Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Adipocytes, White: Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Mice, Inbred C57BLAdipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Microarray Analysis: The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)PhosphoproteinsBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Glucose Transporter Type 1: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.TriglyceridesGene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins: A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha: A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; ADIPOSE TISSUE; INTESTINES; LUNG; ADRENAL GLANDS; PLACENTA; OVARY and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (LEUKOCYTES, MONONUCLEAR). Experiments with knock-out mice have demonstrated that CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-alpha is essential for the functioning and differentiation of HEPATOCYTES and ADIPOCYTES.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESMethylglucosidesAdipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Phenylisopropyladenosine: N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
The expression of the KLF15 gene is markedly up-regulated during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes. ... Ectopic expression of KLF15 in NIH 3T3 or C2C12 cells triggered both lipid accumulation and the expression of PPAR-γ in the ... Forced expression of KLF15 in cultured hepatocytes increased both the expression and the promoter activity of the gene for ... "Overexpression of KLF15 in adipocytes of mice results in down-regulation of SCD1 expression in adipocytes and consequent ...
However, the functional significance of this differential gene expression is not yet understood. While the gene and the mRNA of ... Abdominal fat accumulation with the formation of enlarged lipid engorged adipocytes has emerged as the key risk factor for the ... Recent findings suggest that PLSCR3 and, to a lesser degree, PLSCR1 are critical to the normal regulation of fat accumulation ... Whereas hPLSCR1, -3, and -4 are expressed in a variety of tissues with few exceptions, expression of hPLSCR2 is restricted only ...
Most recently, the presence of beige adipocytes with a gene expression pattern distinct from either white or brown adipocytes ... "Bone marrow fat accumulation accelerated by high fat diet is suppressed by exercise". Bone. 64: 39-46. doi:10.1016/j.bone. ... It is then free to translocate to the nucleus and activate the expression of its target genes. Clinical studies have repeatedly ... Marrow adipocytes, like brown and white adipocytes, are derived from mesenchymal stem cells. The marrow adipose tissue depot is ...
Moreover, expression of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α is mostly derived from macrophages rather than adipocytes. It has ... Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2003; 112:1796-808. ... and lipid-handling genes (i.e. adipose differentiation-related protein (Adfp), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4), ApoE and ... Adipocyte. 2013; 2:176-83. Wagner M, Dudley AC. A three-party alliance in solid tumors: Adipocytes, macrophages and vascular ...
The miR-27 gene family has been shown to be downregulated during the differentiation of adipocytes. miR-27 inhibits adipocyte ... miR-27 has been found to target and inhibit gene expression of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein, enabling it to ... There is activation of Wnt signalling through nuclear accumulation of this protein, which is in response to inhibition of the ... 2010). "miR-27a is a negative regulator of adipocyte differentiation via suppressing PPARgamma expression". Biochem Biophys Res ...
... regulates the induction of adipogenic and myogenic genes and is required for cell-type specific gene expression during ... Targeted knockout of Kmt2d in precursors cells of brown adipocytes and myocytes results in decreases in brown adipose tissue ... Depletion of KMT2D prior to differentiation prevents the accumulation of H3K4 mono-methylation (H3K4me1), H3K27 acetylation, ... July 1997). "Structure and expression pattern of human ALR, a novel gene with strong homology to ALL-1 involved in acute ...
... changing gene expression patterns, modulating epigenetic landscape or demonstrating hormone-like signaling. As such, succinate ... Accumulation of fumarate can drive the reverse activity of SDH, thus enhancing succinate generation. Under pathological and ... In adipocytes, the succinate-activated GPR91 signaling cascade inhibits lipolysis. Succinate signaling often occurs in response ... HIF1 is known to induce transcription of more than 60 genes, including genes involved in vascularization and angiogenesis, ...
Busch AK, Cordery D, Denyer GS, Biden TJ (Apr 2002). "Expression profiling of palmitate- and oleate-regulated genes provides ... during periods of overnutrition adipocyte tissue is expanded with extreme expression of PC and other lipogenic enzymes. Hepatic ... including pyruvate carboxylase Concurrently adipose tissue develops insulin resistance causing accumulation of triaglycerols ... glucose by hepatocytes causes dramatic alteration of β-cell gene expression with large increases in normally suppressed genes, ...
... has been used in both human and mouse studies in an attempt characterize beige adipocytes according to their gene expression ... Likewise, the accumulation of neck fat (or cervical adipose tissue) has been shown to be associated with mortality. Several ... Although its discoverers dubbed this gene the adipose gene, it is not a gene responsible for creating adipose tissue. Pre- ... WAT from the transgenic animals exhibited a brown fat gene program and had decreased WAT specific gene expression compared to ...
Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-Jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ... Such protein accumulation may contribute to the pathogenesis and phenotypic characteristics in neurodegenerative diseases, ... which resulted in the activation of transcription in adipocytes relevant in diabetes mellitus. Overall, the PSMB1 protein has ... This gene is tightly linked to the TBP (TATA-binding protein) gene in human and in mouse, and is transcribed in the opposite ...
I isoform expression during differentiation. Inter-tissue and inter-species expression of CPT I and CPT II enzymes". The ... Brown NF, Hill JK, Esser V, Kirkland JL, Corkey BE, Foster DW, McGarry JD (Oct 1997). "Mouse white adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells ... The shunting of LCFAs away from mitochondria leads to the observed increase in FFA levels and the accumulation of fat in ... Yamazaki N, Yamanaka Y, Hashimoto Y, Shinohara Y, Shima A, Terada H (Jun 1997). "Structural features of the gene encoding human ...
A major role for RIP140 in adipose tissue is to block the expression of genes involved in energy dissipation and mitochondrial ... "Receptor interacting protein 140 regulates expression of uncoupling protein 1 in adipocytes through specific peroxisome ... "Nuclear receptor corepressor RIP140 regulates fat accumulation". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 101 (22): 8437-42. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... Failure of ovulation in these mice is caused by lack of cumulus expansion and altered expression of various genes, including ...
JDP2 is involved in the modulation of gene expression. For example, JDP2 regulates MyoD gene expression with c-Jun and gene for ... Ectopic expression of JDP2 inhibits the retinoic acid-induced differentiation of F9 cells and adipocyte differentiation. By ... The increased accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and 8-oxo-dGuo, one of the major products of DNA ... Furthermore, it has been shown that the expression level of JDP2 gene upon acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is highly specific ...
This gene is located in the class II region of the MHC (major histocompatibility complex). Expression of this gene is induced ... Such protein accumulation may contribute to the pathogenesis and phenotypic characteristics in neurodegenerative diseases, ... Furthermore, downregulation of PSMB8 also inhibited the differentiation of murine and human adipocytes in vitro, while an ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-Jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ...
This protein is also a serine protease that is secreted by adipocytes into the bloodstream. Finally, the encoded protein has a ... Factor D is a serine protease that stimulates glucose transport for triglyceride accumulation in fats cells and inhibits ... Flier JS, Cook KS, Usher P, Spiegelman BM (1987). "Severely impaired adipsin expression in genetic and acquired obesity". ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the trypsin family of peptidases. The encoded protein is a component of the ...
Moreover, Insig2 altered the expression of several additional apoptosis genes located in mitochondria. In a study by Kumar et ... Silibinin inhibits adipocyte differentiation through a potential up-regulation of insig-1 and insig-2 at an early phase in ... May 2010). "Hair Growth Defects in Insig-Deficient Mice Caused by Cholesterol Precursor Accumulation and Reversed by ... Insulin induced gene 2, also known as INSIG2, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the INSIG2 gene. Insulin activates the ...
... has been used in both human and mouse studies in an attempt characterize beige adipocytes according to their gene expression ... The specific cause for the accumulation of ectopic fat is unknown. The cause is likely a combination of genetic, environmental ... WAT from the transgenic animals exhibited a brown fat gene program and had decreased WAT specific gene expression compared to ... Although its discoverers dubbed this gene the adipose gene, it is not a gene responsible for creating adipose tissue. ...
... where under-expression of miRNAs indirectly caused reduced expression of DNA repair genes, in some cases over-expression of ... Reduction of XRN1 under d-flow conditions therefore leads to the accumulation of miR-712. MiR-712 targets tissue inhibitor of ... Skårn M, Namløs HM, Noordhuis P, Wang MY, Meza-Zepeda LA, Myklebost O (April 2012). "Adipocyte differentiation of human bone ... Over expression of any one of these miRNAs can cause reduced expression of its target DNA repair gene. The global role of miRNA ...
Cell processes involved in insulin resistance are often associated with elevated VAP-1 expression and modified GLUT expression ... "Characterization of AOC2 gene encoding a copper-binding amine oxidase expressed specifically in retina". Gene. 318: 45-53. doi: ... VAP-1 is primarily localized on the cell surface on the adipocyte plasma membrane. However, circulating VAP-1 has been shown to ... Additionally, VAP-1 mediates leukocyte migration and, eventually, can lead to chronic inflammatory cell accumulation and the ...
"Overexpression of PLIN5 in skeletal muscle promotes oxidative gene expression and intramyocellular lipid content without ... Adipocytes, the cells that normally function as lipid store of the body, are well equipped to handle the excess lipids. Yet, ... Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading ... Research is ongoing into a genetic cause, but no individual gene has been named as the causative agent. The causative role of ...
When functional genomics is applied, few commonalities between the gene expression of DIO vs control rodents and obese vs non- ... Faust, I. M.; Johnson, P. R.; Stern, J. S.; Hirsch, J. (1978). "Diet-induced adipocyte number increase in adult rats: a new ... "Age-dependent effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on lipid metabolism and lipid accumulation in liver and kidney of rats ... and diabetes-induced changes of ob gene expression in rat adipose tissue". FEBS Letters. 371 (3): 324-328. doi:10.1016/0014- ...
Three key components are necessary for this database to be effective: cell type-specific gene expression profiles, anatomical ... Adipogenic differentiation was visible through accumulation of lipid-rich vacuoles within cells (adipocytes) and they remained ... "about cell type gene expression, cell lineage maps and stem cell differentiation protocols for both human and mouse stem cells ... and they replaced the beta-globin genes of the mouse with sickle cell effected human beta-globin genes. Following this ...
Obesity is related with increase accumulation of lipid droplets in non-adipose tissues causing lipotoxicity. The expression of ... Pre-adipocytes are undifferentiated fibroblasts that can be stimulated to form adipocytes. Recent studies shed light into ... In human, the gene for adipose differentiation related protein is located at short p arm of chromosome 9 at region 22 band 1 ... Decreased expression of perlipin 2 decreases the fatty liver while increase expression of perlipin is associated with several ...
But Not ERα-Dependent Gene Expression in the Hypothalamus". Endocrinology. 143 (6): 2189-2197. doi:10.1210/endo.143.6.8843. ... Genistein decreases pathological accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in Sanfilippo syndrome. In vitro animal studies and ... Dang, Z. C. (2009). "Dose-dependent effects of soy phyto-oestrogen genistein on adipocytes: Mechanisms of action". Obesity ... "Genistein-mediated inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis as a basis for gene expression-targeted isoflavone therapy for ...
1996 Sep 27;271(39):24055-62 Gene. 2015 Jul 26. pii: S0378-1119(15)00914-2. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2015.07.073 Sci. Rep. 2013;3: ... It is suggested that the accumulation of phospholipid-bound 13(S)-HpODE and/or 13(S)-HODE is a critical step in rendering ... 15-LOX 1 is overexpressed in prostate cancerous compared to non-cancerous prostate tissue and the levels of its expression in ... adipocyte protein 2 (aP2), a fatty acid binding protein; this may cause macrophages to increase their uptake of these lipids, ...
"Recruitment of the androgen receptor via serum response factor facilitates expression of a myogenic gene". The Journal of ... norepinephrine due to lack of alpha-2 receptor negative feedback and decreased fat accumulation due to epinephrine/ ... the ability of some fat cells to store lipids by blocking a signal transduction pathway that normally supports adipocyte ... In males, certain Y chromosome genes, particularly SRY, control development of the male phenotype, including conversion of the ...
Hormonal regulation of adiponectin gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002, 290 (3): 1084-1089. ... Hypoadiponectinemia is associated with visceral fat accumulation and insulin resistance in Japanese men with type 2 diabetes ... Overall APPL1 expression (Figure 6) was lowest in untreated ZDF rats. Its expression was significantly increased by metformin ... a) Expression of AdipoR1. Insulin causes a significant downregulation of AdipoR1 expression. One-Way ANOVA p = 0.024. Post hoc ...
In differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes, GB enhanced lipid accumulation and increased expression of several adipogenic genes ( ... In mature adipocytes, GB reduced the gene expression of resistin, a pro-inflammatory endocrine factor, increased the ... and immunoblotting were used to measure GB effects on lipid accumulation, gene expression, and protein abundance, respectively ... In macrophages, GB reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes that were induced by LPS. GB produces metabolically ...
Adipocyte cell sizes, TAG content and expression of lipogenic-related genes including, adipose differentiated related protein ( ... the effect of DHA to promote adipogenesis to trap TAG in adipocytes and also increase expression of genes involved in adipocyte ... Adipocytes size and lipid metabolism related genes were analyzed. Plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) was lower in DHA- than in BT-fed ... In addition, expression of the lipolytic genes, adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone sensitive lipase was higher in BT-fed ...
After two weeks, the gene expression of the adipogenic marker genes PPAR. and FABP4 was increased 2.0- and 2.2-fold, ... Unlike cells in 2D culture, the 3D bioprinted cells did not detach upon lipid accumulation. ... new methods for 3D cell culture of adipocytes could provide more physiologically accurate data and a deeper understanding of ... Increased lipid accumulation and adipogenic gene expression of adipocytes in 3D bioprinted nanocellulose scaffolds Artikel i ...
HT can therefore modulate adipocyte gene expression profile through mechanisms involving a reduction of oxidative stress and NF ... We investigated HT (1 and 10 μmol/L) effects on gene expression (mRNA and microRNA) related to inflammation induced by 10 ng/mL ... Accordingly, HT significantly counteracted miR-155-5p, miR-34a-5p, and let-7c-5p expression in both cells and exosomes, and ... as well as surface expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and reverted the TNF-α-mediated inhibition of endothelial ...
Only the anthocyanin extract, but not the purified C3G, slightly affected fat accumulation. High-throughput gene expression ... Moro juice anti-obesity effect on fat accumulation cannot be explained only by its anthocyanin content. Our findings suggest ... Dietary supplementation of Moro juice, but not Navelina juice significantly reduced body weight gain and fat accumulation ... on fat accumulation in mice fed a standard or a high-fat diet (HFD). Obesity was induced in male C57/Bl6 mice by feeding a HFD ...
Epididymal WAT was analysed for adipocyte size, number and gene expression of metabolic transcription factors. Early Concept ... Milk fat globule membrane coating of large lipid droplets in the diet of young mice prevents body fat accumulation in adulthood ... It reduced adipocyte size without affecting adipocyte number in adult mice. The Concept IMF decreased the expression of PPARγ, ... At day 98 plasma and gene expression measurements were performed. Only the Nuturis® IMF diet (Lcoating) in early life ...
... had no effect on the expression of adiponectin and AdipoR genes in differentiated porcine adipocytes. However, the addition of ... When porcine adipocytes were cultured without insulin, supplementation with 10 nM insulin inhibited the expression of AdipoR2 ... Therefore, these data suggest that a PPARgamma agonist increases expression of AdipoR2 and that insulin inhibits the expression ... Using the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor (PI3K inhibitor, LY 294002), we found that insulin inhibited the expression ...
Nuclear accumulation of p65, however, increased substantially 15 and 60 min after TNF-α addition (Fig. 5A, lanes 2 and 3). ... Global gene expression profile in wild-type 3T3-L1 adipocytes and adipocytes expressing IκBα-DN. The global gene expression ... Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Suppresses Adipocyte-Specific Genes and Activates Expression of Preadipocyte Genes in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes ... Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Suppresses Adipocyte-Specific Genes and Activates Expression of Preadipocyte Genes in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes ...
Gene expression analysis shows upregulation of key adipogenic markers indicative of brown-like adipocytes. These data suggest ... We recently reported that insulitis in type 1 diabetes (T1D) of mice and humans is preceded by intra-islet accumulation of HA, ... Increasing HA concentration led to a dose-dependent increase in cartilage-marker gene expression and enhanced sGAG deposition ... Matrix remodeling modulates expression of the transcriptional co-activator Yes-associated protein, which drives expression of ...
... involves changes in gene expression and cellular morphology. Adipocyte hypertrophy results from an excessive accumulation of ... Adipocyte differentiation accompanies the changes in expression of various adipogenic and lipogenic genes [17]. PPARγ and C/EBP ... Figure 2: Effect of CDAP on the expression of transcription factors and adipocyte-specific genes in differentiation of 3T3-L1 ... B. A. Jessen and G. J. Stevens, "Expression profiling during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts," Gene, vol. 299, ...
Chemokines control fat accumulation and leptin secretion by cultured human adipocytes. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 175: 81-92. ... E) Rev-erbα and RORα change the gene expression of Itgb1, but not Itgb2, in RAW264 cells. The gene expression of Itgb1 and ... Macrophages from Rev-erbα−/− mice display increases in Ccl2 gene expression. Ccl2 (A) and Itgb1 (B) mRNA expression in ... Aging or obesity impairs Rev-erbα gene expression in murine peritoneal macrophages. Rev-erbα mRNA expression in peritoneal ...
This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid ... Similarly, differentiation of murine Apoe-deficient adipocytes was characterized by reduced gene expression of Adipoq, Fabp4 ... judged by expression of adipocyte markers. Taken together, depletion of endogenous APOE in human adipocytes severely impairs ... This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control ...
4)Fat accumulation A(5)Testis-mediated gene transfer A(6)DNA methylation. (7)Pheromone A(8)Cytokine A(9)Super ovulation ... 1. Expression of 20 -hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (20 -HSD) gene in the corpus luteum plays a crucial role in recurring short ... In addition, we found that satellite cells in skeletal muscle could differentiate into adipocytes.. 4. Transgenic rats were ... 2. Induction of granulin gene expression in neonatal hypothalamus by androgen is involved in sex differentiation of the brain. ...
Expression level of each gene was normalized to that of the Gtf2b. (E) Schematic representation of the Fabp4 gene. The ... Ectopic expression of PPARγ2 remarkably rescued lipid accumulation in TRIM23-knockdown cells and the induction of adipocyte- ... It has been shown that most adipocyte-specific genes are PPARγ target genes (Lefterova et al., 2008; Nielsen et al., 2008). We ... and these abnormalities are likely to be induced in part by inappropriate regulation of gene expression required for adipocyte ...
They work together to control the expression of the other genes characteristic of adipocytes. ... The production of enzymes for import of fatty acids and glucose and for fat synthesis leads to an accumulation of fat droplets ... By the end of a month in culture, almost all the cartilage cells have switched their collagen gene expression and taken on the ... At a healing wound, for example, they change their actin gene expression and take on some of the contractile properties of ...
... adipocyte differentiation, inflammation, cancer, lung diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and obesity. ... target gene. (a) Vnn1 expression in livers of ad libitum fed and 24 h fasted wildtype and mice. (b) Vnn1 expression in liver, ( ... Both proteins promote TG accumulation and are targets of in adipocytes [208, 209]. In addition, they are regulated by in mouse ... High expression levels of expression are found in liver and specifically in the parenchymal cell population. Expression of in ...
... induced PPARγ-target gene expression. The addition of FPP and zaragozic acid promotes lipid accumulation during adipocyte ... mRNA expression levels of each gene were normalized to the expression levels of the ribosomal 36B4 gene. The expression level ... 1996) ADD1/SREBP1 promotes adipocyte differentiation and gene expression linked to fatty acid metabolism. Genes Dev. 10:1096- ... 1997) Thiazolidinediones downregulate stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Diabetes 46:2115-2118. ...
It regulates transcription - making an RNA copy of DNA, which is the first step in gene expression. "Our research shows that ... "There were cells that did not have any PPAR gamma but still had somehow become adipocytes. There were cells that had increased ... "They control the transcriptional switch for PPAR gamma to maximize fat accumulation." PPAR gamma is known to regulate the ... Advances in Gene Editing and Delivery Offer Promise for People Living with Mitochondrial Diseases ...
qRT-PCR analysis revealed that shikonin inhibited mRNA expression of adipogenesis-related genes, such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, and aP2 ... Oil Red O staining was performed to determine the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. To elucidate the anti-adipogenic ... and adipogenic gene expression were analyzed by Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. To further confirm that ... as well as the adipocyte specific gene aP2 in a dose-dependent manner. ...
Adipocyte gene expression analysis confirmed the cell morphology and lipid accumulation findings (Figure 4c). C/EBP-α and PPAR- ... c) Expression of adipocyte-specific genes (C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, and aP2) and β-actin in BMS2. Poly(A)+ mRNA was isolated from BMS2 ... Ectopic expression of the agouti gene in transgenic mice causes obesity, features of type II diabetes, and yellow fur. Proc ... cDNA cloning and expression of a novel adipose specific collagen-like factor, apM1 (Adipose Most Abundant Gene Transcript 1). ...
Inhibits mature adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation. Involved in the recruitment of beta-arrestin 2 ARRB2 at the ... Attenuates TNF-mediated endothelial expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules. Promotes neuritogenesis in developing ... Associated with EGFR, may act as a transcription factor activating growth regulatory genes (c-fos, cyclin D1). Promotes ... Gene expression databases. Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution. More...Bgeei. ENSG00000164850 Expressed in 154 organ(s ...
... including the expression of developmental genes (21, 24-26). Thus, subcutaneous adipocytes/preadipocytes have higher expression ... Heritability of fat accumulation in white adipocytes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014;307(3):E335-E344.. View this article ... Effects of exosomes from LPS-activated macrophages on adipocyte gene expression, differentiation, and insulin-dependent glucose ... of white preadipocytes in mice characterized by unique gene expression profiles and high expression of the marker genes Wilms ...
ATRA reduced C/EBP?, PPAR? and its target gene expression. In the presence of ATRA, retinoic acid receptor (RAR) ?/? expression ... 2 expression and thus inhibition of adipocyte differentiation induced by ATRA. Taken together, these data demonstrates that RAR ... However, antioxidant treatment did not ameliorate the reduction of lipid accumulation induced by ATRA, indicating that ROS ... Sol IGF-1R also markedly inhibits GH-induced IGF-1 gene expression in both LNCaP cells and mouse primary osteoblast cells. On ...
Figure 3. EXP3179 induces PPAR-γ target gene expression. Quiescent day-8 adipocytes were incubated with compounds for 24 hours ... EXP3179 (10 μmol/L) potently promoted 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation as indicated by an increased lipid accumulation assessed ... EXP3179 Induces PPAR-γ Target Gene Expression. Consistent with the stimulation of adipocyte differentiation, EXP3179 (10 μmol/L ... EXP3179 markedly promotes 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation, induces PPAR-γ target gene expression, and directly activates the ...
  • As cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs) and β-AR agonists are similarly potent at stimulating lipolysis in human adipocytes, we investigated whether NPs could induce human and mouse adipocytes to acquire brown adipocyte features, including a capacity for thermogenic energy expenditure mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). (jci.org)
  • We have identified in vitro inductive conditions in which mesenchymal cells isolated from the embryonic chicken limb bud differentiate into avian brown adipocyte-like cells (ABALCs) with the morphological and many of the biochemical properties of terminally differentiated brown adipocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transgenic expression of Prdm16 induces a thermogenic gene program in subcutaneous WAT. (nih.gov)
  • It has recently been shown that the disruption of the two cryptochrome genes Cry1 and Cry2 -core elements of the circadian clock-induces salt-dependent hypertension due to abnormally high synthesis of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone by the adrenal gland. (go.jp)
  • UAB researchers and colleagues focused on the molecular mechanism that controls the lineage commitment switch between the osteoblast and adipocyte tracks. (eurekalert.org)
  • Rat bone marrow MSCs were cultured on Ti discs either machined or with nanotopography under osteogenic and adipogenic conditions, in presence or not of the ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, at a concentration previously determined (25 μM) and it was evaluated parameters related to osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. (usp.br)
  • Interestingly, however, the null mutation leads to altered topology of cone opsin expression in the retina, with aberrant S-opsin overexpression and M-opsin underexpression in M cones. (jove.com)
  • Interestingly, two molecular signature of visceral adipocyte lineage, homebox genes HOXA5 and NR2F1, are up-regulated in a-SAT versus g-SAT by a 2.5 fold change. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, we made the unexpected finding that miRNA378/378* specifically increases transcriptional activity of C/EBP alpha and C/EBP beta on adipocyte gene promoters. (uclouvain.be)
  • Different functional activity of beige adipocytes was observed after melatonin was used depending on the time of administration, resulting in heat production and lipolysis (the relative mass of visceral fat was likewise diminished). (bvsalud.org)
  • shRNA-mediated depletion of Prdm16 in isolated subcutaneous adipocytes caused a sharp decrease in the expression of thermogenic genes and a reduction in uncoupled cellular respiration. (nih.gov)