Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Actinium: Actinium. A trivalent radioactive element and the prototypical member of the actinide family. It has the atomic symbol Ac, atomic number 89, and atomic weight 227.0278. Its principal isotope is 227 and decays primarily by beta-emission.Microarray Analysis: The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mice, Inbred C57BLDNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Intermittent Urethral Catheterization: Insertion of a catheter into the urethra to drain the urine from the bladder at intervals as needed.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Compensation and Redress: Payment, or other means of making amends, for a wrong or injury.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neisseria: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. Some species are primary pathogens for humans.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Pepsinogens: Proenzymes secreted by chief cells, mucous neck cells, and pyloric gland cells, which are converted into pepsin in the presence of gastric acid or pepsin itself. (Dorland, 28th ed) In humans there are 2 related pepsinogen systems: PEPSINOGEN A (formerly pepsinogen I or pepsinogen) and PEPSINOGEN C (formerly pepsinogen II or progastricsin). Pepsinogen B is the name of a pepsinogen from pigs.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Sialadenitis: INFLAMMATION of salivary tissue (SALIVARY GLANDS), usually due to INFECTION or injuries.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Genes, Immediate-Early: Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Immediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.Nerve Tissue ProteinsAflatoxins: Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Histone Deacetylases: Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Nerve Tissue Proteins3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Embolism, Cholesterol: Blocking of a blood vessel by CHOLESTEROL-rich atheromatous deposits, generally occurring in the flow from a large artery to small arterial branches. It is also called arterial-arterial embolization or atheroembolism which may be spontaneous or iatrogenic. Patients with spontaneous atheroembolism often have painful, cyanotic digits of acute onset.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Acinar Cells: Cells lining the saclike dilatations known as acini of various glands or the lungs.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Mice, Inbred BALB CViral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Genes, fos: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (fos) originally isolated from the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses. The proto-oncogene protein c-fos codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. The insertion of c-fos into FBJ-MSV or FBR-MSV induces osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The human c-fos gene is located at 14q21-31 on the long arm of chromosome 14.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.ADP-Ribosylation Factor 1: ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Fireflies: The family Lampyidae, which are bioluminescent BEETLES. They contain FIREFLY LUCIFERIN and LUCIFERASES. Oxidation of firefly luciferin results in luminescence.Orbital Fractures: Fractures of the bones in the orbit, which include parts of the frontal, ethmoidal, lacrimal, and sphenoid bones and the maxilla and zygoma.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Cercocebus: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE inhabiting the African forests. They are also known as mangabeys.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)

Separation of shoot and floral identity in Arabidopsis. (1/56413)

The overall morphology of an Arabidopsis plant depends on the behaviour of its meristems. Meristems derived from the shoot apex can develop into either shoots or flowers. The distinction between these alternative fates requires separation between the function of floral meristem identity genes and the function of an antagonistic group of genes, which includes TERMINAL FLOWER 1. We show that the activities of these genes are restricted to separate domains of the shoot apex by different mechanisms. Meristem identity genes, such as LEAFY, APETALA 1 and CAULIFLOWER, prevent TERMINAL FLOWER 1 transcription in floral meristems on the apex periphery. TERMINAL FLOWER 1, in turn, can inhibit the activity of meristem identity genes at the centre of the shoot apex in two ways; first by delaying their upregulation, and second, by preventing the meristem from responding to LEAFY or APETALA 1. We suggest that the wild-type pattern of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 and floral meristem identity gene expression depends on the relative timing of their upregulation.  (+info)

Characterization of an amphioxus paired box gene, AmphiPax2/5/8: developmental expression patterns in optic support cells, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits, but not in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary region. (2/56413)

On the basis of developmental gene expression, the vertebrate central nervous system comprises: a forebrain plus anterior midbrain, a midbrain-hindbrain boundary region (MHB) having organizer properties, and a rhombospinal domain. The vertebrate MHB is characterized by position, by organizer properties and by being the early site of action of Wnt1 and engrailed genes, and of genes of the Pax2/5/8 subfamily. Wada and others (Wada, H., Saiga, H., Satoh, N. and Holland, P. W. H. (1998) Development 125, 1113-1122) suggested that ascidian tunicates have a vertebrate-like MHB on the basis of ascidian Pax258 expression there. In another invertebrate chordate, amphioxus, comparable gene expression evidence for a vertebrate-like MHB is lacking. We, therefore, isolated and characterized AmphiPax2/5/8, the sole member of this subfamily in amphioxus. AmphiPax2/5/8 is initially expressed well back in the rhombospinal domain and not where a MHB would be expected. In contrast, most of the other expression domains of AmphiPax2/5/8 correspond to expression domains of vertebrate Pax2, Pax5 and Pax8 in structures that are probably homologous - support cells of the eye, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits; although AmphiPax2/5/8 is not transcribed in any structures that could be interpreted as homologues of vertebrate otic placodes or otic vesicles. In sum, the developmental expression of AmphiPax2/5/8 indicates that the amphioxus central nervous system lacks a MHB resembling the vertebrate isthmic region. Additional gene expression data for the developing ascidian and amphioxus nervous systems would help determine whether a MHB is a basal chordate character secondarily lost in amphioxus. The alternative is that the MHB is a vertebrate innovation.  (+info)

Bone resorption induced by parathyroid hormone is strikingly diminished in collagenase-resistant mutant mice. (3/56413)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates bone resorption by acting directly on osteoblasts/stromal cells and then indirectly to increase differentiation and function of osteoclasts. PTH acting on osteoblasts/stromal cells increases collagenase gene transcription and synthesis. To assess the role of collagenase in the bone resorptive actions of PTH, we used mice homozygous (r/r) for a targeted mutation (r) in Col1a1 that are resistant to collagenase cleavage of type I collagen. Human PTH(1-34) was injected subcutaneously over the hemicalvariae in wild-type (+/+) or r/r mice four times daily for three days. Osteoclast numbers, the size of the bone marrow spaces and periosteal proliferation were increased in calvariae from PTH-treated +/+ mice, whereas in r/r mice, PTH-induced bone resorption responses were minimal. The r/r mice were not resistant to other skeletal effects of PTH because abundant interstitial collagenase mRNA was detected in the calvarial periosteum of PTH-treated, but not vehicle-treated, r/r and +/+ mice. Calcemic responses, 0.5-10 hours after intraperitoneal injection of PTH, were blunted in r/r mice versus +/+ mice. Thus, collagenase cleavage of type I collagen is necessary for PTH induction of osteoclastic bone resorption.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and epitope analysis of the peanut allergen Ara h 3. (4/56413)

Peanut allergy is a significant IgE-mediated health problem because of the increased prevalence, potential severity, and chronicity of the reaction. Following our characterization of the two peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, we have isolated a cDNA clone encoding a third peanut allergen, Ara h 3. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ara h 3 shows homology to 11S seed-storage proteins. The recombinant form of this protein was expressed in a bacterial system and was recognized by serum IgE from approximately 45% of our peanut-allergic patient population. Serum IgE from these patients and overlapping, synthetic peptides were used to map the linear, IgE-binding epitopes of Ara h 3. Four epitopes, between 10 and 15 amino acids in length, were found within the primary sequence, with no obvious sequence motif shared by the peptides. One epitope is recognized by all Ara h 3-allergic patients. Mutational analysis of the epitopes revealed that single amino acid changes within these peptides could lead to a reduction or loss of IgE binding. By determining which amino acids are critical for IgE binding, it might be possible to alter the Ara h 3 cDNA to encode a protein with a reduced IgE-binding capacity. These results will enable the design of improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for food-hypersensitivity reactions.  (+info)

CAR-dependent and CAR-independent pathways of adenovirus vector-mediated gene transfer and expression in human fibroblasts. (5/56413)

Primary fibroblasts are not efficiently transduced by subgroup C adenovirus (Ad) vectors because they express low levels of the high-affinity Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). In the present study, we have used primary human dermal fibroblasts as a model to explore strategies by which Ad vectors can be designed to enter cells deficient in CAR. Using an Ad vector expressing the human CAR cDNA (AdCAR) at high multiplicity of infection, primary fibroblasts were converted from being CAR deficient to CAR sufficient. Efficiency of subsequent gene transfer by standard Ad5-based vectors and Ad5-based vectors with alterations in penton and fiber was evaluated. Marked enhancement of binding and transgene expression by standard Ad5 vectors was achieved in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Expression by AdDeltaRGDbetagal, an Ad5-based vector lacking the arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) alphaV integrin recognition site from its penton base, was achieved in CAR-sufficient, but not CAR-deficient, cells. Fiber-altered Ad5-based vectors, including (a) AdF(pK7)betagal (bearing seven lysines on the end of fiber) (b) AdF(RGD)betagal (bearing a high-affinity RGD sequence on the end of fiber), and (c) AdF9sK betagal (bearing a short fiber and Ad9 knob), demonstrated enhanced gene transfer in CAR-deficient fibroblasts, with no further enhancement in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Together, these observations demonstrate that CAR deficiency on Ad targets can be circumvented either by supplying CAR or by modifying the Ad fiber to bind to other cell-surface receptors.  (+info)

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and insecticide resistance in insects. (6/56413)

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in many cases of resistance of insects to insecticides. Resistance has long been associated with an increase in monooxygenase activities and with an increase in cytochrome P450 content. However, this increase does not always account for all of the resistance. In Drosophila melanogaster, we have shown that the overproduction of cytochrome P450 can be lost by the fly without a corresponding complete loss of resistance. These results prompted the sequencing of a cytochrome P450 candidate for resistance in resistant and susceptible flies. Several mutations leading to amino-acid substitutions have been detected in the P450 gene CYP6A2 of a resistant strain. The location of these mutations in a model of the 3D structure of the CYP6A2 protein suggested that some of them may be important for enzyme activity of this molecule. This has been verified by heterologous expression of wild-type and mutated cDNA in Escherichia coli. When other resistance mechanisms are considered, relatively few genetic mutations are involved in insecticide resistance, and this has led to an optimistic view of the management of resistance. Our observations compel us to survey in more detail the genetic diversity of cytochrome P450 genes and alleles involved in resistance.  (+info)

Leptin suppression of insulin secretion and gene expression in human pancreatic islets: implications for the development of adipogenic diabetes mellitus. (7/56413)

Previously we demonstrated the expression of the long form of the leptin receptor in rodent pancreatic beta-cells and an inhibition of insulin secretion by leptin via activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we examine pancreatic islets isolated from pancreata of human donors for their responses to leptin. The presence of leptin receptors on islet beta-cells was demonstrated by double fluorescence confocal microscopy after binding of a fluorescent derivative of human leptin (Cy3-leptin). Leptin (6.25 nM) suppressed insulin secretion of normal islets by 20% at 5.6 mM glucose. Intracellular calcium responses to 16.7 mM glucose were rapidly reduced by leptin. Proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in islets was inhibited by leptin at 11.1 mM, but not at 5.6 mM glucose. Leptin also reduced proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid levels that were increased in islets by treatment with 10 nM glucagon-like peptide-1 in the presence of either 5.6 or 11.1 mM glucose. These findings demonstrate direct suppressive effects of leptin on insulin-producing beta-cells in human islets at the levels of both stimulus-secretion coupling and gene expression. The findings also further indicate the existence of an adipoinsular axis in humans in which insulin stimulates leptin production in adipocytes and leptin inhibits the production of insulin in beta-cells. We suggest that dysregulation of the adipoinsular axis in obese individuals due to defective leptin reception by beta-cells may result in chronic hyperinsulinemia and may contribute to the pathogenesis of adipogenic diabetes.  (+info)

Alternative sulfonylurea receptor expression defines metabolic sensitivity of K-ATP channels in dopaminergic midbrain neurons. (8/56413)

ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channels couple the metabolic state to cellular excitability in various tissues. Several isoforms of the K-ATP channel subunits, the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) and inwardly rectifying K channel (Kir6.X), have been cloned, but the molecular composition and functional diversity of native neuronal K-ATP channels remain unresolved. We combined functional analysis of K-ATP channels with expression profiling of K-ATP subunits at the level of single substantia nigra (SN) neurons in mouse brain slices using an RT-multiplex PCR protocol. In contrast to GABAergic neurons, single dopaminergic SN neurons displayed alternative co-expression of either SUR1, SUR2B or both SUR isoforms with Kir6.2. Dopaminergic SN neurons expressed alternative K-ATP channel species distinguished by significant differences in sulfonylurea affinity and metabolic sensitivity. In single dopaminergic SN neurons, co-expression of SUR1 + Kir6.2, but not of SUR2B + Kir6.2, correlated with functional K-ATP channels highly sensitive to metabolic inhibition. In contrast to wild-type, surviving dopaminergic SN neurons of homozygous weaver mouse exclusively expressed SUR1 + Kir6.2 during the active period of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Therefore, alternative expression of K-ATP channel subunits defines the differential response to metabolic stress and constitutes a novel candidate mechanism for the differential vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in response to respiratory chain dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.  (+info)

*Gene expression

A facultative gene is a gene only transcribed when needed as opposed to a constitutive gene. An inducible gene is a gene whose ... Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. These ... also contributes to the expression level of the gene-an unstable product results in a low expression level. In general gene ... AlloMap molecular expression testing Bookmarking Expressed sequence tag Expression Atlas Expression profiling Gene structure ...

*Gene expression programming

Its expression gives: The k-expressions of gene expression programming correspond to the region of genes that gets expressed. ... The chromosomes of gene expression programming are usually composed of more than one gene of equal length. Each gene codes for ... This kind of expression tree consists of the phenotypic expression of GEP genes, whereas the genes are linear strings encoding ... Because these parse trees are the result of gene expression, in GEP they are called expression trees. The genome of gene ...

*Spatiotemporal gene expression

... in Genevestigator Search for mammalian genes with particular expression patterns Expression ... The expression distribution of the reporter gene can be determined by visualizing it. For example, the reporter gene green ... Spatiotemporal gene expression is the activation of genes within specific tissues of an organism at specific times during ... One way to identify the expression pattern of a particular gene is to place a reporter gene downstream of its promoter. In this ...

*Gene expression profiling

Gene set analysis demonstrated several major advantages over individual gene differential expression analysis. Gene sets are ... Gene expression profiling in cancer Spatiotemporal gene expression Transcriptomics Splice variant analysis "Microarrays ... gene expression profiling is the measurement of the activity (the expression) of thousands of genes at once, to create a global ... Gene expression profiling may become an important diagnostic test. The human genome contains on the order of 25,000 genes which ...

*Cap analysis gene expression

Takahashi, Hazuki (2012). "5' end-centered expression profiling using cap-analysis gene expression and next-generation ... Cap analysis gene expression (CAGE) is a technique used in molecular biology to produce a snapshot of the 5′ end of the ... Serial analysis of gene expression RNA-Seq Transcriptomics Shiraki, T; Kondo, S; Katayama, S; et al. (2003-12-23). "Cap ... Unlike a similar technique Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE, superSAGE) in which tags come from other parts of ...

*Regulation of gene expression

The Lac operon is an interesting example of how gene expression can be regulated. Viruses, despite having only a few genes, ... Repressor/Inducer: an activation of a sensor results in the change of expression of a gene negative feedback: the gene product ... Hence these modifications may up or down regulate the expression of a gene. Some of these modifications that regulate gene ... Often, one gene regulator controls another, and so on, in a gene regulatory network. Gene regulation is essential for viruses, ...

*Protein K (gene expression)

Protein K has been the subject of study related to colorectal cancer, in which an RNA editing event inducing the expression of ... the protein responsible for most gene transcription. The relative affinities of the proteins for DNA and RNA vary with solution ...

*Glossary of gene expression terms

Baseline expression may also refer to the expected or historical measure of expression for a gene. Candidate genes - see ... Baseline - a measure of the gene expression level of a gene or genes prior to a perturbation in an experiment, as in a negative ... Constitutive gene or constitutive expression - a gene that is transcribed continually compared to a facultative gene which is ... Heterogeneous expression Inducible gene - a gene whose expression is either responsive to environmental change or dependent on ...

*Serial analysis of gene expression

Therefore, tag-based gene expression profiling also called "digital gene expression profiling" (DGE) can today provide most ... Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a transcriptomic technique used by molecular biologists to produce a snapshot of ... Quantifying gene expressions is more exact in SAGE because it involves directly counting the number of transcripts whereas spot ... In addition, the mRNA sequences do not need to be known a priori, so genes or gene variants which are not known can be ...

*Structural Biochemistry/ Kiss Gene Expression

Their research suggests that sex differences in kiss 1 gene expression in the AVPV region of the brain might play a role in ... The following describes the series of experiments that were undergone in order to demonstrate that the Kiss 1 gene expression ... it was discovered that female rats have a greater Kiss 1 gene expression because they have a more Kiss 1 neurons than their ... "Sexual differentiation of Kiss1 gene expression in the brain of the rat". Endocrinology. The Endocrine Society. 148 (4): 1774- ...

*Gene expression profiling in cancer

Gene expression profiling is a technique used in molecular biology to query the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously ... Gene expression profiling is a technique used in molecular biology to query the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously ... This allows for reliable identification of tumor type based on gene expression. A more powerful result of gene expression ... gene expression profiling has been used to more accurately classify tumors. The information derived from gene expression ...

*Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

... (ISSN 1045-4403) is a quarterly scientific journal published by Begell House ... publishing reviews on topics related to gene regulation, organization, and structure within contexts of biological control and ...

*Repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE) element

The repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE) element is an RNA element found in the 5' UTR of some heat shock protein's ... The ROSE element is an RNA thermometer that negatively regulates heat shock gene expression. The secondary structure is thought ... Page for Repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE) element at Rfam. ... "A mRNA-based thermosensor controls expression of rhizobial heat shock genes". Nucleic Acids Res. 29 (23): 4800-7. doi:10.1093/ ...

*Gene co-expression network

Having gene expression profiles of a number of genes for several samples or experimental conditions, a gene co-expression ... When the expression value of one gene decreases with the increase in the expression of its co-expressed gene, it corresponds to ... The input data for constructing a gene co-expression network is often represented as a matrix. If we have the gene expression ... Gene co-expression networks are usually constructed using datasets generated by high-throughput gene expression profiling ...

*Wellcome Trust Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression

The Wellcome Trust Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, located within the University of Dundee, pioneers new approaches ... Wellcome Trust Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression website Wellcome Trust website. ... The Centre aims to enhance our understanding of how genes are regulated at both the single cell and whole organism level. ... The controlled unravelling of DNA is an important step in the regulation of gene function. Angus Lamond a Wellcome Principal ...

*Organization and expression of immunoglobulin genes

... the controlled gene expression during transcription and translation coupled with the rearrangements of immunoglobulin gene ... which has consequences for gene expression regulation. Heavy chain contains similar gene segments such as VH, JH and CH, but ... Vk gene segments can join with either one of the Jk functional gene segments. The overall rearrangements result in a gene ... Only genes flank by 12 -bp that join to the genes flank by 23-bp spacer during the rearrangements and combinations to maintain ...

*Derek Lowe (chemist)

"The oldest science blog of all? , Gene Expression , Discover Magazine". Blogs.discovermagazine.com. 2010-08-24. Retrieved 2012- ...

*Dan Sperber

Gene Expression. Retrieved 3 March 2011. "Edge: AN EPIDEMIOLOGY OF REPRESENTATIONS: A Talk with Dan Sperber". Edge. Retrieved 3 ... Richerson, Peter J.; Boyd, Robert (2008). Not by genes alone: how culture transformed human evolution. Chicago, Il.: University ...

*Larry Wall

"Larry Wall, Fundamentalist, non-Creationist, programmer". Gene Expression. Wall, Larry (March 3, 1999), Perl, the first ...

*Lactase persistence

In addition, it was shown in one study involving a Finnish population that the lactase gene has a higher expression when G− ... "Lactose tolerance/intolerance". Gene Expression. January 19, 2004. Retrieved 2008-01-31. (Outram et al. 2009 Anke Liebert (2014 ... This is evident in examining the mammalian lactase gene (LCT), which expression decreases after the weaning stage, resulting in ... They are all located in a region of the gene MCM6 upstream of LCT. This region is considered as an enhancer region for the ...

*Transcription factor

Furthermore, genes are often flanked by several binding sites for distinct transcription factors, and efficient expression of ... Transcription factors can also be used to alter gene expression in a host cell to promote pathogenesis. A well studied example ... Transcription factors are essential for the regulation of gene expression and are, as a consequence, found in all living ... Transcription factors use a variety of mechanisms for the regulation of gene expression. These mechanisms include: stabilize or ...

*Marriage squeeze

Gene Expression. 2003-02-23. Retrieved 2008-07-15. Wang, Wendy (2012-02-16). "The Rise of Intermarriage: Rates, Characteristics ... A case of gene culture co‐evolution?". Ethnic and Racial Studies. 9 (1): 87-113. doi:10.1080/01419870.1986.9993516. ISSN 0141- ...

*SAR1B

Jardim DL, da Cunha AF, Duarte Ada S, dos Santos CO, Saad ST, Costa FF (May 2005). "Expression of Sara2 human gene in erythroid ... SAR1 gene homolog B (S. cerevisiae), also known as SAR1B, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SAR1B gene. SAR1B ... Gene Expression. 10 (5-6): 231-42. PMID 12450215. Takai Y, Sasaki T, Matozaki T (January 2001). "Small GTP-binding proteins". ... "Entrez Gene: SAR1B SAR1 gene homolog B (S. cerevisiae)". He H, Dai F, Yu L, She X, Zhao Y, Jiang J, Chen X, Zhao S (2002). " ...

*Human body

"Gene Expression , Learn Science at Scitable". www.nature.com. Retrieved 2017-07-29. "tissue - definition of tissue in English ... Proteins dictate cell function and gene expression, a cell is able to self-regulate by the amount of proteins produced. However ...

*MYH10

Lin VK, Wang D, Lee IL, Vasquez D, Fagelson JE, McConnell JD (Aug 2000). "Myosin heavy chain gene expression in normal and ... Weir L, Chen D (1997). "Characterization of the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIB promoter: regulation by E2F". Gene Expression ... Targeted gene disruption of NM-IIB resulted in approximately 65% embryonic lethality, and those that survived suffered from ... "Entrez Gene: MYH10 myosin, heavy chain 10, non-muscle". "Protein sequence of human MYH10 (Uniprot ID: P35580)". Cardiac ...

*John R. Lukacs

Lukacs is a professor in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Oregon in Eugene. His research focuses on physical ... Guatelli-Steinberg, D. and J.R. Lukacs (1998). Preferential expression of linear enamel hypoplasia on the sectorial premolars ... 1991). Localized enamel hypoplasia of human deciduous canine teeth: prevalence and pattern of expression in rural Pakistan. [ ...
Abstract: Interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene regulation was investigated in primary cultures of highly purified human peripheral blood CD28+T cells. Two discrete mechanisms for induction of T-cell proliferation could be distinguished by examining cell cycle progression and the expression of the IL-2 gene. Stimulation of cells by CD3 MoAb induced only transiently expressed, small amounts of IL-2 mRNA that was completely suppressed by cyclosporine. Costimulation of T cells with CD3 MoAb and either CD28 MoAb or PMA, but not calcium ionophore, induced a 50-100-fold increased in IL-2 gene expression and secretion. High levels of IL-2 gene expression could also be achieved by stimulation with calcium ionophore and PMA or CD28 MoAb and PMA, but not by CD28 MoAb plus calcium ionophore. IL-2 gene expression and T-cell proliferation induced by CD3 MoAb plus PMA or calcium ionophore plus PMA were completely suppressible by cyclosporine. In contrast, IL-2 gene expression and T-cell proliferation induced by CD28 MoAb ...
Read "SINC-seq: correlation of transient gene expressions between nucleus and cytoplasm reflects single-cell physiology, Genome Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
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Effect of in vivo gene expression knockdown on neuroblast migration in the olfactory bulb. The RMS within the olfactory bulb (bRMS) is visible as more intensely
What is meant by gene expression? Gene expression refers to genes being turned on and producing a product. The product could be an enzyme, a structural protein, or a control molecule. Studies of gene expression typically measure the production of mRNA. Most mechanisms that control gene expression do so by controlling transcription, the synthesis of mRNA. However there are other mechanisms for controlling the rate of protein synthesis that occur downstream (between transcription and translation). Several of these are described in this animation. View the animation below, then complete the quiz to test your knowledge of the concept.. ...
Determining gene expression on a single pair of microarrays. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Genomes contain all the genetic information needed by an organism, regardless of the circumstance or environment. Generally, however, even single-cell organisms use only a fraction of their genome at any time; that is, cells generally express only a fraction of their genome at any given time. This is especially true among the individual cells that make up multicellular organisms, where cell specialization (differentiation) dictates that only certain genes be expressed in certain cells, and only at particular times during the organisms life span.. ...
Process of gene expression entails plasmid DNA or mRNA delivery to specific cells and is a technique routinely utilized in labs to study a gene of interest or a signaling pathway. Gene expression usually allows transient protein production, but in some cases stable integration into a genome and continuous protein production over time is required.
Gene Expression Macro Version 1.1 Instructions Rev B 1 Bio-Rad Gene Expression Macro Users Guide 2004 Bio-Rad Laboratories Table of Contents: Introduction Opening
Is a useful technique for acquiring the gene expression pattern of a number of selected genes due to its high sensitivity, specificity and broad quantification
The answer, though, is differences in gene expression in a cell. Clones have identical DNA, but the way the DNA is transcribed to RNA, and the way the RNA is translated to making a protein, can be specific to the cell. There are epigenetic factors - basically, chemicals that adhere to certain parts of the genome - that dictate NOT whether the DNA is there, but how often the DNA is read to make RNA and how efficiently that is made into functional proteins. Think about a fertilized egg. It divides into two cells, then 4 cells, then 8 cells, then 16 cells, then 32 cells, etc. Every time the cell divides, it has to make a perfect copy of its DNA. The cell machinery isnt always perfect and little changes in DNA can occur. Also, those chemicals that can affect gene expression can get added or subtracted as cells divide. Many of them, however, are passed on to the daughter cells. Thats how identical cells can have different levels of gene expression, and how people and horses and dogs with identical ...
Akhilesh Bajpai, Sravanthi Davuluri and Acharya KK* (*Correspondence: [email protected]), A comparative account of gene expression resources, feature-validations and application-based categorizations; In: Startbioinfo; 12 Oct 2011, http://www.startbioinfo.com/gene-expression/" ...
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An expression system refers to the factors that work together to yield a particular gene product such as a protein, ribozyme or RNA particle.
Effect of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) supplementation onperformance, immunity and HSP70 gene expression in broilerchicken during hot-dry summer
I am fascinated by a fundamental question in biology; How is regulation of gene expression as a response to external stimulus achieved? My laboratory
Chapter 18 Regulation of Gene Expression Gene Regulation Is Necessary By switching genes off when they are not needed, cells can prevent resources from being wasted. There should be natural selection
Im just not quite sure the answer to this. When we talk about epigenetics and gene expression, does it not matter if we have snps or not? For...
Genotyping & gene expression full services from Eurofins Genomics . Wide range of platforms and assays available ** Call +49 8092 8289-0
Telencephalic and diencephalic gene expression in the fgf16 morphants.The expression of emx1 (A, B), tbr1 (C, D), dlx2 (E, F), pax6a (G, H), and shh (I, J) in w
This function will fit smooth spline curves for the gene expression dynamics along pseudotime in a gene-wise manner and return the corresponding response matrix. This function is build on other functions (fit_models and responseMatrix) and used in calILRs and calABCs functions
I dont have a TV because it seems such a time sink. Nevertheless, over the past few years Ive felt the creep of media convergence. Now I found this site, not quite as bad as channel surfing...but its getting there ...
Sources tell TMZ the network has told the cast if they dont accept MTVs deal by the end of business Monday, they will be replaced. And, MTV has told them it does not have to be a package deal -- the cast members who accept the offer will stay ... those who do not can have a nice life ...
The Workshop on Evolutionary Tinkering in Gene Expression which was held at the end of August 1988. was planned to celebrate 20 successful Advanced Study Institutes (A. S. I.) in Molecular and Cell
BACKGROUND: Although, systematic analysis of gene annotation is a powerful tool for interpreting gene expression data, it sometimes is blurred by incomplete gene annotation, missing expression response of key genes and secondary gene expression responses. These shortcomings may be partially circumvented by instead matching gene expression signatures to signatures of other experiments. FINDINGS: To facilitate this we present the Functional Association Response by Overlap (FARO) server, that match input signatures to a compendium of 242 gene expression signatures, extracted from more than 1700 Arabidopsis microarray experiments. CONCLUSIONS: Hereby we present a publicly available tool for robust characterization of Arabidopsis gene expression experiments which can point to similar experimental factors in other experiments. The server is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/faro ...
Researchers use DNA microarrays, or gene chips, to distinguish among different types of tissues based on the expression patterns of thousands of genes. A new study says the technology can be modified to profile more tissue samples simultaneously and with greater efficiency. The innovation is called an array of arrays. Gene expression profiles are typically obtained one at a time by hybridizing a single tissue sample to a single array on an individual glass slide. The integrated device described in the study is a glass wafer that includes 49 individual oligonucleotide arrays arranged as a 7 × 7 array of arrays. David J. Lockhart and colleagues at the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, in San Diego, California, developed a way to hybridize many tissue samples to multiple arrays on a single glass slide, or wafer. Using this and other modifications, they completed a study of gene expression in ovarian cancer in a single experiment. This was done in a fraction of the time and ...
Quantitative gene expression analysis aims to define the gene expression patterns determining cell behavior. So far, these assessments can only be performed at the population level. Therefore, they determine the average gene expression within a population, overlooking possible cell-to-cell heterogeneity that could lead to different cell behaviors/cell fates. Understanding individual cell behavior requires multiple gene expression analyses of single cells, and may be fundamental for the understanding of all types of biological events and/or differentiation processes. We here describe a new reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approach allowing the simultaneous quantification of the expression of 20 genes in the same single cell. This method has broad application, in different species and any type of gene combination. RT efficiency is evaluated. Uniform and maximized amplification conditions for all genes are provided. Abundance relationships are maintained, allowing the ...
Gene Expression Analysis Market-[By Technology (DNA Microarray, Real-Time PCR, Next Generation Sequencing), By Consumables (DNA chips, Reagents), By Services (Gene Profiling, Bioinformatics, Data Analysis Software) & Applications]-Global Forecast to 2018. The global gene expression analysis market is witnessing a significant growth and will continue to do so in the next five years. The factors contributing to this growth are increased funding scenario worldwide, increased government involvement, developments in research for diseases like cancer, and the use of gene expression in drug discovery and personalized medicine. The Asian region is projected to have the highest growth rate with growth hinged at China, India, and Japan. Apart from Asia, countries such as Turkey, Brazil, and South Africa too have a high projected growth.. In the Asian region, China is the genomic leader. China has cultivated a favorable condition to support gene expression analysis growth. From its humble beginning in 1999 ...
It is gene expression that defines a cells identity. Science, Sciences Science of Aging Knowledge Environment (SAGE KE), and Sciences STKE focus attention on the highly dynamic nature of gene expression. Mechanisms governing selective gene expression in multigene families, as well as those by which cis- and trans-acting factors contribute to regulation of gene expression, are topics under discussion. In addition, new methodologies allow researchers to gain insight into gene expression at the level of single cells and provide a glimpse at the real-time interactions among proteins and DNA.. ...
Inflammation involves timed gene expression, suggesting that the fine-tuned onset, amplitude, and termination of expression of hundreds of genes is of critical importance to organismal homeostasis. Recent study of post-transcriptional regulation of inflammatory gene expression led to the suggestion of a regulatory role for pre-mRNA splicing. Here, using a hybrid capture approach to purify incompletely spliced, chromatin-associated pre-mRNAs, we use deep sequencing to study pre-mRNA splicing of the NF-kB transcriptome. By freezing transcription and examining subsequent splicing of complete transcripts, we find many introns splice tens to hundreds of times slower than average. In many cases, this is attributable to poor splice donor sequences that are evolutionarily conserved. When these introns were altered by ~2 base pairs to yield stronger splice donors, gene expression levels increased markedly for several genes in the context of a reporter system. We propose that such splice sites represent a ...
The Gene Expression Metasignatures (GEMS) analysis tool was developed to allow researchers to determine a weighted consensus across multiple datasets for the regulation of a gene by acute (0-4 h) or chronic (24 h) treatment with 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells. GEMS was retired in November 2012. In its place we have developed a broader, large-scale differential gene expression tool for the nuclear receptor signaling research community, Transcriptomine. Transcriptomine collates omics-scale differential gene expression studies across the nuclear receptor and coregulator signaling field into a single analysis tool, allowing researchers to detect patterns across multiple datasets. A large number of 17beta-estradiol MCF-7 datasets have been uploaded to the database, including all those originally in GEMS. These can currently be viewed as individual fold changes.. ...
The primary goal of the study is to measure in the intact human heart, the alterations in gene expression over time that are associated with reverse remodeling in response to β-blockade. The second goal is to investigate the signaling mechanisms which in turn are responsible for these changes in gene expression, and the third goal is to determine the relationship between intrinsic systolic dysfunction and remodeling of the left ventricle. This will be accomplished by measuring ventricular size, function, and gene expression in myocardial tissue samples obtained by percutaneous biopsy prior to initiation of β-blockade and at 3 and 12 months after start of therapy. The specific Aims and Hypotheses to be tested are:. ...
The edge package implements methods for carrying out differential expression analyses of genome-wide gene expression studies. Significance testing using the optimal discovery procedure and generalized likelihood ratio tests (equivalent to F-tests and t-tests) are implemented for general study designs. Special functions are available to facilitate the analysis of common study designs, including time course experiments. Other packages such as snm, sva, and qvalue are integrated in edge to provide a wide range of tools for gene expression analysis.
Relative gene expression analysis requires precise, powerful and cutting edge technology called Real Time PCR, that is being utilized today by many research laboratories around the world.
Seker, H. (2004) A Multi-Fuzzy Filtering Approach to Reliable Gene Expression Profile Analysis. Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, October 2004, pp. 37-40 ...
View Notes - Gene Expression from BIOL 101 at UNC. Gene Expression/Test 3 Tuesday, March 03, 2009 9:30 AM 1. Helicase molecule o Protein made on ribosome o In cytoplasm. Sometime cell needs sometime
An important new study has revealed the clearest picture yet of precisely how much measurement variation influences gene expression profiles of breast cancer.
The ability of cells to control the expression of genes is important for cell survival. Nutrients can alter the gene expression that controls levels of bioactive proteins. Herbs alter gene activity in various ways. Gene transcription, the most important, is the initial step in gene expression. The pregnane X receptor (PXR receptor) is the target […]. View Post ...
TimesVector is a triclustering tool for clustering time-series data that comprises multiple conditions, or phenotypes. It identifies gene clusters that exhibit distinctly similar or different gene expression patterns among the comparing sample conditions. For example, for a time-series data set of five different strains of yeast, each data sampled at 3 time points, TimesVector will search for gene clusters where a specific strain shows a distinctively different gene expression pattern from the others.. As an example result, 33 genes in cluster 25 were significantly induced at day 5 (D5) during fermentation, only in the DV10 yeast strain (data from GSE11651) ...
The secretory protein Reg3γ (also known as PAP III) is expressed in several tissues, and its expression is induced in various injuries and inflammatory conditions in gastrointestinal tract (Iovanna et al. 1992; Ogawa et al. 2003), skeletal muscle (Klasan et al. 2014) as well as in central and peripheral nervous system (Namikawa et al. 2005, 2006; Ampo et al. 2009; Kawahara et al. 2011; Klasan et al. 2014). However, almost nothing is known about cardiac Reg3γ gene expression, although increased Reg3γ expression has been repeatedly identified in cardiac gene expression profiling screens (Rysä et al. 2005; Tenhunen et al. 2006a; Watanabe et al. 2008; Liu et al. 2009). In this study, we are first to characterize the expression and regulation of Reg3γ in the heart. We found that Reg3γ gene expression is rapidly up‐regulated by post‐MI remodeling and Ang II in the adult rat heart in vivo. We showed that losartan treatment reduced left ventricular Reg3γ gene expression levels activated by ...
The general goal of the technique is similar to the DNA microarray. However, SAGE is a sequence-based sampling technique. Observations are not based on hybridization, which result in more qualitative, digital values. In addition, the mRNA sequences do not need to be known a priori, so genes or gene variants which are not known can be discovered. Microarray experiments are much cheaper to perform, so large-scale studies do not typically use SAGE. Quantifying gene expressions is more exact in SAGE because it involves directly counting the number of transcripts whereas spot intensities in microarrays fall in non-discrete gradients and are prone to background noise. ...
Renal Tissue Thawed for 30 Minutes Is Still Suitable for Gene Expression Analysis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
BioXpedias Technologies for Gene Expression Profiling offers RNA analyses of samples, using technologies that are time-, cost-, and sample-effective.
Gene expression analysis market will surpass more than US$ 4,500 million revenues towards the end of the forecast period, 2017-2022.
The RNAscope® and BaseScope™ ISH assays can both be applied as methods to detect gene expression with morphological context in a multitude of mouse models.
Use tetracycline for reversible and efficient spatiotemporal control of gene expression. This on-demand gene induction mimics disease onset and progression.
The course Epigenetic Control of Gene Expression by Dr Marnie Blewitt from University of Melbourne will be offered free of charge to everyone on the Coursera platform. Sign up at http://www.coursera.org/course/epigenetics.
Our dedicated gene expression workflow allows you to analyze any sample with the highest standards of sensitivity and specificity, so you can have confidence in your data. Our workflow offers you options for specific and sensitive quantification, regardless of the type of RNA you work with or transcript abundance, as well as streamlined procedures so you gain real insights faster ...
View Notes - Chapter 16 from BIO GENETIC at FAU. Chapter 16 Control of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes General Principles Bacterial cells respond to their environment Rapid changes in
Researchers have mapped primate gene expression throughout the day and discovered that the majority of critical gene activity is time dependent, which may aid the development of new treatments for many diseases.
A tumor-suppressing protein acts as a dimmer switch to dial down gene expression. It does this by reading a chemical message attached to another protein thats tightly intertwined with DNA, a team led by scientists at The ...
With the advent of more sophisticated methods of detecting changes in gene expression, it has become clear that many responses to plant hormones operate through up- and down-regulation of specific genes.
Modulation of "enhancer-directed RNAs" or "eRNAs" could provide a new way to alter gene expression in living cells, perhaps affecting the development or pathology of many diseases.
A schematic model composed of a basic signal transduction unit and one gene is presented. The regulation of the signaling pathway by gene expression patter
In gene expression when exposed to CO2 elevated to 560 mmolmol21. The expression of 4600 expressed sequence tags in poplar have been investigated by Gupta et
Browse Full Report @ https://www.reportsandmarkets.com/reports/1208329-global-gene-expression-analysis-market-growth-trends-forecasts-2017-2022 Gene expres
Looks at Alzheimers disease as a way to study modern molecular techniques applied to medicine. Covers human biology and cell functions.
A reader pointed me to an article, Aryan-Dravidian divide a myth: Study. Some of the authors of the paper I reviewed today (actually, I wrote the post yesterday and put it in schedule) had some interesting things to say: The great Indian divide along north-south lines now stands blurred. A pathbreaking study by Harvard and…. ...
In the 10 Questions for A.W.F. Edwards, a mathematical geneticist, he was asked: Like Fisher you have worked in both statistics and genetics. How do you see the relationship between them, both in your own work and more generally? Edwards responded in part: Genetical statistics has changed fundamentally too: our problem was the paucity of…. ...
In the present study, we examined the gene expression profile of 25 IGHV4-34 patients including subset #4, #16 and non-subset 4/16 cases. Initially, we compared the gene expression profiles between subset #4 and non-subset 4/16 patients and between subset #16 patients and non-subset 4/16 patients, and detected only few significant differences. This is probably because, overall, non-subset 4/16 IGHV4-34 cases exhibited a more heterogeneous gene expression profile, likely reflecting the structural heterogeneity of their BCR, which would be expected to be responsive to a far wider range of antigens than that recognized by stereotyped subsets. Interestingly, however, we detected distinct differences in gene expression patterns when comparing subset #4 and #16 cases, both of which can be reliably defined at the molecular level based on subset-specific VH CDR3 and subset-biased features of somatic hypermutation.8 This finding is supported by the recent observation that stereotyped subset cases have ...
Abstract: In this work, I focus on the development and testing of tools to explore differential gene expression as a molecular mechanism underlying the predisposition to complex disease. By definition, complex diseases (e.g. hypertension, diabetes, asthma) demonstrate both environmental and genetic factors in disease susceptibility, implicating genes that show both environmental response and genetic variability in predisposing disease. Differential gene expression is one important cellular response that reflects both of these factors in complex disease. Given their combined genetic and environmental influences, complex diseases are studied using a variety of analytical approaches. Consequently, the integration of data from diverse sources is a significant and important challenge in modern biomedical science. I demonstrate a statistical approach to integrating differential gene expression and genetic linkage data from multiple sources to reveal candidate genes, metabolic pathways, and DNA ...
... Future Conference: GENE EXPRESSION 2018; GENE EXPRESSION 2019; GENE EXPRESSION 2020;
The advent of experimental techniques for the time-course monitoring of gene expression at the single-cell level has paved the way to the model-based study of gene expression variability within- and across-cells. A number of approaches to the inference of models accounting for variability of gene expression over isogenic cell populations have been developed and applied to real-world scenarios. The development of a systematic approach for the validation of population models is however lagging behind, and accuracy of the models obtained is often assessed on a semi-empirical basis. In this paper we study the problem of validation of models of gene network dynamics for cell populations, providing statistical tools for qualitative and quantitative model validation and comparison, and guidelines for their application and interpretation based on a real biological case study.
NDSUs next Science Café will explore the topic of gene expression analysis. Megan Orr, assistant professor of statistics, is scheduled to present Increasing the power of the test: An introduction to gene expression analysis and false discovery rate Tuesday, March 10, at 7 p.m. in Stokers Basement, Hotel Donaldson in Fargo. Its free and open to the public. According to the abstract for Orrs presentation, the prevalence of high-dimensional data has skyrocketed in recent years because of advances in technology. This is especially true in experiments where mRNA transcripts, known as gene expressions, are measured for thousands of genes simultaneously. A goal in the analysis of these experiments is to identify genes that exhibit a change in mean expression levels across treatments. Orrs talk will focus on the analysis of gene expression data sets and illustrate why using traditional techniques is inappropriate. The false discovery rate, a common measure used to control for multiple testing ...
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that gene expression levels change with age. These changes are hypothesized to influence the aging rate of an individual. We analyzed gene expression changes with age in abdominal skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue and lymphoblastoid cell lines in 856 female twins in the age range of 39-85 years. Additionally, we investigated genotypic variants involved in genotype-by-age interactions to understand how the genomic regulation of gene expression alters with age.. RESULTS: Using a linear mixed model, differential expression with age was identified in 1,672 genes in skin and 188 genes in adipose tissue. Only two genes expressed in lymphoblastoid cell lines showed significant changes with age. Genes significantly regulated by age were compared with expression profiles in 10 brain regions from 100 postmortem brains aged 16 to 83 years. We identified only one age-related gene common to the three tissues. There were 12 genes that showed differential ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Life spanning murine gene expression profiles in relation to chronological and pathological aging in multiple organs. AU - Jonker, Martijs J.. AU - Melis, Joost P.M.. AU - Kuiper, Raoul V.. AU - van der Hoeven, Tessa V.. AU - Wackers, Paul F.K.. AU - Robinson, Joke. AU - van der Horst, Gijsbertus T.J.. AU - Dollé, Martijn E.T.. AU - Vijg, Jan. AU - Breit, Timo M.. AU - Hoeijmakers, Jan H.J.. AU - Van Steeg, Harry. PY - 2013/10/1. Y1 - 2013/10/1. N2 - Aging and age-related pathology is a result of a still incompletely understood intricate web of molecular and cellular processes. We present a C57BL/6J female mice in vivo aging study of five organs (liver, kidney, spleen, lung, and brain), in which we compare genome-wide gene expression profiles during chronological aging with pathological changes throughout the entire murine life span (13, 26, 52, 78, 104, and 130 weeks). Relating gene expression changes to chronological aging revealed many differentially expressed genes (DEGs), ...
Diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer are still mainly based on clinical, histological and immunohistochemical parameters, which are at best semi-quantitative [1, 2]. Recently, molecular characterization of breast cancer has greatly increased the understanding of biological pathways that are altered during neoplastic transformation. Molecular markers have a great impact on elucidating the biological variance within tumors, they allow new and more accurate classifications and they have the potential to improve diagnosis, estimation of prognosis and treatment decisions in individual patients [3-6].. Most gene expression studies are based on fresh frozen material which, in most instances, is not readily available, as surgical samples are usually fixed in formalin. Unfortunately, RNA derived from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) material is considerably fragmented and chemically modified, often impairing gene expression measurement using standard procedures. We developed a simple and ...
Biological tissues consist of various cell types that differentially contribute to physiological and pathophysiological processes. Determining and analyzing cell type-specific gene expression under diverse conditions is therefore a central aim of biomedical research. The present study compares gene expression profiles in whole tissues and isolated cell fractions purified from these tissues in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. The expression profiles of the whole tissues were compared to computationally reconstituted expression profiles that combine the expression profiles of the isolated cell fractions (macrophages, fibroblasts, and non-adherent cells) according to their relative mRNA proportions in the tissue. The mRNA proportions were determined by trimmed robust regression using only the most robustly-expressed genes (1/3 to 1/2 of all measured genes), i.e. those showing the most similar expression in tissue and isolated cell fractions. The relative mRNA proportions were
Fibroblasts play important roles in several cancers. It was hypothesized that cholangiocarcinoma (CCA)-associated fibroblasts (Cfs) differ from non-tumorigenic liver fibroblasts (Lfs) in their gene expression profiles resulting in the capability to promote cancer. Periostin (PN) is a multi-functional protein and has emerged as a promising marker for tumor progression. The role of PN in CCA, however, has not yet been explored. In this study, the gene expression profile of Cfs in comparison to Lfs was performed using oligonucleotide microarrays. The common- and unique-expressed genes in Cfs and the promising roles in cancer promotion and progression were determined. PN was markedly over-expressed in Cfs confirmed by real time RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry examination of a number of patients with intrahepatic CCA showed the expression of PN solely in stromal fibroblasts, but was expressed neither in cancer cells nor immune cells. Low to no expression of PN was observed in tissues
Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation. Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, respond to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources. Virtually any step of gene expression can be modulated, from transcriptional initiation, to RNA processing, and to the post-translational modification of a protein.. Gene regulation is essential for viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes as it increases the versatility and adaptability of an organism by allowing the cell to express protein when needed. Histone, DNA modifying enzymes and chromatin remodelling factors are major area to concentrate.. Relevant Conferences: Nucleic Acids Conferences , Biochemistry Conferences. 2ndInternational Conference on Transcriptomics, September 12-14, 2016 Philadelphia ...
Laboratory of Gene Expression (http://www.ibt.cas.cz/vyzkum/laboratore/laborator-genove-exprese/) is looking for two PhD and MSc candidates with an expected starting date for summer/autumn 2018. Students will participate on projects focused on molecular and developmental biology.. Laboratory: The Laboratory of Gene Expression is a well-funded research laboratory with an excellent publication track record and comprise of researchers with unique scientific expertise. We focus on gene expression studies using a combination of up-to date techniques such as single cell expression profiling and NGS. We also utilize good biological models to help explain aspects of embryonic development, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer progression. The laboratory is located in the new state-of-the-art BIOCEV research center.. Qualification: Applicants should have a background in biochemistry, physiology, molecular or cell biology and bioinformatics. We seek a highly motivated, creative person, with strong ...
Gene expression profiling, including quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) and microarray experimentation, is invaluable for the molecular analysis of biological systems. The interpretation of results from such experiments (i.e., the determination of differential expression for a particular gene among datasets) is strongly influenced by the selection of reference genes for normalization across datasets [1]. Specifically, gene expression is normalized within a given dataset by calculating the transcript abundance of the gene of interest relative to a gene that is constantly expressed across independent datasets (termed a "housekeeping" or a "reference" gene), and differential expression between two datasets or samples is determined by calculating the ratio of the normalized expression levels for the gene of interest between the two datasets. Typically, housekeeping genes satisfy the following criteria: they are highly expressed in the cell, the variability in expression between samples is minimal, and the ...
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Many clustering techniques have been proposed for the analysis of gene expression data obtained from microarray experiments. However, choice of suitable method(s) for a given experimental dataset is not straightforward. Common approaches do not translate well and fail to take account of the data profile. This review paper surveys state of the art applications which recognise these limitations and addresses them. As such, it provides a framework for the evaluation of clustering in gene expression analyses. The nature of microarray data is discussed briefly. Selected examples are presented for clustering methods considered.
In recent years, the maturation of microarray technology has allowed the genome-wide analysis of gene expression patterns to identify tissue-specific and ubiquitously expressed (housekeeping) genes. We have performed a functional and topological analysis of housekeeping and tissue-specific networks to identify universally necessary biological processes, and those unique to or characteristic of particular tissues. We measured whole genome expression in 31 human tissues, identifying 2374 housekeeping genes expressed in all tissues, and genes uniquely expressed in each tissue. Comprehensive functional analysis showed that the housekeeping set is substantially larger than previously thought, and is enriched with vital processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis, translation and energy metabolism. Network topology of the housekeeping network was characterized by higher connectivity and shorter paths between the proteins than the global network. Ontology enrichment scoring
Quantitative gene expression analysis aims to define the gene expression patterns determining cell behavior. So far, these assessments can only be performed at the population level. Therefore, they determine the average gene expression within a population, overlooking possible cell-to-cell heterogeneity that could lead to different cell behaviors/cell fates. Understanding individual cell behavior requires multiple gene expression analyses of single cells, and may be fundamental for the understanding of all types of biological events and/or differentiation processes. We here describe a new reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approach allowing the simultaneous quantification of the expression of 20 genes in the same single cell. This method has broad application, in different species and any type of gene combination. RT efficiency is evaluated. Uniform and maximized amplification conditions for all genes are provided. Abundance relationships are maintained, allowing the ...
Gene expression functions as a key pillar of the molecular biology market as multiple molecular biology techniques have been used extensively to study gene expression and gene quantification. Molecular biology techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR); nucleotide sequencing, including next-
Total RNA was purified from the lungs of C57BL/6 mice that were sensitized and challenged with either PBS (2 mice) or CRA (3 mice). RNA was extracted using the RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen), and cDNA was synthesized from 1 µl of the extracted RNA using Superscript II RT enzyme (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturers protocol. Two microliters of the reverse transcription reaction (equivalent to 20 ng total RNA per 20 µl qPCR reaction) were used for qPCR with SYBR Premix Ex Taq II according to the recommended protocol. qPCR reactions were run in triplicate using probes for mouse IL-4 and GAPDH on an Applied Biosystems 7500 Real-Time PCR System. The relative gene expression level of IL-4 was determined using the delta/delta Ct method.. Buy SYBR Premix Ex Taq II (Tli RNaseH Plus) ,,. ...
Relapsed pediatric B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) remains as the leading cause of cancer death among children. Other than stem cell transplantation and intensified chemotherapy, no other improved treatment strategies have been approved clinically. Gene expression profiling represents a powerful approach to identify potential biomarkers and new therapeutic targets for various diseases including leukemias. However, inadequate sample size in many individual experiments has failed to provide adequate study power to yield translatable findings. With the hope of getting new insights into the biological mechanisms underpinning relapsed ALL and identifying more promising biomarkers or therapeutic targets, we conducted a meta-analysis of gene expression studies involving ALL from 3 separate studies. By using the keywords
Discussion. Study design. In this study, we describe the analysis of 22K gene expression profiles of macular and peripheral RPE cells. There have been a number of other published studies that had a similar research question but employed different methodologies [8,17-21]. However, all of these studies suffered from one or more relative weaknesses in terms of sample selection, RPE cell handling, target selection, as well as microarray- or bioinformatics methods. Our aim was to avoid these limitations as much as possible (Table 5 and Table 6).. While the number of samples we used was limited, our entire strategy was focused on reduction of gene expression differences between individual eyes. In this study, we detected only consistent differences, more or less present in the RPE of each individual eye. We neither detected transient gene expression differences nor potential differences which co-occurred with high interindividual variation. The complexity of our material was greatly reduced by ...
Question Bank of how to study regulation of gene expression for Job Interview, Quiz and Exam Paper. Check out list of related category & how to study regulation of gene expression topics frequently asked. Also used to find Semantic keywords for Blogging or writing articles on how to study regulation of gene expression .
Large amounts of information generated by gene expression profiling will increase implementation of data management tools Gene expression profiling can...
The spatial information associated with gene expression is important for elucidating the context-dependent transcriptional regulation during development. Recently, high-resolution sampling approaches, such as RNA tomography or single-cell RNA-seq combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), have provided indirect ways to view global gene expression patterns in three dimensions. Now in situ sequencing technologies, such as fluorescent in situ sequencing (FISSEQ), are attempting to visualize the genetic signature directly in microscope images. This article will examine the basic principle of modern in situ and single-cell genetic methods, hurdles in quantifying intrinsic and extrinsic forces that influence cell decision-making, and technological requirements for making a visual map of gene regulation, form, and function. Successfully addressing these challenges will be essential for investigating the functional evolution of regulatory sequences during growth, development, and cancer ...
Continuing on, Sams reference of gene atlases, both for non-coding RNA and protein encoding RNA in his videos is anything but irrelevant. A friend of mine who is a veterinarian and biologist explained to me exactly why this is, and so I will reword her response here. Simply put, gene expression charts show the default frequency at which a gene synthesizes proteins in different parts of the body. Gene expression levels are used by scientists as a means of accurately predicting how a particular gene affects the observable traits, or phenotypes, of whatever organism you are monitoring - the case in point being humans, although there is genomic expression data for rats and mice as well for MAO-A. Gene expression can offer predictions for what phenotypes are expressed as a result of protein synthesis from a particular gene, and to what extent. If this particular enzyme shows high gene expression in the liver, but low expression in the brain, then it is justifiable to say that the greatest appearance ...
Answering these questions is key to understanding the complex interaction between a pathogen and its host, as well as to the development of better treatments or vaccines. QIAGEN offers a range of solutions for profiling pathogen gene expression. Our tools provide efficient mechanical disruption of difficult-to-lyse microbes, optimized chemistry for high yields of nucleic acids, and accurate qPCR-based gene expression analysis to facilitate and advance your research ...
Spatiotemporal gene expression is the activation of genes within specific tissues of an organism at specific times during development. Gene activation patterns vary widely in complexity. Some are straightforward and static, such as the pattern of tubulin, which is expressed in all cells at all times in life. Some, on the other hand, are extraordinarily intricate and difficult to predict and model, with expression fluctuating wildly from minute to minute or from cell to cell. Spatiotemporal variation plays a key role in generating the diversity of cell types found in developed organisms; since the identity of a cell is specified by the collection of genes actively expressed within that cell, if gene expression was uniform spatially and temporally, there could be at most one kind of cell. Consider the gene wingless, a member of the wnt family of genes. In the early embryonic development of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, or fruit fly, wingless is expressed across almost the entire ...
Eady, JJ, Wortley, GM, Wormstone, YM, Hughes, JC, Astley, SB, Foxall, RJ, Doleman, JF and Elliott, RM (2005) Variation in gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers ...
I would like to know about the level of gene expression in homozygote and heterozygote with respect to a transgenic loci and a wild type loci? I am under the impression that the level of gene expression in a homozygote and a heterozygote in the case of a dominant charcter is the same. Would somebody calrify me? Thanks, SATHYA ...
Buy and sell both new and used textbooks for 7.70 Regulation of Gene Expression at MIT Textbooks. Seminar examines basic principles of biological regulation of gene expression. Focuses on examples that underpin these principles, as well as those...
Citation Machine™ helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use. Cite your film / online video in Gene Expression Patterns format for free.
QIAGENs new solutions for gene expression analysis make it a comprehensive gamut of products high-quality RNA from any tissue type, sensitive quantitative…
begingroup$ yeah... Problem is that trad. analysis looks only at diffs. in exp. between groups. I have done this (anova problem) for the tissues, but I would in addition like an estimate of which genes are expressed above background in which tissues. Thought of doing this by comparing each gene to my background distribution on the same array, asking is this true gene expression value drawn from a distribution with same mean as false background genes?. I could do this, and get a p-value, but the tickle is that I have 3 arrays to ask this question for for each tissue, i.e. I will get 3 pvals for each gene $\endgroup$ - Nightwriter Jan 17 12 at 14:54 ...
Statistical methods for analysis of AF activity and gene expression data. Gene expression patterns for the NCI-60 cell lines were assessed using data from studies with HG-U133A Affymetrix chip. 4, 5 The HG-U133A chip, which comprises ∼22,215 probe sets, is part of a two-chip set (HG-U133A and HG-U133B) used for the NCI-60 in a collaboration with U. Scherf, D. Dolginow, and colleagues at Gene Logic, Inc. (Gaithersburg, MD). 6 The protocols for cell culture, cell harvests, and mRNA purification have been described previously ( 9). Gene expression data were normalized using the robust multiarray method in the R statistical package. The probe sets were filtered to delete those with very little pattern (i.e., SD ,0.2 log2 units) across the NCI-60 cell lines. A final list of 7,925 probe sets was obtained for analysis. AF drug activity against the NCI-60 panel was obtained from the Developmental Therapeutics Program screen with a selected set of 1,429 drugs that had been tested multiple times and ...
Lets talk about Epigenetics! The field of Epigenetics studies the different changes in organisms caused by the modification of gene expression rather than alteration in the genetic code itself. Now, you may be wondering how is this field relevant to you, your health and your everyday life style choices? Environmental factors such as your daily…
One common method for profiling the state of a cell is to measure levels of gene expression, the process by which the information within our genes is used to make a gene product. Cells control expression of genes as a way to adapt to their environment. Researchers at the LINCS Transcriptomics Center have released an updated version of the Connectivity Map (CMap) which now contains over 1.3 million gene expression profiles from treating numerous types of human cells with over 42,000 agents that disrupt cellular function (perturbagens). This extremely large set of data is based on the L1000 assay which allows for inexpensive and large-scale analysis of gene expression. CMap is a freely available public resource that any research scientist can use and already has more than 18,000 registered users. For example, researchers can gain insight regarding how a small-molecule drug works in a cell by determining the changes in gene expression it produces. Alternatively, they can find a molecule from all ...
Looking for online definition of differential gene expression in the Medical Dictionary? differential gene expression explanation free. What is differential gene expression? Meaning of differential gene expression medical term. What does differential gene expression mean?
This project is an investigation of whether analysing subsets of time series gene expression data can give additional information about putatively co-regulated genes, compared to only using the whole time series. The original gene expression data set was partitioned into subsets and similarity was computed for both the whole timed series and subsets. Pearson correlation was used as similarity measure between gene expression profiles. The results indicate that analysing co-expression in subsets of gene expression data derives true-positive connections, with respect to co-regulation, that are not detected by only using the whole time series data. Unfortunately, with the actual data set, chosen similarity measure and partitioning of the data, randomly generated connections have the same amount of true-positives as the ones derived by the applied analysis. However, it is worth to continue further analysis of the subsets of gene expression data, which is based on the multi-factorial nature of gene ...
In this study, we provide experimental evidence in favor of the hypothesis that PPARs are involved in the control of renin gene expression. We predicted a role for PPARs in the regulation of renin gene expression using a molecular approach. There was strong initial evidence supporting such a role.7,12 A functional DNA-binding site, similar to the consensus motif for PPARs, was detected in the conserved 5′-renin gene enhancer. The retinoic acid nuclear receptor RXRα, which is the typical interaction partner for PPARs, binds to the mouse renin gene enhancer. Lastly, vitamin A, which is the natural ligand of RXRs, was found to stimulate the transcription of the renin gene.. Renin gene expression is upregulated by cAMP in CaLu-6 cells through stabilization of renin mRNA, although transcriptional mechanisms are also involved.17,21 We provided several lines of evidence that PPARγ stimulates renin gene expression without affecting the stability of renin mRNA (Figures 1, 2, and 5⇑⇑; data not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of HOX gene expression patterns in human breast cancer. AU - Hur, Ho. AU - Lee, Ji Yeon. AU - Yun, Hyo Jung. AU - Park, Byeong Woo. AU - Kim, Myoung Hee. PY - 2014/1. Y1 - 2014/1. N2 - HOX genes are highly conserved transcription factors that determine the identity of cells and tissues along the anterior-posterior body axis in developing embryos. Aberrations in HOX gene expression have been shown in various tumors. However, the correlation of HOX gene expression patterns with tumorigenesis and cancer progression has not been fully characterized. Here, to analyze putative candidate HOX genes involved in breast cancer tumorigenesis and progression, the expression patterns of 39 HOX genes were analyzed using breast cancer cell lines and patient-derived breast tissues. In vitro analysis revealed that HOXA and HOXB gene expression occurred in a subtype-specific manner in breast cancer cell lines, whereas most HOXC genes were strongly expressed in most cell lines. Among the 39 ...
Purpose To determine whether optic nerve head (ONH) astrocytes, a key cellular component of glaucomatous neuropathy, exhibit differential gene expression in primary cultures of astrocytes from normal African American (AA) donors compared to astrocytes from normal Caucasian American (CA) donors. Methods We used oligonucleotide Affymetrix microarray (HG U133A & HG U133A 2.0 chips) to compare gene expression levels in cultured ONH astrocytes from twelve CA and twelve AA normal age matched donor eyes. Chips were normalized with Robust Microarray Analysis (RMA) in R using Bioconductor. Significant differential gene expression levels were detected using mixed effects modeling and Statistical Analysis of Microarray (SAM). Functional analysis and Gene Ontology were used to classify differentially expressed genes. Differential gene expression was validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Protein levels were detected by Western blots and ELISA. Cell adhesion and migration assays tested physiological responses.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Wogonin but not Nor-wogonin inhibits lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid-induced iNOS gene expression and NO production in macrophages. AU - Huang, Guan Cheng. AU - Chow, Jyh-Ming. AU - Shen, Shing-Chuan. AU - Yang, Liang-Yo. AU - Lin, Cheng-Wei. AU - Chen, Yen-Chou. PY - 2007/8. Y1 - 2007/8. N2 - Wogonin (Wog; 5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxy flavone) has been shown to effectively inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression and nitric oxide production in our previous study. In the present study, we found that Nor-wogonin (N-Wog; 5,7,8-trihydroxyl flavone), a structural analogue of Wog with an OH substitution at C8, performed different effect on LPS- or lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-induced iNOS gene expression and nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages. Wog, but not N-Wog, significantly inhibits LPS- or LTA-induced NO production through suppressing iNOS gene expression at both protein and mRNA without affecting NO donor sodium ...

The Flavonoid Quercetin Inhibits Proinflammatory Cytokine (Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha) Gene Expression in Normal Peripheral...The Flavonoid Quercetin Inhibits Proinflammatory Cytokine (Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha) Gene Expression in Normal Peripheral...

The Flavonoid Quercetin Inhibits Proinflammatory Cytokine (Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha) Gene Expression in Normal Peripheral ... The Flavonoid Quercetin Inhibits Proinflammatory Cytokine (Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha) Gene Expression in Normal Peripheral ... The Flavonoid Quercetin Inhibits Proinflammatory Cytokine (Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha) Gene Expression in Normal Peripheral ... The Flavonoid Quercetin Inhibits Proinflammatory Cytokine (Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha) Gene Expression in Normal Peripheral ...
more infohttps://cvi.asm.org/content/13/3/319.abstract

Altered mRNA Expression of Genes Involved in Endocannabinoid Signalling in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral TongueAltered mRNA Expression of Genes Involved in Endocannabinoid Signalling in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tongue

Among genes coding for eCB catabolic enzymes, expression of MGLL was lower in tumour tissue while PTGS2 was increased. It is ... Altered mRNA Expression of Genes Involved in Endocannabinoid Signalling in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tongue. ... expression of genes coding for the components of the eCB system in tumour and non-malignant samples from SCCOT patients. ... Expression of NAPEPLD and PLA2G4E, coding for eCB anabolic enzymes, was higher in the tumour tissue than in non-malignant ...
more infohttp://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:1373491&language=sv

Template:Gene expression - WikipediaTemplate:Gene expression - Wikipedia

Gene expression,state=autocollapse}}. *shows the template collapsed to the title bar if there is a {{navbar}}. , a {{sidebar}} ... Gene expression,state=collapsed}}. to show the template collapsed, i.e., hidden apart from its title bar ... Gene expression,state=expanded}}. to show the template expanded, i.e., fully visible ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Gene_expression&oldid=890919518" ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:Gene_expression

Gene expression profiling - WikipediaGene expression profiling - Wikipedia

... gene expression profiling is the measurement of the activity (the expression) of thousands of genes at once, to create a global ... Gene set analysis demonstrated several major advantages over individual gene differential expression analysis.[17][18] Gene ... Categorizing regulated genes[edit]. Having identified some set of regulated genes, the next step in expression profiling ... Finding patterns among regulated genes[edit]. Ingenuity Gene Network Diagram[23] which dynamically assembles genes with known ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gene_expression_profiling

Neandertal - Gene ExpressionNeandertal - Gene Expression

Gene Expression. Tag archives for Neandertal. Apartheid of Iberian Neandertals & modern humans. Posted by Razib Khan on March ...
more infohttp://scienceblogs.com/gnxp/tag/neandertal/

Security - Gene ExpressionSecurity - Gene Expression

Gene Expression. Tag archives for Security. 123456 most common password?. Posted by Razib Khan on January 21, 2010 ...
more infohttp://scienceblogs.com/gnxp/tag/security/

gene expression | PNASgene expression | PNAS

The gene regulatory program of Acrobeloides nanus reveals conservation of phylum-specific expression Philipp H. Schiffer, ... Activity-dependent aberrations in gene expression and alternative splicing in a mouse model of Rett syndrome Sivan Osenberg, ... Minor zygotic gene activation is essential for mouse preimplantation development Ken-ichiro Abe, Satoshi Funaya, Dai Tsukioka, ... dCas9-targeted locus-specific protein isolation method identifies histone gene regulators Chiahao Tsui, Carla Inouye, Michaella ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/taxonomy/term/6729

gene expression dynamics | PNASgene expression dynamics | PNAS

Universal method for robust detection of circadian state from gene expression Rosemary Braun, William L. Kath, Marta Iwanaszko ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/keyword/gene-expression-dynamics

Gene Expression MechanismGene Expression Mechanism

Gene expression is the process by which DNA is used to make proteins, which then go on to perform various important functions ... The process of gene expression includes the following steps:. *Transcription - Transcription is the process by which a segment ... Gene expression is the process by which DNA is used to make proteins, which then go on to perform various important functions ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Gene-Expression-Mechanism.aspx

Gene Expression SystemGene Expression System

An expression system refers to the factors that work together to yield a particular gene product such as a protein, ribozyme or ... In this sense, every cell in the human body is an expression system. However, the term usually refers to gene expression in the ... These configurations help form the expression system of the cell by regulating DNA replication and gene expression. Some of ... The expression system is made up of a gene, which is encoded by DNA, and the machinery needed to make mRNA from the DNA and ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Gene-Expression-System.aspx

Cardiac Gene Expression | SpringerLinkCardiac Gene Expression | SpringerLink

Methods and Protocols presents both cutting-edge and established methods for studying cardiac gene expression. The protocols ... and analyzing changes in transcriptome gene expression. Section II, Cardiac Gene Regulation: Gene-Specific mRNA Measurement in ... DNA In silico Microarray PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction Promoter SNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism gene expression gene ... Cardiac Gene Expression: Methods and Protocols presents both cutting-edge and established methods for studying cardiac gene ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-59745-030-0

Gene Expression | SpringerLinkGene Expression | SpringerLink

The control of gene expression is a central-most topic in molecular biology as it deals with the utilization and regulation ... This book is the first volume in a new series Progress in Gene Expres- sion. ... This book is the first volume in a new series Progress in Gene Expres- sion. The control of gene expression is a central-most ... Although regulation of gene ex- pression is exerted at many different levels, much of the emphasis in this series will be on ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-1-4684-6811-3

Exploring Microarray Gene Expression DataExploring Microarray Gene Expression Data

Identifying Differential Gene Expression You can now compare the gene expression values between two groups of data: CNS ... Use the following techniques to filter out these genes.. Remove gene expression data with empty gene symbols (in this example, ... Therefore an up-regulated gene in this example has higher expression in MD, and down-regulated gene has higher expression in ... Ctrl-click genes in the gene lists to label the genes in the plot. As seen in the volcano plot, genes specific for neuronal ...
more infohttps://www.mathworks.com/examples/bioinfo/mw/bioinfo_product-cnsgeneexpdemo-exploring-microarray-gene-expression-data

Gene expression - ConservapediaGene expression - Conservapedia

Genes are segments of DNA that contain the information required to make a protein. Gene expression refers to all the processes ... Gene expression is the process by which a DNA sequence yields a functional product such as, for example, protein.[1] If the DNA ... The size of introns is species-specific: yeasts have very few, some human genes can have 50 in a single gene! Typically there ... What happens to all this excess RNA? Eukaryotic genes (and some Archaeal gene) contain internal junk (discovered in 1977). ...
more infohttps://www.conservapedia.com/index.php?title=Gene_expression

Tomatoes! - Gene ExpressionTomatoes! - Gene Expression

Gene Expression. This blog is about evolution, genetics, genomics and their interstices. Please beware that comments are ... GLK overexpression enhanced fruit photosynthesis gene expression and chloroplast development, leading to elevated carbohydrates ... Now, in a paper published in the journal Science, researchers report that the very gene that was inactivated by that mutation ... The unexpected culprit is a gene mutation that occurred by chance and that was discovered by tomato breeders. It was ...
more infohttp://blogs.discovermagazine.com/gnxp/2012/06/tomatoes/

Katz - Gene ExpressionKatz - Gene Expression

Gene Expression. This blog is about evolution, genetics, genomics and their interstices. Please beware that comments are ...
more infohttp://blogs.discovermagazine.com/gnxp/2009/06/katz-64/

Physical Biology of Gene Expression (PBGX)Physical Biology of Gene Expression (PBGX)

The main interest of our lab is to understand the physical basis underlying molecular mechanisms of gene expression. ...
more infohttps://sites.google.com/boisestate.edu/ferguson/physical-biology-of-gene-expression

Gene ExpressionGene Expression

Narrow Roads of Gene Land 1. Narrow Roads of Gene Land 2. Narrow Roads of Gene Land 3. Statistical Methods in Molecular ... Narrow Roads of Gene Land 1. Narrow Roads of Gene Land 2. Narrow Roads of Gene Land 3. Statistical Methods in Molecular ... The Math Gene. Explaining Culture. Origin and Evolution of Cultures. Dawn of Human Culture. The Origins of Virtue Prehistory of ... The Math Gene. Explaining Culture. Origin and Evolution of Cultures. Dawn of Human Culture. The Origins of Virtue Prehistory of ...
more infohttp://www.gnxp.com/blog/labels/Evolution%20of%20God.php

fertilityfertility

Narrow Roads of Gene Land 1. Narrow Roads of Gene Land 2. Narrow Roads of Gene Land 3. Statistical Methods in Molecular ... Narrow Roads of Gene Land 1. Narrow Roads of Gene Land 2. Narrow Roads of Gene Land 3. Statistical Methods in Molecular ... The Math Gene. Explaining Culture. Origin and Evolution of Cultures. Dawn of Human Culture. The Origins of Virtue Prehistory of ... The Math Gene. Explaining Culture. Origin and Evolution of Cultures. Dawn of Human Culture. The Origins of Virtue Prehistory of ...
more infohttp://www.gnxp.com/blog/labels/fertility.php

Gene Expression | Blood JournalGene Expression | Blood Journal

Locus control region activity by 5′HS3 requires a functional interaction with β-globin gene regulatory elements: expression of ... Interferon-gamma improves splicing efficiency of CYBB gene transcripts in an interferon-responsive variant of chronic ...
more infohttp://www.bloodjournal.org/collection/gene-expression?page=108&sso-checked=true

3D Gene Expression | Curriki3D Gene Expression | Curriki

Josh Dubnau introduces a technique for examining gene expression in the brains of fruit flies. ... 3D Gene Expression. Website Address:https://www.curriki.org/oer/3D-Gene-Expression-256766 ... Josh Dubnau introduces a technique for examining gene expression in the brains of fruit flies. ... Josh Dubnau introduces a technique for examining gene expression in the brains of fruit flies. ...
more infohttps://www.curriki.org/oer/3D-Gene-Expression-256766

Mitochondrial gene expression | EurekAlert! Science NewsMitochondrial gene expression | EurekAlert! Science News

REgulation of MItochondrial gene eXpression), an Innovation Training Network funded under the highly competitive Marie ... a program that will contribute to elucidating the molecular mechanisms and pathways that regulate mitochondrial gene expression ... Mitochondrial gene expression International team led by the researcher on aging Aleksandra Trifunovic from Cologne wins Marie ... "The complex nature of mitochondrial gene expression that relies on two different genomes calls for a multidisciplinary approach ...
more infohttps://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-05/uoc-mge051116.php

Plant Gene Expression Center : USDA ARSPlant Gene Expression Center : USDA ARS

The Plant Gene Expression Center is located in Albany, CA and is part of the Pacific West Area.. The Center Director is Sarah ... Characterization of Plant Architectural Genes in Maize for Increased Productivity * Conserved Genes and Signaling Networks that ... USDA-ARS, PLANT GENE EXP. CTR. 800 BUCHANAN STREET. Albany, CA 94710. ...
more infohttps://www.ars.usda.gov/pacific-west-area/albany-ca/pgec/

Dynamic Clustering of Gene ExpressionDynamic Clustering of Gene Expression

... Lingling An1 and R. W. Doerge2 ... By taking advantage of techniques and theories from time frequency analysis, periodic gene expression profiles are dynamically ... It is well accepted that genes are simultaneously involved in multiple biological processes and that genes are coordinated over ... Unfortunately, clustering methodologies that group genes for the purpose of novel gene discovery fail to acknowledge the ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2012/537217/abs/

Differential Gene Expression and AgingDifferential Gene Expression and Aging

Many genes are also subjected to age-dependent transcriptional regulation. Some age-related gene expression changes are ... Manipulating the expression of some age-regulated genes can extend an organisms life span. Remarkably, the activity of many ... Differential Gene Expression and Aging. Laurent Seroude Department of Biology, Biosciences Complex, Queens University, ... This review focuses on the genetic component of aging, with a special emphasis on differential gene expression. At least two ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2002/521405/abs/
  • At least two genetic pathways regulating organism longevity act by modifying gene expression. (hindawi.com)
  • While the paper is not terribly conclusive in its definition of genes or pathways involved, (partially I suspect because of the limited time points examined and the late point in the examinations), this paper does however point in a direction that is useful to the retinal degeneration community. (utah.edu)
  • This example shows how to identify differentially expressed genes from microarray data and uses Gene Ontology to determine significant biological functions that are associated to the down- and up-regulated genes. (mathworks.com)
  • Determining if changes in gene expression are statistically significant between different conditions, e.g. two different tumor types, and determining the biological function of the differentially expressed genes, are important aims in a microarray experiment. (mathworks.com)
  • Conceptual design of microarray‐based gene expression database ArrayExpress. (els.net)
  • Schena M, Shalon D, Davis RW and Brown PO (1995) Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray. (els.net)
  • Intervening there is an opportunity to arrest or slow down the retinal remodeling process to allow for interventions and understanding which genes are involved is a good first step. (utah.edu)
  • The finding of a discontinuous transgene expression gradient in 3 out of 3 transgenic lines with one of the constructs suggests the existence of a "topographical" regulatory element which defines spatial expression across the retina. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • the sequence tells us what the cell could possibly do, while the expression profile tells us what it is actually doing at a point in time. (wikipedia.org)
  • With respect to a gene, the two strands may be labeled the "template strand," which serves as a blueprint for the production of an RNA transcript, and the "coding strand," which includes the DNA version of the transcript sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Velculescu VE, Zhang L, Vogelstein B and Kinzler KW (1995) Serial analysis of gene expression. (els.net)
  • This will facilitate the generation of animal models of human disease and may have implications for future attempts towards gene therapy, particularly in light of the finding that mutations in the rhodopsin gene are responsible for some forms of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In genetics, gene expression is the most fundamental level at which the genotype gives rise to the phenotype, i.e. observable trait. (wikipedia.org)
  • In computer programming, gene expression programming (GEP) is an evolutionary algorithm that creates computer programs or models. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complex nature of mitochondrial gene expression that relies on two different genomes calls for a multidisciplinary approach in which different teams of researchers join forces. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the field of molecular biology , gene expression profiling is the measurement of the activity (the expression ) of thousands of genes at once, to create a global picture of cellular function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac Gene Expression: Methods and Protocols presents both cutting-edge and established methods for studying cardiac gene expression. (springer.com)
  • Section I, Cardiac Gene Expression Profiling: The Global Perspective, discusses several different approaches to examining, identifying, and analyzing changes in transcriptome gene expression. (springer.com)
  • Direct injection of DNA into mouse skeletal and cardiac muscle has been shown to result in muscle expression. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • While knowledge of the precise proteins a cell makes ( proteomics ) is more relevant than knowing how much messenger RNA is made from each gene, gene expression profiling provides the most global picture possible in a single experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression is the process by which DNA is used to make proteins, which then go on to perform various important functions in the body. (news-medical.net)
  • If the DNA is correctly "read" and its recipe precisely followed, the "right" proteins will be produced in the cell and the gene will have been "expressed. (conservapedia.com)
  • In gene expression programming the linear chromosomes work as the genotype and the parse trees as the phenotype, creating a genotype/phenotype system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Determine the number of genes and number of samples by accessing the number of rows and number of columns of the DataMatrix object respectively. (mathworks.com)
  • Determine the number of genes after filtering. (mathworks.com)
  • The virus invades a host cell and uses the cell's machinery as a system to generate viral gene products. (news-medical.net)
  • Some age-related gene expression changes are prevented by caloric restriction, the most robust intervention that slows down the aging process. (hindawi.com)
  • A popular approach to class discovery involves grouping similar genes or samples together using one of the many existing clustering methods such the traditional k-means or hierarchical clustering , or the more recent MCL and clust methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the expression data of all 42 samples in the dataset, extract the data of the 10 MD samples and the 10 Mglio samples. (mathworks.com)
  • Conduct a t-test for each gene to identify significant changes in expression values between the MD samples and Mglio samples. (mathworks.com)
  • In any test situation, two types of errors can occur, a false positive by declaring that a gene is differentially expressed when it is not, and a false negative when the test fails to identify a truly differentially expressed gene. (mathworks.com)
  • This means that the size of the coding regions varies from gene to gene, allowing for adaptation and evolution to occur smoothly. (wikipedia.org)