the induction of adipogenic and myogenic genes and is required for cell-type specific gene expression during ... Targeted knockout of Kmt2d in precursors cells of brown adipocytes and myocytes results in decreases in brown adipose tissue ... Depletion of KMT2D prior to differentiation prevents the accumulation of H3K4 mono-methylation (H3K4me1), H3K27 acetylation, ... July 1997). "Structure and expression pattern of human ALR, a novel gene with strong homology to ALL-1 involved in acute ...
... changing gene expression patterns, modulating epigenetic landscape or demonstrating hormone-like signaling. As such, succinate ... Accumulation of fumarate can drive the reverse activity of SDH, thus enhancing succinate generation. Under pathological and ... In adipocytes, the succinate-activated GPR91 signaling cascade inhibits lipolysis. Succinate signaling often occurs in response ... HIF1 is known to induce transcription of more than 60 genes, including genes involved in vascularization and angiogenesis, ...
Busch AK, Cordery D, Denyer GS, Biden TJ (Apr 2002). "Expression profiling of palmitate- and oleate-regulated genes provides ... during periods of overnutrition adipocyte tissue is expanded with extreme expression of PC and other lipogenic enzymes. Hepatic ... including pyruvate carboxylase Concurrently adipose tissue develops insulin resistance causing accumulation of triaglycerols ... glucose by hepatocytes causes dramatic alteration of β-cell gene expression with large increases in normally suppressed genes, ...
... has been used in both human and mouse studies in an attempt characterize beige adipocytes according to their gene expression ... Likewise, the accumulation of neck fat (or cervical adipose tissue) has been shown to be associated with mortality. Several ... Although its discoverers dubbed this gene the adipose gene, it is not a gene responsible for creating adipose tissue. Pre- ... WAT from the transgenic animals exhibited a brown fat gene program and had decreased WAT specific gene expression compared to ...
Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-Jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ... Such protein accumulation may contribute to the pathogenesis and phenotypic characteristics in neurodegenerative diseases, ... which resulted in the activation of transcription in adipocytes relevant in diabetes mellitus. Overall, the PSMB1 protein has ... This gene is tightly linked to the TBP (TATA-binding protein) gene in human and in mouse, and is transcribed in the opposite ...
I isoform expression during differentiation. Inter-tissue and inter-species expression of CPT I and CPT II enzymes". The ... Brown NF, Hill JK, Esser V, Kirkland JL, Corkey BE, Foster DW, McGarry JD (Oct 1997). "Mouse white adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells ... The shunting of LCFAs away from mitochondria leads to the observed increase in FFA levels and the accumulation of fat in ... Yamazaki N, Yamanaka Y, Hashimoto Y, Shinohara Y, Shima A, Terada H (Jun 1997). "Structural features of the gene encoding human ...
A major role for RIP140 in adipose tissue is to block the expression of genes involved in energy dissipation and mitochondrial ... "Receptor interacting protein 140 regulates expression of uncoupling protein 1 in adipocytes through specific peroxisome ... "Nuclear receptor corepressor RIP140 regulates fat accumulation". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 101 (22): 8437-42. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... Failure of ovulation in these mice is caused by lack of cumulus expansion and altered expression of various genes, including ...
JDP2 is involved in the modulation of gene expression. For example, JDP2 regulates MyoD gene expression with c-Jun and gene for ... Ectopic expression of JDP2 inhibits the retinoic acid-induced differentiation of F9 cells and adipocyte differentiation. By ... The increased accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and 8-oxo-dGuo, one of the major products of DNA ... Furthermore, it has been shown that the expression level of JDP2 gene upon acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is highly specific ...
This gene is located in the class II region of the MHC (major histocompatibility complex). Expression of this gene is induced ... Such protein accumulation may contribute to the pathogenesis and phenotypic characteristics in neurodegenerative diseases, ... Furthermore, downregulation of PSMB8 also inhibited the differentiation of murine and human adipocytes in vitro, while an ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-Jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ...
This protein is also a serine protease that is secreted by adipocytes into the bloodstream. Finally, the encoded protein has a ... Factor D is a serine protease that stimulates glucose transport for triglyceride accumulation in fats cells and inhibits ... Flier JS, Cook KS, Usher P, Spiegelman BM (1987). "Severely impaired adipsin expression in genetic and acquired obesity". ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the trypsin family of peptidases. The encoded protein is a component of the ...
Moreover, Insig2 altered the expression of several additional apoptosis genes located in mitochondria. In a study by Kumar et ... Silibinin inhibits adipocyte differentiation through a potential up-regulation of insig-1 and insig-2 at an early phase in ... May 2010). "Hair Growth Defects in Insig-Deficient Mice Caused by Cholesterol Precursor Accumulation and Reversed by ... Insulin induced gene 2, also known as INSIG2, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the INSIG2 gene. Insulin activates the ...
... has been used in both human and mouse studies in an attempt characterize beige adipocytes according to their gene expression ... The specific cause for the accumulation of ectopic fat is unknown. The cause is likely a combination of genetic, environmental ... WAT from the transgenic animals exhibited a brown fat gene program and had decreased WAT specific gene expression compared to ... Although its discoverers dubbed this gene the adipose gene, it is not a gene responsible for creating adipose tissue. ...
... where under-expression of miRNAs indirectly caused reduced expression of DNA repair genes, in some cases over-expression of ... Reduction of XRN1 under d-flow conditions therefore leads to the accumulation of miR-712. MiR-712 targets tissue inhibitor of ... Skårn M, Namløs HM, Noordhuis P, Wang MY, Meza-Zepeda LA, Myklebost O (April 2012). "Adipocyte differentiation of human bone ... Over expression of any one of these miRNAs can cause reduced expression of its target DNA repair gene. The global role of miRNA ...
Cell processes involved in insulin resistance are often associated with elevated VAP-1 expression and modified GLUT expression ... "Characterization of AOC2 gene encoding a copper-binding amine oxidase expressed specifically in retina". Gene. 318: 45-53. doi: ... VAP-1 is primarily localized on the cell surface on the adipocyte plasma membrane. However, circulating VAP-1 has been shown to ... Additionally, VAP-1 mediates leukocyte migration and, eventually, can lead to chronic inflammatory cell accumulation and the ...
"Overexpression of PLIN5 in skeletal muscle promotes oxidative gene expression and intramyocellular lipid content without ... Adipocytes, the cells that normally function as lipid store of the body, are well equipped to handle the excess lipids. Yet, ... Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading ... Research is ongoing into a genetic cause, but no individual gene has been named as the causative agent. The causative role of ...
When functional genomics is applied, few commonalities between the gene expression of DIO vs control rodents and obese vs non- ... Faust, I. M.; Johnson, P. R.; Stern, J. S.; Hirsch, J. (1978). "Diet-induced adipocyte number increase in adult rats: a new ... "Age-dependent effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on lipid metabolism and lipid accumulation in liver and kidney of rats ... and diabetes-induced changes of ob gene expression in rat adipose tissue". FEBS Letters. 371 (3): 324-328. doi:10.1016/0014- ...
Three key components are necessary for this database to be effective: cell type-specific gene expression profiles, anatomical ... Adipogenic differentiation was visible through accumulation of lipid-rich vacuoles within cells (adipocytes) and they remained ... "about cell type gene expression, cell lineage maps and stem cell differentiation protocols for both human and mouse stem cells ... and they replaced the beta-globin genes of the mouse with sickle cell effected human beta-globin genes. Following this ...
Obesity is related with increase accumulation of lipid droplets in non-adipose tissues causing lipotoxicity. The expression of ... Pre-adipocytes are undifferentiated fibroblasts that can be stimulated to form adipocytes. Recent studies shed light into ... In human, the gene for adipose differentiation related protein is located at short p arm of chromosome 9 at region 22 band 1 ... Decreased expression of perlipin 2 decreases the fatty liver while increase expression of perlipin is associated with several ...
But Not ERα-Dependent Gene Expression in the Hypothalamus". Endocrinology. 143 (6): 2189-2197. doi:10.1210/endo.143.6.8843. ... Genistein decreases pathological accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in Sanfilippo syndrome. In vitro animal studies and ... Dang, Z. C. (2009). "Dose-dependent effects of soy phyto-oestrogen genistein on adipocytes: Mechanisms of action". Obesity ... "Genistein-mediated inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis as a basis for gene expression-targeted isoflavone therapy for ...
1996 Sep 27;271(39):24055-62 Gene. 2015 Jul 26. pii: S0378-1119(15)00914-2. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2015.07.073 Sci. Rep. 2013;3: ... It is suggested that the accumulation of phospholipid-bound 13(S)-HpODE and/or 13(S)-HODE is a critical step in rendering ... 15-LOX 1 is overexpressed in prostate cancerous compared to non-cancerous prostate tissue and the levels of its expression in ... adipocyte protein 2 (aP2), a fatty acid binding protein; this may cause macrophages to increase their uptake of these lipids, ...
"Recruitment of the androgen receptor via serum response factor facilitates expression of a myogenic gene". The Journal of ... norepinephrine due to lack of alpha-2 receptor negative feedback and decreased fat accumulation due to epinephrine/ ... the ability of some fat cells to store lipids by blocking a signal transduction pathway that normally supports adipocyte ... In males, certain Y chromosome genes, particularly SRY, control development of the male phenotype, including conversion of the ...
Hormonal regulation of adiponectin gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002, 290 (3): 1084-1089. ... Hypoadiponectinemia is associated with visceral fat accumulation and insulin resistance in Japanese men with type 2 diabetes ... Overall APPL1 expression (Figure 6) was lowest in untreated ZDF rats. Its expression was significantly increased by metformin ... a) Expression of AdipoR1. Insulin causes a significant downregulation of AdipoR1 expression. One-Way ANOVA p = 0.024. Post hoc ...
In differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes, GB enhanced lipid accumulation and increased expression of several adipogenic genes ( ... In mature adipocytes, GB reduced the gene expression of resistin, a pro-inflammatory endocrine factor, increased the ... and immunoblotting were used to measure GB effects on lipid accumulation, gene expression, and protein abundance, respectively ... In macrophages, GB reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes that were induced by LPS. GB produces metabolically ...
Adipocyte cell sizes, TAG content and expression of lipogenic-related genes including, adipose differentiated related protein ( ... the effect of DHA to promote adipogenesis to trap TAG in adipocytes and also increase expression of genes involved in adipocyte ... Adipocytes size and lipid metabolism related genes were analyzed. Plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) was lower in DHA- than in BT-fed ... In addition, expression of the lipolytic genes, adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone sensitive lipase was higher in BT-fed ...
After two weeks, the gene expression of the adipogenic marker genes PPAR. and FABP4 was increased 2.0- and 2.2-fold, ... Unlike cells in 2D culture, the 3D bioprinted cells did not detach upon lipid accumulation. ... new methods for 3D cell culture of adipocytes could provide more physiologically accurate data and a deeper understanding of ... Increased lipid accumulation and adipogenic gene expression of adipocytes in 3D bioprinted nanocellulose scaffolds Artikel i ...
HT can therefore modulate adipocyte gene expression profile through mechanisms involving a reduction of oxidative stress and NF ... We investigated HT (1 and 10 μmol/L) effects on gene expression (mRNA and microRNA) related to inflammation induced by 10 ng/mL ... Accordingly, HT significantly counteracted miR-155-5p, miR-34a-5p, and let-7c-5p expression in both cells and exosomes, and ... as well as surface expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and reverted the TNF-α-mediated inhibition of endothelial ...
Only the anthocyanin extract, but not the purified C3G, slightly affected fat accumulation. High-throughput gene expression ... Moro juice anti-obesity effect on fat accumulation cannot be explained only by its anthocyanin content. Our findings suggest ... Dietary supplementation of Moro juice, but not Navelina juice significantly reduced body weight gain and fat accumulation ... on fat accumulation in mice fed a standard or a high-fat diet (HFD). Obesity was induced in male C57/Bl6 mice by feeding a HFD ...
Epididymal WAT was analysed for adipocyte size, number and gene expression of metabolic transcription factors. Early Concept ... Milk fat globule membrane coating of large lipid droplets in the diet of young mice prevents body fat accumulation in adulthood ... It reduced adipocyte size without affecting adipocyte number in adult mice. The Concept IMF decreased the expression of PPARγ, ... At day 98 plasma and gene expression measurements were performed. Only the Nuturis® IMF diet (Lcoating) in early life ...
... had no effect on the expression of adiponectin and AdipoR genes in differentiated porcine adipocytes. However, the addition of ... When porcine adipocytes were cultured without insulin, supplementation with 10 nM insulin inhibited the expression of AdipoR2 ... Therefore, these data suggest that a PPARgamma agonist increases expression of AdipoR2 and that insulin inhibits the expression ... Using the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor (PI3K inhibitor, LY 294002), we found that insulin inhibited the expression ...
Nuclear accumulation of p65, however, increased substantially 15 and 60 min after TNF-α addition (Fig. 5A, lanes 2 and 3). ... Global gene expression profile in wild-type 3T3-L1 adipocytes and adipocytes expressing IκBα-DN. The global gene expression ... Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Suppresses Adipocyte-Specific Genes and Activates Expression of Preadipocyte Genes in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes ... Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Suppresses Adipocyte-Specific Genes and Activates Expression of Preadipocyte Genes in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes ...
Gene expression analysis shows upregulation of key adipogenic markers indicative of brown-like adipocytes. These data suggest ... We recently reported that insulitis in type 1 diabetes (T1D) of mice and humans is preceded by intra-islet accumulation of HA, ... Increasing HA concentration led to a dose-dependent increase in cartilage-marker gene expression and enhanced sGAG deposition ... Matrix remodeling modulates expression of the transcriptional co-activator Yes-associated protein, which drives expression of ...
... involves changes in gene expression and cellular morphology. Adipocyte hypertrophy results from an excessive accumulation of ... Adipocyte differentiation accompanies the changes in expression of various adipogenic and lipogenic genes . PPARγ and C/EBP ... Figure 2: Effect of CDAP on the expression of transcription factors and adipocyte-specific genes in differentiation of 3T3-L1 ... B. A. Jessen and G. J. Stevens, "Expression profiling during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts," Gene, vol. 299, ...
Chemokines control fat accumulation and leptin secretion by cultured human adipocytes. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 175: 81-92. ... E) Rev-erbα and RORα change the gene expression of Itgb1, but not Itgb2, in RAW264 cells. The gene expression of Itgb1 and ... Macrophages from Rev-erbα−/− mice display increases in Ccl2 gene expression. Ccl2 (A) and Itgb1 (B) mRNA expression in ... Aging or obesity impairs Rev-erbα gene expression in murine peritoneal macrophages. Rev-erbα mRNA expression in peritoneal ...
This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid ... Similarly, differentiation of murine Apoe-deficient adipocytes was characterized by reduced gene expression of Adipoq, Fabp4 ... judged by expression of adipocyte markers. Taken together, depletion of endogenous APOE in human adipocytes severely impairs ... This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control ...
4)Fat accumulation A(5)Testis-mediated gene transfer A(6)DNA methylation. (7)Pheromone A(8)Cytokine A(9)Super ovulation ... 1. Expression of 20 -hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (20 -HSD) gene in the corpus luteum plays a crucial role in recurring short ... In addition, we found that satellite cells in skeletal muscle could differentiate into adipocytes.. 4. Transgenic rats were ... 2. Induction of granulin gene expression in neonatal hypothalamus by androgen is involved in sex differentiation of the brain. ...
Expression level of each gene was normalized to that of the Gtf2b. (E) Schematic representation of the Fabp4 gene. The ... Ectopic expression of PPARγ2 remarkably rescued lipid accumulation in TRIM23-knockdown cells and the induction of adipocyte- ... It has been shown that most adipocyte-specific genes are PPARγ target genes (Lefterova et al., 2008; Nielsen et al., 2008). We ... and these abnormalities are likely to be induced in part by inappropriate regulation of gene expression required for adipocyte ...
They work together to control the expression of the other genes characteristic of adipocytes. ... The production of enzymes for import of fatty acids and glucose and for fat synthesis leads to an accumulation of fat droplets ... By the end of a month in culture, almost all the cartilage cells have switched their collagen gene expression and taken on the ... At a healing wound, for example, they change their actin gene expression and take on some of the contractile properties of ...
... adipocyte differentiation, inflammation, cancer, lung diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and obesity. ... target gene. (a) Vnn1 expression in livers of ad libitum fed and 24 h fasted wildtype and mice. (b) Vnn1 expression in liver, ( ... Both proteins promote TG accumulation and are targets of in adipocytes [208, 209]. In addition, they are regulated by in mouse ... High expression levels of expression are found in liver and specifically in the parenchymal cell population. Expression of in ...
... induced PPARγ-target gene expression. The addition of FPP and zaragozic acid promotes lipid accumulation during adipocyte ... mRNA expression levels of each gene were normalized to the expression levels of the ribosomal 36B4 gene. The expression level ... 1996) ADD1/SREBP1 promotes adipocyte differentiation and gene expression linked to fatty acid metabolism. Genes Dev. 10:1096- ... 1997) Thiazolidinediones downregulate stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Diabetes 46:2115-2118. ...
It regulates transcription - making an RNA copy of DNA, which is the first step in gene expression. "Our research shows that ... "There were cells that did not have any PPAR gamma but still had somehow become adipocytes. There were cells that had increased ... "They control the transcriptional switch for PPAR gamma to maximize fat accumulation." PPAR gamma is known to regulate the ... Advances in Gene Editing and Delivery Offer Promise for People Living with Mitochondrial Diseases ...
qRT-PCR analysis revealed that shikonin inhibited mRNA expression of adipogenesis-related genes, such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, and aP2 ... Oil Red O staining was performed to determine the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. To elucidate the anti-adipogenic ... and adipogenic gene expression were analyzed by Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. To further confirm that ... as well as the adipocyte specific gene aP2 in a dose-dependent manner. ...
Adipocyte gene expression analysis confirmed the cell morphology and lipid accumulation findings (Figure 4c). C/EBP-α and PPAR- ... c) Expression of adipocyte-specific genes (C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, and aP2) and β-actin in BMS2. Poly(A)+ mRNA was isolated from BMS2 ... Ectopic expression of the agouti gene in transgenic mice causes obesity, features of type II diabetes, and yellow fur. Proc ... cDNA cloning and expression of a novel adipose specific collagen-like factor, apM1 (Adipose Most Abundant Gene Transcript 1). ...
Inhibits mature adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation. Involved in the recruitment of beta-arrestin 2 ARRB2 at the ... Attenuates TNF-mediated endothelial expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules. Promotes neuritogenesis in developing ... Associated with EGFR, may act as a transcription factor activating growth regulatory genes (c-fos, cyclin D1). Promotes ... Gene expression databases. Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution. More...Bgeei. ENSG00000164850 Expressed in 154 organ(s ...
... including the expression of developmental genes (21, 24-26). Thus, subcutaneous adipocytes/preadipocytes have higher expression ... Heritability of fat accumulation in white adipocytes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014;307(3):E335-E344.. View this article ... Effects of exosomes from LPS-activated macrophages on adipocyte gene expression, differentiation, and insulin-dependent glucose ... of white preadipocytes in mice characterized by unique gene expression profiles and high expression of the marker genes Wilms ...
ATRA reduced C/EBP?, PPAR? and its target gene expression. In the presence of ATRA, retinoic acid receptor (RAR) ?/? expression ... 2 expression and thus inhibition of adipocyte differentiation induced by ATRA. Taken together, these data demonstrates that RAR ... However, antioxidant treatment did not ameliorate the reduction of lipid accumulation induced by ATRA, indicating that ROS ... Sol IGF-1R also markedly inhibits GH-induced IGF-1 gene expression in both LNCaP cells and mouse primary osteoblast cells. On ...
Figure 3. EXP3179 induces PPAR-γ target gene expression. Quiescent day-8 adipocytes were incubated with compounds for 24 hours ... EXP3179 (10 μmol/L) potently promoted 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation as indicated by an increased lipid accumulation assessed ... EXP3179 Induces PPAR-γ Target Gene Expression. Consistent with the stimulation of adipocyte differentiation, EXP3179 (10 μmol/L ... EXP3179 markedly promotes 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation, induces PPAR-γ target gene expression, and directly activates the ...
PathwayAdiponectin receptorsAdiposeDriving adipocyte differentiationAdiponectinLipidsRegulateBrown adipocyteMesenchymal stemLipogenesisHypertrophyGlucose uptakeRole in adipocyte differentiationInhibition of adipocyte differentiationProteinInhibitsTranscription factorAdipogenic gene expressionCellsDropletsInducesAdipokineOsteoblast and adipocyteGLUT4Intracellular lipid accumulationInterestinglyHuman and mouse adipocObeseInductionVisceralDifferentiateDecreasesDifferentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytesSignaling pathwayFatty acidThermogenic genesAdipogenesis and adipocyte
- ZDF rats also exhibit hypoadiponectinemia and a suppressed expression of APPL1, an adaptor protein of the adiponectin receptors, in mesenteric resistance arteries. (biomedcentral.com)
- Concurrently, a downregulation of the adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 as well as endothelial NO-synthase expression was detected in insulin-treated ZDF rats. (biomedcentral.com)
- This is possibly due to alterations in the expression of adiponectin receptors and eNOS. (biomedcentral.com)
- For example, we now know that in obesity, adipocyte differentiation is often impaired, and that the inability of adipose tissue to expand is associated with poor metabolic outcomes [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
- In addition, expression of the lipolytic genes, adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone sensitive lipase was higher in BT-fed pigs and with OA treatment in vitro. (biomedcentral.com)
- Adipocyte cell sizes, TAG content and expression of lipogenic-related genes including, adipose differentiated related protein (ADRP) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) were elevated by DHA in vivo and in vitro, indicating DHA promoted adipogenesis to trap TAG in adipose tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
- Pigs (28 days of age) fed with 10% DHA algal oil or soybean oil for 2 days have similar mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1), a transcription factor associated with lipogenesis and expression of acyl-coenzymes A oxidase 1 (ACOX1), an enzyme involved in fatty acid oxidation in adipose tissue [ 17 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Accumulation of lipid storage in adipose tissue, that is, obesity, is promoted by a high energy and/or a high-fat diet (HFD) together with lack of exercise. (nature.com)
- 3 PPAR-γ functions as a transcriptional regulator in adipose tissue where it regulates multiple genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. (ahajournals.org)
- The expression of these adipokines is an integrated response to various signals received from many organs, which depends heavily on the integrity and physiological status of the adipose tissue. (nature.com)
- One of the main regulators of gene expression in fat is the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), which is a fatty acid- and eicosanoid-dependent nuclear receptor that plays key roles in the development and maintenance of the adipose tissue. (nature.com)
- Although adipocytes have been recognized as secretory cells with endocrine functions for some time, the importance of macrophages and stromal vascular cells within the adipose tissue of obese animals and humans is now well accepted. (nature.com)
- Furthermore, analysis of the sympathetic and parasympathetic innervations of adipose tissue revealed that the autonomic nervous system modulates the fat cell number and other processes, such as adipokine expression levels, lipogenesis/lipolysis, fatty acid uptake, and glucose uptake. (nature.com)
- Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. (osti.gov)
- OBJECTIVE Obesity-associated insulin resistance is characterized by a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation that is associated with the accumulation of M1 proinflammatory macrophages in adipose tissue. (diabetesjournals.org)
- RESULTS We show that polarization of ATMs is associated with lipid accumulation and the consequent formation of foam cell-like cells in adipose tissue. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Our study reveals that early stages of adipose tissue expansion are characterized by M2-polarized ATMs and that progressive lipid accumulation within ATMs heralds the M1 polarization, a macrophage phenotype associated with severe obesity and insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Obesity-associated insulin resistance is characterized by a state of low-grade inflammation ( 1 ) that affects adipocyte function ( 2 ) and is associated with macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- We proposed that the impaired ability of adipose tissue to expand further and adipose dysfunction result in lipid spillage from adipocytes, thus promoting lipid toxicity and subsequent inflammation ( 11 - 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Brown adipose produces heat as a defense against hypothermia and obesity, and the appearance of brown-like adipocytes within white adipose tissue depots is associated with improved metabolic phenotypes. (nih.gov)
- Here, we found that Prdm16, a brown adipose determination factor, is selectively expressed in subcutaneous white adipocytes relative to other white fat depots in mice. (nih.gov)
- Transgenic expression of Prdm16 in fat tissue robustly induced the development of brown-like adipocytes in subcutaneous, but not epididymal, adipose depots. (nih.gov)
- These results demonstrate that Prdm16 is a cell-autonomous determinant of a brown fat-like gene program and thermogenesis in subcutaneous adipose tissues. (nih.gov)
- A - C ) The aP2 promoter/enhancer was used to drive ectopic Prdm16 expression in all adipose depots. (nih.gov)
- This protein is strictly expressed in and secreted by adipocytes and adipose tissue ( 1 - 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- These studies indicate that adiponectin is an adipocyte and adipose tissue-specific anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic molecule and may be a bridge between obesity and atherosclerosis. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Hence, TBT alters the stem cell compartment by sensitizing multipotent stromal stem cells to differentiate into adipocytes, an effect that could likely increase adipose mass over time. (nih.gov)
- Scientists at Osaka University clarified that deletion of adipose oxidative stress (Fat ROS) decreased lipid accumulation in the liver, clinically improving insulin resistance and inducing metabolically healthy obesity. (news-medical.net)
- In their research, this group clarified the following: Fat ROS-eliminated mice, in which two antioxidant enzymes (Catalase and Sod1) were overexpressed in adipocytes using an adipocyte-specific aP2 promoter cassette, exhibited adipose expansion with decreased ectopic lipid accumulation and improved insulin sensitivity. (news-medical.net)
- Conversely, Fat ROS-augmented, Adipoq promoter-driven Cre transgenic mice, in which antioxidant substance glutathione was depleted specifically in adipocytes, exhibited restricted adipose expansion associated with increased ectopic lipid accumulation and deteriorated insulin sensitivity. (news-medical.net)
- We aimed to assess adipose tissue and skeletal muscle sirtuin 1 expression in relation to insulin sensitivity, the expression of proinflammatory and metabolic genes, and to study the regulation of sirtuin 1 expression by hyperinsulinemia and circulating free fatty acids elevation. (springer.com)
- Biopsies of subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were collected for the measurement of gene and protein expression. (springer.com)
- Hyperisulinemia decreased adipose tissue and increased muscle sirtuin 1 expression. (springer.com)
- Adipose tissue, but not muscle, sirtuin 1 is associated with insulin sensitivity in humans, possibly because of its correlation with adipose tissue SLC2A4 expression. (springer.com)
- Insulin differentially regulates adipose tissue and skeletal muscle sirtuin 1 expression in the short-term and circulating free fatty acids elevation negates these effects, which may be associated with lipid-induced insulin resistance. (springer.com)
- Furthermore, human data on the potential relationships of SIRT1 expression in different tissues with insulin sensitivity, especially with simultaneous assessment of SIRT1 in adipose tissue and muscle, are very limited. (springer.com)
- ZH significantly reduced body weight gain and adipose tissue accumulation with no reduction in food intake when compared to control treatment. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Furthermore, ZH reduced hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels, as well as adipose cell size, in the liver and epididymal fat pads, respectively, through inhibition of adipogenesis and lipogenesis‑related gene expression. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Mice exposed to cold temperatures had increased levels of circulating NPs as well as higher expression of NP signaling receptor and lower expression of the NP clearance receptor (Nprc) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT). (jci.org)
- These results suggest that NPs promote "browning" of white adipocytes to increase energy expenditure, defining the heart as a central regulator of adipose tissue biology. (jci.org)
- insulin also promotes the differentiation of preadipocytes in the stroma of the adipose tissue into adipocytes. (ahajournals.org)
- We investigated whether taurine chloramine (TauCl), which is -endogenously produced by immune cells such as macrophages that infiltrate adipose tissue, affects the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes or modulates the expression of adipokines in adipocytes. (springer.com)
- Berberine downregulated the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and upregulated those involved in energy expenditure in adipose tissue and muscle. (anabolicminds.com)
- Induction of beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity because beige adipocytes release excess energy via uncoupling-protein-1-associated thermogenesis. (bvsalud.org)
- Furthermore, it is apparent that accumulation of visceral adipose tissue poses a greater cardiometabolic risk than subcutaneous adipose tissue ( 5 ) as removal of visceral rather than subcutaneous adipose tissue has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity ( 6 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Moreover, differences in gene expression of adipocyte-secreted molecules (adipokines) suggest that there are inherent adipose tissue depot-specific differences in the endocrine function of adipose tissue. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In the present study effects of CLA supplementation on genome wide gene expression in adipose tissue biopsies from 11 Ala12Ala and 23 Pro12Pro men were investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
- To our knowledge this is the first human study using a microarray based genome wide gene expression screening to evaluate isomer specific CLA effects in human adipose tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
- selectively delete NCoR expression in mouse adipose tissue in order to assess the role of this corepressor in glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation. (sciencemag.org)
- Moreover, when the authors analyzed adipose tissue for macrophage accumulation-a known contributor to chronic inflammation and insulin resistance-they found that the mice lacking the adipocyte NCoR had reduced macrophage infiltration and decreased proinflammatory gene expressions in their adipose tissue. (sciencemag.org)
- We hypothesized that adipocytes-derived angiotensinogen (Agt) played a critical role in adipogenesis and/or lipogenesis as well as adipose inflammation. (tennessee.edu)
- Adipocyte Senp2 deficiency resulted in less adipose lipid storage accompanied by an ectopic fat accumulation and insulin resistance under high-fat diet feeding. (deepdyve.com)
- As a master regulator of adipogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ (PPARγ) can modulate adipose tissue mass by regulating lipogenesis-related genes (Ahmadian et al. (deepdyve.com)
- 2015). In this report, we observed a defect in adipose lipid storage in adipocyte-specific Senp2 knockout mice fed with high-fat diets (HFD). (deepdyve.com)
- Results Senp2 deficiency decreases adipose lipid storage Since Senp2 expression was dramatically increased in adipose tissues in several obese mouse models (Figure 1A), suggesting that Senp2 may play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity in adipose tissues. (deepdyve.com)
- The study of gene expression both in adipocytes and in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) suggested that CLA may reduce either the infiltration of macrophages in adipose tissue or the induction of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (biomedcentral.com)
- Interestingly, we have shown that the use of moderate doses of an approximately equimolar mixture of both main CLA isomers achieves a modest reduction of fat gain, ameliorates macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, therefore, contributing to preserve adipose function [ 16 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- mice had massive accumulation of preadipocytes in white adipose tissues (WAT) with increased expression of preadipocyte-specific genes (C/EBPβ and ADRP) and decreased expression of genes characteristic of mature adipocytes (C/EBPα, PPARγ and ADD-1/SREBP-1). (nii.ac.jp)
- To evaluate whether an inflammatory response to obesity depends on adipose tissue location, adipokine gene expression, presence of immune cells and adipocyte cell size of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were compared between lean and obese cats. (ugent.be)
- T-lymphocyte, B-lymphocyte, macrophage concentrations and adipocyte cell size were measured in adipose tissue at different locations. (ugent.be)
- Serum leptin concentration and the mRNA expression of leptin and adiponectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, chemoligand-5, IL-8, TNF-alpha, interferon-gamma, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured in blood and adipose tissues (abdominal and inguinal SAT, and omental, bladder and renal VAT). (ugent.be)
- Adipose differentiation-related protein (ADFP) was first isolated by differential hybridization screening of 1246 cells during their differentiation to adipocytes ( 29 ). (asm.org)
- As adipose tissue expands, adipocytes enlarge and the adipose tissue starts to produce chemotactic factors, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) -1, that attract monocytes/macrophages into adipose tissue ( 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is clearly associated with an increased risk of obesity-related diseases and all-cause mortality, whereas gluteal subcutaneous fat accumulation (g-SAT) is associated with a lower risk. (biomedcentral.com)
- There is recent evidence that differentiation between upper-body and lower-body adipose tissues might be under control of site-specific sets of developmental genes, such as Homebox (HOX) genes, a group of related genes that control the body plan of an embryo along the anterior-posterior axis. (biomedcentral.com)
- The finding of a different expression of HOX genes, fundamental during the embryo development, suggests an early regional differentiation of subcutaneous adipose depots. (biomedcentral.com)
- Moreover, the higher expression of HOXA5 and NR2F1, two molecular signatures of visceral adipocytes, in a-SAT suggests that this subcutaneous adipose depot could be more similar to VAT than g-SAT. (biomedcentral.com)
- On a cytological level, adipose tissue is heterogeneous: the main parenchymal cells are the white adipocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Despite adipocytes represent ~90% of the tissue volume, other cells type are present in adipose tissue such as preadipocytes, endothelial cells, pericytes, multipotent stem cells and immune system cells (macrophages, T-cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes). (biomedcentral.com)
- In this study, we demonstrate that aging in mice results in a loss of fat mass and the accumulation of oxidative stress in adipose tissue. (uky.edu)
- The recently clarified intracrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions of adipose tissue illuminate that concentrations of estrogens and the suitable expression and activity of ERs strongly define all regulatory functions in both men and women. (intechopen.com)
- We recently reported macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue of critically ill patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- Classically activated macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue is a known feature of obesity, where it is linked with increasing insulin resistance. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, the characteristics of adipose tissue macrophage accumulation in critical illness remain unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
- We studied macrophage markers with immunostaining and gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue from healthy control subjects ( n = 20) and non-surviving prolonged critically ill patients ( n = 61). (biomedcentral.com)
- Unlike obesity, critical illness evokes adipose tissue accumulation of alternatively activated M2 macrophages, which have local anti-inflammatory and insulin sensitizing features. (biomedcentral.com)
- This M2 macrophage accumulation may contribute to the previously observed protective metabolic activity of adipose tissue during critical illness. (biomedcentral.com)
- Herein, we characterised a member of this family, septin 11 (SEPT11), in human adipose tissue and analysed its potential involvement in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism. (springer.com)
- Gene and protein expression levels of SEPT11 were analysed in human adipose tissue. (springer.com)
- We demonstrate the expression of SEPT11 in human adipocytes and its upregulation in obese individuals, with SEPT11 mRNA content positively correlating with variables of insulin resistance in subcutaneous adipose tissue. (springer.com)
- It has recently been shown that serotonin leads to fat accumulation in white adipose tissue (WAT). (ovid.com)
- Adipose expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha: direct role in obesity-linked insulin resistance. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Obesity is characterized by an accumulation of macrophages in adipose, some of which form distinct crown-like structures (CLS) around fat cells. (ku.dk)
- Most mammalian species have two types of adipose tissue, white and brown fat, both of which contain adipocytes that store lipids for the production of energy. (biomedcentral.com)
- Body weight gain and fat accumulation in adipose tissue were significantly reduced by the supplementation of RCB. (biomedcentral.com)
- The serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels decreased in response to RCB treatment, whereas HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) increased, indicating that RCB attenuated lipid accumulation in adipose tissue in HFD-induced obese rats. (biomedcentral.com)
- The excessive accumulation of adipose tissue is caused by increased adipogenesis accompanied by adipocyte differentiation, which converts immature pre-adipocytes into adipocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
- The growth of adipose tissue is primarily due to an increase in the number of adipocyte cells (hyperplasia) and enlargement of adipocytes (hypertrophy). (g3journal.org)
- This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARG), in particular the PPARG2 isoform. (osti.gov)
- In addition to their well-established function as safe storage for lipids, adipocytes are now understood to be indispensable endocrine regulators of insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis [ 5 , 6 ], in large part through their capacity to synthesize and secrete adiponectin, which promotes insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues, such as skeletal muscle and liver, thereby mediating whole-body glucose homeostasis [ 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that can improve insulin sensitivity. (semanticscholar.org)
- This study was conducted to determine the effect of insulin on the expression of adiponectin and its receptors. (semanticscholar.org)
- Insulin-sensitizing effects of thiazolidinediones are not linked to adiponectin receptor expression in human fat or muscle. (semanticscholar.org)
- Adiponectin downregulates its own production and the expression of its AdipoR2 receptor in transgenic mice. (semanticscholar.org)
- Adiponectin inhibits LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation and IL-6 production and increases PPARgamma2 expression in adipocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
- Adiponectin promotes adipocyte differentiation, insulin sensitivity, and lipid accumulation. (semanticscholar.org)
- END induced adipogenesis-related gene mRNA expression including adiponectin, leptin, glucose transporter 4 and PPARgamma, and induced PPARgamma DNA binding activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (nih.gov)
- The human adiponectin (also called apM1 or GBP-28) gene and its mouse homolog (adipoQ or ACRP30) have been identified ( 1 - 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Prokaryote-expressed recombinant adiponectin was capable of reducing tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced monocyte adhesion, nuclear factor-κB signaling, and expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1, endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin in endothelial cells in vitro ( 5 , 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- We also mapped a promoter region responsible for the suppression of adiponectin gene expression in adipocyte hypertrophy. (nii.ac.jp)
- Here, we investigated the effect of a major dietary saturated fatty acid, palmitate, on the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin produced by cultured adipocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- We have found that palmitate rapidly inhibits transcription of the adiponectin gene and the release of adiponectin from adipocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In addition, we found that palmitate stimulates degradation of intracellular adiponectin by lysosomes, and the lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine, suppressed the effect of palmitate on adiponectin release from adipocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Thus, palmitate not only decreases adiponectin expression at the level of transcription but may also stimulate lysosomal degradation of newly synthesized adiponectin. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In agreement with this hypothesis, we have found that palmitate inhibits adiponectin production by adipocytes in a cell-autonomous fashion. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- However, a clear reduction in fat accumulation was achieved by CLA2, accompanied by a reduction in leptin, adiponectin and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) plasma concentrations. (biomedcentral.com)
- Treatment with FS extract resulted in decreased expression levels of leptin, adiponectin, and adipogenin genes, which are associated with adipogenesis. (koreascience.or.kr)
- The regulation of chemerin and CMKLR1 genes expression by TNF- $\alpha$ , adiponectin, and chemerin analog in bovine differentiated adipocytes. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Adiponectin is a circulating protein secreted by adipocytes that shares significant similarities with collagens VIII and X and complement protein C 1q ( 8 , 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Adipocyte hypertrophy results from an excessive accumulation of lipids from intake of excessive energy sources such as a high-fat (HF) diet. (hindawi.com)
- Furthermore, rosiglitazone treatment, which promotes redistribution of lipids toward adipocytes and extends the M2 ATM polarization state, prevents the lipid alterations associated with M1 ATM polarization. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Brown adipocytes in BAT and populations of "brown-like" adipocytes in WAT respond by increasing transcription of genes important for mobilizing and oxidizing lipids to generate heat. (jci.org)
- Excess fat accumulates in adipocytes as excessive amounts of lipids (triglycerides), resulting in elevated triglyceride levels in plasma and in tissues such as liver and muscle, which leads to pathological dysfunction in these tissues [ 2 , 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Epigenetic variation helps to regulate gene expression and determines the different cell types and function in eukaryotes. (wur.nl)
- Flaxseed lignans are suggested to regulate adipogenesis-related gene expressions through an increase in PPARgamma DNA binding activity. (nih.gov)
- Studies of genetically obese mice and cultured adipocytes demonstrate that insulin and TNF-α are two mediators that regulate PAI-1 expression in the adipocyte in vivo ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
- Insulin and its counteracting hormones regulate the hepatic expression of KLF15. (wikipedia.org)
- Micro RNAs is a family of highly conserved, single stranded 19- 23 nucleotide long noncoding endogenous RNAs which negatively regulate gene expression, either by inhibiting translation or by degrading largest mRNAs [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- The cells were determined for proliferation, differentiation, fat accumulation as well as the protein expressions of molecular targets that regulate or are involved in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation. (plos.org)
- A SNP that introduces a GATA site in the promoter of LPAR1 could up-regulate its expression in the Lean line, and increased LPA signaling could then inhibit preadipocyte differentiation. (umd.edu)
- As a postdoc, Cohen identified a promising target for this approach, PRDM16, which binds in a complex with other proteins to regulate gene expression. (rockefeller.edu)
- As cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs) and β-AR agonists are similarly potent at stimulating lipolysis in human adipocytes, we investigated whether NPs could induce human and mouse adipocytes to acquire brown adipocyte features, including a capacity for thermogenic energy expenditure mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). (jci.org)
- We have identified in vitro inductive conditions in which mesenchymal cells isolated from the embryonic chicken limb bud differentiate into avian brown adipocyte-like cells (ABALCs) with the morphological and many of the biochemical properties of terminally differentiated brown adipocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells were used to study adipocyte development. (osti.gov)
- Besides osteoblasts, mesenchymal stem cells can also differentiate into the chondrocyte cells that make cartilage, the myocyte cells that help form muscles and the adipocytes, or fat cells. (eurekalert.org)
- Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and bone cells from the skulls of Cbf-beta-deficient mice showed increased expression of adipocyte genes. (eurekalert.org)
- B 12 deficiency did not affect the onset of osteoblast differentiation, maturation, matrix mineralization, or adipocyte differentiation from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). (springer.com)
- Here, we analyzed the effects of B 12 , Hcy, and MMA on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), the precursor cells of both osteoblasts and adipocytes. (springer.com)
- In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate if the interaction between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and Ti surfaces, either machined or with nanotopography, is modulated, at least in part, by ERK1/2 and the effect of ERK1/2 inhibition on osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. (usp.br)
- SREBF1 transcriptional activities were suppressed by oxidative stress, suppressing expression of lipogenic genes in adipocytes, which was found to be the underlying mechanism for suppression of de novo lipogenesis by oxidative stress. (news-medical.net)
- Microarray and quantitative PCR analysis showed that genes related to fatty acid uptake, lipogenesis and triacylglycerol synthesis were upregulated in the muscle tissue of HIGH pigs, which are fatter and have higher amounts of intramuscular fat than their LOW counterparts. (biomedcentral.com)
- The elevated MCP-1 may alter adipocyte function because addition of MCP-1 to differentiated adipocytes in vitro decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and the expression of several adipogenic genes ( LpL, adipsin, GLUT-4, aP2 , β3-adrenergic receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ). (pnas.org)
- Although insulin resistance, by definition, describes an impaired biological responsiveness to insulin, it is frequently used to describe a defect in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by muscle and adipocytes and/or a decrease in gluconeogenesis by the liver. (pnas.org)
- The ethanolic plant extracts were investigated for glucose uptake and adipogenesis in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Of the seven Australian Aboriginal plant extracts tested, only Acacia kempeana and Santalum spicatum stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
- The findings suggest that the plant extracts exert their anti-diabetic properties by different mechanisms, including the stimulation of glucose uptake in adipocytes, inhibition of adipogenesis or both. (biomedcentral.com)
- Moreover, the overexpression of constitutively active Akt increases glucose uptake and adipocyte differentiation in 3 T3-L1 adipocytes [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Oil Red O neutral lipid staining, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and immunoblotting were used to measure GB effects on lipid accumulation, gene expression, and protein abundance, respectively. (mdpi.com)
- DHA promoted protein kinase A activity in pigs without affecting lipolytic genes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Importantly, a number of adipocyte-abundant genes, including GLUT4, hormone sensitive lipase, long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthase, adipocyte complement-related protein of 30 kDa, and transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α, receptor retinoid X receptor-α, and peroxisome profilerator-activated receptor γ were significantly downregulated by TNF-α treatment. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Correspondingly, 24-h exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to TNF-α resulted in reduced protein levels of GLUT4 and several insulin signaling proteins, including the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), and protein kinase B (AKT). (diabetesjournals.org)
- In addition, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α), the brown fat specific thermogenic genes, were up-regulated in brown adipocytes by CA treatment. (frontiersin.org)
- Furthermore, when co-treated with Compound C, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor, the action of CA on AMPKα was nullified in both types of adipocytes, indicating the multi-controlling effect of CA was partially via the AMPKα pathway. (frontiersin.org)
- The Cbf-beta/Runx2 complex also inhibited expression of the enhancer protein C/EBP-alpha that promotes differentiation of adipocytes. (eurekalert.org)
- A gene on chromosome 8q21 that encodes a lipid transport protein in adipocytes which plays a role in intracellular transport of long-chain fatty acids and retinoic acids, delivering them to their cognate receptors in the nucleus. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The results revealed that ZH inhibited lipid accumulation in 3T3‑L1 adipocytes and Huh‑7 cells by suppressing adipogenic and lipogenic gene and protein expression. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Consistent with a more mature, less malignant phenotype, ligand treatment also inhibited the expression of cyclin D1 and led to hypophosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein. (aacrjournals.org)
- ACO1 gene expression in tomato leaf petioles and vascular localisation of ACO1 protein. (antibodies-online.com)
- In cultured hepatocytes and adipocytes, industrial trans fatty acids, but not cis-unsaturated fatty acids or SFAs, stimulate the cholesterol synthesis pathway by activating sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) 2-mediated gene regulation. (wur.nl)
- This study identifies monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) as an insulin-responsive gene. (pnas.org)
- The molecular identification of genes encoding enzymes that catalyze steps in TAG biosynthesis from glycerol 3-phosphate has revealed an unexpected number of protein isoforms of the glycerol phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), acylglycerolphosphate acyltransferase (AGPAT), and lipin (phosphatidate phosphatase) families that appear to catalyze similar biochemical reactions. (physiology.org)
- Here we provide background about the similarities between each member of the three protein families and highlight differences in biological function that have been revealed by studies of tissue expression and regulation and the effects of overexpression or deficiency in mouse models and human disease. (physiology.org)
- In the presence of increased Runx2 protein levels, CHIP expression decreases, whereas the expression of other E3 ligases involved in Runx2 degradation, such as Smurf1 or WWP1, remains constant or increases during osteoblast differentiation. (rupress.org)
- Krüppel-like factor 15 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KLF15 gene in the Krüppel-like factor family. (wikipedia.org)
- Alternatively, if the expression of miRNA's is inhibited, then increased protein expression may be seen in animal species. (omicsonline.org)
- have further reviewed the role of nanoparticle based delivery of RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics [ 17 ] along with different delivery systems for various cancers e.g. role of (ALN-VSP), a lipid formation delivering siRNAs against two important cancer genes, kinesin spindle protein (KSP) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), for the treatment of liver cancers in phase 1 trials [ 18 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- Further doxorubicin combined with polyethylenimine (PEI) along with Pin X1-si RNA is delivered to knockout PIN2 interacting protein (PINX1) gene in C6 glioma cells. (omicsonline.org)
- Real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to assess mRNA and protein expression of chemerin. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Silencing of Agt gene also suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory adipokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α [alpha]), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (tennessee.edu)
- Additional analysis using mouse adipogenesis PCR arrays detected lower expression levels of adipogenic/lipogenic genes, such as peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (Pparg), sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (Srebf1), adipogenin (Adig), and fatty acid binding protein 4 (Fabp4). (tennessee.edu)
- We further found that SET domain bifurcated 1 (Setdb1) was a SUMOylated protein and that SUMOylation promoted Setdb1 occupancy on the promoter locus of Pparg and Cebpa genes to suppress their expressions by H3K9me3. (deepdyve.com)
- Ursolic acid increased the phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and protein expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), but decreased protein expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4). (plos.org)
- Ursolic acid increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein expression of (silent mating type information regulation 2, homolog) 1 (Sirt1). (plos.org)
- While phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) by cyclin/cdk complexes remains unaffected, oxidative stress decreases the expression of S-phase genes downstream of Rb. (uky.edu)
- The protein encoded by this gene is likely not a ciliary protein but rather has distant sequence homology to type II chaperonins. (genecards.org)
- BBS10 (Bardet-Biedl Syndrome 10) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- Differentiated HIB1B brown adipocytes treated with serotonin had reduced levels of the thermogenic markers uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and increased levels of UCP2. (ovid.com)
- The LAP2-linked cell cycle phenotype is mediated by the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein because the LAP2 COOH terminus directly bound Rb, and overexpressed LAP2 inhibited E2F/Rb-dependent reporter gene activity in G1 phase in an Rb-dependent manner. (dur.ac.uk)
- While the gene and the mRNA of hPLSCR5 provide evidence of its existence, the protein has yet to be described in the literature. (wikipedia.org)
- Inhibits mature adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation. (uniprot.org)
- inhibits osteopontin expression in human decidual stromal cells and can be attenuated by 1? (labome.org)
- Our results suggest that Pycnogenol® inhibits lipid accumulation and ROS production by regulating adipogenic gene expression and pro-/antioxidant enzyme responses in adipocytes. (ovid.com)
- Adenoviral overexpression of KLF15 inhibits basal and TGFbeta1-induced CTGF expression in neonatal rat ventricular fibroblasts. (wikipedia.org)
- KLF15 inhibits mTOR activity via a distinct mechanism involving BCAT2 gene activation. (wikipedia.org)
- He Y, Li Y, Zhao T, Wang Y, Sun C (2013) Ursolic Acid Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes through LKB1/AMPK Pathway. (plos.org)
- CONCLUSIONS: This report is the first to demonstrate that the water-soluble extract from FS inhibits fat accumulation and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Associated with EGFR, may act as a transcription factor activating growth regulatory genes (c-fos, cyclin D1). (uniprot.org)
- Previous studies have shown that increasing the activity of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and gene targets in cell culture and stroke animal models is highly neuroprotective. (go.jp)
- Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include RNA polymerase II repressing transcription factor binding . (genecards.org)
- Unlike cells in 2D culture, the 3D bioprinted cells did not detach upon lipid accumulation. (chalmers.se)
- Accordingly, HT significantly counteracted miR-155-5p, miR-34a-5p, and let-7c-5p expression in both cells and exosomes, and prevented NF-κB activation and production of reactive oxygen species. (mdpi.com)
- In addition, we found that satellite cells in skeletal muscle could differentiate into adipocytes. (go.jp)
- Adipocyte-specific genes were induced in mutant hepatocytes, implying adipogenic-like transformation of these cells. (jci.org)
- Additional features of mutant livers were steatohepatitis and Mallory bodies (third row right, arrows), sinusoidal fibrogenic changes (fourth row left), and an accumulation of inflammatory cells (fourth row right). (jci.org)
- TNF-α treatment of a number of cell lines, including primary human adipocytes, rat hepatoma Fao cells, human embryonic kidney 293 cells, and NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, has been shown to result in immediate inhibition of insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IR and IRS-1 ( 18 - 20 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Fat cells, also known as adipocytes, arise from precursor cells via a process called adipogenesis. (elifesciences.org)
- All three mouse models showed severe osteoporosis with accumulation of fat cells in the bone marrow, a pathology that resembles aged bone from enhanced adipocyte creation. (eurekalert.org)
- In addition, the researchers showed that Cbf-beta maintains the osteoblast lineage commitment in two ways -- through the Wnt paracrine pathway to affect nearby cells and through endogenous signaling within the cell to suppress adipogenesis gene expression. (eurekalert.org)
- Hao H, Aixia Y, Dan L, Lei F, Nancai Y, Wen S. Baicalin suppresses expression of Chlamydia protease-like activity factor in Hep-2 cells infected by Chlamydia trachomatis. (labome.org)
- In this study, we investigated the effect of shikonin on adipocyte differentiation and its mechanism of action in 3T3-L1 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- To investigate the effects of shikonin on adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were induced to differentiate using 3-isobutyl-1-methylzanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI) for 8 days in the presence of 0-2 μM shikonin. (biomedcentral.com)
- Oil Red O staining was performed to determine the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- This study investigated the effects of cyclic stretching on adipocyte differentiation of mouse preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. (biologists.org)
- Interestingly, most of these cells, as well as adipocytes, are considered to be of mesodermal origin. (biologists.org)
- Further study demonstrated that 3a could selectively inhibit the apoptosis induction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation by enhancing the activity of catalase (CAT) in H O -treated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. (bireme.br)
- The resulting TAG is used in several metabolic processes, including synthesis of very-low-density lipoproteins in the liver and chylomicrons in the intestine, energy storage as lipid droplets in adipocytes, and milk production in mammary epithelial cells. (physiology.org)
- 2 Insulin is also known to acutely increase the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in adipocytes, 3 but the enzymes responsible for ROS formation in these cells have not been extensively characterized. (ahajournals.org)
- The results showed that gene expression of the bone markers RUNX2, osterix (OSX), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OC) was increased by ERK1/2 signaling inhibition in cells grown on machined Ti and only ALP and OC in cells grown on Ti with nanotopography. (usp.br)
- In addition, chemerin or chemerin receptor knockdown impaired differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and attenuated the expression of adipocyte genes involved in glucose and lipid homeostasis ( 10 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In the present study, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression in cancer cells was silenced with mTOR-siRNA (simTOR) formulated in TEPA-PCL modified with Ala-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gly (APRPG), a peptide having affinity for vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1). (go.jp)
- In cultured fat cells, insulin exposure increases SOCS3 expression ( 10 ), raising the possibility that the same could happen in other cell types. (blogspot.com)
- As expected, results confirmed that Agt gene silencing significantly reduced the expression of Agt and its hormone product angiotensin II (Ang II), as well as lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared to cells transfected with Sc-shRNA. (tennessee.edu)
- The most frequently employed adipocyte cell lines, 3T3-F442A and 3T3-L1, were clonally isolated from Swiss 3T3 cells derived from disaggregated 17 to 19-day mouse embryos. (biomedcentral.com)
- ADFP expression is strongly induced in cells with increased lipid load. (asm.org)
- Given that lipid droplets are thought to form from the outer leaflet of the microsomal membrane, the reduction of TG in the cytosol with concomitant accumulation of TG in the microsome of Adfp −/− cells suggests that ADFP may facilitate the formation of new LDs. (asm.org)
- Gao and colleagues transfected Adfp to COS-7 cells, which do not normally express Adfp , and observed that induced ADFP expression stimulated long-chain FA uptake ( 16 , 17 ). (asm.org)
- In addition, the expression of LAP2 in proliferating preadipocytes caused the accumulation of hypophosphorylated Rb, which is reminiscent of noncycling cells, and initiated partial differentiation into adipocytes. (dur.ac.uk)
- The multiligand receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) facilitates tissue FA uptake and is expressed in ECs and parenchymal cells such as myocytes and adipocytes. (jci.org)
- Piceatannol actually alters the timing of gene expressions, gene functions and insulin action during adipogenesis, the process in which early stage fat cells become mature fat cells," Kim said. (scienceblog.com)
- Over a period of 10 days or more, immature fat cells, called preadipocytes, go through several stages to become mature fat cells, or adipocytes. (scienceblog.com)
- Kim found that piceatannol binds to insulin receptors of immature fat cells in the first stage of adipogenesis, blocking insulin's ability to control cell cycles and activate genes that carry out further stages of fat cell formation. (scienceblog.com)
- Lipid loading of adipocytes caused the association of the three proteins with the surface of lipid droplets. (springer.com)
- Brown adipocytes in mammals are distinguished from the more common white fat adipocytes by having numerous small lipid droplets rather than a single large one, elevated numbers of mitochondria, and mitochondrial expression of the nuclear gene UCP1, the uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation responsible for non-shivering thermogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
- Transgenic expression of Prdm16 induces a thermogenic gene program in subcutaneous WAT. (nih.gov)
- It has recently been shown that the disruption of the two cryptochrome genes Cry1 and Cry2 -core elements of the circadian clock-induces salt-dependent hypertension due to abnormally high synthesis of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone by the adrenal gland. (go.jp)
- Altered insulin and adipokine levels and adipocyte cellularity and gene expression profiles were observed between generations and between diet regimen groups. (asbmb.org)
- To study the physiological effects of TauCl on human adipocyte differentiation and adipokine expression, preadipocytes were cultured under differentiation conditions for 14 days in the presence or the absence of TauCl. (springer.com)
- Transfected preadipocytes were differentiated and used to investigate the role of adipocytes-derived Agt using microarray and PCR analyses, as well as cytokine/adipokine profiling. (tennessee.edu)
- This adipokine has been recently shown to suppress the expression of class A scavenger receptors in macrophages, resulting in decreased uptake of oxidized LDL and reduced intracellular accumulation of cholesteryl esters ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- UAB researchers and colleagues focused on the molecular mechanism that controls the lineage commitment switch between the osteoblast and adipocyte tracks. (eurekalert.org)
- Rat bone marrow MSCs were cultured on Ti discs either machined or with nanotopography under osteogenic and adipogenic conditions, in presence or not of the ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, at a concentration previously determined (25 μM) and it was evaluated parameters related to osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. (usp.br)
- Interestingly, however, the null mutation leads to altered topology of cone opsin expression in the retina, with aberrant S-opsin overexpression and M-opsin underexpression in M cones. (jove.com)
- Interestingly, two molecular signature of visceral adipocyte lineage, homebox genes HOXA5 and NR2F1, are up-regulated in a-SAT versus g-SAT by a 2.5 fold change. (biomedcentral.com)
- Interestingly, we made the unexpected finding that miRNA378/378* specifically increases transcriptional activity of C/EBP alpha and C/EBP beta on adipocyte gene promoters. (uclouvain.be)
- Melatonin acted on beige adipocytes of obese rats through changing some parameters such as the area of adipocytes and lipid drops, the number of lipid drops, the relative area browning of sWAT, and the level of tissue fibrosis. (bvsalud.org)
- Several genes related to the insulin-signalling pathway, that is usually impaired in obese humans, were also upregulated. (biomedcentral.com)
- Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue. (koreascience.or.kr)
- 3 T3-L1 adipocytes and HFD-induced obese rats were treated with RCB, and its effect on gene expression was analyzed using RT-PCR and Western blotting experiments. (biomedcentral.com)
- 2. Induction of granulin gene expression in neonatal hypothalamus by androgen is involved in sex differentiation of the brain. (go.jp)
- 98% of the genes normally suppressed by TNF-α and induction of 60-70% of the genes normally induced by TNF-α. (diabetesjournals.org)
- At the transcriptional level, we show that FGF21 signaling is required for full induction of gluconeogenic and oxidative genes in the liver. (frontiersin.org)
- Progesterone receptor-mediated induction of Krüppel-like factor 15 (KLF15), which can bind to GC-rich DNA within the E2F1 promoter, is required for maximal induction of E2F1 expression by progestins. (wikipedia.org)
- Strikingly, non-differentiated HIB1B preadipocytes incubated with serotonin failed to differentiate into brown adipocytes. (ovid.com)
- Moreover, although BMP6-treated myoblasts can readily differentiate into brown adipocytes, serotonin interfered with this process. (ovid.com)
- Preadipocytes finally differentiate into adipocytes under specific conditions ( Leclercq 1984 ). (g3journal.org)
- Looking at the mechanism downstream, the researchers found that the loss of Cbf-beta impeded the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, particularly through decreased Wnt10b expression. (eurekalert.org)
- Our data suggest that HES1-mediated repression of FAD24 transcription at the early stage of adipocyte differentiation may contribute to the impaired adipogenesis induced by the Notch-HES1 signaling pathway. (labome.org)