The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (fos) originally isolated from the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses. The proto-oncogene protein c-fos codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. The insertion of c-fos into FBJ-MSV or FBR-MSV induces osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The human c-fos gene is located at 14q21-31 on the long arm of chromosome 14.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.

Separation of shoot and floral identity in Arabidopsis. (1/56413)

The overall morphology of an Arabidopsis plant depends on the behaviour of its meristems. Meristems derived from the shoot apex can develop into either shoots or flowers. The distinction between these alternative fates requires separation between the function of floral meristem identity genes and the function of an antagonistic group of genes, which includes TERMINAL FLOWER 1. We show that the activities of these genes are restricted to separate domains of the shoot apex by different mechanisms. Meristem identity genes, such as LEAFY, APETALA 1 and CAULIFLOWER, prevent TERMINAL FLOWER 1 transcription in floral meristems on the apex periphery. TERMINAL FLOWER 1, in turn, can inhibit the activity of meristem identity genes at the centre of the shoot apex in two ways; first by delaying their upregulation, and second, by preventing the meristem from responding to LEAFY or APETALA 1. We suggest that the wild-type pattern of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 and floral meristem identity gene expression depends on the relative timing of their upregulation.  (+info)

Characterization of an amphioxus paired box gene, AmphiPax2/5/8: developmental expression patterns in optic support cells, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits, but not in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary region. (2/56413)

On the basis of developmental gene expression, the vertebrate central nervous system comprises: a forebrain plus anterior midbrain, a midbrain-hindbrain boundary region (MHB) having organizer properties, and a rhombospinal domain. The vertebrate MHB is characterized by position, by organizer properties and by being the early site of action of Wnt1 and engrailed genes, and of genes of the Pax2/5/8 subfamily. Wada and others (Wada, H., Saiga, H., Satoh, N. and Holland, P. W. H. (1998) Development 125, 1113-1122) suggested that ascidian tunicates have a vertebrate-like MHB on the basis of ascidian Pax258 expression there. In another invertebrate chordate, amphioxus, comparable gene expression evidence for a vertebrate-like MHB is lacking. We, therefore, isolated and characterized AmphiPax2/5/8, the sole member of this subfamily in amphioxus. AmphiPax2/5/8 is initially expressed well back in the rhombospinal domain and not where a MHB would be expected. In contrast, most of the other expression domains of AmphiPax2/5/8 correspond to expression domains of vertebrate Pax2, Pax5 and Pax8 in structures that are probably homologous - support cells of the eye, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits; although AmphiPax2/5/8 is not transcribed in any structures that could be interpreted as homologues of vertebrate otic placodes or otic vesicles. In sum, the developmental expression of AmphiPax2/5/8 indicates that the amphioxus central nervous system lacks a MHB resembling the vertebrate isthmic region. Additional gene expression data for the developing ascidian and amphioxus nervous systems would help determine whether a MHB is a basal chordate character secondarily lost in amphioxus. The alternative is that the MHB is a vertebrate innovation.  (+info)

Bone resorption induced by parathyroid hormone is strikingly diminished in collagenase-resistant mutant mice. (3/56413)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates bone resorption by acting directly on osteoblasts/stromal cells and then indirectly to increase differentiation and function of osteoclasts. PTH acting on osteoblasts/stromal cells increases collagenase gene transcription and synthesis. To assess the role of collagenase in the bone resorptive actions of PTH, we used mice homozygous (r/r) for a targeted mutation (r) in Col1a1 that are resistant to collagenase cleavage of type I collagen. Human PTH(1-34) was injected subcutaneously over the hemicalvariae in wild-type (+/+) or r/r mice four times daily for three days. Osteoclast numbers, the size of the bone marrow spaces and periosteal proliferation were increased in calvariae from PTH-treated +/+ mice, whereas in r/r mice, PTH-induced bone resorption responses were minimal. The r/r mice were not resistant to other skeletal effects of PTH because abundant interstitial collagenase mRNA was detected in the calvarial periosteum of PTH-treated, but not vehicle-treated, r/r and +/+ mice. Calcemic responses, 0.5-10 hours after intraperitoneal injection of PTH, were blunted in r/r mice versus +/+ mice. Thus, collagenase cleavage of type I collagen is necessary for PTH induction of osteoclastic bone resorption.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and epitope analysis of the peanut allergen Ara h 3. (4/56413)

Peanut allergy is a significant IgE-mediated health problem because of the increased prevalence, potential severity, and chronicity of the reaction. Following our characterization of the two peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, we have isolated a cDNA clone encoding a third peanut allergen, Ara h 3. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ara h 3 shows homology to 11S seed-storage proteins. The recombinant form of this protein was expressed in a bacterial system and was recognized by serum IgE from approximately 45% of our peanut-allergic patient population. Serum IgE from these patients and overlapping, synthetic peptides were used to map the linear, IgE-binding epitopes of Ara h 3. Four epitopes, between 10 and 15 amino acids in length, were found within the primary sequence, with no obvious sequence motif shared by the peptides. One epitope is recognized by all Ara h 3-allergic patients. Mutational analysis of the epitopes revealed that single amino acid changes within these peptides could lead to a reduction or loss of IgE binding. By determining which amino acids are critical for IgE binding, it might be possible to alter the Ara h 3 cDNA to encode a protein with a reduced IgE-binding capacity. These results will enable the design of improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for food-hypersensitivity reactions.  (+info)

CAR-dependent and CAR-independent pathways of adenovirus vector-mediated gene transfer and expression in human fibroblasts. (5/56413)

Primary fibroblasts are not efficiently transduced by subgroup C adenovirus (Ad) vectors because they express low levels of the high-affinity Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). In the present study, we have used primary human dermal fibroblasts as a model to explore strategies by which Ad vectors can be designed to enter cells deficient in CAR. Using an Ad vector expressing the human CAR cDNA (AdCAR) at high multiplicity of infection, primary fibroblasts were converted from being CAR deficient to CAR sufficient. Efficiency of subsequent gene transfer by standard Ad5-based vectors and Ad5-based vectors with alterations in penton and fiber was evaluated. Marked enhancement of binding and transgene expression by standard Ad5 vectors was achieved in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Expression by AdDeltaRGDbetagal, an Ad5-based vector lacking the arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) alphaV integrin recognition site from its penton base, was achieved in CAR-sufficient, but not CAR-deficient, cells. Fiber-altered Ad5-based vectors, including (a) AdF(pK7)betagal (bearing seven lysines on the end of fiber) (b) AdF(RGD)betagal (bearing a high-affinity RGD sequence on the end of fiber), and (c) AdF9sK betagal (bearing a short fiber and Ad9 knob), demonstrated enhanced gene transfer in CAR-deficient fibroblasts, with no further enhancement in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Together, these observations demonstrate that CAR deficiency on Ad targets can be circumvented either by supplying CAR or by modifying the Ad fiber to bind to other cell-surface receptors.  (+info)

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and insecticide resistance in insects. (6/56413)

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in many cases of resistance of insects to insecticides. Resistance has long been associated with an increase in monooxygenase activities and with an increase in cytochrome P450 content. However, this increase does not always account for all of the resistance. In Drosophila melanogaster, we have shown that the overproduction of cytochrome P450 can be lost by the fly without a corresponding complete loss of resistance. These results prompted the sequencing of a cytochrome P450 candidate for resistance in resistant and susceptible flies. Several mutations leading to amino-acid substitutions have been detected in the P450 gene CYP6A2 of a resistant strain. The location of these mutations in a model of the 3D structure of the CYP6A2 protein suggested that some of them may be important for enzyme activity of this molecule. This has been verified by heterologous expression of wild-type and mutated cDNA in Escherichia coli. When other resistance mechanisms are considered, relatively few genetic mutations are involved in insecticide resistance, and this has led to an optimistic view of the management of resistance. Our observations compel us to survey in more detail the genetic diversity of cytochrome P450 genes and alleles involved in resistance.  (+info)

Leptin suppression of insulin secretion and gene expression in human pancreatic islets: implications for the development of adipogenic diabetes mellitus. (7/56413)

Previously we demonstrated the expression of the long form of the leptin receptor in rodent pancreatic beta-cells and an inhibition of insulin secretion by leptin via activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we examine pancreatic islets isolated from pancreata of human donors for their responses to leptin. The presence of leptin receptors on islet beta-cells was demonstrated by double fluorescence confocal microscopy after binding of a fluorescent derivative of human leptin (Cy3-leptin). Leptin (6.25 nM) suppressed insulin secretion of normal islets by 20% at 5.6 mM glucose. Intracellular calcium responses to 16.7 mM glucose were rapidly reduced by leptin. Proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in islets was inhibited by leptin at 11.1 mM, but not at 5.6 mM glucose. Leptin also reduced proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid levels that were increased in islets by treatment with 10 nM glucagon-like peptide-1 in the presence of either 5.6 or 11.1 mM glucose. These findings demonstrate direct suppressive effects of leptin on insulin-producing beta-cells in human islets at the levels of both stimulus-secretion coupling and gene expression. The findings also further indicate the existence of an adipoinsular axis in humans in which insulin stimulates leptin production in adipocytes and leptin inhibits the production of insulin in beta-cells. We suggest that dysregulation of the adipoinsular axis in obese individuals due to defective leptin reception by beta-cells may result in chronic hyperinsulinemia and may contribute to the pathogenesis of adipogenic diabetes.  (+info)

Alternative sulfonylurea receptor expression defines metabolic sensitivity of K-ATP channels in dopaminergic midbrain neurons. (8/56413)

ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channels couple the metabolic state to cellular excitability in various tissues. Several isoforms of the K-ATP channel subunits, the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) and inwardly rectifying K channel (Kir6.X), have been cloned, but the molecular composition and functional diversity of native neuronal K-ATP channels remain unresolved. We combined functional analysis of K-ATP channels with expression profiling of K-ATP subunits at the level of single substantia nigra (SN) neurons in mouse brain slices using an RT-multiplex PCR protocol. In contrast to GABAergic neurons, single dopaminergic SN neurons displayed alternative co-expression of either SUR1, SUR2B or both SUR isoforms with Kir6.2. Dopaminergic SN neurons expressed alternative K-ATP channel species distinguished by significant differences in sulfonylurea affinity and metabolic sensitivity. In single dopaminergic SN neurons, co-expression of SUR1 + Kir6.2, but not of SUR2B + Kir6.2, correlated with functional K-ATP channels highly sensitive to metabolic inhibition. In contrast to wild-type, surviving dopaminergic SN neurons of homozygous weaver mouse exclusively expressed SUR1 + Kir6.2 during the active period of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Therefore, alternative expression of K-ATP channel subunits defines the differential response to metabolic stress and constitutes a novel candidate mechanism for the differential vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in response to respiratory chain dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.  (+info)

Abstract: Interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene regulation was investigated in primary cultures of highly purified human peripheral blood CD28+T cells. Two discrete mechanisms for induction of T-cell proliferation could be distinguished by examining cell cycle progression and the expression of the IL-2 gene. Stimulation of cells by CD3 MoAb induced only transiently expressed, small amounts of IL-2 mRNA that was completely suppressed by cyclosporine. Costimulation of T cells with CD3 MoAb and either CD28 MoAb or PMA, but not calcium ionophore, induced a 50-100-fold increased in IL-2 gene expression and secretion. High levels of IL-2 gene expression could also be achieved by stimulation with calcium ionophore and PMA or CD28 MoAb and PMA, but not by CD28 MoAb plus calcium ionophore. IL-2 gene expression and T-cell proliferation induced by CD3 MoAb plus PMA or calcium ionophore plus PMA were completely suppressible by cyclosporine. In contrast, IL-2 gene expression and T-cell proliferation induced by CD28 MoAb ...
Read SINC-seq: correlation of transient gene expressions between nucleus and cytoplasm reflects single-cell physiology, Genome Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Regulation of transforming growth factor β1 gene expression by the product of the retinoblastoma-susceptibility gene Academic Article ...
DNA actively 58-49-1 biological activity down-regulates the gene expression of LL37 in monocytes and epithelial cells. Nevertheless, due to the fact
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மரபணு வெளிப்பாடு (Gene expression) என்பது மரபணுவில் இருக்கும் தகவல்கள், தொழிற்படக்கூடிய மரபணு உற்பத்திப்பொருளாக (gene product) மாற்றப்படும் செயல்முறையாகும். மரபணுவிலிருக்கும் மரபணுக் குறியீட்டுப்பகுதியில் (coding region) இருந்து இவ்வகையான மரபணு உற்பத்திப்பொருட்கள் உருவாகின்றன. மரபணு உற்பத்திப்பொருட்கள் உயிர்வேதியியல் பொருட்களாகும். பொதுவாக இந்த மரபணு உற்பத்திப் பொருட்கள் தொழிற்படும் ...
Effect of in vivo gene expression knockdown on neuroblast migration in the olfactory bulb. The RMS within the olfactory bulb (bRMS) is visible as more intensely
What is meant by gene expression? Gene expression refers to genes being turned on and producing a product. The product could be an enzyme, a structural protein, or a control molecule. Studies of gene expression typically measure the production of mRNA. Most mechanisms that control gene expression do so by controlling transcription, the synthesis of mRNA. However there are other mechanisms for controlling the rate of protein synthesis that occur downstream (between transcription and translation). Several of these are described in this animation. View the animation below, then complete the quiz to test your knowledge of the concept.. ...
Determining gene expression on a single pair of microarrays. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Genomes contain all the genetic information needed by an organism, regardless of the circumstance or environment. Generally, however, even single-cell organisms use only a fraction of their genome at any time; that is, cells generally express only a fraction of their genome at any given time. This is especially true among the individual cells that make up multicellular organisms, where cell specialization (differentiation) dictates that only certain genes be expressed in certain cells, and only at particular times during the organisms life span.. ...
Process of gene expression entails plasmid DNA or mRNA delivery to specific cells and is a technique routinely utilized in labs to study a gene of interest or a signaling pathway. Gene expression usually allows transient protein production, but in some cases stable integration into a genome and continuous protein production over time is required.
I want to show relationship between down regulation and up regulation of expression of a gene with that of patients relapse status in cancer. However, I dont have enough data to plot KM/ Survival curve. All I have is disease status and gene expression after 1 year and 3 years. I was thinking of making Box whisker plot but I have not seen box whisker showing correlation between gene expression and survival. Any suggestions how best I can show such relationship?. ...
Gene expression is the process by which genetic information is used to produce proteins, essential for cells to function properly. It takes place in two steps (first the transcription, then the translation), considered to be two independent processes until now. Today, microbiologists provide additional evidence that they are intrinsically related and that a protein complex called Ccr4-Not plays a key role in gene expression by acting as a messenger between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
Gene Expression Macro Version 1.1 Instructions Rev B 1 Bio-Rad Gene Expression Macro Users Guide 2004 Bio-Rad Laboratories Table of Contents: Introduction Opening
Hi All,. I want examine different gene expression for different treatment by using qRT-PCR , i will not do any sequencing or assembly . First RNA will be extract and then my question is How can i choose the candidate genes before run PCR ??? Then i can design the primer for the candidate and run PCR.. I hope if someone can explain and suggest methods for chose the candidate ... Thanks. ...
Is a useful technique for acquiring the gene expression pattern of a number of selected genes due to its high sensitivity, specificity and broad quantification
The characteristics of an organism are determined by the genes expressed within it. A method was developed, called serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), that allows the quantitative and simultaneous analysis of a large number of transcripts. To demonstrate this strategy, short diagnostic sequen …
FRAMINGHAM, Mass.--Genzyme Molecular Oncology here and Bayer have inked an agreement that will allow Bayer the use of Genzyme Molecular Oncologys patented Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) technology. Bayer will utilize SAGE to identify genes that may have import
This detailed volume provides a toolbox for designing constructs, tackling expression and solubility issues, handling membrane proteins and protein complexes, and exploring innovative engineering of E
Once upon a time, it was rare to meet someone who took an interest in their genealogy beyond the desire to know why people in that old family photo looked the way they did or wondered what had led up to the portrait for which they sat decades or centuries before.
The answer, though, is differences in gene expression in a cell. Clones have identical DNA, but the way the DNA is transcribed to RNA, and the way the RNA is translated to making a protein, can be specific to the cell. There are epigenetic factors - basically, chemicals that adhere to certain parts of the genome - that dictate NOT whether the DNA is there, but how often the DNA is read to make RNA and how efficiently that is made into functional proteins. Think about a fertilized egg. It divides into two cells, then 4 cells, then 8 cells, then 16 cells, then 32 cells, etc. Every time the cell divides, it has to make a perfect copy of its DNA. The cell machinery isnt always perfect and little changes in DNA can occur. Also, those chemicals that can affect gene expression can get added or subtracted as cells divide. Many of them, however, are passed on to the daughter cells. Thats how identical cells can have different levels of gene expression, and how people and horses and dogs with identical ...
There are comments on PubPeer for publication: Integrated functional, gene expression and genomic analysis for the identification of cancer targets (2009)
Akhilesh Bajpai, Sravanthi Davuluri and Acharya KK* (*Correspondence: [email protected]), A comparative account of gene expression resources, feature-validations and application-based categorizations; In: Startbioinfo; 12 Oct 2011, ...
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An expression system refers to the factors that work together to yield a particular gene product such as a protein, ribozyme or RNA particle.
Bioengineers have demonstrated that simultaneous control over transcription and translation in cells can achieve the most stringent control of gene expression
Effect of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) supplementation onperformance, immunity and HSP70 gene expression in broilerchicken during hot-dry summer
I am fascinated by a fundamental question in biology; How is regulation of gene expression as a response to external stimulus achieved? My laboratory
Chapter 18 Regulation of Gene Expression Gene Regulation Is Necessary By switching genes off when they are not needed, cells can prevent resources from being wasted. There should be natural selection
EPFL chemists have uncovered the first steps in the process of gene expression by showing how the protein Rap1 pries open the tightly wound, compacted structure of DNA in the cell to gain access to specific genes.
Im just not quite sure the answer to this. When we talk about epigenetics and gene expression, does it not matter if we have snps or not? For...
A new study presents the first analysis of the pilot dataset from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project, which investigates how our underlying DNA regulates gene expression.
Genotyping & gene expression full services from Eurofins Genomics . Wide range of platforms and assays available ** Call +49 8092 8289-0
Telencephalic and diencephalic gene expression in the fgf16 morphants.The expression of emx1 (A, B), tbr1 (C, D), dlx2 (E, F), pax6a (G, H), and shh (I, J) in w
This function will fit smooth spline curves for the gene expression dynamics along pseudotime in a gene-wise manner and return the corresponding response matrix. This function is build on other functions (fit_models and responseMatrix) and used in calILRs and calABCs functions
You need to make cDNA with random hexamers or oligo dT, then amplify the gene with specific primers after that by PCR. In my experience there isnt a whole lot of difference between random hexamers or oligo dT. They seem to work equally as well for cDNA generation.. Lately, I have been using the Invitrogen SuperScript III kit with random hexamers to amplify my cDNAs. Works great.. Rb. ...
We have previously shown that the intramuscular injection of naked plasmid DNA enables foreign gene expression in muscle. Further studies showed that the intravascular delivery of naked plasmid DNA enables high levels of expression not only in muscle but also in hepatocytes. For the liver, this tech …
BACKGROUND: Although, systematic analysis of gene annotation is a powerful tool for interpreting gene expression data, it sometimes is blurred by incomplete gene annotation, missing expression response of key genes and secondary gene expression responses. These shortcomings may be partially circumvented by instead matching gene expression signatures to signatures of other experiments. FINDINGS: To facilitate this we present the Functional Association Response by Overlap (FARO) server, that match input signatures to a compendium of 242 gene expression signatures, extracted from more than 1700 Arabidopsis microarray experiments. CONCLUSIONS: Hereby we present a publicly available tool for robust characterization of Arabidopsis gene expression experiments which can point to similar experimental factors in other experiments. The server is available at ...
CG000170_TechNote_BiologicalandTechnicalVariationinSingleCell3GeneExpressionExperiments_RevA_.pdf. Technical Note - Biological & Technical Variation in Single Cell Gene Expression Experiments. The Chromium Single Cell 3′ v2 Reagent Kits protocol (Document CG00052) produces Single Cell 3′ short-read sequencer compatible libraries. Technical and biological variation may be present in the experiment design, and may impact data interpretation. Potential sources of technical variation include running a sample on two separate microfluidic chips or at different well positions on the same chip, and or technical variation introduced by sequencing libraries on separate Illumina flowcells or sequencing lanes. This Technical Note examines the potential sources of technical and biological variation and their effects on single cell gene expression. These factors need to be considered when designing an experiment to minimize bias and generate reliable single cell gene expression data.. FOR USE WITH. ...
Researchers use DNA microarrays, or gene chips, to distinguish among different types of tissues based on the expression patterns of thousands of genes. A new study says the technology can be modified to profile more tissue samples simultaneously and with greater efficiency. The innovation is called an array of arrays. Gene expression profiles are typically obtained one at a time by hybridizing a single tissue sample to a single array on an individual glass slide. The integrated device described in the study is a glass wafer that includes 49 individual oligonucleotide arrays arranged as a 7 × 7 array of arrays. David J. Lockhart and colleagues at the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, in San Diego, California, developed a way to hybridize many tissue samples to multiple arrays on a single glass slide, or wafer. Using this and other modifications, they completed a study of gene expression in ovarian cancer in a single experiment. This was done in a fraction of the time and ...
Background Despite sharing the same genes, identical twins demonstrate substantial variability in behavioral traits and in their risk for disease. Epigenetic factors-DNA and chromatin modifications that affect levels of gene expression without affecting the DNA sequence-are thought to be important in establishing this variability. Epigenetically-mediated differences in the levels of gene expression that are associated with individual variability traditionally are thought to occur only in a gene-specific manner. We challenge this idea by exploring the large-scale organizational patterns of gene expression in an epigenetic model of behavioral variability. Methodology/Findings To study the effects of epigenetic influences on behavioral variability, we examine gene expression in genetically identical mice. Using a novel approach to microarray analysis, we show that variability in the large-scale organization of gene expression levels, rather than differences in the expression levels of specific genes, is
Quantitative gene expression analysis aims to define the gene expression patterns determining cell behavior. So far, these assessments can only be performed at the population level. Therefore, they determine the average gene expression within a population, overlooking possible cell-to-cell heterogeneity that could lead to different cell behaviors/cell fates. Understanding individual cell behavior requires multiple gene expression analyses of single cells, and may be fundamental for the understanding of all types of biological events and/or differentiation processes. We here describe a new reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approach allowing the simultaneous quantification of the expression of 20 genes in the same single cell. This method has broad application, in different species and any type of gene combination. RT efficiency is evaluated. Uniform and maximized amplification conditions for all genes are provided. Abundance relationships are maintained, allowing the ...
Gene Expression Analysis Market-[By Technology (DNA Microarray, Real-Time PCR, Next Generation Sequencing), By Consumables (DNA chips, Reagents), By Services (Gene Profiling, Bioinformatics, Data Analysis Software) & Applications]-Global Forecast to 2018. The global gene expression analysis market is witnessing a significant growth and will continue to do so in the next five years. The factors contributing to this growth are increased funding scenario worldwide, increased government involvement, developments in research for diseases like cancer, and the use of gene expression in drug discovery and personalized medicine. The Asian region is projected to have the highest growth rate with growth hinged at China, India, and Japan. Apart from Asia, countries such as Turkey, Brazil, and South Africa too have a high projected growth.. In the Asian region, China is the genomic leader. China has cultivated a favorable condition to support gene expression analysis growth. From its humble beginning in 1999 ...
The most comprehensive gene expression qPCR assay selection in the industry- helping you achieve highly sensitive and specific detection from your research.. TaqMan Gene Expression Assays are probe and primer sets based on 5 nuclease chemistry using TaqMan MGB (minor groove binder) probes, the most quantitative gene expression technology available.. ...
Gene Expression Analysis can provide an ideal blend of high-level analysis and granular detail when studying a biological system. We know that the RNA levels of an organisms genes not only determine the systems overall status, but also the functioning of the many molecular pathways in the organism. We also know that activity in these pathways can make or break a commercial product or production process. Lets see how Time-Series Gene Expression Analysis can address these challenges.. The key is to is to look at the dynamics in gene expression, this means studying the ways in which gene expression changes during a biological process. As the price of RNA-seq data has come down, it has become very feasible to analyze time series RNA-seq data from organisms in commercial biological products and industrial production processes. The focus then is on deploying tools and expertise to use the information contained in the tens of thousands of data points that these time series experiments produce, to ...
It is gene expression that defines a cells identity. Science, Sciences Science of Aging Knowledge Environment (SAGE KE), and Sciences STKE focus attention on the highly dynamic nature of gene expression. Mechanisms governing selective gene expression in multigene families, as well as those by which cis- and trans-acting factors contribute to regulation of gene expression, are topics under discussion. In addition, new methodologies allow researchers to gain insight into gene expression at the level of single cells and provide a glimpse at the real-time interactions among proteins and DNA.. ...
Inflammation involves timed gene expression, suggesting that the fine-tuned onset, amplitude, and termination of expression of hundreds of genes is of critical importance to organismal homeostasis. Recent study of post-transcriptional regulation of inflammatory gene expression led to the suggestion of a regulatory role for pre-mRNA splicing. Here, using a hybrid capture approach to purify incompletely spliced, chromatin-associated pre-mRNAs, we use deep sequencing to study pre-mRNA splicing of the NF-kB transcriptome. By freezing transcription and examining subsequent splicing of complete transcripts, we find many introns splice tens to hundreds of times slower than average. In many cases, this is attributable to poor splice donor sequences that are evolutionarily conserved. When these introns were altered by ~2 base pairs to yield stronger splice donors, gene expression levels increased markedly for several genes in the context of a reporter system. We propose that such splice sites represent a ...
The Gene Expression Metasignatures (GEMS) analysis tool was developed to allow researchers to determine a weighted consensus across multiple datasets for the regulation of a gene by acute (0-4 h) or chronic (24 h) treatment with 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells. GEMS was retired in November 2012. In its place we have developed a broader, large-scale differential gene expression tool for the nuclear receptor signaling research community, Transcriptomine. Transcriptomine collates omics-scale differential gene expression studies across the nuclear receptor and coregulator signaling field into a single analysis tool, allowing researchers to detect patterns across multiple datasets. A large number of 17beta-estradiol MCF-7 datasets have been uploaded to the database, including all those originally in GEMS. These can currently be viewed as individual fold changes.. ...
Gene expression is the process by which genetic instructions are used to synthesise gene products. Measuring this gene expression is a key element in the study of life sciences. For example, understanding the level of gene expression in a cell, tissue or organism can provide valuable information in terms of identifying viral infection, determining cancer susceptibility or testing whether a bacteria is resistant to penicillin.
The primary goal of the study is to measure in the intact human heart, the alterations in gene expression over time that are associated with reverse remodeling in response to β-blockade. The second goal is to investigate the signaling mechanisms which in turn are responsible for these changes in gene expression, and the third goal is to determine the relationship between intrinsic systolic dysfunction and remodeling of the left ventricle. This will be accomplished by measuring ventricular size, function, and gene expression in myocardial tissue samples obtained by percutaneous biopsy prior to initiation of β-blockade and at 3 and 12 months after start of therapy. The specific Aims and Hypotheses to be tested are:. ...
The edge package implements methods for carrying out differential expression analyses of genome-wide gene expression studies. Significance testing using the optimal discovery procedure and generalized likelihood ratio tests (equivalent to F-tests and t-tests) are implemented for general study designs. Special functions are available to facilitate the analysis of common study designs, including time course experiments. Other packages such as snm, sva, and qvalue are integrated in edge to provide a wide range of tools for gene expression analysis.
Relative gene expression analysis requires precise, powerful and cutting edge technology called Real Time PCR, that is being utilized today by many research laboratories around the world.
Weight Loss, Gene Expression and Excretion. Losing weight is NOT about counting calories because not all calories (foods we eat) are created equally. A calorie consumed is different than a calorie of energy that you burn off through exercise because of a concept called gene expression. The foods you eat affect your bodys ability to alter gene expression. There are two basic types of genes: constitutional and inducible. Constitutional genes encode DNA and RNA messages that are expressed in a constant fashion and are not generally modified by environmental or lifestyle choices. Inducible genes, however, are sensitive to toxins, nutritional influences, and the environment and can be up-regulated or down regulated in their expression. These inducible genes play a large role in the aging process and in the livers ability handle detoxification and excretion.. Our genetic inheritance also plays a large role in how vulnerable we are to age-related diseases via the inducible gene system. A good ...
Seker, H. (2004) A Multi-Fuzzy Filtering Approach to Reliable Gene Expression Profile Analysis. Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, October 2004, pp. 37-40 ...
View Notes - Gene Expression from BIOL 101 at UNC. Gene Expression/Test 3 Tuesday, March 03, 2009 9:30 AM 1. Helicase molecule o Protein made on ribosome o In cytoplasm. Sometime cell needs sometime
An important new study has revealed the clearest picture yet of precisely how much measurement variation influences gene expression profiles of breast cancer.
Gene expression can be quantitatively analyzed by hybridizing fluor-tagged mRNA to targets on a cDNA micro- array. Comparison of expression levels arising from co- hybridized samples is achieved by taking ratios of average expression levels for individual genes. The present paper concerns image processing to automatically segment digitized micro-arrays and measure median gene expression levees across cDNA target sites. The main difficulty arises from determination of the target site when signal intensity is low. Segmentation must be accomplished for target sites that can possess highly unstable geometry and consist of a relatively small number of pixels. Segmentation must also be computationally efficient. The present paper proposes a nonparametric statistical method that separates target site from local background using the Mann-Whitney test ...
Jurasek JV, Raposa LB, Gubicskóné Kisbenedek A et al.. Táplálkozástudományi és Dietetikai Intézet, Pécsi Tudományegyetem, Egészségtudományi Kar Pécs.. Orvosi hetilap. Mar 2017.. Nowadays, the food industry more often uses different type of additives during the food production.Our aim was to examine the monosodium-glutamates effect (in animal experiment) on DNA-methyltransferases in gene expression patterns of mRNA levels.In the investigation we used 24 (n=24) CD1 type female mice. The animals were fed with different equivalent human doses of the tested substance. After autopsy, mRNA was isolated from different tissues (lung, liver, kidney, spleen). DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B levels were determined by Quantitative Real-Time PCR.DNMT1 significantly suppressed the gene expression in all the three treated groups ( ...
Learn what gene expression measures, what techniques can be used, and what questions quantification of gene expression can answer for scientists and medical professionals.
The ability of cells to control the expression of genes is important for cell survival. Nutrients can alter the gene expression that controls levels of bioactive proteins. Herbs alter gene activity in various ways. Gene transcription, the most important, is the initial step in gene expression. The pregnane X receptor (PXR receptor) is the target […]. View Post ...
Utilize species-agnostic, lipid-based tagging compatible with cells or nuclei to load up to 12 samples onto one GEM well. Click here to learn more ...
TimesVector is a triclustering tool for clustering time-series data that comprises multiple conditions, or phenotypes. It identifies gene clusters that exhibit distinctly similar or different gene expression patterns among the comparing sample conditions. For example, for a time-series data set of five different strains of yeast, each data sampled at 3 time points, TimesVector will search for gene clusters where a specific strain shows a distinctively different gene expression pattern from the others.. As an example result, 33 genes in cluster 25 were significantly induced at day 5 (D5) during fermentation, only in the DV10 yeast strain (data from GSE11651) ...
The secretory protein Reg3γ (also known as PAP III) is expressed in several tissues, and its expression is induced in various injuries and inflammatory conditions in gastrointestinal tract (Iovanna et al. 1992; Ogawa et al. 2003), skeletal muscle (Klasan et al. 2014) as well as in central and peripheral nervous system (Namikawa et al. 2005, 2006; Ampo et al. 2009; Kawahara et al. 2011; Klasan et al. 2014). However, almost nothing is known about cardiac Reg3γ gene expression, although increased Reg3γ expression has been repeatedly identified in cardiac gene expression profiling screens (Rysä et al. 2005; Tenhunen et al. 2006a; Watanabe et al. 2008; Liu et al. 2009). In this study, we are first to characterize the expression and regulation of Reg3γ in the heart. We found that Reg3γ gene expression is rapidly up‐regulated by post‐MI remodeling and Ang II in the adult rat heart in vivo. We showed that losartan treatment reduced left ventricular Reg3γ gene expression levels activated by ...
The general goal of the technique is similar to the DNA microarray. However, SAGE is a sequence-based sampling technique. Observations are not based on hybridization, which result in more qualitative, digital values. In addition, the mRNA sequences do not need to be known a priori, so genes or gene variants which are not known can be discovered. Microarray experiments are much cheaper to perform, so large-scale studies do not typically use SAGE. Quantifying gene expressions is more exact in SAGE because it involves directly counting the number of transcripts whereas spot intensities in microarrays fall in non-discrete gradients and are prone to background noise. ...
Renal Tissue Thawed for 30 Minutes Is Still Suitable for Gene Expression Analysis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
BioXpedias Technologies for Gene Expression Profiling offers RNA analyses of samples, using technologies that are time-, cost-, and sample-effective.
Gene expression analysis market will surpass more than US$ 4,500 million revenues towards the end of the forecast period, 2017-2022.
Gene editing with the TUNR system allows you to obtain intermediates with high, medium and low reduction of gene expression with the same targeting quality as for knock-out. my notice earlier was an early April fools joke. Anyway, I apologize to Ron Edgar of the Gene Expression Omnibus, as a concerned reader emailed him. Ill try to think of something more innocuous next time. I should have just made up a fake organization ...
Learn how to prepare RNA for gene expression analysis from cultured cells in 7 minutes. The Cells-to-CT 1-Step TaqMan Kit is a simple, quick alternative to traditional RNA extraction.
The RNAscope® and BaseScope™ ISH assays can both be applied as methods to detect gene expression with morphological context in a multitude of mouse models.
The genes expressions are mapped in a control sample to formulate a developmental chart of the gene expression at certain time ... Gene expression studies[edit]. Although physical characteristics and sizes at various instars have been used to estimate fly ... This is done by breaking the stages down into smaller units separated by predictable changed in gene expression.[33] Three ... This chart can then be compared to the measured values of gene expression to accurately predict the age of an egg to within two ...
Gene and protein expression[edit]. About 20,000 protein-coding genes are expressed in human cells and nearly 70% of these genes ... Many genes with elevated expression are also shared with skin and other organs that are composed of squamous epithelia.[25] ... "Expression of Human Skin-Specific Genes Defined by Transcriptomics and Antibody-Based Profiling". Journal of Histochemistry & ... Some 250 of these genes are more specifically expressed in the esophagus with less than 50 genes being highly specific. The ...
Regulation of gene expression[edit]. The regulation of gene expression of hemolysins (such as streptolysin S) is a system ... The regulation of the production of hemolysin in S.aureus(expression of hemolysin) is now possible due to in-vitro mutations ... "α-Hemolysin pore formation into a supported phospholipid bilayer using cell-free expression". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1808 (1 ... "Regulation of hemolysin expression and virulence of Staphylococcus aureus by a serine/threonine kinase and phosphatase". PLOS ...
Gene expression[edit]. PLP has been implicated in increasing or decreasing the expression of certain genes. Increased ... Also, vitamin B6 deficiency leads to the increased gene expression of albumin mRNA. Also, PLP influences expression of ... and gene expression. PLP generally serves as a coenzyme (cofactor) for many reactions including decarboxylation, transamination ...
The Gene Expression Database is a community resource of mouse developmental expression information.[9] ... "The mouse Gene Expression Database (GXD): 2019 update". Nucleic Acids Research. 47 (D1): D774-D779. doi:10.1093/nar/gky922. ... "The mouse Gene Expression Database (GXD): 2011 update". Nucleic Acids Res. England. 39 (Database issue): D835-41. doi:10.1093/ ... with the two largest contributions coming from the Mouse Genome Database and Mouse Gene Expression Database (GXD).[4] As of ...
Gene and protein expression[edit]. Further information: Bioinformatics § Gene and protein expression ... About 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells and almost 70% of these genes are expressed in normal, adult ... kidneys.[12][13] Just over 300 genes are more specifically expressed in the kidney, with only some 50 genes being highly ...
Gene and expression[edit]. The gene SHC1 is located on chromosome 1 and encodes 3 main protein isoforms: p66SHC, p52SHC and ... SHC-transforming protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SHC1 gene.[5] SHC has been found to be important in ... "Genes and Mapped Phenotypes". National Center for Biotechnology Information. US National Library of Medicine.. ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • insulin-like growth factor receptor binding. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine ...
Gene and protein expression[edit]. Further information: Bioinformatics § Gene and protein expression ... About 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells and almost 75% of these genes are expressed in the normal lung.[ ... 61][62] A little less than 200 of these genes are more specifically expressed in the lung with less than 20 genes being highly ... The highest expression of lung specific proteins are different surfactant proteins,[18] such as SFTPA1, SFTPB and SFTPC, and ...
Gene regulation[edit]. Main article: Regulation of gene expression. The genome of a given organism contains thousands of genes ... 2002), II.3. Control of Gene Expression - The Tryptophan Repressor is a Simple Switch That Turns Genes On and Off in Bacteria ... A gene is expressed when it is being transcribed into mRNA and there exist many cellular methods of controlling the expression ... A gene is represented by one or a few letters. Often a "+" symbol is used to mark the usual, non-mutant allele for a gene.[41] ...
Gene and protein expression[edit]. Further information: Bioinformatics § Gene and protein expression ... About 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells and nearly 70% of these genes are expressed in the normal ... with only some 20 genes being highly specific. The corresponding specific proteins expressed in stomach are mainly involved in ... stomach.[23][24] Just over 150 of these genes are more specifically expressed in the stomach compared to other organs, ...
Gene and protein expression[edit]. Further information: Bioinformatics § Gene and protein expression ... About 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells and 70% of these genes are expressed in the normal thyroid.[43][ ... 44] Some 250 of these genes are more specifically expressed in the thyroid with about 20 genes being highly thyroid specific. ...
"Mechanoregulation of gene expression in fibroblasts". Gene. 391 (1-2): 1-15. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2007.01.014. PMC 2893340. PMID ... Effect on gene expression[edit]. Differing mechanical properties in ECM exert effects on both cell behaviour and gene ... The stiffness and elasticity of the ECM has important implications in cell migration, gene expression,[29] and differentiation. ... Karsenty G, Park RW (1995). "Regulation of type I collagen genes expression". International Reviews of Immunology. 12 (2-4): ...
Gene and protein expression. Further information: Bioinformatics § Gene and protein expression. The human genome includes ... of these genes are expressed in adult testes.[7] The testes have the highest fraction of tissue type-specific genes compared to ... and about 2,200 show an elevated pattern of expression here. A majority of these genes encode for proteins that are expressed ... In males, the sex-specific gene SRY that is found on the Y-chromosome initiates sex determination by downstream regulation of ...
Gene and protein expression[edit]. Further information: Bioinformatics § Gene and protein expression ... About 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells and almost 75% of these genes are expressed in the normal ... About 150 of these genes are more specifically expressed in the prostate with about 20 genes being highly prostate specific.[24 ... Sherwood, Lauralee; Klandorf, Hillar; Yancey, Paul (January 2012). Animal Physiology: From Genes to Organisms. p. 779. ISBN ...
Gene and protein expression[edit]. About 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells and 70% of these genes are ... Some 300 of these genes are more specifically expressed in the duodenum with very few genes expressed only in the small ... Most of the more specifically expressed genes in the small intestine are also expressed in the duodenum, for example FABP2 and ...
Gene expression[edit]. DRB1 is expressed at a level five times higher than its paralogues DRB3, DRB4 and DRB5. DRB1 is present ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB5 beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DRB5 gene.[5] ... Gene structure and polymorphisms[edit]. The beta chain is approximately 26-28 kDa. It is encoded by 6 exons, exon one encodes ... Multiple genetic mechanisms in the generation of polymorphic HLA class II genes". J. Immunol. 140 (10): 3631-9. PMID 3129499.. ...
The expression of these genes varies temporally with the expression significantly increasing following dawn and dusk at times ... Clock gene expression[edit]. Many organisms including the copepod C. finmarchicus, has genetic material devoted to maintaining ... Evidence of circadian rhythms controlling DVM, metabolism, and even gene expression have been found in copepod species, Calanus ...
Gene expression. Introduction. to genetics. *Genetic code. *Central dogma *DNA → RNA → Protein ... Watson JD, Baker TA, Bell SP, Gann A, Levine M, Oosick R (2008). Molecular Biology of the Gene. San Francisco: Pearson/Benjamin ...
This leads to decreased levels of gene expression and is known as gene silencing.[5][6][7] ... Specifically, gene expression data demonstrated increased activity of HAT and decreased level of HDAC activity in patients with ... Gene expression is regulated by histone acetylation and deacetylation, and this regulation is also applicable to inflammatory ... Inflammatory lung diseases are characterized by expression of specific inflammatory genes such as NF-κB and AP-1 transcription ...
Gene product, gene expression, and phenotype data are annotated with terms from biomedical ontologies. ZFIN is based at the ... Thisse high-throughput gene expression analysis[4]).. Information in ZFIN is tightly linked to the web resources of the ... a website of community news and announcements, as well as biological resources such as laboratory protocols, a gene ... "Fast release clones: a high throughput expression analysis". ZFIN Direct Data Submission (Unpublished).. CS1 maint: uses ...
Altered expressions of microRNAs also silence or activate many genes in progression to cancer (see microRNAs in cancer). ... ends of the genes in a bidirectional gene pair.[11] A "bidirectional gene pair" refers to two adjacent genes coded on opposite ... Promoter organization of the interferon-A genes differentially affects virus-induced expression and responsiveness to TBK1 and ... Gene promoters are typically located upstream of the gene and can have regulatory elements several kilobases away from the ...
The expression of genes is influenced by how the DNA is packaged in chromosomes, in a structure called chromatin. Base ... DNA packaging and its influence on gene expression can also occur by covalent modifications of the histone protein core around ... A gene is a unit of heredity and is a region of DNA that influences a particular characteristic in an organism. Genes contain ... A gene is a sequence of DNA that contains genetic information and can influence the phenotype of an organism. Within a gene, ...
"Circularly permuted tRNA genes: their expression and implications for their physiological relevance and development" ... a segment of DNA that is located between two exons of a gene. The term intron refers to both the DNA sequence within a gene and ... A quantifiable method for gene knockdown". Genesis. 30 (3): 154-6. doi:10.1002/gene.1053. PMID 11477696.. ... Introns are found in the genes of most organisms and many viruses. They can be located in a wide range of genes, including ...
Multi-Omics Profiling Expression Database: MOPED human and model organism protein/gene knowledge and expression data ... The sequence of amino acid residues in a protein is defined by the sequence of a gene, which is encoded in the genetic code. In ... Genome and gene sequences can be searched by a variety of tools for certain properties. Sequence profiling tools can find ... Bioinformatic Harvester[permanent dead link] A Meta search engine (29 databases) for gene and protein information. ...
Enhancers function as a "turn on" switch in gene expression and will activate the promoter region of a particular gene while ... "Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes". Eastern Michigan University. Retrieved 7 April 2013.. *^ a b c "Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes" ... untranslated region of the ANP gene and acts as a mediator for its appropriate expression. The protein encoded by the ANP gene ... gene expression is regulated by altering transcription rates. Genes that encode proteins include exons which will encode the ...
"Gene Expression. 10 (1-2): 41-57. PMC 5977531. PMID 11868987.. *^ Moore PB (March 2001). "The ribosome at atomic resolution". ... In Escherichia coli, 5S rRNA gene deletions reduce the protein synthesis rate and have a more profound detrimental effect on ... Organelle genomes encode SSU and LSU rRNAs without exception, yet the distribution of 5S rRNA genes (rrn5) is most uneven. Rrn5 ... In prokaryotes, the 5S rRNA gene is typically located in the rRNA operons downstream of the small and the large subunit rRNA, ...
Gene expression. Hidden categories: *CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list. *Protein pages needing a picture ... depending on the gene and on the environmental signals needed to initiate transcription of that gene. Selection of promoters by ... Every cell has a "housekeeping" sigma factor that keeps essential genes and pathways operating.[1] In the case of E. coli and ... Due to the higher expression, the factor will bind with a high probability to the polymerase-core-enzyme. Doing so, other ...
Expression of certain genes, for example those coding for pilus expression in E. coli, is regulated by the methylation of GATC ... Altered expressions of microRNAs also silence or activate many genes in progression to cancer (see microRNAs in cancer). ... Methylation of the gene body of highly transcribed genes[edit]. A function that appears even more conserved than transposon ... In virtually every organism analyzed, methylation in promoter regions correlates negatively with gene expression.[4][23] CpG- ...
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) ... The stretch of DNA transcribed into an RNA molecule is called a transcription unit and encodes at least one gene. If the gene ... In vertebrates, the majority of gene promoters contain a CpG island with numerous CpG sites.[16] When many of a gene's promoter ... stochastic gene expression and its consequences". Cell. 135 (2): 216-26. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.09.050. PMC 3118044 . PMID ...
... which is where the product of a structural gene regulates the expression of the operon in which the genes reside. The ... The regulator MetR is required for MetE and MetH gene expression and functions as a transactivator of transcription for these ... It is also known that vitamin B12 can repress MetE gene expression, which is mediated by the MetH holoenzyme. ... Arginine synthesis also utilizes negative feedback as well as repression through a repressor encoded by the gene argR. The gene ...
基因劑量(Gene dosage)會對人類的表現型產生龐大的影響,對於染色體中造成疾病的複寫、省略與分裂等現象的形成擁有一定的角色。例如唐氏症患者(21號染色體為三體)有較高的比率得到阿茲海默症,可能是因為與阿茲海默症有關的類澱粉前趨蛋白基因(位在21號 ... 人類基因組含有許多不同的調控序列,並以此來控制基因表現。這
"Conjugated bile acid-activated S1P receptor 2 is a key regulator of sphingosine kinase 2 and hepatic gene expression". ... also known by its gene name NR1H4.[15][16][17] Another bile acid receptor is the cell membrane receptor known as G protein- ...
... appearance-observable traits caused by the expression of a condition's genes. The features of craniosynostosis' particular ... in FGFR genes) and mutations that lead to loss of function (in TWIST genes).[38][39] Craniosynostosis is therefore likely the ... Gene Loeys-Dietz syndrome wide-set eyes • split uvula or cleft palate • arterial tortuosity • aortic root dilatation • ... In terms of syndromic craniosynostosis not only do FGFR3 and TWIST genes feature, but also FGFR1 and in particular FGFR2, which ...
For her, the greatest taboos in life were crying in front of people and showing expressions of pain.[5] She reminisced, "I did ... Gene Weltfish. This pamphlet was intended for American troops and set forth, in simple language with cartoon illustrations, the ... Societies all have social norms that they follow; some allow more expression when dealing with death, such as mourning, while ...
Manohar CF, Salwen HR, Furtado MR, Cohn SL (1996). "Up-regulation of HOXC6, HOXD1, and HOXD8 homeobox gene expression in human ... This gene belongs to the homeobox family of genes. The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors ... consisting of 9 to 11 genes arranged in tandem. This gene is one of several homeobox HOXD genes located in a cluster on ... This article on a gene on human chromosome 2 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
"Entrez Gene: NMT1 N-myristoyltransferase 1". Rajala RV, Datla RS, Moyana TN, et al. (2000). "N-myristoyltransferase". Mol. Cell ... Mumby SM, Heukeroth RO, Gordon JI, Gilman AG (1990). "G-protein alpha-subunit expression, myristoylation, and membrane ... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NMT1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000136448 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ...
These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they ... Ji J, Yamashita T, Wang XW (2011). "Wnt/β-catenin signaling activates microRNA-181 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma". ... Mutations in genes encoding these proteins can lead to inactivation of cadherin cell adhesions and elimination of contact ... Mutations in catenin genes can cause loss of contact inhibition that can promote cancer development and tumor formation. ...
Such expression QTLs (eQTLs) describe cis- and trans-controlling elements for the expression of often disease-associated genes. ... In a recent development, classical QTL analyses were combined with gene expression profiling i.e. by DNA microarrays. ... Several genes factor into determining a person's natural skin color, so modifying only one of those genes can change skin color ... The DNA sequence of any genes in this region can then be compared to a database of DNA for genes whose function is already ...
The eyes are somewhat large with an alert expression. Any eye colour is allowed. The coat is short and fine, usually straight ... Registered rabbits are maintained in an official gene bank registry.[3] 4 week old Gotland rabbits ...
"Ingenuity IPA Software - Pathway Analysis, miRNA, NGS, RNA-Seq, Microarrays, Gene Expression, Biomarkers". Ingenuity Systems. ... "Sigma-Aldrich Launches Your Favorite Gene Powered by Ingenuity, Sigma-Aldrich Co" (Press release). Sigma-Aldrich Co., Inc. ... IPA also lets researchers search for information on genes, proteins, chemicals, drugs, and reagents. Resulting information can ... IPA helps researchers analyze data derived from expression and SNP microarrays, proteomics experiments, and small-scale ...
positive regulation of gene expression. • cell-cell signaling. • hormone-mediated signaling pathway. • follicle-stimulating ... 1989). "Expression of biologically active human follitropin in Chinese hamster ovary cells". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (9): 4769-75. ... 1999). "Characterization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in coding regions of human genes". Nat. Genet. 22 (3): 231-8. PMID ... 1997). "Delayed puberty and hypogonadism caused by mutations in the follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit gene". N. Engl. J ...
"Cross" (Eugene Novotney). The clave rhythm and clave concept have been used in some modern art music ("classical") compositions ... they are all expressions of the same rhythmic principles. The three key patterns are found within a large geographic belt ... Novotney, Eugene N. (1998) "Thesis: The 3:2 Relationship as the Foundation of Timelines in West African Musics" (registration ... Another clave-based composition that has "gone global" is the snare drum suite "Cross" by Eugene D. Novotney. ...
Transformation is a complex developmental process requiring energy and is dependent on expression of numerous genes. In S. ... It has a core set of 1553 genes, plus 154 genes in its virulome, which contribute to virulence and 176 genes that maintain a ... For instance, the Xisco gene was recently described as a biomarker for PCR-based detection of S. pneumoniae and differentiation ... gene for identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates". Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease. 90 (4): 248-250 ...
"MN1 affects expression of genes involved in hematopoiesis and can enhance as well as inhibit RAR/RXR-induced gene expression". ... MN1 is a gene found on human chromosome 22, with gene map locus 22q12.3-qter.[5] Its official full name is meningioma ( ... in myeloproliferative disorders results in fusion of the ETS-like TEL gene on 12p13 to the MN1 gene on 22q11". Oncogene. 10 (8 ... in myeloproliferative disorders results in fusion of the ETS-like TEL gene on 12p13 to the MN1 gene on 22q11". Oncogene. 10 (8 ...
2009). «Fibulin-4 regulates expression of the tropoelastin gene and consequent elastic-fibre formation by human fibroblasts». ... Ontologia do gene. Função molecular. •extracellular matrix structural constituent. •protein binding. •extracellular matrix ... Rosenbloom J (1984). «Elastin: relation of protein and gene structure to disease». Lab. Invest. 51 (6): 605-23. PMID 6150137. ... 2004). «A novel elastin gene mutation resulting in an autosomal dominant form of cutis laxa». Arch Dermatol. 140 (9): 1135-9. ...
This triggers the expression of interferon-stimulated genes, which code for proteins with antiviral properties.[51] EBOV's V24 ... encoded by the L gene, partially uncoats the nucleocapsid and transcribes the genes into positive-strand mRNAs, which are then ... Ebolaviruses contain single-stranded, non-infectious RNA genomes.[46] Ebolavirus genomes contain seven genes including 3'-UTR- ... differ in sequence and the number and location of gene overlaps. As with all filoviruses, ebolavirus virions are filamentous ...
Early examples of artistic expression, such as the Venus of Tan-Tan and the patterns found on elephant bones from Bilzingsleben ... "Chimps, Humans 96 Percent the Same, Gene Study Finds". Retrieved 23 December 2013 ...
More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • ion channel activity. • benzodiazepine receptor activity. ... "Identification of significant association and gene-gene interaction of GABA receptor subunit genes in autism". Am. J. Hum. ... Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRA4 gene.[5][6] ... to human chromosome 4 defines an alpha 2-alpha 4-beta 1-gamma 1 gene cluster: further evidence that modern GABAA receptor gene ...
The chloroplast is mostly under nuclear control, though chloroplasts can also give out signals regulating gene expression in ... Gene content and protein synthesisEdit. The chloroplast genome most commonly includes around 100 genes[7][10] which code for a ... 3 Gene content and protein synthesis *3.1 Chloroplast genome reduction and gene transfer ... Chloroplasts may contain 60-100 genes whereas cyanobacteria often have more than 1500 genes in their genome.[27] Contrarily, ...
The video exploits Tilton's facial expressions and preaching style. The original video contained no title screen and was ... Some of Tilton's fundraising letters were written by Gene Ewing, who heads a multimillion-dollar marketing empire writing ...
"Expression profile of active genes in human periodontal ligament and isolation of PLAP-1, a novel SLRP family gene". Gene. 275 ... "Expression pattern and gene characterization of asporin. a newly discovered member of the leucine-rich repeat protein family". ... "Entrez Gene: ASPN asporin". مؤرشف من الأصل في 05 ديسمبر 2010. الوسيط ,مسار أرشيف=. تم تجاهله (مساعدة); الوسيط ,تاريخ أرشيف=. تم ... Yamada S، Ozawa Y، Tomoeda M، Matoba R، Matsubara K، Murakami S (May 2006). "Regulation of PLAP-1 expression in periodontal ...
... organization of the gene, chromosome localization, and functional expression of cDNA clones". Biochemistry. 30 (44): 10640-6. ... and cytokine expression,[58] Reciprocally, cytokines may induce expression of SP and its NK1R.[59][60] In this sense, for ... "C/EBPbeta couples dopamine signalling to substance P precursor gene expression in striatal neurones". Journal of Neurochemistry ... SP initiates expression of almost all known immunological chemical messengers (cytokines).[19][20][21] Also, most of the ...
2002). "Regulated expression of the apolipoprotein E/C-I/C-IV/C-II gene cluster in murine and human macrophages. A critical ... Apolipoprotein (apo)C4 gene is a member of the apolipoprotein C gene family. It is expressed in the liver and has a predicted ... Apo C4 is a 3.3-kb gene consisting of 3 exons and 2 introns; it is located 0.5 kb 5' to the APOC2 gene.[5] ... This article on a gene on human chromosome 19 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. *v ...
Fu X, Zhu ZH, Wang YQ, Wu GC (January 2007). "Regulation of proinflammatory cytokines gene expression by nociceptin/orphanin FQ ...
These five proteins directly control the timing of expression of over 200 genes. The five master regulatory proteins are ... The Caulobacter CB15 genome has 4,016,942 base pairs in a single circular chromosome encoding 3,767 genes.[7] The genome ... "DnaA couples DNA replication and the expression of two cell cycle master regulators". The EMBO Journal. 25 (2): 346-56. doi ... contains multiple clusters of genes encoding proteins essential for survival in a nutrient-poor habitat. Included are those ...
NRL expression leads to the rod fate. NR2E3 further restricts cells to the rod fate by repressing cone genes. RORbeta is needed ... photoreceptor gene expression; and lastly axonal growth, synapse formation and outer segment growth. ... CRX further defines the photoreceptor specific panel of genes being expressed. ... "Induction of photosensitivity by heterologous expression of melanopsin". Nature. 433 (7027): 745-9. Bibcode:2005Natur.433..745Q ...
... mechanical modulation of cell shape and gene expression". Tissue Eng Part A. 14 (9): 1573-80. doi:10.1089/ten.tea.2008.0113. ... General Trsp gene deletion is lethal to the embryo. The results of this research was used as a model for Kashin-Beck disease. ... General gene knock out of the TGF-β resulted in death. Conditional inactivation of TGF-βr2 of osteochondroprogenitor cells in ... Sox9 blocked osteochondroprogenitor cells were found to express osteoblast marker genes, reprogramming the cells into the ...
"Expression of an antisense prosystemin gene in tomato plants reduces resistance toward Manduca sexta larvae". Proceedings of ... by adding antisense genes to silence the native gene or by adding extra copies of the native gene.[45][46] ... "Expression of a synthesized gene encoding cationic peptide cecropin B in transgenic tomato plants protects against bacterial ... A genetically modified tomato, or transgenic tomato, is a tomato that has had its genes modified, using genetic engineering. ...
... it is possible that it regulates expression of genes other than thyroid-specific. Several known tumor suppressor genes like ... Paired box gene 8, also known as PAX8, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PAX8 gene.[5] ... Down regulation of the PAX gene expression inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis. This could be a possible avenue for ... This gene is a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors. Members of this gene family typically encode ...
Pays, E. (2005). "Regulation of antigen gene expression in Trypanosoma brucei". Trends Parasitol. 21 (11): 517-20. doi:10.1016/ ... According to this model, new genes are created by non-adaptive processes, such as by random gene duplication. These novel ... All changes in the gene frequencies of populations--and quite often in the traits those genes influence--are by definition ... how new alternative spliced isoforms of genes arise, how gene scrambling in ciliates evolved, and how pervasive pan-RNA editing ...
Among genes coding for eCB catabolic enzymes, expression of MGLL was lower in tumour tissue while PTGS2 was increased. It is ... Altered mRNA Expression of Genes Involved in Endocannabinoid Signalling in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tongue. ... expression of genes coding for the components of the eCB system in tumour and non-malignant samples from SCCOT patients. ... Expression of NAPEPLD and PLA2G4E, coding for eCB anabolic enzymes, was higher in the tumour tissue than in non-malignant ...
Its expression gives: The k-expressions of gene expression programming correspond to the region of genes that gets expressed. ... The chromosomes of gene expression programming are usually composed of more than one gene of equal length. Each gene codes for ... This kind of expression tree consists of the phenotypic expression of GEP genes, whereas the genes are linear strings encoding ... Because these parse trees are the result of gene expression, in GEP they are called expression trees. The genome of gene ...
Gene expression,state=autocollapse}}. *shows the template collapsed to the title bar if there is a {{navbar}}. , a {{sidebar}} ... Gene expression,state=collapsed}}. to show the template collapsed, i.e., hidden apart from its title bar ... Gene expression,state=expanded}}. to show the template expanded, i.e., fully visible ... Retrieved from "" ...
Gene Expression. Tag archives for Neandertal. Apartheid of Iberian Neandertals & modern humans. Posted by Razib Khan on March ...
It must be genetic! You seem to have the same gene I do for having a great big love of cats! Ever since I was a baby, holding ...
Methods and Protocols presents both cutting-edge and established methods for studying cardiac gene expression. The protocols ... and analyzing changes in transcriptome gene expression. Section II, Cardiac Gene Regulation: Gene-Specific mRNA Measurement in ... DNA In silico Microarray PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction Promoter SNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism gene expression gene ... Cardiac Gene Expression: Methods and Protocols presents both cutting-edge and established methods for studying cardiac gene ...
The main interest of our lab is to understand the physical basis underlying molecular mechanisms of gene expression. ...
Recombinant DNA Approaches in the Investigation of Muscle Gene Expression. * Front Matter Pages 281-281 ... Alterations in Phenotype Expression of Muscle by Chronic Nerve Stimulation Dirk Pette, Annegard Heilig, Gary Klug, Heinz ... The gene product associated with the initial disturbance in skeletal muscle has also remained elusive up to now. Moreover, ... Phenotypic Expression & Molecular Markers for Muscle Diseases. * Front Matter Pages 23-23 ...
Identifying Differential Gene Expression You can now compare the gene expression values between two groups of data: CNS ... Use the following techniques to filter out these genes.. Remove gene expression data with empty gene symbols (in this example, ... Therefore an up-regulated gene in this example has higher expression in MD, and down-regulated gene has higher expression in ... Ctrl-click genes in the gene lists to label the genes in the plot. As seen in the volcano plot, genes specific for neuronal ...
Measuring this gene expression is a key element in the study of life sciences. For example, understanding the level of gene ... expression in a cell, tissue or organism can provide valuable information in terms of identifying viral infection, determining ... Gene expression is the process by which genetic instructions are used to synthesise gene products. ... Gene expression is the process by which genetic instructions are used to synthesise gene products. Measuring this gene ...
An expression system refers to the factors that work together to yield a particular gene product such as a protein, ribozyme or ... In this sense, every cell in the human body is an expression system. However, the term usually refers to gene expression in the ... These configurations help form the expression system of the cell by regulating DNA replication and gene expression. Some of ... The expression system is made up of a gene, which is encoded by DNA, and the machinery needed to make mRNA from the DNA and ...
The Plant Gene Expression Center is located in Albany, CA and is part of the Pacific West Area.. The Center Director is Sarah ... Characterization of Plant Architectural Genes in Maize for Increased Productivity * Conserved Genes and Signaling Networks that ... USDA-ARS, PLANT GENE EXP. CTR. 800 BUCHANAN STREET. Albany, CA 94710. ...
Gene Expression data sets used: * The original web site from which the rat CNS data (Wen et al. 1998) was available for ... Due to popular demand, we are making the subset of 384 genes we used in Ka Yees dissertation available (as text-delimited file ... We are also making the subset of 237 genes (corresponding to 4 MIPS categories) used in Ka Yees dissertation availabel (as ...
Insulin-regulated gene expression.. OBrien RM1, Streeper RS, Ayala JE, Stadelmaier BT, Hornbuckle LA. ... Insulin regulates the expression of more than 150 genes, indicating that this is a major action of this hormone. At least eight ... Our results suggest that this model is consistent with the action of insulin on transcription of the gene encoding IGFBP-1 but ... All of these IRSs mediate stimulatory effects of insulin on gene transcription. In contrast, an element with the consensus ...
Description of gene expression and regulation research in the Genetics and Genome Science Program, a Ph.D. program in the ...
... have been infected with transducing bacteriophage that harbours either wild type or defective transferase gene. Infection only ... MERRIL, C., GEIER, M. & PETRICCIANI, J. Bacterial Virus Gene Expression in Human Cells. Nature 233, 398-400 (1971). https://doi ... have been infected with transducing bacteriophage that harbours either wild type or defective transferase gene. Infection only ...
For other gene sets, such as transcription factors or proteolytic genes, the number of genes whose expression was detected in ... The expression of a given gene in a given sample is approximated by the projection of the gene vector onto the direction of the ... We used Gene Ontology to select genes related to transcriptional activity. The list from Gene Ontology was curated by hand to ... To investigate the specificity and stability of lineage-specific gene expression, we included expression patterns of several ...
Regulation of MHC gene expression.. Ting JP1, Baldwin AS.. Author information. 1. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, ... The better characterization of proteins that interact with MHC class I and II promoters and the isolation of genes encoding ... New insights have also been gained in the understanding of MHC-associated genes. ... allow the functional analysis of these molecules in MHC gene regulation. The application of new techniques, such as genomic in ...
Previous research has shown that what we eat and drink can affect the expression of genes. One study published last year, for ... In each cohort, the researchers looked at how tea and coffee intake affected the gene expression of men and women, together and ... Epigenetics refers to the study of changes in gene expression that can be passed to future generations. It looks at how ... In particular, the researchers found that tea intake appeared to alter the expression of DNAJC16 and TTC17, which are genes ...
At the same time, if screening reveals that there is little or no impact on gene expression from a particular chemical, why not ... "The extra information we get from looking at gene expression could help us make more informed decisions about how harmful a ... This combination of genomics (gene expression) and environmental toxicology is a rapidly growing field, and will enable us to ... By looking at which genes are expressed (turned on and off) by the water flea in response to sub-lethal toxins, Dr. Vulpe can ...
... ... The researchers studied mice stem cells to explore the mechanisms of gene expression. They found that mRNA modifies how DNA is ... When they disrupted m6A in mouse stem cells, the abundance of carRNAs increased, as did gene expression. ... In an NIEHS-funded study, researchers uncovered a previously unknown way that genes code for proteins. Rather than directions ...
Gene, Long Non-Coding RNA Expression Shift During Organ Development Genomeweb * Netzwerke der Genaktivität steuern die ... Gene expression across mammalian organ development. Last updated: Sat, 18 Jan 2020 11:57:55 GMT ... Networks of gene activity control organ development * Networks of Gene Activity Control Organ Development ... Networks of gene activity control organ development EurekAlert! * Netzwerke der Genaktivität steuern die Organentwicklung ...
Gene Expression. This blog is about evolution, genetics, genomics and their interstices. Please beware that comments are ...
title = {An incremental clustering of gene expression data},. booktitle = {in Proceedings of NABIC, Coimbatore},. year = {2009} ...
... a team of researchers from UNIGE measured the way mercury affects the gene expression of algae, even when its concentration in ... Mercury is altering gene expression By studying the RNA, UNIGE scientists are the first to demonstrate how mercury enters the ... The scientists measured the way mercury affects the gene expression of algae, even when its concentration in water is very low ... An alga that seems healthy from a physiological point of view appears altered when its genes expression is examined. The ...
This study demonstrates, for the first time in humans, that large changes in gene expression are likely an important mechanism ... From the article: Effect of dietary fatty acids on inflammatory gene expression in healthy humans, by Kelly L. Weaver, ... They then looked at the gene levels of immune signals and cytokines (protein immune messengers), that impact autoimmunity and ... including a signaling gene for a protein called PI3K, a critical early step in autoimmune and allergic inflammation responses. ...
Gene Expression follows the expression of protein-coding genes by looking at the environment of a gene in the nucleus, ... Genetics: Evolution and Gene Expression. Module code: NT4003. Evolutionary Genetics gives you an introductory overview of the ... This module will give a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms of gene expression and its control, in mammals, to ... By exploring evolutionary histories of gene regulation with particular reference to developmental and behavioural genes in ...
... including expression values, sample and feature metadata, and information about experimental methods and conditions. ... The ExpressionSet class is designed to contain data from a microarray gene expression experiment, ... Write expression values in ExpressionSet object to text file. expressions. Retrieve or set Expressions. DataMatrix object from ... The ExpressionSet class is designed to contain data from a microarray gene expression experiment, including expression values, ...
... GeneLab undertakes specific research and training projects, which require ... expertise in gene cloning, PCR, DNA sequencing, cDNA library construction, gene expression and other molecular methods. ...
Mouse Genome Database (MGD), Gene Expression Database (GXD), Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB), Gene Ontology (GO), MouseCyc ...
  • Here we have investigated, at the mRNA level, expression of genes coding for the components of the eCB system in tumour and non-malignant samples from SCCOT patients. (
  • Section II, Cardiac Gene Regulation: Gene-Specific mRNA Measurement in the Myocardium, outlines more sensitive and gene-targeted expression methods. (
  • However, the gene expression level can also be inferred by measuring the level of mRNA, which is achieved using a technique called Northern blotting. (
  • The expression system is made up of a gene, which is encoded by DNA, and the machinery needed to make mRNA from the DNA and translate that into a protein. (
  • Gene Expression' follows the expression of protein-coding genes by looking at the environment of a gene in the nucleus, transcription, the processing of mRNA and production of multiple mRNA sequences from each gene, export of mRNA into the cytoplasm, proof-reading of mRNA, to the regulation by small RNA molecules. (
  • This topic will focus on the role of mRNA in the cell, platforms for profiling mRNA expression, the challenges in interpreting the data from these analyses, and the emerging clinical applications of gene expression measurements. (
  • Scientists - including co-first authors Maggie Chow, PhD, and Tiziano Pramparo, PhD, at UC San Diego - identified abnormal brain gene expression patterns using whole-genome analysis of mRNA levels and copy number variations from 33 autistic and control postmortem brain samples. (
  • If not blocked, it passes over the operator and reaches the protein-producing genes where it creates the mRNA that instructs the ribosomes to create the desired protein. (
  • Repressors bind with the operator and prevent RNA polymerase from proceeding to create mRNA by prohibiting access to the remainder of the protein-producing genes. (
  • Further studies have gone deeper into the gene expression profile of the disorder, demonstrating the key genes and miRNA-mRNA interactions that are involved in the pathways of Alzheimer's [6]. (
  • Expression of mRNA MMP-7 and mRNA TIMP-1 in non-small cell lung cancer. (
  • The relationship between the mRNA expression of proteolytic and steroidogenic enzymes in bovine placentomes was examined. (
  • R6/2 mice show decreased expression of transcription factor N10 mRNA. (
  • While transcription of prokaryotic protein-coding genes creates messenger RNA (mRNA) that is ready for translation into protein, transcription of eukaryotic genes leaves a primary transcript of RNA (pre-RNA), which first has to undergo a series of modifications to become a mature RNA. (
  • For example, in the case of embryonic Drosophila development, the genes nanos and bicoid are asymmetrically expressed in the oocyte because maternal cells deposit messenger RNA (mRNA) for these genes in the poles of the egg before it is laid. (
  • Furthermore, since immunohistochemistry visualizes the protein generated by the gene, if the protein product diffuses between cells, or has a particularly short or long half-life relative to the mRNA that is used to translate the protein, this can lead to distorted interpretation of which cells are expressing the mRNA. (
  • In situ hybridization is an alternate method in which a "probe," a synthetic nucleic acid with a sequence complementary to the mRNA of the gene, is added to the tissue. (
  • This example shows how to identify differentially expressed genes from microarray data and uses Gene Ontology to determine significant biological functions that are associated to the down- and up-regulated genes. (
  • Determining if changes in gene expression are statistically significant between different conditions, e.g. two different tumor types, and determining the biological function of the differentially expressed genes, are important aims in a microarray experiment. (
  • You will use the t-test and false discovery rate to detect differentially expressed genes between two tumor types. (
  • We'll explore one of the main databases for RNA-seq expression data, the Sequence Read Archive (SRA), and then use an open-source suite of programs in R called BioConductor to process the raw reads from 4 RNA-seq data sets, to summarize their expression levels, to select significantly differentially expressed genes, and finally to visualize these as a heat map. (
  • The effects of a mixture of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (cPAHs) on transcriptional responses in the liver of medaka, Oryzias latipes, were investigated by identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs). (
  • Section III, Cardiac Gene Regulation: Promoter Characterization in the Myocardium, provides protocols for the study of underlying gene regulation mechanisms by focusing on the interaction of transcription factors with their cognate cis binding elements. (
  • The enzyme that synthesizes RNA (RNA polymerase) binds to promoter sequences along with transcription factors that either activate or repress promoters, therefore regulating gene expression. (
  • At least eight distinct consensus insulin response sequence (IRSs) have been defined through which insulin can regulate gene transcription. (
  • All of these IRSs mediate stimulatory effects of insulin on gene transcription. (
  • In contrast, an element with the consensus sequence T(G/A)TTT(T/G)(G/T), which we refer to as the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK)-like motif, mediates the inhibitory effect of insulin on transcription of the genes encoding PEPCK, insulin-like-growth-factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1), tyrosine aminotransferase and the glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) catalytic subunit. (
  • The forkhead transcription factor FKHR has recently been shown to bind this PEPCK-like IRS motif and a model has been proposed in which insulin inhibits gene transcription by stimulating the phosphorylation and nuclear export of FKHR. (
  • Our results suggest that this model is consistent with the action of insulin on transcription of the gene encoding IGFBP-1 but not that of the G6Pase catalytic subunit. (
  • The better characterization of proteins that interact with MHC class I and II promoters and the isolation of genes encoding several of these transcription factors, such as H-2RIIBP/RXR beta, NK kappa B, I-kappa B, hXBP-1 and NF-Y, allow the functional analysis of these molecules in MHC gene regulation. (
  • Gene transcription in each of 4 cell strains was analyzed using high-density oligonucleotide DNA microarrays (U133A, Affymetrix™) and changes in the expression of selected genes were verified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. (
  • We report here that an eight-ring polyamide targeted to a specific region of the transcription factor TFIIIA binding site interferes with 5S RNA gene expression in Xenopus kidney cells. (
  • Our results indicate that pyrrole-imidazole polyamides are cell-permeable and can inhibit the transcription of specific genes. (
  • Gene expression databases store information about the absolute or relative abundance of gene transcription products in various biological samples, such as cells from a particular tissue in a particular organism, or a particular cell line. (
  • Transcription and translation underlie gene expression. (
  • Most of the genome is selectively repressed, a property that is governed by the regulation of gene expression, mostly at the level of transcription (ie, the production of messenger RNA from the DNA). (
  • Total RNA was extracted from normal and neoplastic tissues and analyzed using a highly sensitive reverse transcription PCR assay with primers specific for the tyrosinase gene. (
  • The process of transcription, which is the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template, is where the regulation of the gene expression is most likely to occur. (
  • RNA polymerase must create RNA by moving along the chromosome and "reading" the genes in the process of transcription. (
  • Unlike prokaryotes, multiple gene-regulating mechanisms operate in the nucleus before and after RNA transcription, and in the cytoplasm both before and after translation. (
  • Early tests suggests sex-biased transcription factors play an important role in controlling the expression of sex-biased genes. (
  • Gene expression is summarized in the central dogma of molecular biology first formulated by Francis Crick in 1958, further developed in his 1970 article, and expanded by the subsequent discoveries of reverse transcription and RNA replication. (
  • All steps in the gene expression process may be modulated (regulated), including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-translational modification of a protein. (
  • RNA polymerase I is responsible for transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. (
  • For example, tumor suppressor genes code for a protein that can prevent the development of tumors. (
  • Gene expression measurement is usually achieved by quantifying levels of the gene product, which is often a protein. (
  • An expression system refers to the factors that work together to yield a particular gene product such as a protein, ribozyme or RNA particle. (
  • They then looked at the gene levels of immune signals and cytokines (protein immune messengers), that impact autoimmunity and allergy in blood cells and found that many key signaling genes that promote inflammation were markedly reduced compared to a normal diet, including a signaling gene for a protein called PI3K, a critical early step in autoimmune and allergic inflammation responses. (
  • The NIH-sponsored GENSAT (Gene Expression Nervous System Atlas) project has created close to 1,500 transgenic mouse lines expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporters or DNA recombinases in specific neural and glial cell populations. (
  • Expression of the Ppp1-r17 protein in postnatal day 7 mouse cerebellum. (
  • 5. A method according to claim 3, wherein the first gene encodes ribosomal inhibitor protein (RIP). (
  • For certain genes regulated by the nucleosome-binding protein PARP-1, the presence of a linker histone at the promoter prevents PARP-1 binding, inhibiting gene activation. (
  • αComplementationEnabled T7 Expression Vectors and Their Use for the Expression of Recombinant Polypeptides for Protein Transduction Experim. (
  • Topics covered include multiple sequence alignments, phylogenetics, gene expression data analysis, and protein interaction networks, in two separate parts. (
  • part determines how much protein of that gene is present in the cell. (
  • 29. Expression of myelin proteolipid protein in oligodendrocytes and transfected cells. (
  • An operon includes a special segment of genes that are regulators of the protein synthesis, but do not code for protein, called the promoter and operator. (
  • This type of overall control of protein synthesis is regulated by genes that control the packing density of histones. (
  • The ability to switch protein-coding genes 'on' and 'off' is a fundamental process shared by all cell types. (
  • All DNA is wrapped up into a protein straight-jacket, whose basic repeat, the 'nucleosome', must be countered in order to activate a gene. (
  • The 20,000 protein coding genes in the human cell produce a repertoire of ~100,000 proteins through the process of alternative splicing. (
  • To allow in vitro to in vivo extrapolation of the contribution of MRP2 toward hepatic disposition of its substrates, data on the interindividual variability of hepatic MRP2 protein expression are required. (
  • one has been identified as the myosin VIIa gene on chromosome 11q, and a second is a novel basement membrane protein called Usherin. (
  • Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product that enables it to produce end products, protein or non-coding RNA, and ultimately affect a phenotype, as the final effect. (
  • These products are often proteins, but in non-protein-coding genes such as transfer RNA (tRNA) and small nuclear RNA (snRNA), the product is a functional non-coding RNA. (
  • Regulation of gene expression gives control over the timing, location, and amount of a given gene product (protein or ncRNA) present in a cell and can have a profound effect on the cellular structure and function. (
  • RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcribes all protein-coding genes but also some non-coding RNAs (e.g., snRNAs, snoRNAs or long non-coding RNAs). (
  • For example, the reporter gene green fluorescent protein can be visualized by stimulating it with blue light and then using a digital camera to record green fluorescent emission. (
  • Immunohistochemistry involves preparing an antibody with specific affinity for the protein associated with the gene of interest. (
  • When a virus infects a human cell, it successfully incorporates its DNA or RNA into the genome and forces the cell to manufacture viral proteins through expression of the viral genes. (
  • In an NIEHS-funded study, researchers uncovered a previously unknown way that genes code for proteins. (
  • Further, the genes themselves did not control the levels of their own expression, rather noncoding regions adjacent to them determined whether to ratchet up or down the proteins or other functional end products the genes encoded. (
  • The phenotypic expression of these genes, through the synthesis of specific proteins, involves interaction with environmental signals that trigger activation of particular genes. (
  • Gene expression is the process of making specific proteins from the information contained in the genes . (
  • Gene expression tests evaluate the RNA in a person's tissue sample to determine which genes are actively making proteins. (
  • These are tests that evaluate the products (RNA) of specific groups of genes in malignant tumor tissue from the breast in order to determine which genes are making proteins in the tumor tissue. (
  • The mutation(s) in cancer cells and the change to the expression of those genes regulate how rapidly the tumor grows, its likelihood of metastasizing and moving throughout the body, whether or not its growth is supported by the hormones estrogen or progesterone, whether it over-expresses certain proteins such as HER2 , and how responsive it will be to different treatments. (
  • Through gene expression, breast tumor genes regulate the timing and quantity of production of gene-specific RNA and proteins. (
  • Patterns in gene expression include both the increase and/or decrease in the expression of genes (upregulation and downregulation) that are responsible for the production of RNA and proteins. (
  • Postdoctoral Research Associate: Isolation and characterization of sperm-expressed genes and proteins from Zea mays Despite the crucial role of sperm in fertilization, virtually nothing is known about sperm cell gene expression, largely because sperm cells in the quantities necessary for molecular and biochemical characterization could not be obtained, and because partially purified sperm cells are often highly contaminated with the cytoplasm of the vegetative cell. (
  • Once sperm-surface proteins are identified, homologs of these genes will be obtained via PCR and/or database searches of other plant genomes. (
  • Gene expression is an active ongoing process that maintains a functional CNS, as proteins are being made on a continual basis. (
  • A regulatory gene , located before the operon, continually makes repressor proteins that bind with the operator and prohibit the function of RNA polymerase. (
  • To determine the metabolism location of the extra-cellular matrix proteins in fugu (Takifugu rubripes), we cloned the cDNAs of the fugu gelatinases, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, and examined their expressions in various adult tissues using a quantitative real-time PCR. (
  • Microarrays contain oligonucleotide or cDNA probes for comparing the expression profile of genes on a genomic scale. (
  • Large-scale biology projects such as the sequencing of the human genome and gene expression surveys using RNA-seq, microarrays and other technologies have created a wealth of data for biologists. (
  • Discover our large selection of Gene Expression & Exon Microarrays. (
  • This includes whole transcriptome gene expression for almost 30 different species, Exon microarrays to analyze splicing variants and gene expression microarrays with comprehensive content, including full LNCipedia databases to provide full coverage of the transcriptome in a single experiment. (
  • This means that there might be sequences in the genes that are not expressed, which is indeed true for most genes. (
  • Within a gene or segment of DNA, certain sequences are referred to as promoters, enhancers and repressors. (
  • Preliminary transgenic mouse studies with fusion construct sconsisting of sequences upstream of the bovine rhodopsin gene ligated to the reporter gene lacZ (beta-galactosidase) have identified cis-acting DNA regulatory sequences that are capable of directing photoreceptor cell-specific gene expression. (
  • The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), with its sensitive and selective amplification of specific nucleic acid sequences has become a research tool of almost unparalleled importance, with applications in, for example, cloning, gene expression analysis, DNA sequencing, genetic mapping and diagnostics. (
  • A method for making a genetically modified plant comprising regenerating a whole plant from a plant cell that has been transfected with DNA sequences comprising a first gene whose expression results in an altered plant phenotype linked to a transiently active promoter, the gene and promoter being separated. (
  • 6. A method according to claim 3, wherein the specific excision signal sequences are LOX sequences and the second gene encodes CRE. (
  • 8. A method according to claim 3, wherein the plants are cotton plants, the transiently active promoter is a LEA promoter, the specific excision signal sequences are LOX sequences, the first gene encodes RIP, the second gene encodes CRE, and sequence that causes male sterility is the RIP gene linked to an anther specific promoter. (
  • Small molecules that target specific DNA sequences have the potential to control gene expression. (
  • The team focused on DNA methylation, which blocks the genetic sequences behind gene expression, and can "silence" the activity of a gene. (
  • In Cell on February 23, researchers report evidence that Neanderthal DNA sequences still influence how genes are turned on or off in modern humans. (
  • In this study, researchers analyzed RNA sequences in a dataset called the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) Project, looking for people who carried both Neanderthal and modern human versions of any given gene--one version from each parent. (
  • The genetic basis for disease is determined by the inheritance of genes containing specific sequences of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). (
  • Data Mining Tool software (Affymetrix) was used to separate genes in clusters based on their expression patterns over time. (
  • In gene expression data, a bicluster is a subset of the genes exhibiting consistent patterns over a subset of the conditions. (
  • Taking cotton as their study system over the past decade, the Wendel lab have applied a portfolio of newly emerging technologies to characterise patterns of gene expression in wild and cultivated species of diploid and allopolyploid cotton. (
  • Using this method, we aim to map the neuronal diversity of the somatosensory column based on the expression patterns of individual cells, which, if successful, will provide an exhaustive map of neuronal subtypes in the rodent neocortex. (
  • Schena M, Shalon D, Davis RW and Brown PO (1995) Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray. (
  • We constrain the spline coefficients of genes in the same class to have similar expression patterns, while also allowing for gene specific parameters. (
  • The Gene Expression Markup Language (GEML) "is a file format for storing DNA microarray and gene expression data for chip patterns and chip scans ( profiles ). (
  • Gene activation patterns vary widely in complexity. (
  • Because current expression patterns depend strictly on previous expression patterns, there is a regressive problem of explaining what caused the first differences in gene expression. (
  • A method called enhancer-trap screening reveals the diversity of spatiotemporal gene expression patterns possible in an organism. (
  • While enhancer-trap derived expression patterns do not necessarily reflect the actual patterns of expression of specific genes, they reveal the variety of spatiotemporal patterns that are accessible to evolution. (
  • The key aim of the REMIX network is to combine the skills of European research groups to strategically train the next generation of scientists in a program that will contribute to elucidating the molecular mechanisms and pathways that regulate mitochondrial gene expression. (
  • At least two genetic pathways regulating organism longevity act by modifying gene expression. (
  • While the paper is not terribly conclusive in its definition of genes or pathways involved, (partially I suspect because of the limited time points examined and the late point in the examinations), this paper does however point in a direction that is useful to the retinal degeneration community. (
  • State-of-the-art and forward looking, Recombinant Gene Expression: Reviews and Protocols, Second Edition offers investigators seeking an overview of this critically important field not only the understanding, but also the tools needed to begin producing nonprotein products and altering the central metabolic pathways of cells to enhance heterologous gene expression. (
  • Now, in the most comprehensive genetic analysis to date, researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MA, USA) have identified each of the genes expressed in individual brain cells of patients with AD, allowing them to determine the distinctive cellular pathways that are disturbed in each neuron or glial cell. (
  • Regulation of gene expression is the basis for cellular differentiation, development, morphogenesis and the versatility and adaptability of any organism. (
  • Epigenetics refers to the study of changes in gene expression that can be passed to future generations. (
  • The team looked at the participants' tea and coffee consumption and assessed their blood samples for DNA methylation, which is an indicator of changes in gene expression. (
  • This study demonstrates, for the first time in humans, that large changes in gene expression are likely an important mechanism by which these omega fatty acids exert their potent clinical effects. (
  • In response to a cellular perturbation, changes in gene expression take place that result in the expression of hundreds of gene products and the suppression of others. (
  • 10. Kainate-induced changes in gene expression in the rat hippocampus. (
  • The definition of retina-specific promoters will make possible targeted expression of heterologous and altered genes to the retina. (
  • Nettelbeck DM, Jerome V and Muller R (2000) Gene therapy designer promoters for tumour targeting. (
  • Depending on the gene promoters proximal to the insertion point, the reporter gene will be expressed in particular tissues at particular points in development. (
  • The researchers say their study is the largest of its kind, and conclude that it "may shed light on the biological mechanism by which environmental influences regulate the activity of certain genes and in turn contribute to the development of ASD and related behavior traits. (
  • In the new study, the researchers looked towards genes for answers, and showed that genetic mechanisms that normally regulate the number of cortical neurons are abnormal. (
  • Our primary interest is the genes that regulate how people respond to medicines, such as cancer chemotherapy," senior study author Eileen Dolan, a professor of medicine at the University of Chicago, said in a prepared statement. (
  • We'll also discuss the best-characterised epigenetic modification, DNA methylation, and how it is not only implicated in regulating gene expression, but also in maintaining genome stability. (
  • A publicly available dataset containing gene expression data of 42 tumor tissues of the embryonal central nervous system (CNS) [1] is used for this example. (
  • Researchers in the laboratory of Mikhail Shapiro, assistant professor of chemical engineering and Heritage Medical Research Institute Investigator, have invented a new method to link magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals to gene expression in cells--including tumor cells--in living tissues. (
  • Previously developed reporter genes for MRI have been much more limited in their capabilities, requiring the use of specific metals that are not always available in some tissues. (
  • For each such gene, the investigators then compared expression of the two alleles head-to-head in 52 different tissues. (
  • Expression of Neanderthal alleles tended to be especially low in the brain and the testes, suggesting that those tissues may have experienced more rapid evolution since we diverged from Neanderthals approximately 700,000 years ago. (
  • Different tissues express different sets of genes based on their role in the body. (
  • We have attempted to detect cells committed to the melanocytic lineage, in human tissues, by means of tyrosinase gene expression. (
  • Therefore, it appears likely that cells expressing the tyrosinase gene are present in a wide range of human tissues. (
  • When and where genes are expressed (active) in tissues or cells is one of the main determinants of what makes that tissue or cell the way it is, both in terms of morphology and in terms of response to external stimuli. (
  • Several different methods exist for generating gene expression levels for all of the genes in the genome in tissues or even at cell-type-specific resolution. (
  • The expression profiles of fugu gelatinases were different among tissues. (
  • Expression targeting involves the use of tissue‐specific enhancer/promoter elements to target the expression of therapeutic transgenes to tissues of interest. (
  • Spatiotemporal gene expression is the activation of genes within specific tissues of an organism at specific times during development. (
  • Reporter genes can be visualized in living organisms, but both immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization must be performed in fixed tissues. (
  • From the expression data of all 42 samples in the dataset, extract the data of the 10 MD samples and the 10 Mglio samples. (
  • We tested our method on a collection of yeast expression profiles and on a human cancer dataset. (
  • We present algorithms for time-series gene expression analysis that permit the principled estimation of unobserved time points, clustering, and dataset alignment. (
  • This kind of expression tree consists of the phenotypic expression of GEP genes, whereas the genes are linear strings encoding these complex structures. (
  • And those variations in gene expression contribute to human phenotypic variation and disease susceptibility. (
  • Interestingly, when valproic acid was administered, the neurons showed increased gene activation, including increased levels of LEF1 . (
  • The gene expression of individual neurons can be examined following patch clamp experiments by performing single cell PCR on the cytosol aspirated from the patched cell. (
  • Our results point to the fact that the gene expression pattern is one of the most reliable ways to map the cellular identity of individual neurons, since classification based on morpho-electrical properties fails to capture all the neuronal subtypes. (
  • 4. Gene expression of serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system: molecular and developmental analysis. (
  • For example, Olson and his colleagues realized that one fifth of the genes altered in Huntington's seem to be regulated by retinoids, molecules that modulate the development and maturation of neurons. (
  • Gene expression programming belongs to the family of evolutionary algorithms and is closely related to genetic algorithms and genetic programming. (
  • Gene expression is the process by which genetic instructions are used to synthesise gene products. (
  • This review focuses on the genetic component of aging, with a special emphasis on differential gene expression. (
  • Evolutionary Genetics' gives you an introductory overview of the genetic basis for the evolution of genes, genomes, and phenotypes from both theoretical and experimental perspectives. (
  • One of the things that's exciting about this work is that identifying the genetic variants that account for gene expression differences could help the field to find those genetic variants that affect disease risk," he says. (
  • Analyses of gene expression can be clinically useful for disease classification, diagnosis, prognosis, and tailoring treatment to underlying genetic determinants of pharmacologic response. (
  • Spatially-mapped, genome-wide gene expression atlases of the brain are very valuable to study the genetic contribution to the anatomical organization of the brain. (
  • Then we found genetic changes at sequence and expression level. (
  • This rebounding of the genetic expression among the stock is the point Uusi-Heikkilä considers to be of greater significance. (
  • 28. Expression of immune-related molecules in a murine genetic demyelinating disease. (
  • Genetic expression is the process where genotypes coded in the genes are exhibited by the phenotypes of the individuals. (
  • Our current research focuses on how these genetic and expression differences play a role in sensitivity to adverse effects associated with chemotherapy," Dolan said. (
  • Alzheimer's disease is known to have a strong genetic component, new research into gene expression in different cell types could give more information as to why this is the case. (
  • 1999) Genetic prodrug activation therapy for breast cancer: a phase I clinical trial of erbB‐2‐directed suicide gene expression. (
  • After analyzing some of the nearly 1,100 genes in detail, Cheung and Spielman believe that the expression level discrepancies were due to nucleotide differences in noncoding regions around the genes, and not the genes themselves. (
  • Sex differences in muscle gene expression were further reduced with long-term endurance exercise, an international research team found. (
  • We can infer that maybe the greatest differences in gene regulation exist in the brain and testes between modern humans and Neanderthals," says Akey. (
  • For this study, McCoy and his colleagues had to develop a new statistical approach to sift through the immense amount of RNA data, but the same technique could be used to compare gene expression differences between modern human alleles. (
  • The study to be published on March 22 in PLoS Genetics uncovered differences in gene expression between brain tissue from young (2 to14 years old) and adult individuals with autism syndrome disorder, providing important clues why brain growth and development is abnormal in this disorder. (
  • THURSDAY, Feb. 28 -- People of European and African ancestry have differences in gene expression levels that affect how they respond to certain kinds of drugs and fight off specific types of infections, says a new U.S. study. (
  • But they also made some unexpected findings of major differences in expression levels of genes involved in a communication system that governs basic cellular activities and coordinates cell actions. (
  • Population differences in gene expression have only recently begun to be investigated. (
  • By performing single-cell analysis on around 8000 cells taken from 48 post-mortem human brains, half with distinctive AD pathology and half with no signs of the disease, the researchers were able to analyze all cell types and differentiate between them, showing the distinct gene expression differences that can occur in the disease [7]. (
  • Gene expression differences in two groups of samples are discovered and quantificated by comparison of signal intensity values in microarray spots. (
  • July 19 (UPI) -- Most of the science looking at gender differences among mammals have focused on physiological differences, but new research suggests many of those more outward-facing differences -- like height and facial hair -- are rooted in differences in the way males and females express their genes. (
  • Discovering contributions of sex biased gene expression to height is exciting because identifying the determinants of height is a classic, century-old problem, and yet by looking at sex differences in this new way we were able to provide new insights," David Page, director of the Whitehead Institute at MIT, said in a news release . (
  • We're not saying to avoid animal models in sex differences research, only not to take for granted that the sex biased gene expression behind a trait or disease observed in an animal will be the same as that in humans," said Sahin Naqvi, former MIT graduate student, now a postdoctoral researcher at Stanford. (
  • What causes spatial and temporal differences in the expression of a single gene? (
  • There is a critical look at gene therapy and other future therapeutic strategies based on the molecular and cellular causes of atherosclerosis. (
  • An effective reporter gene for MRI is a 'holy grail' in biomedical imaging because it would allow cellular function to be observed non-invasively," says Shapiro. (
  • The paper is titled "Non-invasive imaging using reporter genes altering cellular water permeability. (
  • From the expression profiles of all the neuron subtypes, we aim to identify the minimal set of genes whose cellular expression pattern uniquely defines the neuron subtype. (
  • A non-radioactive in situ hybridization assay will be used to look at the spatial and developmental pattern of expression of rhodopsin and other retinal genes in retinal whole mounts. (
  • By exploring evolutionary histories of gene regulation with particular reference to developmental and behavioural genes in humans, you will gain a comprehensive understanding of the role that evolution plays in the diversity and maintenance of different life forms. (
  • For example, a recent study found that forms of a gene associated with schizophrenia are over-expressed in the fetal brain, adding to evidence implicating this critical developmental period. (
  • This project will allow us to document which individual genes and sets of genes are turned on and off in different brain regions through the whole developmental time period," said Knowles, the principal investigator on the project. (
  • A new survey of mammalian RNA revealed genome-wide variations in gene expression between male and female mammals. (
  • SNY ), today announced that the New York State Department of Health has issued a license enabling Veracyte's Afirma® Gene Expression Classifier to be offered to patients in the state. (
  • We are delighted that the Afirma Gene Expression Classifier will now be available to physicians and their patients in New York State and that Memorial Sloan-Kettering is among the first in the state to offer our test,' said Bonnie Anderson , Veracyte's cofounder and chief executive officer. (
  • The Afirma Gene Expression Classifier measures the expression of 142 genes to reclassify ambiguous thyroid FNA samples as either benign or suspicious for cancer. (
  • The Afirma Gene Expression Classifier is offered as part of Veracyte's comprehensive Afirma Thyroid FNA Analysis, which combines specialized cytopathology assessment for initial review of thyroid nodule FNAs, with the gene expression test used to clarify inconclusive results. (
  • Veracyte's first product - the Afirma® Thyroid FNA Analysis - combines specialized cytopathology assessment with the Afirma Gene Expression Classifier, a genomic test that clarifies inconclusive thyroid nodule results as benign or suspicious for cancer. (
  • Another marker, the SKY92 prognostic gene classifier (published as the EMC92 classifier) was developed in younger, transplant eligible multiple myeloma (MM) patients who were included in the HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4 trial. (
  • Aims: Here, we validated the SKY92 gene expression classifier and rISS in elderly, non-transplant eligible patients included in the HOVON-87/NMSG-18 trial (Zweegman et al. (
  • A gene expression classifier raised suspicion of Medullary Thyroid Cancer (MTC) in pre-operative fine needle aspiration (FNA) analysis of cytologically indeterminate and malignant neoplasms. (
  • The gene expression classifier was run prospectively and pre-operatively on all cytologically indeterminant samples. (
  • Novel gene expression classifier raises pre-operative suspicion of medullary thyroid cancer . (
  • You can now compare the gene expression values between two groups of data: CNS medulloblastomas (MD) and non-neuronal origin malignant gliomas (Mglio) tumor. (
  • The researchers showed that this technique was successful in monitoring gene expression in a brain tumor in mice. (
  • After implanting the tumor, they gave the mice a drug to trigger the tumor cells to express the aquaporin reporter gene, which made the tumor look darker in MRI images. (
  • Rather than evaluating a single gene, multiparameter gene expression tests analyze the RNA of multiple genes in a tumor at the same time. (
  • April 11, 2000] A communiqué from Michael Hoffman of Rosetta Inpharmatics reports on the development of GEML - an open-standard XML format for DNA microarray and gene expression data. (
  • November 29, 2000] "On behalf of the GEML Community, Rosetta Inpharmatics has submitted to the Object Management Group (OMG) a proposed DTD based on the new version of Gene Expression Markup Language - GEML 2.0. (
  • November 29, 2000] Rosetta Inpharmatics' Initial Submission regarding the OMG's Gene Expression RFP -- XML DTD for GEML 2.0. (
  • A study from 2012 showed that in the brain's microvessels alone, there can be up to 2000 genes with altered expression in the brains of AD patients. (
  • Steinwaerder D and Lieber A (2000) Insulation from viral transcriptional regulatory elements improves inducible transgene expression from adenovirus vectors in vitro and in vivo. (
  • Stone D, David A, Bolognani F, Lowenstein PR and Castro MG (2000) Viral vectors for gene delivery and gene therapy within the endocrine system. (
  • In each mouse line, expression of the reporter or recombinase is controlled by promoter elements derived from a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing a specific gene of interest, in order to mimic the gene's expression pattern. (
  • 7. A method according to claim 3, wherein the sequence that causes male sterility is the RIP gene linked to an anther specific promoter. (
  • 1997) Efficient muscle‐specific transgene expression after adenovirus‐mediated gene transfer in mice using a 1.35 kb muscle creatine kinase promoter/enhancer. (
  • One way to identify the expression pattern of a particular gene is to place a reporter gene downstream of its promoter. (
  • In this configuration, the promoter gene will cause the reporter gene to be expressed only where and when the gene of interest is expressed. (
  • If the promoter of the gene of interest is unknown, there are several ways to identify its spatiotemporal distribution. (
  • To investigate mechanisms of phthalate toxicity in normal human cells and to provide information concerning inter-individual variation and gene-environment interactions. (
  • Moreover, use of the ordering relationships for a small collection of genes has potential for identification of gene-gene interactions with plausible biological interpretation and direct clinical applicability [ 4 ]. (
  • The spatiotemporal pattern of wingless gene expression is determined by a network of regulatory interactions consisting of the effects of many different genes such as even-skipped and Krüppel. (
  • The availability of this genomic information made it possible to compare gene expression of algae exposed to different concentrations of mercury and to determine the associated effects. (
  • Their results, reported in this week's Nature Genetics, were that different ethnic groups not only carried different genes, but there were greater disparities than previously believed in the degrees to which genes that were the same among ethnic groups were expressed. (
  • Now, a Swedish study published in Human Molecular Genetics shows that drinking tea can affect gene expression in women. (
  • In genetics, gene expression is the most fundamental level at which the genotype gives rise to the phenotype, i.e. observable trait. (
  • The main interest of our lab is to understand the physical basis underlying molecular mechanisms of gene expression. (
  • The researchers studied mice stem cells to explore the mechanisms of gene expression. (
  • This module will give a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms of gene expression and its control, in mammals, to enable you to pursue independent study in this area. (
  • A Relative Expression Analysis (RXA) uses ordering relationships in a small collection of genes and is successfully applied to classiffication using microarray data. (
  • The two-year Grand Opportunity grant, funded through the National Institutes of Mental Health, will allow researchers to use DNA sequencing and profiling technologies to create an atlas of when and where thousands of genes are expressed during key periods of development. (
  • The team used gene chips, which reveal the activities of thousands of genes at once, to monitor approximately 6,000 genes in the striatum, a brain region particularly damaged by Huntington's. (
  • Major and well-known drawback of RXA is a high computational complexity, which grows exponentially with the size of the collection of genes. (
  • since the identity of a cell is specified by the collection of genes actively expressed within that cell, if gene expression was uniform spatially and temporally, there could be at most one kind of cell. (
  • Researchers have developed a method, called MemorySeq, to identify genes transcriptome-wide whose expression fluctuations persist for several cell divisions. (
  • Section IV, In Silico Assessment of Regulatory cis-Elements and Gene Regulation, and Section V, Cardiac Single Network Polymorphisms, emphasize new analytical approaches for deciphering the functional elements buried in the 3 billion nucleotides of the human genome and other model genomes. (
  • The finding of a discontinuous transgene expression gradient in 3 out of 3 transgenic lines with one of the constructs suggests the existence of a "topographical" regulatory element which defines spatial expression across the retina. (
  • In addition, we show that there are rules of combinatorial gene expression related to the morpho-electrical properties of different neuron subtypes [5], which must reflect underlying regulatory principles. (
  • But since this technique is limited to a set of approximately 100 genes out of the more than 30,000 genes in the mouse genome, we cannot in this way hope to examine these fundamental regulatory principles in an exhaustive manner. (
  • gene expression to predict regulatory elements within genes. (
  • 1997) Development of an epithelium‐specific expression cassette with human DNA regulatory elements for transgene expression in lung airways. (
  • The complex nature of mitochondrial gene expression that relies on two different genomes calls for a multidisciplinary approach in which different teams of researchers join forces. (
  • In each cohort, the researchers looked at how tea and coffee intake affected the gene expression of men and women, together and separately. (
  • In particular, the researchers found that tea intake appeared to alter the expression of DNAJC16 and TTC17, which are genes associated with estrogen metabolism and cancer. (
  • The researchers were able to analyse the transcriptome of the microalgae -- i.e. the set of all RNA molecules that controls the expression of their genes -- using molecular biology tools. (
  • Now researchers from North Carolina State University have found a way to use naturally occurring hydrogen peroxide inside cells to switch on gene expression. (
  • Researchers have been conducting studies such as the International HapMap Project--a global effort to catalogue common single-nucleotide variations, such as the addition, deletion or substitution of a base in the code of a gene--to get to the bottom of long-observed correlations between ethnicity and common complex diseases. (
  • When the researchers then compared the Asian populations with the Caucasian sampling, they noted that 1,097, more than 25 percent, of the genes had differing expression levels. (
  • Here, we…observed that the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway is profoundly affected, with a significant decrease in expression of LEF1 ," the researchers write. (
  • The researchers found that changes in histone modification at HPV integration events were correlated with upregulation of nearby genes and endogenous retroviruses. (
  • Researchers developed a highly multiplexed screen to quantify the co-expression of 351 molecules on the surfaces of millions of human B cells. (
  • A team of researchers in Germany investigated gene expression in airway cells of SARS-CoV-2 patients, finding increased interaction between epithelial and immune cells. (
  • Neanderthal genes' effects on gene expression likely contribute to traits such as height and susceptibility to schizophrenia or lupus, the researchers found. (
  • For their newly reported study, the researchers initially conducted a systematic review of published gene signatures identified in blood samples from people with TB, compared with healthy individuals. (
  • Researchers studied 30 white families from Utah and 30 Yoruban families from Nigeria, and found significant variations in nearly 5 percent of the 9,156 genes they analyzed. (
  • In support of this, the researchers found that there is a significant change in the genes associated with axon regeneration and myelination [9]. (
  • Through collaborations with clinical colleagues and researchers in Departments such as Chemistry and Physics, we address fundamental mechanisms underlying gene expression and apply this information in the design of novel therapeutics for the patient. (
  • Researchers determined that sex-biased gene expression accounts for 12 percent of the difference in average height between males and females. (
  • Researchers are now working to understand the biochemical mechanisms that enable sex-biased gene expression. (
  • We thought that if we could link signals from water molecules to the expression of genes of interest, we could change the way the cell looks under MRI," says Arnab Mukherjee, a postdoctoral scholar in chemical engineering at Caltech and co-lead author on the paper. (
  • The review articles survey new directions in recombinant gene expression research, technique, and application, and point the way to using recombinant gene expression for metabolic engineering and the production of nonprotein molecules. (
  • Microarray gene expression analysis is high-throughput method in which many different sized DNA molecules are attached to solid surface in designated spots. (
  • Due to popular demand, we are making the subset of 384 genes we used in Ka Yee's dissertation available (as text-delimited file). (
  • They found that a small subset of genes, less than two percent of the total, was affected by the disease. (
  • Many genes are also subjected to age-dependent transcriptional regulation. (
  • We study fundamental aspects of gene regulation, from transcriptional initiation to histone modification and chromatin remodelling. (
  • 1997) Transcriptional targeting of replication‐defective adenovirus transgene expression to smooth muscle cells in vivo. (
  • Clary BM and Lyerly HK (1998) Transcriptional targeting for cancer gene therapy. (
  • Spear MA (1998) Gene therapy of gliomas: receptor and transcriptional targeting. (
  • GeneLab undertakes specific research and training projects, which require expertise in gene cloning, PCR, DNA sequencing, cDNA library construction, gene expression and other molecular methods. (
  • The postdoc will prepare cDNA libraries from highly purified maize sperm (available via our collaboration with the RDP, Lyon, France) and sequence large numbers of clones, in order to obtain a representation of sperm -expressed genes. (
  • Our TaqMan® Assays are primer and probe sets based on 5' nuclease chemistry using TaqMan® MGB (minor groove binder) probes, the most quantitative gene expression technology available. (
  • 1996) Expression monitoring by hybridization to high‐density oligonucleotide arrays. (
  • For example, understanding the level of gene expression in a cell, tissue or organism can provide valuable information in terms of identifying viral infection, determining cancer susceptibility or testing whether a bacteria is resistant to penicillin. (
  • The genes that control the number of brain cells did not have the normal functional expression, and the level of gene expression that governs the pattern of neural organization across the prefrontal cortex is turned down. (
  • Dr. Josh Dubnau introduces a technique for examining gene expression in the brains of fruit flies. (
  • Until now, few studies have been able to investigate whole-genome gene expression and genotype variation in the brains of young patients with autism, especially in regions such as the prefrontal cortex that display the greatest growth abnormality. (
  • Past studies have investigated the gene expression profile of the brain of an Alzheimer's patient, with each additional study increasing understanding of how the affected brains differ. (
  • The technique, which eventually could be used in humans, would allow gene expression to be monitored non-invasively, requiring no surgical procedures such as biopsies. (
  • They can, however, look to gene expression in modern humans who possess Neanderthal ancestry. (
  • Next steps may include investigating whether Denisovans--another species of hominins that crossbred with modern humans--are contributing to gene expression, as well as applying the side-by-side method of expression analysis more broadly. (
  • The sex-biased genes identified in humans were not always the same genes found to be sex-biased in different animal species. (
  • Measuring the expression of penicillinase genes can help to predict whether a particular bacteria would be responsive or resistant to penicillin. (
  • Scientists at University College London (UCL) have found that testing for gene expression biomarkers in blood could predict the onset of active tuberculosis (TB) disease three to six months before symptoms develop. (
  • Their results indicated that eight of the identified signatures-which ranged from a single BATF2 transcript, to signatures including 25 genes-could predict the diagnosis of TB within three to six months, with accuracy that fell within the range required by WHO. (
  • Some, on the other hand, are extraordinarily intricate and difficult to predict and model, with expression fluctuating wildly from minute to minute or from cell to cell. (
  • In gene expression programming the linear chromosomes work as the genotype and the parse trees as the phenotype, creating a genotype/phenotype system. (
  • And the conclusion was clear: mercury disrupted the metabolism of algae, with numerous genes being deregulated, regardless of whether the concentrations were comparable with those set by European environmental standards, lower or higher than those usually found in the environment. (
  • Previous studies have found correlations between Neanderthal genes and traits such as fat metabolism, depression, and lupus risk. (
  • The genome of gene expression programming consists of a linear, symbolic string or chromosome of fixed length composed of one or more genes of equal size. (
  • An example of a chromosome with two genes, each of size 9, is the string (position zero indicates the start of each gene): 012345678012345678 L+a-baccd**cLabacd where "L" represents the natural logarithm function and "a", "b", "c", and "d" represent the variables and constants used in a problem. (
  • One gene has been located on chromosome 8. (
  • A decrease in activation of a specific gene may explain why many patients with bipolar disorder (BD) do not respond to lithium , new research suggests. (
  • This new volume on gene expression and epigenetics discusses environmental effects related to specific gene expression. (
  • Rothmann T, Katus HA, Hartong R, Perricaudet M and Franz WM (1996) Heart muscle‐specific gene expression using replicative defective recombinant adenovirus. (
  • 33. Expression of the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene during mouse embryonic development. (
  • Expression of NAPEPLD and PLA2G4E, coding for eCB anabolic enzymes, was higher in the tumour tissue than in non-malignant tissue. (
  • Among genes coding for eCB catabolic enzymes, expression of MGLL was lower in tumour tissue while PTGS2 was increased. (
  • This study aims to investigate the expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) in chronic doxorubicin cardiomyopathy in a rabbit model and to evaluate the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation in this disease. (
  • Despite the fact that these diseases are quite common, it is surprising that our understanding of the mechanisms governing mitochondrial gene expression and its associated pathologies remain superficial and therapeutic interventions unexplored," says Aleksandra Trifunovic. (
  • With the development of in vivo delivery vectors, these selective expression cassettes can now be used for preclinical assessment of their therapeutic potential for the treatment of inherited diseases or cancers. (
  • LEF1 commonly pairs with beta-catenin, which typically leads to the activation of other genes for regulating neuronal activity levels. (
  • We have successfully used this approach to correlate the expression of more than 30 genes coding for ion channels and neuronal markers with the electropysiological and morphological properties [1-4]. (
  • They designed a molecule that was sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and enabled expression of the firefly luciferase gene in live mammalian cells. (
  • Cardiac Gene Expression: Methods and Protocols presents both cutting-edge and established methods for studying cardiac gene expression. (
  • The concluding section, Gene Overexpression and Targeting in the Myocardium, highlights methods that facilitate overexpression or cardiac-specific targeted gene deletion. (
  • The ExpressionSet class is designed to contain data from a microarray gene expression experiment, including expression values, sample and feature metadata, and information about experimental methods and conditions. (
  • The ExpressionSet class includes properties and methods that let you access, retrieve, and change data, metadata, and other information about the microarray gene expression experiment. (
  • Systemic analysis of data gathered in microarray gene expression measurement is performed by various bioinformatic methods such as group analysis, annotation analysis as well as network and pathway analysis. (
  • Future research will be centered on the causes of variation in the expression of the Usher genes, on the development of animal models (with Dominic Cosgrove, Ph.D.) and on methods of gene therapy. (
  • Section II - Signal Transduction and Gene Expression. (
  • Cross validation results show high specificity in assigning function to genes based on their biclusters, and we are able to annotate in this way 196 uncharacterized yeast genes. (
  • We demonstrate that our algorithm produces stable low-error alignments on real expression data and further show a specific application to yeast knock-out data that produces biologically meaningful results. (
  • We propose a new method to detect significant biclusters in large expression datasets. (
  • Experimental validation of EvoTSP on public available microarray datasets showed that the proposed solution significantly outperforms in terms of accuracy other relative expression algorithms and allows exploring much larger solution space. (
  • These databases allow one to access, select, retrieve and combine for analysis gene expression datasets generated by one's own or other laboratories. (