Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Two identical genes showing the same phenotypic action but localized in different regions of a chromosome or on different chromosomes. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Low-copy (2-50) repetitive DNA elements that are highly homologous and range in size from 1000 to 400,000 base pairs.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE).
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
A rare, slowly progressive disorder of myelin formation. Subtypes are referred to as classic, congenital, transitional, and adult forms of this disease. The classic form is X-chromosome linked, has its onset in infancy and is associated with a mutation of the proteolipid protein gene. Clinical manifestations include TREMOR, spasmus nutans, roving eye movements, ATAXIA, spasticity, and NYSTAGMUS, CONGENITAL. Death occurs by the third decade of life. The congenital form has similar characteristics but presents early in infancy and features rapid disease progression. Transitional and adult subtypes have a later onset and less severe symptomatology. Pathologic features include patchy areas of demyelination with preservation of perivascular islands (trigoid appearance). (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p190)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (INVERTED TANDEM REPEATS).
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
The asymmetrical segregation of genes during replication which leads to the production of non-reciprocal recombinant strands and the apparent conversion of one allele into another. Thus, e.g., the meiotic products of an Aa individual may be AAAa or aaaA instead of AAaa, i.e., the A allele has been converted into the a allele or vice versa.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
A genus of pufferfish commonly used for research.
A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.
A small aquatic oviparous mammal of the order Monotremata found in Australia and Tasmania.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A small order of primarily marine fish containing 340 species. Most have a rotund or box-like shape. TETRODOTOXIN is found in their liver and ovaries.
Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.
Common name for a family of eel-shaped jawless fishes (Myxinidae), the only family in the order MYXINIFORMES. They are not true vertebrates.
Animals that have no spinal column.
A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.
'Primates' is a taxonomic order comprising various species of mammals, including humans, apes, monkeys, and others, distinguished by distinct anatomical and behavioral characteristics such as forward-facing eyes, grasping hands, and complex social structures.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The only genus in the family Oryziinae, order BELONIFORMES. Oryzias are egg-layers; other fish of the same order are livebearers. Oryzias are used extensively in testing carcinogens.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.
Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
The only species of a cosmopolitan ascidian.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.
The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The parts of the gene sequence that carry out the different functions of the GENES.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.
The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A genus of parasitic nematodes that occurs in mammals including man. Infection in humans is either by larvae penetrating the skin or by ingestion of uncooked fish.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
The morning glory family of flowering plants, of the order Solanales, which includes about 50 genera and at least 1,400 species. Leaves are alternate and flowers are funnel-shaped. Most are twining and erect herbs, with a few woody vines, trees, and shrubs.
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
Group of fish under the superorder Acanthopterygii, separate from the PERCIFORMES, which includes swamp eels, mullets, sticklebacks, seahorses, spiny eels, rainbowfishes, and KILLIFISHES. The name is derived from the six taxa which comprise the group. (From http://www.nanfa.org/articles/Elassoma/elassoma.htm, 8/4/2000)
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
A receptor tyrosine kinase that is involved in HEMATOPOIESIS. It is closely related to FMS PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN and is commonly mutated in acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term referring to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual, which may be genetic or environmental in origin, and can affect various systems and organs of the body.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A group of ALKALOIDS, characterized by a nitrogen-containing necine, occurring mainly in plants of the BORAGINACEAE; COMPOSITAE; and LEGUMINOSAE plant families. They can be activated in the liver by hydrolysis of the ester and desaturation of the necine base to reactive electrophilic pyrrolic CYTOTOXINS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Family of slender threadlike aquatic plants, in the order CHARALES, phylum STREPTOPHYTA, that are closely related to LAND PLANTS.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac (CYSTS) that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the ESOPHAGUS region.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly herbaceous plants with peppery-flavored leaves, due to gluconapin (GLUCOSINOLATES) and its hydrolysis product butenylisotrhiocyanate. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans. Flowers have 4 petals. Podlike fruits contain a number of seeds. Cress is a general term used for many in the Brassicacea family. Rockcress is usually ARABIS; Bittercress is usually CARDAMINE; Yellowcress is usually RORIPPA; Pennycress is usually THLASPI; Watercress refers to NASTURTIUM; or RORIPPA or TROPAEOLUM; Gardencress refers to LEPIDIUM; Indiancress refers to TROPAEOLUM.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A genus of the family HYLOBATIDAE consisting of six species. The members of this genus inhabit rain forests in southeast Asia. They are arboreal and differ from other anthropoids in the great length of their arms and very slender bodies and limbs. Their major means of locomotion is by swinging from branch to branch by their arms. Hylobates means dweller in the trees. Some authors refer to Symphalangus and Nomascus as Hylobates. The six genera include: H. concolor (crested or black gibbon), H. hoolock (Hoolock gibbon), H. klossii (Kloss's gibbon; dwarf siamang), H. lar (common gibbon), H. pileatus (pileated gibbon), and H. syndactylus (siamang). H. lar is also known as H. agilis (lar gibbon), H. moloch (agile gibbon), and H. muelleri (silvery gibbon).
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.
A myelin protein that is the major component of the organic solvent extractable lipoprotein complexes of whole brain. It has been the subject of much study because of its unusual physical properties. It remains soluble in chloroform even after essentially all of its bound lipids have been removed. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 4th ed, p122)
A technique of operations research for solving certain kinds of problems involving many variables where a best value or set of best values is to be found. It is most likely to be feasible when the quantity to be optimized, sometimes called the objective function, can be stated as a mathematical expression in terms of the various activities within the system, and when this expression is simply proportional to the measure of the activities, i.e., is linear, and when all the restrictions are also linear. It is different from computer programming, although problems using linear programming techniques may be programmed on a computer.
A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. Members contain DEFICIENS PROTEIN.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the guanidine nitrogen of arginine in the presence of ATP and a divalent cation with formation of phosphorylarginine and ADP. EC 2.7.3.3.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The light chain subunits of clathrin.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.

The nuclear receptor superfamily has undergone extensive proliferation and diversification in nematodes. (1/2949)

The nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily is the most abundant class of transcriptional regulators encoded in the Caenorhabditis elegans genome, with >200 predicted genes revealed by the screens and analysis of genomic sequence reported here. This is the largest number of NR genes yet described from a single species, although our analysis of available genomic sequence from the related nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae indicates that it also has a large number. Existing data demonstrate expression for 25% of the C. elegans NR sequences. Sequence conservation and statistical arguments suggest that the majority represent functional genes. An analysis of these genes based on the DNA-binding domain motif revealed that several NR classes conserved in both vertebrates and insects are also represented among the nematode genes, consistent with the existence of ancient NR classes shared among most, and perhaps all, metazoans. Most of the nematode NR sequences, however, are distinct from those currently known in other phyla, and reveal a previously unobserved diversity within the NR superfamily. In C. elegans, extensive proliferation and diversification of NR sequences have occurred on chromosome V, accounting for > 50% of the predicted NR genes.  (+info)

Phytochrome D acts in the shade-avoidance syndrome in Arabidopsis by controlling elongation growth and flowering time. (2/2949)

Shade avoidance in higher plants is regulated by the action of multiple phytochrome (phy) species that detect changes in the red/far-red ratio (R/FR) of incident light and initiate a redirection of growth and an acceleration of flowering. The phyB mutant of Arabidopsis is constitutively elongated and early flowering and displays attenuated responses to both reduced R/FR and end-of-day far-red light, conditions that induce strong shade-avoidance reactions in wild-type plants. This indicates that phyB plays an important role in the control of shade avoidance. In Arabidopsis phyB and phyD are the products of a recently duplicated gene and share approximately 80% identity. We investigated the role played by phyD in shade avoidance by analyzing the responses of phyD-deficient mutants. Compared with the monogenic phyB mutant, the phyB-phyD double mutant flowers early and has a smaller leaf area, phenotypes that are characteristic of shade avoidance. Furthermore, compared with the monogenic phyB mutant, the phyB-phyD double mutant shows a more attenuated response to a reduced R/FR for these responses. Compared with the phyA-phyB double mutant, the phyA-phyB-phyD triple mutant has elongated petioles and displays an enhanced elongation of internodes in response to end-of-day far-red light. These characteristics indicate that phyD acts in the shade-avoidance syndrome by controlling flowering time and leaf area and that phyC and/or phyE also play a role.  (+info)

Inheritance of nuclear DNA markers in gynogenetic haploid pink salmon. (3/2949)

We describe the inheritance of 460 PCR-based loci in the polyploid-derived pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) genome using gynogenetic haploid embryos. We detected a length polymorphism in a growth hormone gene (GH-2) intron that is caused by an 81 bp insertion homologous to the 3' end of the salmonid short interspersed repetitive element (SINE) SmaI. Such insertion polymorphisms within species bring into question the use of SINEs as phylogenetic markers. We confirmed that a microsatellite locus encodes a PCR-null allele that is responsible for an apparent deficit of heterozygotes in a population sample from Prince William Sound. Another set of microsatellite primers amplified alleles of the same molecular weight from both loci of a duplicated pair. In our analysis of several PCR-based multilocus techniques, we failed to detect evidence of comigrating fragments produced by duplicated loci. Segregation analysis of PCR-based markers using gynogenetic haploid embryos ensures that the interpretation of molecular variation is not complicated by heterozygosity, diploidy, or gene duplication. We urge investigators to test the inheritance of polymorphisms in salmonids prior to using them to measure genetic variation.  (+info)

Truncated RanGAP encoded by the Segregation Distorter locus of Drosophila. (4/2949)

Segregation Distorter (SD) in Drosophila melanogaster is a naturally occurring meiotic drive system in which the SD chromosome is transmitted from SD/SD+ males in vast excess over its homolog owing to the induced dysfunction of SD+-bearing spermatids. The Sd locus is the key distorting gene responsible for this phenotype. A genomic fragment from the Sd region conferred full distorting activity when introduced into the appropriate genetic background by germline transformation. The only functional product encoded by this fragment is a truncated version of the RanGAP nuclear transport protein. These results demonstrate that this mutant RanGAP is the functional Sd product.  (+info)

Genetic and biochemical characterization of phosphofructokinase from the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. (5/2949)

We have used the two PFK genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encoding the alpha and beta-subunit of the enzyme phosphofructokinase (Pfk) as heterologous probes to isolate fragments of the respective genes from the dimorphic pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The complete coding sequences were obtained by combining sequences of chromosomal fragments and fragments obtained by inverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The CaPFK1 and CaPFK2 comprise open reading frames of 2961 bp and 2838 bp, respectively, encoding Pfk subunits with deduced molecular masses of 109 kDa and 104 kDa. The genes presumably evolved by a duplication event from a prokaryotic type ancestor, followed by another duplication. Heterologous expression in S. cerevisiae revealed that each gene alone was able to complement the glucose-negative phenotype of a pfk1 pfk2 double mutant. In vitro Pfk activity in S. cerevisiae was not only obtained after coexpression of both genes, but also in conjunction with the respective complementary subunits from S. cerevisiae. This indicates the formation of functional hetero-oligomers consisting of C. albicans and S. cerevisiae Pfk subunits. In C. albicans, specific Pfk activity was shown to decrease twofold upon induction of hyphal growth. CaPfk cross-reacts with a polyclonal antiserum raised against ScPfk and displays similar allosteric properties, i.e. inhibition by ATP and activation by AMP and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate.  (+info)

Comparisons of genomic structures and chromosomal locations of the mouse aldose reductase and aldose reductase-like genes. (6/2949)

Aldose reductase (AR), best known as the first enzyme in the polyol pathway of sugar metabolism, has been implicated in a wide variety of physiological functions and in the etiology of diabetic complications. We have determined the structures and chromosomal locations of the mouse AR gene (Aldor1) and of two genes highly homologous to Aldor1: the fibroblast growth factor regulated protein gene (Fgfrp) and the androgen regulated vas deferens protein gene (Avdp). The number of introns and their locations in the mouse Aldor1 gene are identical to those of rat and human AR genes and also to those of Fgfrp and Avdp. Mouse Aldor1 gene was found to be located near the Cald1 (Caldesmon) and Ptn (Pleiotropin) loci at the proximal end of chromosome 6. The closely related genes Fgfrp and Avdp were also mapped in this region of the chromosome, suggesting that these three genes may have arisen by a gene duplication event.  (+info)

Evidence for an ancient chromosomal duplication in Arabidopsis thaliana by sequencing and analyzing a 400-kb contig at the APETALA2 locus on chromosome 4. (7/2949)

As part of the European Scientists Sequencing Arabidopsis program, a contiguous region (396607 bp) located on chromosome 4 around the APETALA2 gene was sequenced. Analysis of the sequence and comparison to public databases predicts 103 genes in this area, which represents a gene density of one gene per 3.85 kb. Almost half of the genes show no significant homology to known database entries. In addition, the first 45 kb of the contig, which covers 11 genes, is similar to a region on chromosome 2, as far as coding sequences are concerned. This observation indicates that ancient duplications of large pieces of DNA have occurred in Arabidopsis.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of the human topoisomerase IIalpha and IIbeta genes: evidence for isoform evolution through gene duplication. (8/2949)

Human DNA topoisomerase II is essential for chromosome segregation and is the target for several clinically important anticancer agents. It is expressed as genetically distinct alpha and beta isoforms encoded by the TOP2alpha and TOP2beta genes that map to chromosomes 17q21-22 and 3p24, respectively. The genes display different patterns of cell cycle- and tissue-specific expression, with the alpha isoform markedly upregulated in proliferating cells. In addition to the fundamental role of TOP2alpha and TOP2beta genes in cell growth and development, altered expression and rearrangement of both genes are implicated in anticancer drug resistance. Here, we report the complete structure of the human topoisomerase IIalpha gene, which consists of 35 exons spanning 27.5 kb. Sequence data for the exon-intron boundaries were determined and examined in the context of topoisomerase IIalpha protein structure comprising three functional domains associated with energy transduction, DNA breakage-reunion activity and nuclear localization. The organization of the 3' half of human TOP2beta, including sequence specifying the C-terminal nuclear localization domain, was also elucidated. Of the 15 introns identified in this 20 kb region of TOP2beta, the first nine and the last intron align in identical positions and display the same phases as introns in TOP2alpha. Though their extreme 3' ends differ, the striking conservation suggests the two genes diverged recently in evolutionary terms consistent with a gene duplication event. Access to TOP2alpha and TOP2beta gene structures should aid studies of mutations and gene rearrangements associated with anticancer drug resistance.  (+info)

Gene duplication, in the context of genetics and genomics, refers to an event where a segment of DNA that contains a gene is copied, resulting in two identical copies of that gene. This can occur through various mechanisms such as unequal crossing over during meiosis, retrotransposition, or whole genome duplication. The duplicate genes are then passed on to the next generation.

Gene duplications can have several consequences. Often, one copy may continue to function normally while the other is free to mutate without affecting the organism's survival, potentially leading to new functions (neofunctionalization) or subfunctionalization where each copy takes on some of the original gene's roles.

Gene duplication plays a significant role in evolution by providing raw material for the creation of novel genes and genetic diversity. However, it can also lead to various genetic disorders if multiple copies of a gene become dysfunctional or if there are too many copies, leading to an overdose effect.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Duplicate genes refer to two or more identical or very similar copies of a gene that have the same function or very similar functions in an organism's genome. These genes arise through various genetic processes such as gene duplication events, including whole-genome duplications, segmental duplications, and unequal crossing over during meiosis.

Duplicate genes can be classified into two main categories:

1. Ohnologs: These are genes that result from whole-genome duplications (WGD), also known as autotetraploidization or polyploidization events, where the entire genome is duplicated. Ohnologs typically retain their original function and are often retained in the genome because they can provide evolutionary advantages, such as allowing for functional innovation and adaptability.

2. Paralogs: These are genes that result from smaller-scale gene duplication events, such as segmental duplications or unequal crossing over during meiosis. Paralogs may undergo various evolutionary fates, including neofunctionalization (one copy acquires a new function), subfunctionalization (both copies share the original function but become specialized in different aspects of it), or pseudogenization (one copy becomes non-functional).

Duplicate genes play an essential role in genome evolution and adaptation by providing raw material for functional innovation, allowing organisms to respond to environmental changes, and contributing to phenotypic diversity.

A multigene family is a group of genetically related genes that share a common ancestry and have similar sequences or structures. These genes are arranged in clusters on a chromosome and often encode proteins with similar functions. They can arise through various mechanisms, including gene duplication, recombination, and transposition. Multigene families play crucial roles in many biological processes, such as development, immunity, and metabolism. Examples of multigene families include the globin genes involved in oxygen transport, the immune system's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, and the cytochrome P450 genes associated with drug metabolism.

Segmental duplications, genomic (also known as copy number variants or CNVs) refer to stretches of DNA that are present in two or more copies in the same individual's genome. These segments are usually larger than 1 kilobase (kb) in size and share >90% sequence identity with each other. They can arise due to errors during DNA replication, repair, or recombination, leading to the duplication of genetic material.

Segmental duplications can have various effects on genomic function and stability. They can lead to changes in gene dosage, disrupt gene structure and regulation, and create new hybrid genes with novel functions. Additionally, they are often associated with genomic disorders, susceptibility to diseases, and evolutionary innovation. Segmental duplications are a significant source of genetic variation and play an essential role in shaping genomes.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Chromosome duplication is a genetic alteration where a segment of a chromosome or the entire chromosome is present in an extra copy. This results in an additional portion of genetic material, leading to an abnormal number of genes. In humans, chromosomes typically occur in pairs (23 pairs for a total of 46 chromosomes), and any deviation from this normal number can cause genetic disorders or developmental abnormalities.

Duplication can occur in various ways:

1. Duplication of a chromosome segment: A specific region of a chromosome is repeated, leading to an extra copy of the genes present in that area. This type of duplication may not always cause noticeable effects, depending on the size and location of the duplicated segment. However, if the duplicated region contains important genes or growth regulatory elements, it can lead to genetic disorders or developmental abnormalities.
2. Duplication of a whole chromosome: An entire chromosome is present in an extra copy, leading to 3 copies instead of the typical 2 copies (one from each parent). This condition is called trisomy and can result in various genetic disorders, depending on which chromosome is duplicated. For example, Trisomy 21 or Down syndrome occurs when there are three copies of chromosome 21.
3. Mosaicism: When an individual has some cells with a normal number of chromosomes and others with the extra copy, it is called mosaicism. The severity of symptoms depends on the proportion of cells carrying the duplication and the specific genes involved in the duplicated region.

Chromosome duplications can occur spontaneously during cell division or may be inherited from a parent. They are often detected through prenatal testing, such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS), or through genetic testing for individuals with developmental delays, intellectual disabilities, or birth defects.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

A group of chordate animals (Phylum Chordata) that have a vertebral column, or backbone, made up of individual vertebrae. This group includes mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. Vertebrates are characterized by the presence of a notochord, which is a flexible, rod-like structure that runs along the length of the body during development; a dorsal hollow nerve cord; and pharyngeal gill slits at some stage in their development. The vertebral column provides support and protection for the spinal cord and allows for the development of complex movements and behaviors.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

Genetic models are theoretical frameworks used in genetics to describe and explain the inheritance patterns and genetic architecture of traits, diseases, or phenomena. These models are based on mathematical equations and statistical methods that incorporate information about gene frequencies, modes of inheritance, and the effects of environmental factors. They can be used to predict the probability of certain genetic outcomes, to understand the genetic basis of complex traits, and to inform medical management and treatment decisions.

There are several types of genetic models, including:

1. Mendelian models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of simple genetic traits that follow Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment. Examples include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked inheritance.
2. Complex trait models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of complex traits that are influenced by multiple genes and environmental factors. Examples include heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.
3. Population genetics models: These models describe the distribution and frequency of genetic variants within populations over time. They can be used to study evolutionary processes, such as natural selection and genetic drift.
4. Quantitative genetics models: These models describe the relationship between genetic variation and phenotypic variation in continuous traits, such as height or IQ. They can be used to estimate heritability and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that contribute to trait variation.
5. Statistical genetics models: These models use statistical methods to analyze genetic data and infer the presence of genetic associations or linkage. They can be used to identify genetic risk factors for diseases or traits.

Overall, genetic models are essential tools in genetics research and medical genetics, as they allow researchers to make predictions about genetic outcomes, test hypotheses about the genetic basis of traits and diseases, and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

A genome is the complete set of genetic material (DNA, or in some viruses, RNA) present in a single cell of an organism. It includes all of the genes, both coding and noncoding, as well as other regulatory elements that together determine the unique characteristics of that organism. The human genome, for example, contains approximately 3 billion base pairs and about 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes.

The term "genome" was first coined by Hans Winkler in 1920, derived from the word "gene" and the suffix "-ome," which refers to a complete set of something. The study of genomes is known as genomics.

Understanding the genome can provide valuable insights into the genetic basis of diseases, evolution, and other biological processes. With advancements in sequencing technologies, it has become possible to determine the entire genomic sequence of many organisms, including humans, and use this information for various applications such as personalized medicine, gene therapy, and biotechnology.

Pseudogenes are defined in medical and genetics terminology as non-functional segments of DNA that resemble functional genes, such as protein-coding genes or RNA genes, but have lost their ability to be expressed or produce a functional product. They are often characterized by the presence of mutations, such as frameshifts, premature stop codons, or deletions, that prevent them from being transcribed or translated into functional proteins or RNAs.

Pseudogenes can arise through various mechanisms, including gene duplication followed by degenerative mutations, retrotransposition of processed mRNA, and the insertion of transposable elements. While they were once considered "genomic fossils" with no biological relevance, recent research has shown that pseudogenes may play important roles in regulating gene expression, modulating protein function, and contributing to disease processes.

It's worth noting that there is ongoing debate in the scientific community about the precise definition and functional significance of pseudogenes, as some may still retain residual functions or regulatory potential.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Synteny, in the context of genetics and genomics, refers to the presence of two or more genetic loci (regions) on the same chromosome, in the same relative order and orientation. This term is often used to describe conserved gene organization between different species, indicating a common ancestry.

It's important to note that synteny should not be confused with "colinearity," which refers to the conservation of gene content and order within a genome or between genomes of closely related species. Synteny is a broader concept that can also include conserved gene order across more distantly related species, even if some genes have been lost or gained in the process.

In medical research, synteny analysis can be useful for identifying conserved genetic elements and regulatory regions that may play important roles in disease susceptibility or other biological processes.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Sequence homology in nucleic acids refers to the similarity or identity between the nucleotide sequences of two or more DNA or RNA molecules. It is often used as a measure of biological relationship between genes, organisms, or populations. High sequence homology suggests a recent common ancestry or functional constraint, while low sequence homology may indicate a more distant relationship or different functions.

Nucleic acid sequence homology can be determined by various methods such as pairwise alignment, multiple sequence alignment, and statistical analysis. The degree of homology is typically expressed as a percentage of identical or similar nucleotides in a given window of comparison.

It's important to note that the interpretation of sequence homology depends on the biological context and the evolutionary distance between the sequences compared. Therefore, functional and experimental validation is often necessary to confirm the significance of sequence homology.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Genetic selection, also known as natural selection, is a fundamental mechanism of evolution. It refers to the process by which certain heritable traits become more or less common in a population over successive generations due to differential reproduction of organisms with those traits.

In genetic selection, traits that increase an individual's fitness (its ability to survive and reproduce) are more likely to be passed on to the next generation, while traits that decrease fitness are less likely to be passed on. This results in a gradual change in the distribution of traits within a population over time, leading to adaptation to the environment and potentially speciation.

Genetic selection can occur through various mechanisms, including viability selection (differential survival), fecundity selection (differences in reproductive success), and sexual selection (choices made by individuals during mating). The process of genetic selection is driven by environmental pressures, such as predation, competition for resources, and changes in the availability of food or habitat.

Chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or genetic markers on a chromosome. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques to identify landmarks along the chromosome, such as restriction enzyme cutting sites or patterns of DNA sequence repeats. The resulting map provides important information about the organization and structure of the genome, and can be used for a variety of purposes, including identifying the location of genes associated with genetic diseases, studying evolutionary relationships between organisms, and developing genetic markers for use in breeding or forensic applications.

Gene dosage, in genetic terms, refers to the number of copies of a particular gene present in an organism's genome. Each gene usually has two copies (alleles) in diploid organisms, one inherited from each parent. An increase or decrease in the number of copies of a specific gene can lead to changes in the amount of protein it encodes, which can subsequently affect various biological processes and phenotypic traits.

For example, gene dosage imbalances have been associated with several genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21), where an individual has three copies of chromosome 21 instead of the typical two copies, leading to developmental delays and intellectual disabilities. Similarly, in certain cases of cancer, gene amplification (an increase in the number of copies of a particular gene) can result in overexpression of oncogenes, contributing to tumor growth and progression.

A gene in plants, like in other organisms, is a hereditary unit that carries genetic information from one generation to the next. It is a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism. Genes in plants determine various traits such as flower color, plant height, resistance to diseases, and many others. They are responsible for encoding proteins and RNA molecules that play crucial roles in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants. Plant genes can be manipulated through traditional breeding methods or genetic engineering techniques to improve crop yield, enhance disease resistance, and increase nutritional value.

A plant genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in the cells of a plant. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the development and functioning of the plant, including its structural and functional characteristics. The plant genome includes both coding regions that contain instructions for producing proteins and non-coding regions that have various regulatory functions.

The plant genome is composed of several types of DNA molecules, including chromosomes, which are located in the nucleus of the cell. Each chromosome contains one or more genes, which are segments of DNA that code for specific proteins or RNA molecules. Plants typically have multiple sets of chromosomes, with each set containing a complete copy of the genome.

The study of plant genomes is an active area of research in modern biology, with important applications in areas such as crop improvement, evolutionary biology, and medical research. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to determine the complete sequences of many plant genomes, providing valuable insights into their structure, function, and evolution.

Chordata is a phylum in the animal kingdom that includes animals with a notochord, dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal gill slits, and a post-anal tail at some point during their development. Nonvertebrate Chordates include two classes: Tunicata (sea squirts and salps) and Cephalochordata (lancelets). These animals do not have a backbone or vertebral column, which is why they are considered nonvertebrate. Despite the lack of a vertebral column, these animals share other common characteristics with Vertebrates, such as a circulatory system and a complex nervous system.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

Chordata is a phylum in the animal kingdom that contains animals with notochords, dorsal hollow nerve cords, pharyngeal gill slits, and post-anal tails at some point during their development. This phylum includes organisms that are bilaterally symmetrical, have a coelom (a body cavity), and are triploblastic (having three germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm).

The Chordata phylum is divided into three subphyla: Urochordata (tunicates or sea squirts), Cephalochordata (lancelets or amphioxi), and Vertebrata (animals with backbones, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals). The presence of the notochord, a flexible, rod-like structure that runs along the length of the body, is a key characteristic that unites these diverse groups.

In vertebrates, the notochord is replaced during development by the spinal column or backbone, which provides support and protection for the central nervous system. The dorsal hollow nerve cord develops into the brain and spinal cord in vertebrates, while pharyngeal gill slits are modified into various structures such as the tonsils, thymus, and middle ear bones in different vertebrate groups.

Overall, Chordata represents a diverse group of organisms with shared developmental features that have evolved to adapt to various ecological niches throughout history.

Angiosperms, also known as flowering plants, are a group of plants that produce seeds enclosed within an ovary. The term "angiosperm" comes from the Greek words "angeion," meaning "case" or "capsule," and "sperma," meaning "seed." This group includes the majority of plant species, with over 300,000 known species.

Angiosperms are characterized by their reproductive structures, which consist of flowers. The flower contains male and female reproductive organs, including stamens (which produce pollen) and carpels (which contain the ovules). After fertilization, the ovule develops into a seed, while the ovary matures into a fruit, which provides protection and nutrition for the developing embryo.

Angiosperms are further divided into two main groups: monocots and eudicots. Monocots have one cotyledon or embryonic leaf, while eudicots have two. Examples of monocots include grasses, lilies, and orchids, while examples of eudicots include roses, sunflowers, and legumes.

Angiosperms are ecologically and economically important, providing food, shelter, and other resources for many organisms, including humans. They have evolved a wide range of adaptations to different environments, from the desert to the ocean floor, making them one of the most diverse and successful groups of plants on Earth.

Exons are the coding regions of DNA that remain in the mature, processed mRNA after the removal of non-coding intronic sequences during RNA splicing. These exons contain the information necessary to encode proteins, as they specify the sequence of amino acids within a polypeptide chain. The arrangement and order of exons can vary between different genes and even between different versions of the same gene (alternative splicing), allowing for the generation of multiple protein isoforms from a single gene. This complexity in exon structure and usage significantly contributes to the diversity and functionality of the proteome.

Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a rare X-linked recessive genetic disorder affecting the nervous system. It is caused by mutations in the PLP1 gene, which provides instructions for making proteins that are important for the formation and maintenance of the myelin sheath, the protective covering that wraps around nerve cell fibers (axons) in the brain and spinal cord to ensure efficient transmission of electrical signals.

In individuals with PMD, the myelin sheath is either partially or completely absent, leading to progressive neurological symptoms. The classic form of PMD is characterized by early onset of nystagmus (involuntary eye movements), ataxia (loss of muscle coordination and balance), and intellectual disability. Other features may include hypotonia (low muscle tone), spasticity (stiff or rigid muscles), and seizures. The severity and progression of the disease can vary widely among affected individuals, ranging from a severe, lethal form to a milder form with a slower disease course.

Currently, there is no cure for PMD, and treatment is focused on managing symptoms and improving quality of life.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Genomics is the scientific study of genes and their functions. It involves the sequencing and analysis of an organism's genome, which is its complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. Genomics also includes the study of how genes interact with each other and with the environment. This field of study can provide important insights into the genetic basis of diseases and can lead to the development of new diagnostic tools and treatments.

A fungal genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in the cells of a fungus. It includes all the genes and non-coding regions that are essential for the growth, development, and survival of the organism. The fungal genome is typically haploid, meaning it contains only one set of chromosomes, unlike diploid genomes found in many animals and plants.

Fungal genomes vary widely in size and complexity, ranging from a few megabases to hundreds of megabases. They contain several types of genetic elements such as protein-coding genes, regulatory regions, repetitive elements, and mobile genetic elements like transposons. The study of fungal genomes can provide valuable insights into the evolution, biology, and pathogenicity of fungi, and has important implications for medical research, agriculture, and industrial applications.

Introns are non-coding sequences of DNA that are present within the genes of eukaryotic organisms, including plants, animals, and humans. Introns are removed during the process of RNA splicing, in which the initial RNA transcript is cut and reconnected to form a mature, functional RNA molecule.

After the intron sequences are removed, the remaining coding sequences, known as exons, are joined together to create a continuous stretch of genetic information that can be translated into a protein or used to produce non-coding RNAs with specific functions. The removal of introns allows for greater flexibility in gene expression and regulation, enabling the generation of multiple proteins from a single gene through alternative splicing.

In summary, introns are non-coding DNA sequences within genes that are removed during RNA processing to create functional RNA molecules or proteins.

A conserved sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to a pattern of nucleotides (in DNA or RNA) or amino acids (in proteins) that has remained relatively unchanged over evolutionary time. These sequences are often functionally important and are highly conserved across different species, indicating strong selection pressure against changes in these regions.

In the case of protein-coding genes, the corresponding amino acid sequence is deduced from the DNA sequence through the genetic code. Conserved sequences in proteins may indicate structurally or functionally important regions, such as active sites or binding sites, that are critical for the protein's activity. Similarly, conserved non-coding sequences in DNA may represent regulatory elements that control gene expression.

Identifying conserved sequences can be useful for inferring evolutionary relationships between species and for predicting the function of unknown genes or proteins.

Tandem Repeat Sequences (TRS) in genetics refer to repeating DNA sequences that are arranged directly after each other, hence the term "tandem." These sequences consist of a core repeat unit that is typically 2-6 base pairs long and is repeated multiple times in a head-to-tail fashion. The number of repetitions can vary between individuals and even between different cells within an individual, leading to genetic heterogeneity.

TRS can be classified into several types based on the number of repeat units and their stability. Short Tandem Repeats (STRs), also known as microsatellites, have fewer than 10 repeats, while Minisatellites have 10-60 repeats. Variations in the number of these repeats can lead to genetic instability and are associated with various genetic disorders and diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, and forensic identification.

It's worth noting that TRS can also occur in protein-coding regions of genes, leading to the production of repetitive amino acid sequences. These can affect protein structure and function, contributing to disease phenotypes.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. The term "fishes" is not typically used in a medical context. "Fish" or "fishes" refers to any aquatic organism belonging to the taxonomic class Actinopterygii (bony fish), Chondrichthyes (sharks and rays), or Agnatha (jawless fish).

However, if you are referring to a condition related to fish or consuming fish, there is a medical issue called scombroid fish poisoning. It's a foodborne illness caused by eating spoiled or improperly stored fish from the Scombridae family, which includes tuna, mackerel, and bonito, among others. The bacteria present in these fish can produce histamine, which can cause symptoms like skin flushing, headache, diarrhea, and itchy rash. But again, this is not related to the term "fishes" itself but rather a condition associated with consuming certain types of fish.

"Likelihood functions" is a statistical concept that is used in medical research and other fields to estimate the probability of obtaining a given set of data, given a set of assumptions or parameters. In other words, it is a function that describes how likely it is to observe a particular outcome or result, based on a set of model parameters.

More formally, if we have a statistical model that depends on a set of parameters θ, and we observe some data x, then the likelihood function is defined as:

L(θ | x) = P(x | θ)

This means that the likelihood function describes the probability of observing the data x, given a particular value of the parameter vector θ. By convention, the likelihood function is often expressed as a function of the parameters, rather than the data, so we might instead write:

L(θ) = P(x | θ)

The likelihood function can be used to estimate the values of the model parameters that are most consistent with the observed data. This is typically done by finding the value of θ that maximizes the likelihood function, which is known as the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). The MLE has many desirable statistical properties, including consistency, efficiency, and asymptotic normality.

In medical research, likelihood functions are often used in the context of Bayesian analysis, where they are combined with prior distributions over the model parameters to obtain posterior distributions that reflect both the observed data and prior knowledge or assumptions about the parameter values. This approach is particularly useful when there is uncertainty or ambiguity about the true value of the parameters, as it allows researchers to incorporate this uncertainty into their analyses in a principled way.

Gene conversion is a process in genetics that involves the non-reciprocal transfer of genetic information from one region of a chromosome to a corresponding region on its homologous chromosome. This process results in a segment of DNA on one chromosome being replaced with a corresponding segment from the other chromosome, leading to a change in the genetic sequence and potentially the phenotype.

Gene conversion can occur during meiosis, as a result of homologous recombination between two similar or identical sequences. It is a natural process that helps maintain genetic diversity within populations and can also play a role in the evolution of genes and genomes. However, gene conversion can also lead to genetic disorders if it occurs in an important gene and results in a deleterious mutation.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Gene order, in the context of genetics and genomics, refers to the specific sequence or arrangement of genes along a chromosome. The order of genes on a chromosome is not random, but rather, it is highly conserved across species and is often used as a tool for studying evolutionary relationships between organisms.

The study of gene order has also provided valuable insights into genome organization, function, and regulation. For example, the clustering of genes that are involved in specific pathways or functions can provide information about how those pathways or functions have evolved over time. Similarly, the spatial arrangement of genes relative to each other can influence their expression levels and patterns, which can have important consequences for phenotypic traits.

Overall, gene order is an important aspect of genome biology that continues to be a focus of research in fields such as genomics, genetics, evolutionary biology, and bioinformatics.

"Plant proteins" refer to the proteins that are derived from plant sources. These can include proteins from legumes such as beans, lentils, and peas, as well as proteins from grains like wheat, rice, and corn. Other sources of plant proteins include nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

Plant proteins are made up of individual amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. While animal-based proteins typically contain all of the essential amino acids that the body needs to function properly, many plant-based proteins may be lacking in one or more of these essential amino acids. However, by consuming a variety of plant-based foods throughout the day, it is possible to get all of the essential amino acids that the body needs from plant sources alone.

Plant proteins are often lower in calories and saturated fat than animal proteins, making them a popular choice for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet, as well as those looking to maintain a healthy weight or reduce their risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Additionally, plant proteins have been shown to have a number of health benefits, including improving gut health, reducing inflammation, and supporting muscle growth and repair.

Computational biology is a branch of biology that uses mathematical and computational methods to study biological data, models, and processes. It involves the development and application of algorithms, statistical models, and computational approaches to analyze and interpret large-scale molecular and phenotypic data from genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and other high-throughput technologies. The goal is to gain insights into biological systems and processes, develop predictive models, and inform experimental design and hypothesis testing in the life sciences. Computational biology encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including bioinformatics, systems biology, computational genomics, network biology, and mathematical modeling of biological systems.

A gene is a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA that carries genetic information. Genes are the fundamental units of heredity and are responsible for the development and function of all living organisms. They code for proteins or RNA molecules, which carry out various functions within cells and are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs.

Each gene has a specific location on a chromosome, and each person inherits two copies of every gene, one from each parent. Variations in the sequence of nucleotides in a gene can lead to differences in traits between individuals, including physical characteristics, susceptibility to disease, and responses to environmental factors.

Medical genetics is the study of genes and their role in health and disease. It involves understanding how genes contribute to the development and progression of various medical conditions, as well as identifying genetic risk factors and developing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

"Gene rearrangement" is a process that involves the alteration of the order, orientation, or copy number of genes or gene segments within an organism's genome. This natural mechanism plays a crucial role in generating diversity and specificity in the immune system, particularly in vertebrates.

In the context of the immune system, gene rearrangement occurs during the development of B-cells and T-cells, which are responsible for adaptive immunity. The process involves breaking and rejoining DNA segments that encode antigen recognition sites, resulting in a unique combination of gene segments and creating a vast array of possible antigen receptors.

There are two main types of gene rearrangement:

1. V(D)J recombination: This process occurs in both B-cells and T-cells. It involves the recombination of variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments to form a functional antigen receptor gene. In humans, there are multiple copies of V, D, and J segments for each antigen receptor gene, allowing for a vast number of possible combinations.
2. Class switch recombination: This process occurs only in mature B-cells after antigen exposure. It involves the replacement of the constant (C) region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene with another C region, resulting in the production of different isotypes of antibodies (IgG, IgA, or IgE) that have distinct effector functions while maintaining the same antigen specificity.

These processes contribute to the generation of a diverse repertoire of antigen receptors, allowing the immune system to recognize and respond effectively to a wide range of pathogens.

"Takifugu" is not a medical term, but a genus of pufferfish found in the waters of East Asia. However, some people may use it to refer to "pufferfish poisoning," which is a type of food poisoning caused by the consumption of pufferfish that contain a potent neurotoxin called tetrodotoxin. This toxin is found in the fish's organs, such as the liver and ovaries, and can be deadly if ingested in large quantities. Proper preparation and cooking of pufferfish by trained chefs can make it safe to eat, but it is still considered a delicacy with significant risks.

Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique used to detect and measure changes in the DNA content of an individual's genome. It is a type of microarray-based analysis that compares the DNA of two samples, typically a test sample and a reference sample, to identify copy number variations (CNVs), including gains or losses of genetic material.

In CGH, the DNA from both samples is labeled with different fluorescent dyes, typically one sample with a green fluorophore and the other with a red fluorophore. The labeled DNAs are then co-hybridized to a microarray, which contains thousands of DNA probes representing specific genomic regions. The intensity of each spot on the array reflects the amount of DNA from each sample that has hybridized to the probe.

By comparing the ratio of green to red fluorescence intensities for each probe, CGH can detect gains or losses of genetic material in the test sample relative to the reference sample. A ratio of 1 indicates no difference in copy number between the two samples, while a ratio greater than 1 suggests a gain of genetic material, and a ratio less than 1 suggests a loss.

CGH is a powerful tool for detecting genomic imbalances associated with various genetic disorders, including cancer, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and congenital abnormalities. It can also be used to study the genomics of organisms in evolutionary biology and ecological studies.

Repetitive sequences in nucleic acid refer to repeated stretches of DNA or RNA nucleotide bases that are present in a genome. These sequences can vary in length and can be arranged in different patterns such as direct repeats, inverted repeats, or tandem repeats. In some cases, these repetitive sequences do not code for proteins and are often found in non-coding regions of the genome. They can play a role in genetic instability, regulation of gene expression, and evolutionary processes. However, certain types of repeat expansions have been associated with various neurodegenerative disorders and other human diseases.

Gene deletion is a type of mutation where a segment of DNA, containing one or more genes, is permanently lost or removed from a chromosome. This can occur due to various genetic mechanisms such as homologous recombination, non-homologous end joining, or other types of genomic rearrangements.

The deletion of a gene can have varying effects on the organism, depending on the function of the deleted gene and its importance for normal physiological processes. If the deleted gene is essential for survival, the deletion may result in embryonic lethality or developmental abnormalities. However, if the gene is non-essential or has redundant functions, the deletion may not have any noticeable effects on the organism's phenotype.

Gene deletions can also be used as a tool in genetic research to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes. For example, researchers may use gene deletion techniques to create genetically modified animal models to investigate the impact of gene deletion on disease progression or development.

Polyploidy is a condition in which a cell or an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, unlike the typical diploid state where there are only two sets (one from each parent). Polyploidy can occur through various mechanisms such as errors during cell division, fusion of egg and sperm cells that have an abnormal number of chromosomes, or through the reproduction process in plants.

Polyploidy is common in the plant kingdom, where it often leads to larger size, increased biomass, and sometimes hybrid vigor. However, in animals, polyploidy is less common and usually occurs in only certain types of cells or tissues, as most animals require a specific number of chromosomes for normal development and reproduction. In humans, polyploidy is typically not compatible with life and can lead to developmental abnormalities and miscarriage.

"Oryza sativa" is the scientific name for Asian rice, which is a species of grass and one of the most important food crops in the world. It is a staple food for more than half of the global population, providing a significant source of calories and carbohydrates. There are several varieties of Oryza sativa, including indica and japonica, which differ in their genetic makeup, growth habits, and grain characteristics.

Oryza sativa is an annual plant that grows to a height of 1-2 meters and produces long slender leaves and clusters of flowers at the top of the stem. The grains are enclosed within a tough husk, which must be removed before consumption. Rice is typically grown in flooded fields or paddies, which provide the necessary moisture for germination and growth.

Rice is an important source of nutrition for people around the world, particularly in developing countries where it may be one of the few reliable sources of food. It is rich in carbohydrates, fiber, and various vitamins and minerals, including thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, iron, and magnesium. However, rice can also be a significant source of arsenic, a toxic heavy metal that can accumulate in the grain during growth.

In medical terms, Oryza sativa may be used as a component of nutritional interventions for individuals who are at risk of malnutrition or who have specific dietary needs. It may also be studied in clinical trials to evaluate its potential health benefits or risks.

'Arabidopsis' is a genus of small flowering plants that are part of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). The most commonly studied species within this genus is 'Arabidopsis thaliana', which is often used as a model organism in plant biology and genetics research. This plant is native to Eurasia and Africa, and it has a small genome that has been fully sequenced. It is known for its short life cycle, self-fertilization, and ease of growth, making it an ideal subject for studying various aspects of plant biology, including development, metabolism, and response to environmental stresses.

Genes in insects refer to the hereditary units of DNA that are passed down from parents to offspring and contain the instructions for the development, function, and reproduction of an organism. These genetic materials are located within the chromosomes in the nucleus of insect cells. They play a crucial role in determining various traits such as physical characteristics, behavior, and susceptibility to diseases.

Insect genes, like those of other organisms, consist of exons (coding regions) that contain information for protein synthesis and introns (non-coding regions) that are removed during the process of gene expression. The expression of insect genes is regulated by various factors such as transcription factors, enhancers, and silencers, which bind to specific DNA sequences to activate or repress gene transcription.

Understanding the genetic makeup of insects has important implications for various fields, including agriculture, public health, and evolutionary biology. For example, genes associated with insect pests' resistance to pesticides can be identified and targeted to develop more effective control strategies. Similarly, genes involved in disease transmission by insect vectors such as mosquitoes can be studied to develop novel interventions for preventing the spread of infectious diseases.

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also known as lateral gene transfer, is the movement of genetic material between organisms in a manner other than from parent to offspring (vertical gene transfer). In horizontal gene transfer, an organism can take up genetic material directly from its environment and incorporate it into its own genome. This process is common in bacteria and archaea, but has also been observed in eukaryotes including plants and animals.

Horizontal gene transfer can occur through several mechanisms, including:

1. Transformation: the uptake of free DNA from the environment by a cell.
2. Transduction: the transfer of genetic material between cells by a virus (bacteriophage).
3. Conjugation: the direct transfer of genetic material between two cells in physical contact, often facilitated by a conjugative plasmid or other mobile genetic element.

Horizontal gene transfer can play an important role in the evolution and adaptation of organisms, allowing them to acquire new traits and functions rapidly. It is also of concern in the context of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and antibiotic resistance, as it can facilitate the spread of genes that confer resistance or other undesirable traits.

A human genome is the complete set of genetic information contained within the 23 pairs of chromosomes found in the nucleus of most human cells. It includes all of the genes, which are segments of DNA that contain the instructions for making proteins, as well as non-coding regions of DNA that regulate gene expression and provide structural support to the chromosomes.

The human genome contains approximately 3 billion base pairs of DNA and is estimated to contain around 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes. The sequencing of the human genome was completed in 2003 as part of the Human Genome Project, which has had a profound impact on our understanding of human biology, disease, and evolution.

'Embryophyta' is a taxonomic group that includes land plants, also known as embryophytes. This group consists of the bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts), tracheophytes (vascular plants), and a few extinct plant groups. The defining characteristic of embryophytes is their alternation of generations life cycle, which includes a multicellular diploid sporophyte generation that produces spores through meiosis, and a multicellular haploid gametophyte generation that produces gametes through mitosis. The term 'Embryophyta' is used to distinguish land plants from their algal ancestors, which are classified in separate taxonomic groups.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "platypus" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a type of mammal native to Australia, recognized by its unique appearance with a duck-like bill, webbed feet, and a body covered in dense, waterproof fur. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help clarify!

Genetic recombination is the process by which genetic material is exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA during meiosis, resulting in new combinations of genes on each chromosome. This exchange occurs during crossover, where segments of DNA are swapped between non-sister homologous chromatids, creating genetic diversity among the offspring. It is a crucial mechanism for generating genetic variability and facilitating evolutionary change within populations. Additionally, recombination also plays an essential role in DNA repair processes through mechanisms such as homologous recombinational repair (HRR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ).

Tetraodontiformes is not a medical term, but a taxonomic order in zoology. It refers to a group of marine fish that includes pufferfish, porcupinefish, boxfish, and triggerfish, among others. These fish are characterized by their specialized teeth, which are fused into beak-like structures. Some species within this order contain tetrodotoxin, a potent neurotoxin, in their organs. While not directly related to medical terminology, it is important for healthcare providers and medical professionals to have an understanding of various animal taxonomies, especially those that can pose a risk to human health.

Centrioles are small, cylindrical structures found in the centrosome of animal cells. They play a crucial role in organizing the microtubules that make up the cell's cytoskeleton and are also involved in the formation of the spindle apparatus during cell division. A typical centriole is made up of nine sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring-like fashion around a central hub or core.

Centrioles have two main functions:

1. Microtubule Organization: Centrioles serve as the primary site for microtubule nucleation and organization within the cell. They help to form the mitotic spindle during cell division, which is responsible for separating replicated chromosomes into two identical sets that are distributed equally between the two daughter cells.

2. Formation of Cilia and Flagella: In specialized cells, centrioles can also function as basal bodies for the formation of cilia and flagella. These hair-like structures protrude from the cell surface and play a role in cell movement and the movement of extracellular fluids over the cell surface.

It is important to note that plants and fungi do not have centrioles, and their cells use alternative mechanisms for microtubule organization and cell division.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hagfishes" are not a medical term. They are a group of marine animals that are considered to be some of the most primitive and ancient of all living jawless fish. Hagfishes are well known for their ability to produce large amounts of slime when threatened, which can help them escape from predators.

If you have any questions about biology or zoology, I'd be happy to try to answer them for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Invertebrates" is not a medical term. It is a term used in biology to describe a vast group of animals that do not have a vertebral column or spinal cord. This includes creatures such as insects, worms, starfish, and shellfish, among many others. They are classified as invertebrates because they lack a backbone, which is a characteristic of vertebrates, or animals that include humans and other mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish.

MADS domain proteins are a family of transcription factors that play crucial roles in various developmental processes in plants, including flower development and organ formation. The name "MADS" is an acronym derived from the initial letters of four founding members: MCM1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, AGAMOUS from Arabidopsis thaliana, DEFICIENS from Antirrhinum majus, and SRF from Homo sapiens.

These proteins share a highly conserved DNA-binding domain called the MADS-box, which binds to specific sequences in the promoter regions of their target genes. The MADS domain proteins often form higher-order complexes through protein-protein interactions, leading to the regulation of gene expression involved in developmental transitions and cell fate determination. In plants, MADS domain proteins have been implicated in various aspects of reproductive development, such as floral meristem identity, floral organ specification, and ovule development.

Gene expression regulation in plants refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and RNA from the genes present in the plant's DNA. This regulation is crucial for normal growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli in plants. It can occur at various levels, including transcription (the first step in gene expression, where the DNA sequence is copied into RNA), RNA processing (such as alternative splicing, which generates different mRNA molecules from a single gene), translation (where the information in the mRNA is used to produce a protein), and post-translational modification (where proteins are chemically modified after they have been synthesized).

In plants, gene expression regulation can be influenced by various factors such as hormones, light, temperature, and stress. Plants use complex networks of transcription factors, chromatin remodeling complexes, and small RNAs to regulate gene expression in response to these signals. Understanding the mechanisms of gene expression regulation in plants is important for basic research, as well as for developing crops with improved traits such as increased yield, stress tolerance, and disease resistance.

Mammals are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Mammalia, characterized by the presence of mammary glands (which produce milk to feed their young), hair or fur, three middle ear bones, and a neocortex region in their brain. They are found in a diverse range of habitats and come in various sizes, from tiny shrews to large whales. Examples of mammals include humans, apes, monkeys, dogs, cats, bats, mice, raccoons, seals, dolphins, horses, and elephants.

Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a type of DNA that is synthesized from a single-stranded RNA molecule through the process of reverse transcription. In this process, the enzyme reverse transcriptase uses an RNA molecule as a template to synthesize a complementary DNA strand. The resulting cDNA is therefore complementary to the original RNA molecule and is a copy of its coding sequence, but it does not contain non-coding regions such as introns that are present in genomic DNA.

Complementary DNA is often used in molecular biology research to study gene expression, protein function, and other genetic phenomena. For example, cDNA can be used to create cDNA libraries, which are collections of cloned cDNA fragments that represent the expressed genes in a particular cell type or tissue. These libraries can then be screened for specific genes or gene products of interest. Additionally, cDNA can be used to produce recombinant proteins in heterologous expression systems, allowing researchers to study the structure and function of proteins that may be difficult to express or purify from their native sources.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

I apologize for any confusion, but "plants" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "plants" refers to a large and diverse group of organisms that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, which is the process of converting sunlight into chemical energy. Plants are typically characterized by having cells with cell walls containing cellulose, chloroplasts containing the pigment chlorophyll, and the ability to synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.

In a medical or biological context, you might be thinking of "plant-based" or "phytomedicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as a form of medicine or treatment. Phytomedicines have been used for thousands of years in many traditional systems of medicine, and some plant-derived compounds have been found to have therapeutic benefits in modern medicine as well. However, "plants" itself does not have a medical definition.

Retroelements are a type of mobile genetic element that can move within a host genome by reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. They are called "retro" because they replicate through a retrotransposition process, which involves the reverse transcription of their RNA into DNA, and then integration of the resulting cDNA into a new location in the genome.

Retroelements are typically divided into two main categories: long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons and non-LTR retrotransposons. LTR retrotransposons have direct repeats of several hundred base pairs at their ends, similar to retroviruses, while non-LTR retrotransposons lack these repeats.

Retroelements are widespread in eukaryotic genomes and can make up a significant fraction of the DNA content. They are thought to play important roles in genome evolution, including the creation of new genes and the regulation of gene expression. However, they can also cause genetic instability and disease when they insert into or near functional genes.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

"Fish proteins" are not a recognized medical term or concept. However, fish is a source of protein that is often consumed in the human diet and has been studied in various medical and nutritional contexts. According to the USDA FoodData Central database, a 100-gram serving of cooked Atlantic salmon contains approximately 25 grams of protein.

Proteins from fish, like other animal proteins, are complete proteins, meaning they contain all nine essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. Fish proteins have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their role in muscle growth and repair, immune function, and cardiovascular health.

It's worth noting that some people may have allergies to fish or seafood, which can cause a range of symptoms from mild skin irritation to severe anaphylaxis. If you suspect you have a fish allergy, it's important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and management.

Biological adaptation is the process by which a organism becomes better suited to its environment over generations as a result of natural selection. It involves changes in an organism's structure, metabolism, or behavior that increase its fitness, or reproductive success, in a given environment. These changes are often genetic and passed down from one generation to the next through the process of inheritance.

Examples of biological adaptation include the development of camouflage in animals, the ability of plants to photosynthesize, and the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Biological adaptation is an important concept in the field of evolutionary biology and helps to explain the diversity of life on Earth.

'Drosophila melanogaster' is the scientific name for a species of fruit fly that is commonly used as a model organism in various fields of biological research, including genetics, developmental biology, and evolutionary biology. Its small size, short generation time, large number of offspring, and ease of cultivation make it an ideal subject for laboratory studies. The fruit fly's genome has been fully sequenced, and many of its genes have counterparts in the human genome, which facilitates the understanding of genetic mechanisms and their role in human health and disease.

Here is a brief medical definition:

Drosophila melanogaster (droh-suh-fih-luh meh-lon-guh-ster): A species of fruit fly used extensively as a model organism in genetic, developmental, and evolutionary research. Its genome has been sequenced, revealing many genes with human counterparts, making it valuable for understanding genetic mechanisms and their role in human health and disease.

In situ hybridization, fluorescence (FISH) is a type of molecular cytogenetic technique used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes through the use of fluorescent probes. This technique allows for the direct visualization of genetic material at a cellular level, making it possible to identify chromosomal abnormalities such as deletions, duplications, translocations, and other rearrangements.

The process involves denaturing the DNA in the sample to separate the double-stranded molecules into single strands, then adding fluorescently labeled probes that are complementary to the target DNA sequence. The probe hybridizes to the complementary sequence in the sample, and the location of the probe is detected by fluorescence microscopy.

FISH has a wide range of applications in both clinical and research settings, including prenatal diagnosis, cancer diagnosis and monitoring, and the study of gene expression and regulation. It is a powerful tool for identifying genetic abnormalities and understanding their role in human disease.

Fungal genes refer to the genetic material present in fungi, which are eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as larger organisms like mushrooms. The genetic material of fungi is composed of DNA, just like in other eukaryotes, and is organized into chromosomes located in the nucleus of the cell.

Fungal genes are segments of DNA that contain the information necessary to produce proteins and RNA molecules required for various cellular functions. These genes are transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, which are then translated into proteins by ribosomes in the cytoplasm.

Fungal genomes have been sequenced for many species, revealing a diverse range of genes that encode proteins involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, signaling, and regulation. Comparative genomic analyses have also provided insights into the evolutionary relationships among different fungal lineages and have helped to identify unique genetic features that distinguish fungi from other eukaryotes.

Understanding fungal genes and their functions is essential for advancing our knowledge of fungal biology, as well as for developing new strategies to control fungal pathogens that can cause diseases in humans, animals, and plants.

Hominidae, also known as the "great apes," is a family of primates that includes humans (Homo sapiens), orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and Gorilla beringei), bonobos (Pan paniscus), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). This family is characterized by their upright walking ability, although not all members exhibit this trait. Hominidae species are known for their high intelligence, complex social structures, and expressive facial features. They share a common ancestor with the Old World monkeys, and fossil records suggest that this split occurred around 25 million years ago.

Chromosomes in plants are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, DNA, and proteins. They are present in the nucleus of every cell and are inherited from the parent plants during sexual reproduction. Chromosomes come in pairs, with each pair consisting of one chromosome from each parent.

In plants, like in other organisms, chromosomes play a crucial role in inheritance, development, and reproduction. They carry genetic information that determines various traits and characteristics of the plant, such as its physical appearance, growth patterns, and resistance to diseases.

Plant chromosomes are typically much larger than those found in animals, making them easier to study under a microscope. The number of chromosomes varies among different plant species, ranging from as few as 2 in some ferns to over 1000 in certain varieties of wheat.

During cell division, the chromosomes replicate and then separate into two identical sets, ensuring that each new cell receives a complete set of genetic information. This process is critical for the growth and development of the plant, as well as for the production of viable seeds and offspring.

DNA Copy Number Variations (CNVs) refer to deletions or duplications of sections of the DNA molecule that are larger than 1 kilobase (kb). These variations result in gains or losses of genetic material, leading to changes in the number of copies of a particular gene or genes. CNVs can affect the expression level of genes and have been associated with various genetic disorders, complex diseases, and phenotypic differences among individuals. They are typically detected through techniques such as array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays, or next-generation sequencing (NGS).

In a medical or scientific context, "Primates" is a biological order that includes various species of mammals, such as humans, apes, monkeys, and prosimians (like lemurs and lorises). This group is characterized by several distinct features, including:

1. A forward-facing eye position, which provides stereoscopic vision and depth perception.
2. Nails instead of claws on most digits, except for the big toe in some species.
3. A rotating shoulder joint that allows for a wide range of motion in the arms.
4. A complex brain with a well-developed cortex, which is associated with higher cognitive functions like problem-solving and learning.
5. Social structures and behaviors, such as living in groups and exhibiting various forms of communication.

Understanding primates is essential for medical and biological research since many human traits, diseases, and behaviors have their origins within this group.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

Eukaryotic cells are complex cells that characterize the cells of all living organisms except bacteria and archaea. They are typically larger than prokaryotic cells and contain a true nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. The nucleus houses the genetic material, DNA, which is organized into chromosomes. Other organelles include mitochondria, responsible for energy production; chloroplasts, present in plant cells and responsible for photosynthesis; endoplasmic reticulum, involved in protein synthesis; Golgi apparatus, involved in the processing and transport of proteins and lipids; lysosomes, involved in digestion and waste disposal; and vacuoles, involved in storage and waste management. Eukaryotic cells also have a cytoskeleton made up of microtubules, intermediate filaments, and actin filaments that provide structure, support, and mobility to the cell.

Eukaryota is a domain that consists of organisms whose cells have a true nucleus and complex organelles. This domain includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists. The term "eukaryote" comes from the Greek words "eu," meaning true or good, and "karyon," meaning nut or kernel. In eukaryotic cells, the genetic material is housed within a membrane-bound nucleus, and the DNA is organized into chromosomes. This is in contrast to prokaryotic cells, which do not have a true nucleus and have their genetic material dispersed throughout the cytoplasm.

Eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. They have many different organelles, including mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus, that perform specific functions to support the cell's metabolism and survival. Eukaryotic cells also have a cytoskeleton made up of microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate filaments, which provide structure and shape to the cell and allow for movement of organelles and other cellular components.

Eukaryotes are diverse and can be found in many different environments, ranging from single-celled organisms that live in water or soil to multicellular organisms that live on land or in aquatic habitats. Some eukaryotes are unicellular, meaning they consist of a single cell, while others are multicellular, meaning they consist of many cells that work together to form tissues and organs.

In summary, Eukaryota is a domain of organisms whose cells have a true nucleus and complex organelles. This domain includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists, and the eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells.

DNA transposable elements, also known as transposons or jumping genes, are mobile genetic elements that can change their position within a genome. They are composed of DNA sequences that include genes encoding the enzymes required for their own movement (transposase) and regulatory elements. When activated, the transposase recognizes specific sequences at the ends of the element and catalyzes the excision and reintegration of the transposable element into a new location in the genome. This process can lead to genetic variation, as the insertion of a transposable element can disrupt the function of nearby genes or create new combinations of gene regulatory elements. Transposable elements are widespread in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and are thought to play a significant role in genome evolution.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

An allele is a variant form of a gene that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome. Alleles are alternative forms of the same gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same locus or position on homologous chromosomes.

Each person typically inherits two copies of each gene, one from each parent. If the two alleles are identical, a person is said to be homozygous for that trait. If the alleles are different, the person is heterozygous.

For example, the ABO blood group system has three alleles, A, B, and O, which determine a person's blood type. If a person inherits two A alleles, they will have type A blood; if they inherit one A and one B allele, they will have type AB blood; if they inherit two B alleles, they will have type B blood; and if they inherit two O alleles, they will have type O blood.

Alleles can also influence traits such as eye color, hair color, height, and other physical characteristics. Some alleles are dominant, meaning that only one copy of the allele is needed to express the trait, while others are recessive, meaning that two copies of the allele are needed to express the trait.

"Oryzias" is not a medical term, but a genus name in the family Adrianichthyidae, which includes various species of small fish commonly known as "ricefishes" or "medaka." These fish are often used in scientific research, particularly in the fields of genetics and developmental biology. They are not associated with human diseases or medical conditions.

"Drosophila" is a genus of small flies, also known as fruit flies. The most common species used in scientific research is "Drosophila melanogaster," which has been a valuable model organism for many areas of biological and medical research, including genetics, developmental biology, neurobiology, and aging.

The use of Drosophila as a model organism has led to numerous important discoveries in genetics and molecular biology, such as the identification of genes that are associated with human diseases like cancer, Parkinson's disease, and obesity. The short reproductive cycle, large number of offspring, and ease of genetic manipulation make Drosophila a powerful tool for studying complex biological processes.

A genome in the context of insects refers to the complete set of genetic material, including all of the DNA and RNA, that is present in the cells of an insect. The genome contains all of the genes that provide the instructions for the development, growth, and function of the insect. It also includes non-coding regions of DNA that may have regulatory functions or may be the result of historical processes.

The genome of an insect is typically divided into several chromosomes, which are structures in the cell's nucleus that contain long stretches of DNA. The number and appearance of these chromosomes can vary between different species of insects. For example, some insects may have a diploid number of two sets of chromosomes (one set from each parent), while others may have a haploid number of a single set of chromosomes.

The genome size of insects can also vary significantly, with some species having genomes that are only a few hundred million base pairs in length, while others have genomes that are several billion base pairs long. The genome sequence of an insect can provide valuable insights into its evolutionary history, as well as information about the genes and regulatory elements that are important for its biology and behavior.

"Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a scientific name used in the field of microbiology. It refers to a species of yeast that is commonly used in various industrial processes, such as baking and brewing. It's also widely used in scientific research due to its genetic tractability and eukaryotic cellular organization.

However, it does have some relevance to medical fields like medicine and nutrition. For example, certain strains of S. cerevisiae are used as probiotics, which can provide health benefits when consumed. They may help support gut health, enhance the immune system, and even assist in the digestion of certain nutrients.

In summary, "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is a species of yeast with various industrial and potential medical applications.

Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) are short, single-pass DNA sequences that are derived from cDNA libraries. They represent a quick and cost-effective method for large-scale sequencing of gene transcripts and provide an unbiased view of the genes being actively expressed in a particular tissue or developmental stage. ESTs can be used to identify and study new genes, to analyze patterns of gene expression, and to develop molecular markers for genetic mapping and genome analysis.

Artificial bacterial chromosomes (ABCs) are synthetic replicons that are designed to function like natural bacterial chromosomes. They are created through the use of molecular biology techniques, such as recombination and cloning, to construct large DNA molecules that can stably replicate and segregate within a host bacterium.

ABCs are typically much larger than traditional plasmids, which are smaller circular DNA molecules that can also replicate in bacteria but have a limited capacity for carrying genetic information. ABCs can accommodate large DNA inserts, making them useful tools for cloning and studying large genes, gene clusters, or even entire genomes of other organisms.

There are several types of ABCs, including bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), P1-derived artificial chromosomes (PACs), and yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). BACs are the most commonly used type of ABC and can accommodate inserts up to 300 kilobases (kb) in size. They have been widely used in genome sequencing projects, functional genomics studies, and protein production.

Overall, artificial bacterial chromosomes provide a powerful tool for manipulating and studying large DNA molecules in a controlled and stable manner within bacterial hosts.

A zebrafish is a freshwater fish species belonging to the family Cyprinidae and the genus Danio. Its name is derived from its distinctive striped pattern that resembles a zebra's. Zebrafish are often used as model organisms in scientific research, particularly in developmental biology, genetics, and toxicology studies. They have a high fecundity rate, transparent embryos, and a rapid development process, making them an ideal choice for researchers. However, it is important to note that providing a medical definition for zebrafish may not be entirely accurate or relevant since they are primarily used in biological research rather than clinical medicine.

A centrosome is a microtubule-organizing center found in animal cells. It consists of two barrel-shaped structures called centrioles, which are surrounded by a protein matrix called the pericentriolar material. The centrosome plays a crucial role in organizing the microtubules that form the cell's cytoskeleton and help to shape the cell, as well as in separating the chromosomes during cell division.

During mitosis, the two centrioles of the centrosome separate and move to opposite poles of the cell, where they nucleate the formation of the spindle fibers that pull the chromosomes apart. The centrosome also helps to ensure that the genetic material is equally distributed between the two resulting daughter cells.

It's worth noting that while centrioles are present in many animal cells, they are not always present in all types of cells. For example, plant cells do not have centrioles or centrosomes, and instead rely on other mechanisms to organize their microtubules.

Southern blotting is a type of membrane-based blotting technique that is used in molecular biology to detect and locate specific DNA sequences within a DNA sample. This technique is named after its inventor, Edward M. Southern.

In Southern blotting, the DNA sample is first digested with one or more restriction enzymes, which cut the DNA at specific recognition sites. The resulting DNA fragments are then separated based on their size by gel electrophoresis. After separation, the DNA fragments are denatured to convert them into single-stranded DNA and transferred onto a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane.

Once the DNA has been transferred to the membrane, it is hybridized with a labeled probe that is complementary to the sequence of interest. The probe can be labeled with radioactive isotopes, fluorescent dyes, or chemiluminescent compounds. After hybridization, the membrane is washed to remove any unbound probe and then exposed to X-ray film (in the case of radioactive probes) or scanned (in the case of non-radioactive probes) to detect the location of the labeled probe on the membrane.

The position of the labeled probe on the membrane corresponds to the location of the specific DNA sequence within the original DNA sample. Southern blotting is a powerful tool for identifying and characterizing specific DNA sequences, such as those associated with genetic diseases or gene regulation.

Opsins are a type of protein that are sensitive to light and play a crucial role in vision. They are found in the photoreceptor cells of the retina, which are the specialized cells in the eye that detect light. Opsins are activated by light, which triggers a series of chemical reactions that ultimately result in the transmission of a signal to the brain, allowing us to see.

There are several different types of opsins, including rhodopsin and the cone pigments, which are found in the rods and cones of the retina, respectively. Rhodopsin is responsible for dim-light vision, while the cone pigments are involved in color vision and bright-light vision.

Opsins belong to a larger family of proteins called G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are involved in many different physiological processes in the body. In addition to their role in vision, opsins have also been found to be involved in other light-dependent processes, such as the regulation of circadian rhythms and the entrainment of the biological clock.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "lampreys" is not a medical term. It refers to a type of jawless aquatic vertebrate that are eel-like in appearance. They are parasitic creatures, with a suction cup-like mouth and circular rows of teeth, which they use to attach to fish and suck their body fluids. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

The digestive system is a complex series of organs and glands that process food. Abnormalities in the digestive system can refer to a wide range of conditions that affect any part of the system, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or acquired later in life due to various factors such as infection, inflammation, injury, or disease.

Some examples of digestive system abnormalities include:

1. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): A condition where the stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and damage to the esophageal lining.
2. Peptic Ulcers: Open sores that develop on the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by bacterial infections or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic inflammatory conditions of the intestine, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
4. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and altered bowel habits.
5. Celiac Disease: An autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine.
6. Diverticulosis: The presence of small pouches or sacs that form on the lining of the intestine, which can become inflamed or infected (diverticulitis).
7. Hiatal Hernia: A condition where a portion of the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm into the chest cavity.
8. Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, often caused by viral infections or toxins.
9. Cirrhosis: A chronic liver disease characterized by scarring and loss of liver function, often due to long-term alcohol abuse or hepatitis.
10. Gallstones: Small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder and can cause pain and inflammation.

These are just a few examples of gastrointestinal disorders, and there are many others. If you are experiencing symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, or difficulty swallowing, it is important to speak with your healthcare provider to determine the cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

A genetic database is a type of biomedical or health informatics database that stores and organizes genetic data, such as DNA sequences, gene maps, genotypes, haplotypes, and phenotype information. These databases can be used for various purposes, including research, clinical diagnosis, and personalized medicine.

There are different types of genetic databases, including:

1. Genomic databases: These databases store whole genome sequences, gene expression data, and other genomic information. Examples include the National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI) GenBank, the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ).
2. Gene databases: These databases contain information about specific genes, including their location, function, regulation, and evolution. Examples include the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database, the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt), and the Gene Ontology (GO) database.
3. Variant databases: These databases store information about genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions/deletions (INDELs), and copy number variations (CNVs). Examples include the Database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (dbSNP), the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC), and the International HapMap Project.
4. Clinical databases: These databases contain genetic and clinical information about patients, such as their genotype, phenotype, family history, and response to treatments. Examples include the ClinVar database, the Pharmacogenomics Knowledgebase (PharmGKB), and the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).
5. Population databases: These databases store genetic information about different populations, including their ancestry, demographics, and genetic diversity. Examples include the 1000 Genomes Project, the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP), and the Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND).

Genetic databases can be publicly accessible or restricted to authorized users, depending on their purpose and content. They play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of genetics and genomics, as well as improving healthcare and personalized medicine.

Alternative splicing is a process in molecular biology that occurs during the post-transcriptional modification of pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) molecules. It involves the removal of non-coding sequences, known as introns, and the joining together of coding sequences, or exons, to form a mature messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule that can be translated into a protein.

In alternative splicing, different combinations of exons are selected and joined together to create multiple distinct mRNA transcripts from a single pre-mRNA template. This process increases the diversity of proteins that can be produced from a limited number of genes, allowing for greater functional complexity in organisms.

Alternative splicing is regulated by various cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors that bind to specific sequences in the pre-mRNA molecule and influence which exons are included or excluded during splicing. Abnormal alternative splicing has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the genetic material present in the cells of all living organisms, including plants. In plants, DNA is located in the nucleus of a cell, as well as in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Plant DNA contains the instructions for the development, growth, and function of the plant, and is passed down from one generation to the next through the process of reproduction.

The structure of DNA is a double helix, formed by two strands of nucleotides that are linked together by hydrogen bonds. Each nucleotide contains a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are four types of nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, forming the rungs of the ladder that make up the double helix.

The genetic information in DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nitrogenous bases. Large sequences of bases form genes, which provide the instructions for the production of proteins. The process of gene expression involves transcribing the DNA sequence into a complementary RNA molecule, which is then translated into a protein.

Plant DNA is similar to animal DNA in many ways, but there are also some differences. For example, plant DNA contains a higher proportion of repetitive sequences and transposable elements, which are mobile genetic elements that can move around the genome and cause mutations. Additionally, plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts, which are not present in animal cells, and these structures contain their own DNA.

Genetic speciation is not a widely used term in the scientific literature, but it generally refers to the process by which new species arise due to genetic differences and reproductive isolation. This process can occur through various mechanisms such as mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, natural selection, or chromosomal changes that lead to the accumulation of genetic differences between populations. Over time, these genetic differences can result in the development of reproductive barriers that prevent interbreeding between the populations, leading to the formation of new species.

In other words, genetic speciation is a type of speciation that involves the evolution of genetic differences that ultimately lead to the formation of new species. It is an essential concept in the field of evolutionary biology and genetics, as it explains how biodiversity arises over time.

'Ciona intestinalis' is a species of tunicate, also known as sea squirts. They are marine invertebrate animals that are characterized by their sac-like bodies and filter-feeding habits. Tunicates are members of the phylum Chordata, which includes all animals with dorsal, hollow nerve cords – a category that also contains vertebrates (animals with backbones).

'Ciona intestinalis' is often used as a model organism in biological research due to its simple anatomy and relatively small genome. It has been studied in various fields such as developmental biology, evolution, and biomedical research. The species is native to the waters of the North Atlantic Ocean but has been introduced to many other regions around the world.

Sequence homology is a term used in molecular biology to describe the similarity between the nucleotide or amino acid sequences of two or more genes or proteins. It is a measure of the degree to which the sequences are related, indicating a common evolutionary origin.

In other words, sequence homology implies that the compared sequences have a significant number of identical or similar residues in the same order, suggesting that they share a common ancestor and have diverged over time through processes such as mutation, insertion, deletion, or rearrangement. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more closely related the sequences are likely to be.

Sequence homology is often used to identify similarities between genes or proteins from different species, which can provide valuable insights into their functions, structures, and evolutionary relationships. It is commonly assessed using various bioinformatics tools and algorithms, such as BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool), Clustal Omega, and multiple sequence alignment (MSA) methods.

Rhodopsin, also known as visual purple, is a light-sensitive protein found in the rods of the eye's retina. It is a type of opsin, a class of proteins that are activated by light and play a crucial role in vision. Rhodopsin is composed of two parts: an apoprotein called opsin and a chromophore called 11-cis-retinal. When light hits the retina, it changes the shape of the 11-cis-retinal, which in turn activates the rhodopsin protein. This activation triggers a series of chemical reactions that ultimately lead to the transmission of a visual signal to the brain. Rhodopsin is highly sensitive to light and allows for vision in low-light conditions.

Crossing over, genetic is a process that occurs during meiosis, where homologous chromosomes exchange genetic material with each other. It is a crucial mechanism for generating genetic diversity in sexually reproducing organisms.

Here's a more detailed explanation:

During meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair up and align closely with each other. At this point, sections of the chromosomes can break off and reattach to the corresponding section on the homologous chromosome. This exchange of genetic material is called crossing over or genetic recombination.

The result of crossing over is that the two resulting chromosomes are no longer identical to each other or to the original chromosomes. Instead, they contain a unique combination of genetic material from both parents. Crossing over can lead to new combinations of alleles (different forms of the same gene) and can increase genetic diversity in the population.

Crossing over is a random process, so the location and frequency of crossover events vary between individuals and between chromosomes. The number and position of crossovers can affect the likelihood that certain genes will be inherited together or separated, which is an important consideration in genetic mapping and breeding studies.

Bayes' theorem, also known as Bayes' rule or Bayes' formula, is a fundamental principle in the field of statistics and probability theory. It describes how to update the probability of a hypothesis based on new evidence or data. The theorem is named after Reverend Thomas Bayes, who first formulated it in the 18th century.

In mathematical terms, Bayes' theorem states that the posterior probability of a hypothesis (H) given some observed evidence (E) is proportional to the product of the prior probability of the hypothesis (P(H)) and the likelihood of observing the evidence given the hypothesis (P(E|H)):

Posterior Probability = P(H|E) = [P(E|H) x P(H)] / P(E)

Where:

* P(H|E): The posterior probability of the hypothesis H after observing evidence E. This is the probability we want to calculate.
* P(E|H): The likelihood of observing evidence E given that the hypothesis H is true.
* P(H): The prior probability of the hypothesis H before observing any evidence.
* P(E): The marginal likelihood or probability of observing evidence E, regardless of whether the hypothesis H is true or not. This value can be calculated as the sum of the products of the likelihood and prior probability for all possible hypotheses: P(E) = Σ[P(E|Hi) x P(Hi)]

Bayes' theorem has many applications in various fields, including medicine, where it can be used to update the probability of a disease diagnosis based on test results or other clinical findings. It is also widely used in machine learning and artificial intelligence algorithms for probabilistic reasoning and decision making under uncertainty.

Genome size refers to the total amount of genetic material, or DNA, contained within the cell of an organism. It is usually measured in terms of base pair (bp) length and can vary greatly between different species. The genome size includes all the genes, non-coding DNA, and repetitive elements present in the genome.

It's worth noting that genome size does not necessarily correlate with the complexity of an organism. For example, some plants have much larger genomes than humans, while some bacteria have smaller genomes. Additionally, genome size can also vary within a single species due to differences in the amount of repetitive DNA or other genetic elements.

Restriction mapping is a technique used in molecular biology to identify the location and arrangement of specific restriction endonuclease recognition sites within a DNA molecule. Restriction endonucleases are enzymes that cut double-stranded DNA at specific sequences, producing fragments of various lengths. By digesting the DNA with different combinations of these enzymes and analyzing the resulting fragment sizes through techniques such as agarose gel electrophoresis, researchers can generate a restriction map - a visual representation of the locations and distances between recognition sites on the DNA molecule. This information is crucial for various applications, including cloning, genome analysis, and genetic engineering.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

I believe there might be a slight misunderstanding in your question. In genetics, there are no specific "gene components." However, genes themselves are made up of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules, which consist of two complementary strands that twist around each other to form a double helix.

The DNA molecule is composed of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). These bases pair up with each other in specific ways: Adenine with thymine, and guanine with cytosine.

The gene is a segment of DNA that contains the instructions for making a particular protein or performing a specific function within an organism. The sequence of these nucleotide bases determines the genetic information encoded in a gene.

So, if you're referring to the parts of a gene, they can be described as:

1. Promoter: A region at the beginning of a gene that acts as a binding site for RNA polymerase, an enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA.
2. Introns and exons: Introns are non-coding sequences within a gene, while exons are coding sequences that contain information for protein synthesis. Introns are removed during RNA processing, and exons are spliced together to form the final mature mRNA (messenger RNA) molecule.
3. Regulatory elements: These are specific DNA sequences that control gene expression, such as enhancers, silencers, and transcription factor binding sites. They can be located upstream, downstream, or even within introns of a gene.
4. Terminator: A region at the end of a gene that signals RNA polymerase to stop transcribing DNA into RNA.

Chromosome aberrations refer to structural and numerical changes in the chromosomes that can occur spontaneously or as a result of exposure to mutagenic agents. These changes can affect the genetic material encoded in the chromosomes, leading to various consequences such as developmental abnormalities, cancer, or infertility.

Structural aberrations include deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations, and rings, which result from breaks and rearrangements of chromosome segments. Numerical aberrations involve changes in the number of chromosomes, such as aneuploidy (extra or missing chromosomes) or polyploidy (multiples of a complete set of chromosomes).

Chromosome aberrations can be detected and analyzed using various cytogenetic techniques, including karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). These methods allow for the identification and characterization of chromosomal changes at the molecular level, providing valuable information for genetic counseling, diagnosis, and research.

"Caenorhabditis" is a genus of nematode (roundworm) animals, which are commonly used as model organisms in scientific research. The most widely studied species within this genus is "Caenorhabditis elegans," which has been extensively researched due to its simple anatomy, short lifespan, and fully sequenced genome. These nematodes are found in various environments, including soil and decaying organic matter, and play a crucial role in the decomposition process. The term "Caenorhabditis" itself is derived from Greek roots, with "caeno" meaning "recent" or "new," and "rhabditis" referring to the shape of their tails.

Genes are the fundamental units of heredity in living organisms. They are made up of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and are located on chromosomes. Genes carry the instructions for the development and function of an organism, including its physical and behavioral traits.

Helminths, also known as parasitic worms, are a type of parasite that can infect various organs and tissues in humans and animals. They have complex life cycles that involve multiple hosts and stages of development. Examples of helminths include roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes.

In the context of genetics, genes from helminths are studied to understand their role in the biology and evolution of these parasites, as well as to identify potential targets for the development of new drugs or vaccines to control or eliminate helminth infections. This involves studying the genetic makeup of helminths, including their DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how they interact with their hosts and the environment.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

An open reading frame (ORF) is a continuous stretch of DNA or RNA sequence that has the potential to be translated into a protein. It begins with a start codon (usually "ATG" in DNA, which corresponds to "AUG" in RNA) and ends with a stop codon ("TAA", "TAG", or "TGA" in DNA; "UAA", "UAG", or "UGA" in RNA). The sequence between these two points is called a coding sequence (CDS), which, when transcribed into mRNA and translated into amino acids, forms a polypeptide chain.

In eukaryotic cells, ORFs can be located in either protein-coding genes or non-coding regions of the genome. In prokaryotic cells, multiple ORFs may be present on a single strand of DNA, often organized into operons that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that not all ORFs necessarily represent functional proteins; some may be pseudogenes or result from errors in genome annotation. Therefore, additional experimental evidence is typically required to confirm the expression and functionality of a given ORF.

"Gnathostoma" is a genus of parasitic nematodes (roundworms) that are known to cause gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonotic disease. The adult worms typically infect the stomach of carnivorous animals such as cats and dogs, while the larvae can migrate through various tissues in humans and other animals, causing cutaneous and visceral lesions.

The term "Gnathostoma" itself is derived from the Greek words "gnathos" meaning jaw and "stoma" meaning mouth, which refers to the distinctive muscular mouthparts (called "hooks") that these parasites use to attach themselves to their host's tissues.

It's worth noting that there are several species of Gnathostoma that can infect humans, with Gnathostoma spinigerum being one of the most common and widely distributed species. Proper cooking and hygiene practices can help prevent gnathostomiasis infection in humans.

Chromosomes in insects are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, made up of DNA and proteins, found in the nucleus of a cell. In insects, like other eukaryotes, chromosomes come in pairs, with one set inherited from each parent. They are crucial for the inheritance, storage, and transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next.

Insects typically have a diploid number of chromosomes (2n), which varies among species. The chromosomes are present in the cell's nucleus during interphase as loosely coiled structures called chromatin. During cell division, they condense and become visible under the microscope as distinct, X-shaped structures called metaphase chromosomes.

The insect chromosome set includes autosomal chromosomes, which are identical in appearance and function between males and females, and sex chromosomes, which differ between males and females. In many insects, the males have an XY sex chromosome constitution, while the females have an XX sex chromosome constitution. The sex chromosomes carry genes that determine the sex of the individual.

Insect chromosomes play a vital role in various biological processes, including development, reproduction, and evolution. They are also essential for genetic research and breeding programs in agriculture and medicine.

Genetic linkage is the phenomenon where two or more genetic loci (locations on a chromosome) tend to be inherited together because they are close to each other on the same chromosome. This occurs during the process of sexual reproduction, where homologous chromosomes pair up and exchange genetic material through a process called crossing over.

The closer two loci are to each other on a chromosome, the lower the probability that they will be separated by a crossover event. As a result, they are more likely to be inherited together and are said to be linked. The degree of linkage between two loci can be measured by their recombination frequency, which is the percentage of meiotic events in which a crossover occurs between them.

Linkage analysis is an important tool in genetic research, as it allows researchers to identify and map genes that are associated with specific traits or diseases. By analyzing patterns of linkage between markers (identifiable DNA sequences) and phenotypes (observable traits), researchers can infer the location of genes that contribute to those traits or diseases on chromosomes.

The X chromosome is one of the two types of sex-determining chromosomes in humans (the other being the Y chromosome). It's one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes that make up a person's genetic material. Females typically have two copies of the X chromosome (XX), while males usually have one X and one Y chromosome (XY).

The X chromosome contains hundreds of genes that are responsible for the production of various proteins, many of which are essential for normal bodily functions. Some of the critical roles of the X chromosome include:

1. Sex Determination: The presence or absence of the Y chromosome determines whether an individual is male or female. If there is no Y chromosome, the individual will typically develop as a female.
2. Genetic Disorders: Since females have two copies of the X chromosome, they are less likely to be affected by X-linked genetic disorders than males. Males, having only one X chromosome, will express any recessive X-linked traits they inherit.
3. Dosage Compensation: To compensate for the difference in gene dosage between males and females, a process called X-inactivation occurs during female embryonic development. One of the two X chromosomes is randomly inactivated in each cell, resulting in a single functional copy per cell.

The X chromosome plays a crucial role in human genetics and development, contributing to various traits and characteristics, including sex determination and dosage compensation.

'Caenorhabditis elegans' is a species of free-living, transparent nematode (roundworm) that is widely used as a model organism in scientific research, particularly in the fields of biology and genetics. It has a simple anatomy, short lifespan, and fully sequenced genome, making it an ideal subject for studying various biological processes and diseases.

Some notable features of C. elegans include:

* Small size: Adult hermaphrodites are about 1 mm in length.
* Short lifespan: The average lifespan of C. elegans is around 2-3 weeks, although some strains can live up to 4 weeks under laboratory conditions.
* Development: C. elegans has a well-characterized developmental process, with adults developing from eggs in just 3 days at 20°C.
* Transparency: The transparent body of C. elegans allows researchers to observe its internal structures and processes easily.
* Genetics: C. elegans has a fully sequenced genome, which contains approximately 20,000 genes. Many of these genes have human homologs, making it an excellent model for studying human diseases.
* Neurobiology: C. elegans has a simple nervous system, with only 302 neurons in the hermaphrodite and 383 in the male. This simplicity makes it an ideal organism for studying neural development, function, and behavior.

Research using C. elegans has contributed significantly to our understanding of various biological processes, including cell division, apoptosis, aging, learning, and memory. Additionally, studies on C. elegans have led to the discovery of many genes associated with human diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic conditions.

Convolvulaceae is a family of flowering plants, also known as the bindweed or morning glory family. It includes both annual and perennial vines, herbs, and shrubs, with over 1,650 species spread across around 60 genera. The plants in this family are characterized by their twining stems and funnel-shaped flowers. Some of the well-known members of Convolvulaceae include the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), morning glory (Ipomoea spp.), and bindweed (Convolvulus spp.).

Many species in this family contain ergoline alkaloids, which can have hallucinogenic effects. Some indigenous cultures have used these plants for their psychoactive properties in religious or spiritual ceremonies. However, it's important to note that some of these alkaloids can be toxic and even fatal if ingested in large quantities.

In a medical context, certain species of Convolvulaceae may be relevant due to their potential toxicity or as weeds that can cause problems in agriculture. For example, field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) is a notorious agricultural weed that can reduce crop yields and increase the difficulty of farming.

Arthropods are a phylum of animals characterized by the presence of a segmented body, a pair of jointed appendages on each segment, and a tough exoskeleton made of chitin. This phylum includes insects, arachnids (spiders, scorpions, mites), crustaceans (crabs, lobsters, shrimp), and myriapods (centipedes, millipedes). They are the largest group of animals on Earth, making up more than 80% of all described species. Arthropods can be found in nearly every habitat, from the deep sea to mountaintops, and play important roles in ecosystems as decomposers, pollinators, and predators.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Smegmamorpha" is not a recognized term in medical or scientific fields. It seems like it might be a made-up word, possibly a combination of "smegma," which refers to the secretions found in the genital area, and "-morpha," which is often used in taxonomy to denote a subgroup or form. However, I cannot find any legitimate scientific or medical use for this term.

Contig mapping, short for contiguous mapping, is a process used in genetics and genomics to construct a detailed map of a particular region or regions of a genome. It involves the use of molecular biology techniques to physically join together, or "clone," overlapping DNA fragments from a specific region of interest in a genome. These joined fragments are called "contigs" because they are continuous and contiguous stretches of DNA that represent a contiguous map of the region.

Contig mapping is often used to study large-scale genetic variations, such as deletions, duplications, or rearrangements, in specific genomic regions associated with diseases or other traits. It can also be used to identify and characterize genes within those regions, which can help researchers understand their function and potential role in disease processes.

The process of contig mapping typically involves several steps, including:

1. DNA fragmentation: The genomic region of interest is broken down into smaller fragments using physical or enzymatic methods.
2. Cloning: The fragments are inserted into a vector, such as a plasmid or bacteriophage, which can be replicated in bacteria to produce multiple copies of each fragment.
3. Library construction: The cloned fragments are pooled together to create a genomic library, which contains all the DNA fragments from the region of interest.
4. Screening and selection: The library is screened using various methods, such as hybridization or PCR, to identify clones that contain overlapping fragments from the region of interest.
5. Contig assembly: The selected clones are ordered based on their overlapping regions to create a contiguous map of the genomic region.
6. Sequencing and analysis: The DNA sequence of the contigs is determined and analyzed to identify genes, regulatory elements, and other features of the genomic region.

Overall, contig mapping is an important tool for studying the structure and function of genomes, and has contributed significantly to our understanding of genetic variation and disease mechanisms.

A bacterial genome is the complete set of genetic material, including both DNA and RNA, found within a single bacterium. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the bacterium to grow, reproduce, and survive in its environment. The bacterial genome typically includes circular chromosomes, as well as plasmids, which are smaller, circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes. These genes encode various functional elements such as enzymes, structural proteins, and regulatory sequences that determine the bacterium's characteristics and behavior.

Bacterial genomes vary widely in size, ranging from around 130 kilobases (kb) in Mycoplasma genitalium to over 14 megabases (Mb) in Sorangium cellulosum. The complete sequencing and analysis of bacterial genomes have provided valuable insights into the biology, evolution, and pathogenicity of bacteria, enabling researchers to better understand their roles in various diseases and potential applications in biotechnology.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

"Pan troglodytes" is the scientific name for a species of great apes known as the Common Chimpanzee. They are native to tropical rainforests in Western and Central Africa. Common Chimpanzees are our closest living relatives, sharing about 98.6% of our DNA. They are highly intelligent and social animals, capable of using tools, exhibiting complex behaviors, and displaying a range of emotions.

Here is a medical definition for 'Pan troglodytes':

The scientific name for the Common Chimpanzee species (genus Pan), a highly intelligent and social great ape native to tropical rainforests in Western and Central Africa. They are our closest living relatives, sharing approximately 98.6% of our DNA. Known for their complex behaviors, tool use, and emotional expression, Common Chimpanzees have been extensively studied in the fields of anthropology, psychology, and primatology to better understand human evolution and behavior.

FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is a type of receptor tyrosine kinase, which is a type of enzyme that plays a role in signal transduction within cells. FLT3 is found on the surface of certain types of blood cells, including hematopoietic stem cells and some types of leukemia cells.

FLT3 is activated when it binds to its ligand, FLT3L, leading to activation of various signaling pathways that are involved in cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Mutations in the FLT3 gene can lead to constitutive activation of the receptor, even in the absence of its ligand, resulting in uncontrolled cell growth and division. Such mutations are commonly found in certain types of leukemia, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and are associated with a poor prognosis.

FLT3 inhibitors are a class of drugs that are being developed to target FLT3 mutations in leukemia cells, with the goal of blocking the abnormal signaling pathways that contribute to the growth and survival of these cancer cells.

'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term that refers to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or can develop later in life (acquired). They can affect various organs and systems of the body and can vary greatly in severity and impact on a person's health and well-being.

Multiple abnormalities can occur due to genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. Chromosomal abnormalities, gene mutations, exposure to teratogens (substances that cause birth defects), and maternal infections during pregnancy are some of the common causes of multiple congenital abnormalities.

Examples of multiple congenital abnormalities include Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and VATER/VACTERL association. Acquired multiple abnormalities can result from conditions such as trauma, infection, degenerative diseases, or cancer.

The medical evaluation and management of individuals with multiple abnormalities depend on the specific abnormalities present and their impact on the individual's health and functioning. A multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals is often involved in the care of these individuals to address their complex needs.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Yeasts are single-celled microorganisms that belong to the fungus kingdom. They are characterized by their ability to reproduce asexually through budding or fission, and they obtain nutrients by fermenting sugars and other organic compounds. Some species of yeast can cause infections in humans, known as candidiasis or "yeast infections." These infections can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, mouth, genitals, and internal organs. Common symptoms of a yeast infection may include itching, redness, irritation, and discharge. Yeast infections are typically treated with antifungal medications.

Physical chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping or genomic mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or DNA sequences along a chromosome based on their physical distance from one another. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques such as restriction enzyme digestion, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and chromosome walking to identify the precise location of a particular gene or sequence on a chromosome.

Physical chromosome mapping provides important information about the organization and structure of chromosomes, and it is essential for understanding genetic diseases and disorders. By identifying the specific genes and DNA sequences that are associated with certain conditions, researchers can develop targeted therapies and treatments to improve patient outcomes. Additionally, physical chromosome mapping is an important tool for studying evolution and comparative genomics, as it allows scientists to compare the genetic makeup of different species and identify similarities and differences between them.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

A "gene library" is not a recognized term in medical genetics or molecular biology. However, the closest concept that might be referred to by this term is a "genomic library," which is a collection of DNA clones that represent the entire genetic material of an organism. These libraries are used for various research purposes, such as identifying and studying specific genes or gene functions.

Chromosomes are thread-like structures that exist in the nucleus of cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes. They are composed of DNA and proteins, and are typically present in pairs in the nucleus, with one set inherited from each parent. In humans, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes. Chromosomes come in different shapes and forms, including sex chromosomes (X and Y) that determine the biological sex of an individual. Changes or abnormalities in the number or structure of chromosomes can lead to genetic disorders and diseases.

Intellectual disability (ID) is a term used when there are significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.

Intellectual functioning, also known as intelligence, refers to general mental capacity, such as learning, reasoning, problem-solving, and other cognitive skills. Adaptive behavior includes skills needed for day-to-day life, such as communication, self-care, social skills, safety judgement, and basic academic skills.

Intellectual disability is characterized by below-average intelligence or mental ability and a lack of skills necessary for day-to-day living. It can be mild, moderate, severe, or profound, depending on the degree of limitation in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior.

It's important to note that people with intellectual disabilities have unique strengths and limitations, just like everyone else. With appropriate support and education, they can lead fulfilling lives and contribute to their communities in many ways.

"Gorilla gorilla" is the scientific name for the Western Gorilla, a subspecies of the Gorilla genus. Western Gorillas are divided into two subspecies: the Western Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and the Cross River Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli). Western Gorillas are native to the forests of central Africa, with Western Lowland Gorillas found in countries such as Gabon, Cameroon, Congo, and Equatorial Guinea, and Cross River Gorillas having a more restricted range along the border region of Nigeria and Cameroon.

Western Lowland Gorillas are the most numerous and widespread of all gorilla subspecies, but they still face significant threats from habitat loss, poaching, and disease. Cross River Gorillas are one of the world's 25 most endangered primates, with only a few hundred individuals remaining in the wild. Conservation efforts are underway to protect both subspecies and their habitats, including anti-poaching patrols, habitat restoration, and community education programs.

Nucleic acid hybridization is a process in molecular biology where two single-stranded nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) with complementary sequences pair together to form a double-stranded molecule through hydrogen bonding. The strands can be from the same type of nucleic acid or different types (i.e., DNA-RNA or DNA-cDNA). This process is commonly used in various laboratory techniques, such as Southern blotting, Northern blotting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and microarray analysis, to detect, isolate, and analyze specific nucleic acid sequences. The hybridization temperature and conditions are critical to ensure the specificity of the interaction between the two strands.

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds found in various plants, particularly in the families Boraginaceae, Asteraceae, and Fabaceae. These compounds have a pyrrolizidine ring structure and can be toxic or carcinogenic to humans and animals. They can contaminate food and feed sources, leading to poisoning and health issues. Chronic exposure to PAs has been linked to liver damage, veno-occlusive disease, and cancer. It is important to avoid consumption of plants containing high levels of PAs and to monitor food and feed sources for PA contamination.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Archaea are a domain of single-celled microorganisms that lack membrane-bound nuclei and other organelles. They are characterized by the unique structure of their cell walls, membranes, and ribosomes. Archaea were originally classified as bacteria, but they differ from bacteria in several key ways, including their genetic material and metabolic processes.

Archaea can be found in a wide range of environments, including some of the most extreme habitats on Earth, such as hot springs, deep-sea vents, and highly saline lakes. Some species of Archaea are able to survive in the absence of oxygen, while others require oxygen to live.

Archaea play important roles in global nutrient cycles, including the nitrogen cycle and the carbon cycle. They are also being studied for their potential role in industrial processes, such as the production of biofuels and the treatment of wastewater.

Characeae is a taxonomic group that refers to a family or order of freshwater green algae, also known as stoneworts or muskgrasses. These algae are characterized by their branched, segmented, and calcified structures that resemble small plants. They typically grow in shallow waters of lakes, ponds, and slow-moving streams with high nutrient levels. Characeae species have been used as bioindicators to monitor water quality due to their sensitivity to changes in environmental conditions. Some species are also known to produce compounds with potential medicinal properties.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

A chromosome inversion is a genetic rearrangement where a segment of a chromosome has been reversed end to end, so that its order of genes is opposite to the original. This means that the gene sequence on the segment of the chromosome has been inverted.

In an inversion, the chromosome breaks in two places, and the segment between the breaks rotates 180 degrees before reattaching. This results in a portion of the chromosome being inverted, or turned upside down, relative to the rest of the chromosome.

Chromosome inversions can be either paracentric or pericentric. Paracentric inversions involve a segment that does not include the centromere (the central constriction point of the chromosome), while pericentric inversions involve a segment that includes the centromere.

Inversions can have various effects on an individual's phenotype, depending on whether the inversion involves genes and if so, how those genes are affected by the inversion. In some cases, inversions may have no noticeable effect, while in others they may cause genetic disorders or predispose an individual to certain health conditions.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Homeobox genes are a specific class of genes that play a crucial role in the development and regulation of an organism's body plan. They encode transcription factors, which are proteins that regulate the expression of other genes. The homeobox region within these genes contains a highly conserved sequence of about 180 base pairs that encodes a DNA-binding domain called the homeodomain. This domain is responsible for recognizing and binding to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the transcription of target genes.

Homeobox genes are particularly important during embryonic development, where they help establish the anterior-posterior axis and regulate the development of various organs and body segments. They also play a role in maintaining adult tissue homeostasis and have been implicated in certain diseases, including cancer. Mutations in homeobox genes can lead to developmental abnormalities and congenital disorders.

Some examples of homeobox gene families include HOX genes, PAX genes, and NKX genes, among others. These genes are highly conserved across species, indicating their fundamental role in the development and regulation of body plans throughout the animal kingdom.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Insect Proteins" is not a recognized medical term. However, I can provide some information about insect protein from a nutritional and food science perspective.

Insect proteins refer to the proteins that are obtained from insects. Insects are a rich source of protein, and their protein content varies by species. For example, mealworms and crickets have been found to contain approximately 47-63% and 60-72% protein by dry weight, respectively.

In recent years, insect proteins have gained attention as a potential sustainable source of nutrition due to their high protein content, low environmental impact, and the ability to convert feed into protein more efficiently compared to traditional livestock. Insect proteins can be used in various applications such as food and feed additives, nutritional supplements, and even cosmetics.

However, it's important to note that the use of insect proteins in human food is not widely accepted in many Western countries due to cultural and regulatory barriers. Nonetheless, research and development efforts continue to explore the potential benefits and applications of insect proteins in the global food system.

An esophageal cyst is a rare, abnormal growth that forms in the wall of the esophagus, which is the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. These cysts are typically filled with fluid and can vary in size. They are usually congenital, meaning they are present at birth and develop as a result of abnormal embryonic development.

Esophageal cysts are typically asymptomatic and may not cause any problems until they become large enough to compress nearby structures, such as the trachea or other parts of the digestive system. In some cases, esophageal cysts may cause difficulty swallowing, coughing, or breathing.

Diagnosis of an esophageal cyst is typically made through imaging tests, such as a CT scan or MRI, which can help to visualize the cyst and determine its size and location. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the cyst, which is typically performed using minimally invasive techniques such as endoscopy or thoracoscopy.

It's important to note that while I strive to provide accurate information, my responses should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. If you have any concerns about your health, it is always best to consult with a healthcare provider.

"Saccharomyces" is a genus of fungi that are commonly known as baker's yeast or brewer's yeast. These organisms are single-celled and oval-shaped, and they reproduce through budding. They are widely used in the food industry for fermentation processes, such as making bread, beer, and wine.

In a medical context, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the species within this genus, has been studied for its potential health benefits when taken orally. Some research suggests that it may help to support gut health and immune function, although more studies are needed to confirm these effects and establish appropriate dosages and safety guidelines.

It's worth noting that while Saccharomyces is generally considered safe for most people, there have been rare cases of infection in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. As with any supplement, it's important to talk to your healthcare provider before starting to take Saccharomyces cerevisiae or any other probiotic strain.

Cluster analysis is a statistical method used to group similar objects or data points together based on their characteristics or features. In medical and healthcare research, cluster analysis can be used to identify patterns or relationships within complex datasets, such as patient records or genetic information. This technique can help researchers to classify patients into distinct subgroups based on their symptoms, diagnoses, or other variables, which can inform more personalized treatment plans or public health interventions.

Cluster analysis involves several steps, including:

1. Data preparation: The researcher must first collect and clean the data, ensuring that it is complete and free from errors. This may involve removing outlier values or missing data points.
2. Distance measurement: Next, the researcher must determine how to measure the distance between each pair of data points. Common methods include Euclidean distance (the straight-line distance between two points) or Manhattan distance (the distance between two points along a grid).
3. Clustering algorithm: The researcher then applies a clustering algorithm, which groups similar data points together based on their distances from one another. Common algorithms include hierarchical clustering (which creates a tree-like structure of clusters) or k-means clustering (which assigns each data point to the nearest centroid).
4. Validation: Finally, the researcher must validate the results of the cluster analysis by evaluating the stability and robustness of the clusters. This may involve re-running the analysis with different distance measures or clustering algorithms, or comparing the results to external criteria.

Cluster analysis is a powerful tool for identifying patterns and relationships within complex datasets, but it requires careful consideration of the data preparation, distance measurement, and validation steps to ensure accurate and meaningful results.

Brassicaceae is a scientific family name in the field of botany, which includes a group of plants commonly known as the mustard family or crucifers. This family includes many economically important crops such as broccoli, cauliflower, kale, cabbage, brussels sprouts, turnips, radishes, and mustards. The name Brassicaceae comes from the genus Brassica, which includes many of these familiar vegetables.

Plants in this family are characterized by their flowers, which have four petals arranged in a cross-like pattern, hence the common name "crucifers." They also typically have four sepals, six stamens, and two fused carpels that form a fruit called a silique or silicle.

Brassicaceae plants are known for their production of glucosinolates, which are sulfur-containing compounds that give these plants their characteristic pungent or bitter flavors. When the plant tissues are damaged, such as during chewing, the glucosinolates are broken down into isothiocyanates, which have been shown to have potential health benefits, including anti-cancer properties.

Genetic polymorphism refers to the occurrence of multiple forms (called alleles) of a particular gene within a population. These variations in the DNA sequence do not generally affect the function or survival of the organism, but they can contribute to differences in traits among individuals. Genetic polymorphisms can be caused by single nucleotide changes (SNPs), insertions or deletions of DNA segments, or other types of genetic rearrangements. They are important for understanding genetic diversity and evolution, as well as for identifying genetic factors that may contribute to disease susceptibility in humans.

Protein sequence analysis is the systematic examination and interpretation of the amino acid sequence of a protein to understand its structure, function, evolutionary relationships, and other biological properties. It involves various computational methods and tools to analyze the primary structure of proteins, which is the linear arrangement of amino acids along the polypeptide chain.

Protein sequence analysis can provide insights into several aspects, such as:

1. Identification of functional domains, motifs, or sites within a protein that may be responsible for its specific biochemical activities.
2. Comparison of homologous sequences from different organisms to infer evolutionary relationships and determine the degree of similarity or divergence among them.
3. Prediction of secondary and tertiary structures based on patterns of amino acid composition, hydrophobicity, and charge distribution.
4. Detection of post-translational modifications that may influence protein function, localization, or stability.
5. Identification of protease cleavage sites, signal peptides, or other sequence features that play a role in protein processing and targeting.

Some common techniques used in protein sequence analysis include:

1. Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA): A method to align multiple protein sequences to identify conserved regions, gaps, and variations.
2. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool): A widely-used tool for comparing a query protein sequence against a database of known sequences to find similarities and infer function or evolutionary relationships.
3. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs): Statistical models used to describe the probability distribution of amino acid sequences in protein families, allowing for more sensitive detection of remote homologs.
4. Protein structure prediction: Methods that use various computational approaches to predict the three-dimensional structure of a protein based on its amino acid sequence.
5. Phylogenetic analysis: The construction and interpretation of evolutionary trees (phylogenies) based on aligned protein sequences, which can provide insights into the historical relationships among organisms or proteins.

Developmental gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the activation or repression of specific genes during embryonic and fetal development. These regulatory mechanisms ensure that genes are expressed at the right time, in the right cells, and at appropriate levels to guide proper growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis of an organism.

Developmental gene expression regulation is a complex and dynamic process involving various molecular players, such as transcription factors, chromatin modifiers, non-coding RNAs, and signaling molecules. These regulators can interact with cis-regulatory elements, like enhancers and promoters, to fine-tune the spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development.

Dysregulation of developmental gene expression can lead to various congenital disorders and developmental abnormalities. Therefore, understanding the principles and mechanisms governing developmental gene expression regulation is crucial for uncovering the etiology of developmental diseases and devising potential therapeutic strategies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "flowers" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "flowers" is commonly used to refer to the reproductive structures of flowering plants (angiosperms), which are characterized by having both male and female reproductive organs or separate male and female flowers.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health conditions, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

"Hylobates" is not a medical term, but a biological genus name. It refers to a group of small, tailless primates known as gibbons or lesser apes, which are native to the forests of Southeast Asia. They are known for their agility in moving through trees by brachiation (arm-over-arm swinging).

There are currently 10 species recognized in the genus Hylobates, including the lar gibbon, agile gibbon, and siamang. While not a medical term, understanding the natural history of animals like gibbons can be important for medical professionals who work with them or study their diseases, as well as for conservationists and others interested in their welfare.

Prokaryotic cells are simple, single-celled organisms that do not have a true nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles. They include bacteria and archaea. The genetic material of prokaryotic cells is composed of a single circular chromosome located in the cytoplasm, along with small, circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. Prokaryotic cells have a rigid cell wall, which provides protection and support, and a flexible outer membrane that helps them to survive in diverse environments. They reproduce asexually by binary fission, where the cell divides into two identical daughter cells. Compared to eukaryotic cells, prokaryotic cells are generally smaller and have a simpler structure.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

'Drosophila proteins' refer to the proteins that are expressed in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. This organism is a widely used model system in genetics, developmental biology, and molecular biology research. The study of Drosophila proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of various biological processes, including gene regulation, cell signaling, development, and aging.

Some examples of well-studied Drosophila proteins include:

1. HSP70 (Heat Shock Protein 70): A chaperone protein involved in protein folding and protection from stress conditions.
2. TUBULIN: A structural protein that forms microtubules, important for cell division and intracellular transport.
3. ACTIN: A cytoskeletal protein involved in muscle contraction, cell motility, and maintenance of cell shape.
4. BETA-GALACTOSIDASE (LACZ): A reporter protein often used to monitor gene expression patterns in transgenic flies.
5. ENDOGLIN: A protein involved in the development of blood vessels during embryogenesis.
6. P53: A tumor suppressor protein that plays a crucial role in preventing cancer by regulating cell growth and division.
7. JUN-KINASE (JNK): A signaling protein involved in stress response, apoptosis, and developmental processes.
8. DECAPENTAPLEGIC (DPP): A member of the TGF-β (Transforming Growth Factor Beta) superfamily, playing essential roles in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis.

These proteins are often studied using various techniques such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and structural biology to understand their functions, interactions, and regulation within the cell.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "sharks" are not a medical term. Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral and dorsal fins without spines.

If you have any medical questions or terms that you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Amino acid motifs are recurring patterns or sequences of amino acids in a protein molecule. These motifs can be identified through various sequence analysis techniques and often have functional or structural significance. They can be as short as two amino acids in length, but typically contain at least three to five residues.

Some common examples of amino acid motifs include:

1. Active site motifs: These are specific sequences of amino acids that form the active site of an enzyme and participate in catalyzing chemical reactions. For example, the catalytic triad in serine proteases consists of three residues (serine, histidine, and aspartate) that work together to hydrolyze peptide bonds.
2. Signal peptide motifs: These are sequences of amino acids that target proteins for secretion or localization to specific organelles within the cell. For example, a typical signal peptide consists of a positively charged n-region, a hydrophobic h-region, and a polar c-region that directs the protein to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane for translocation.
3. Zinc finger motifs: These are structural domains that contain conserved sequences of amino acids that bind zinc ions and play important roles in DNA recognition and regulation of gene expression.
4. Transmembrane motifs: These are sequences of hydrophobic amino acids that span the lipid bilayer of cell membranes and anchor transmembrane proteins in place.
5. Phosphorylation sites: These are specific serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues that can be phosphorylated by protein kinases to regulate protein function.

Understanding amino acid motifs is important for predicting protein structure and function, as well as for identifying potential drug targets in disease-associated proteins.

A codon is a sequence of three adjacent nucleotides in DNA or RNA that specifies the insertion of a particular amino acid during protein synthesis, or signals the beginning or end of translation. In DNA, these triplets are read during transcription to produce a complementary mRNA molecule, which is then translated into a polypeptide chain during translation. There are 64 possible codons in the standard genetic code, with 61 encoding for specific amino acids and three serving as stop codons that signal the termination of protein synthesis.

A sequence deletion in a genetic context refers to the removal or absence of one or more nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA or RNA) from a specific region in a DNA or RNA molecule. This type of mutation can lead to the loss of genetic information, potentially resulting in changes in the function or expression of a gene. If the deletion involves a critical portion of the gene, it can cause diseases, depending on the role of that gene in the body. The size of the deleted sequence can vary, ranging from a single nucleotide to a large segment of DNA.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Populus" is not a medical term. It is actually the genus name for a group of trees commonly known as poplars, aspens, and cottonwoods. If you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to define or explain, I would be happy to help!

Myelin Proteolipid Protein (PLP) is a major component of the myelin sheath, which is a fatty insulating substance that covers and protects nerve fibers in the central nervous system (CNS). PLP makes up about 50% of the proteins found in the myelin sheath. It plays a crucial role in the structure and function of the myelin sheath, including maintaining its compactness and stability. Defects or mutations in the gene that encodes for PLP can lead to various demyelinating diseases, such as X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) and Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD), which are characterized by the degeneration of the myelin sheath and subsequent neurological impairments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Programming, Linear" is not a recognized medical term or concept. The term "linear programming" comes from the field of mathematics and computer science, and it refers to a method used to find the optimal solution(s) to a problem with certain constraints, where the objective function and constraints are linear.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I'd be happy to try to help answer them for you!

'Antirrhinum' is the genus name for a group of plants commonly known as "snapdragons." The term 'Antirrhinum' comes from the Greek words "anti" meaning like, and "rhin" meaning nose, which describes the shape of their flowers. Snapdragons are popular ornamental plants known for their unique flower structure, with a "mouth" that can be opened and closed by squeezing the sides of the flower.

While 'Antirrhinum' is a botanical name and not a medical term per se, it is important to note that some species of Antirrhinum contain certain chemical compounds that have been studied for their potential medicinal properties. For instance, certain Antirrhinum species have been found to contain iridoid glycosides, which have been investigated for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. However, it is essential to note that these studies are still in the early stages, and more research is needed before any definitive medical claims can be made about Antirrhinum or its potential therapeutic benefits.

Poaceae is not a medical term but a taxonomic category, specifically the family name for grasses. In a broader sense, you might be asking for a medical context where knowledge of this plant family could be relevant. For instance, certain members of the Poaceae family can cause allergies or negative reactions in some people.

In a medical definition, Poaceae would be defined as:

The family of monocotyledonous plants that includes grasses, bamboo, and sedges. These plants are characterized by narrow leaves with parallel veins, jointed stems (called "nodes" and "internodes"), and flowers arranged in spikelets. Some members of this family are important food sources for humans and animals, such as rice, wheat, corn, barley, oats, and sorghum. Other members can cause negative reactions, like skin irritation or allergies, due to their silica-based defense structures called phytoliths.

Arabidopsis proteins refer to the proteins that are encoded by the genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana plant, which is a model organism commonly used in plant biology research. This small flowering plant has a compact genome and a short life cycle, making it an ideal subject for studying various biological processes in plants.

Arabidopsis proteins play crucial roles in many cellular functions, such as metabolism, signaling, regulation of gene expression, response to environmental stresses, and developmental processes. Research on Arabidopsis proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of plant biology and has provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying various agronomic traits.

Some examples of Arabidopsis proteins include transcription factors, kinases, phosphatases, receptors, enzymes, and structural proteins. These proteins can be studied using a variety of techniques, such as biochemical assays, protein-protein interaction studies, and genetic approaches, to understand their functions and regulatory mechanisms in plants.

A chromosome deletion is a type of genetic abnormality that occurs when a portion of a chromosome is missing or deleted. Chromosomes are thread-like structures located in the nucleus of cells that contain our genetic material, which is organized into genes.

Chromosome deletions can occur spontaneously during the formation of reproductive cells (eggs or sperm) or can be inherited from a parent. They can affect any chromosome and can vary in size, from a small segment to a large portion of the chromosome.

The severity of the symptoms associated with a chromosome deletion depends on the size and location of the deleted segment. In some cases, the deletion may be so small that it does not cause any noticeable symptoms. However, larger deletions can lead to developmental delays, intellectual disabilities, physical abnormalities, and various medical conditions.

Chromosome deletions are typically detected through a genetic test called karyotyping, which involves analyzing the number and structure of an individual's chromosomes. Other more precise tests, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), may also be used to confirm the diagnosis and identify the specific location and size of the deletion.

Chromosome breakage is a medical term that refers to the breaking or fragmentation of chromosomes, which are thread-like structures located in the nucleus of cells that carry genetic information. Normally, chromosomes are tightly coiled and consist of two strands called chromatids, joined together at a central point called the centromere.

Chromosome breakage can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as radiation or chemicals, or inherited genetic disorders. When a chromosome breaks, it can result in various genetic abnormalities, depending on the location and severity of the break.

For instance, if the break occurs in a region containing important genes, it can lead to the loss or alteration of those genes, causing genetic diseases or birth defects. In some cases, the broken ends of the chromosome may rejoin incorrectly, leading to chromosomal rearrangements such as translocations, deletions, or inversions. These rearrangements can also result in genetic disorders or cancer.

Chromosome breakage is commonly observed in individuals with certain inherited genetic conditions, such as Bloom syndrome, Fanconi anemia, and ataxia-telangiectasia, which are characterized by an increased susceptibility to chromosome breakage due to defects in DNA repair mechanisms.

Arginine kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of arginine, a basic amino acid, to form phosphoarginine. This reaction plays a crucial role in energy metabolism in various organisms, including invertebrates and microorganisms. Phosphoarginine serves as an energy storage molecule, similar to how phosphocreatine is used in vertebrate muscle tissue. Arginine kinase is not typically found in mammals, but it is present in other animals such as insects, crustaceans, and mollusks. The enzyme helps facilitate rapid energy transfer during high-intensity activities, supporting the organism's physiological functions.

'Zea mays' is the biological name for corn or maize, which is not typically considered a medical term. However, corn or maize can have medical relevance in certain contexts. For example, cornstarch is sometimes used as a diluent for medications and is also a component of some skin products. Corn oil may be found in topical ointments and creams. In addition, some people may have allergic reactions to corn or corn-derived products. But generally speaking, 'Zea mays' itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Protein isoforms are different forms or variants of a protein that are produced from a single gene through the process of alternative splicing, where different exons (or parts of exons) are included in the mature mRNA molecule. This results in the production of multiple, slightly different proteins that share a common core structure but have distinct sequences and functions. Protein isoforms can also arise from genetic variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms or mutations that alter the protein-coding sequence of a gene. These differences in protein sequence can affect the stability, localization, activity, or interaction partners of the protein isoform, leading to functional diversity and specialization within cells and organisms.

Human chromosome pair 15 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled around histone proteins, forming a complex structure called a chromatin.

Chromosomes come in pairs, with one chromosome inherited from each parent. Chromosome pair 15 includes two homologous chromosomes, meaning they have the same size, shape, and gene content but may contain slight variations in their DNA sequences.

These chromosomes play a crucial role in inheritance and the development and function of the human body. Chromosome pair 15 contains around 100 million base pairs of DNA and approximately 700 protein-coding genes, which are involved in various biological processes such as growth, development, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression.

Abnormalities in chromosome pair 15 can lead to genetic disorders, including Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome, which are caused by the loss or alteration of specific regions on chromosome 15.

I am not aware of a widely accepted medical definition for the term "software," as it is more commonly used in the context of computer science and technology. Software refers to programs, data, and instructions that are used by computers to perform various tasks. It does not have direct relevance to medical fields such as anatomy, physiology, or clinical practice. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help with those instead!

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Clathrin light chains are a type of protein that make up part of the clathrin coat, which is a lattice-like structure that helps form the outer shell of certain types of cellular structures called vesicles. These vesicles are involved in various cellular processes, such as endocytosis and intracellular trafficking.

Clathrin light chains combine with clathrin heavy chains to form triskelions, which are the building blocks of the clathrin lattice. There are two types of clathrin light chains, known as LCa and LCb, and they differ in their amino acid sequences and functions.

Clathrin light chains play a role in regulating the assembly and disassembly of the clathrin coat, and they have also been implicated in various signaling pathways within the cell. Mutations in clathrin light chain genes have been associated with certain diseases, such as neuromuscular disorders and cancer.

A genetic locus (plural: loci) is a specific location on a chromosome where a particular gene or DNA sequence is found. It is the precise position where a specific genetic element, such as a gene or marker, is located on a chromsomere. This location is defined in terms of its relationship to other genetic markers and features on the same chromosome. Genetic loci can be used in linkage and association studies to identify the inheritance patterns and potential relationships between genes and various traits or diseases.

Homeodomain proteins are a group of transcription factors that play crucial roles in the development and differentiation of cells in animals and plants. They are characterized by the presence of a highly conserved DNA-binding domain called the homeodomain, which is typically about 60 amino acids long. The homeodomain consists of three helices, with the third helix responsible for recognizing and binding to specific DNA sequences.

Homeodomain proteins are involved in regulating gene expression during embryonic development, tissue maintenance, and organismal growth. They can act as activators or repressors of transcription, depending on the context and the presence of cofactors. Mutations in homeodomain proteins have been associated with various human diseases, including cancer, congenital abnormalities, and neurological disorders.

Some examples of homeodomain proteins include PAX6, which is essential for eye development, HOX genes, which are involved in body patterning, and NANOG, which plays a role in maintaining pluripotency in stem cells.

Urochordata is a phylum in the animal kingdom that includes sessile, marine organisms commonly known as tunicates or sea squirts. The name "Urochordata" means "tail-cord animals," which refers to the notochord, a flexible, rod-like structure found in the tails of these animals during their larval stage.

Tunicates are filter feeders that draw water into their bodies through a siphon and extract plankton and other organic particles for nutrition. They have a simple body plan, consisting of a protective outer covering called a tunic, an inner body mass with a muscular pharynx, and a tail-like structure called the post-anal tail.

Urochordates are of particular interest to biologists because they are considered to be the closest living relatives to vertebrates (animals with backbones), sharing a common ancestor with them around 550 million years ago. Despite their simple appearance, tunicates have complex developmental processes that involve the formation of notochords, dorsal nerve cords, and other structures that are similar to those found in vertebrate embryos.

Overall, Urochordata is a fascinating phylum that provides important insights into the evolutionary history of animals and their diverse body plans.

Karyotyping is a medical laboratory test used to study the chromosomes in a cell. It involves obtaining a sample of cells from a patient, usually from blood or bone marrow, and then staining the chromosomes so they can be easily seen under a microscope. The chromosomes are then arranged in pairs based on their size, shape, and other features to create a karyotype. This visual representation allows for the identification and analysis of any chromosomal abnormalities, such as extra or missing chromosomes, or structural changes like translocations or inversions. These abnormalities can provide important information about genetic disorders, diseases, and developmental problems.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

... greatly facilitating the evolutionary studies of gene regulation after gene duplication or speciation. Gene duplications can ... The gene duplication rate in C. elegans is on the order of 10−7 duplications/gene/generation, that is, in a population of 10 ... Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is ... It can be defined as any duplication of a region of DNA that contains a gene. Gene duplications can arise as products of ...
... is an event by which a gene or part of a gene can have two identical copies that can not be ... The first step is gene duplication. The gene duplication in itself is neither advantageous, nor deleterious, so it will remain ... of a gene duplication and its long-term outcomes. Since a gene duplication occurs in only one cell, either in a single-celled ... increases in gene expression by promoter mutations and increases in gene copy number by gene duplication[citation needed]. The ...
Chromosome 2q31.1 duplication syndrome is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DUP2Q31.1 gene. "Human PubMed Reference ... "Entrez Gene: Chromosome 2q31.1 duplication syndrome". Retrieved 2016-07-25. Sandholm N, McKnight AJ, Salem RM, Brennan EP, ... Human genes, All stub articles, Human chromosome 2 gene stubs). ...
... is defined as duplication of exons within the same gene to give rise to the subsequent exon. A complete ... Exon shuffling Gene duplication Letunic I, Copley RR, Bork P (Jun 2002). "Common exon duplication in animals and its role in ... and Caenorhabditis elegans has shown 12,291 instances of tandem duplication in exons in human, fly, and worm. Analysis of the ... exon analysis of all genes in Homo sapiens, Drosophila melanogaster, ...
Ohno S (1970). Evolution by Gene Duplication. New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-04-575015-7. Hardie DC, Gregory TR, Hebert PD ( ... An example for this is the deletion of recF, gene required for the function of recA, and its flanking genes. One of the ... Evidence of the deletion of the function of repair and recombination is the loss of the gene recA, gene involved in the ... probably as a result of its inclusion in Susumu Ohno's influential book Evolution by Gene Duplication, published in 1970. With ...
Ohno postulated that gene duplication plays a major role in evolution in his classic book Evolution by Gene Duplication (1970 ... everything." Gene duplication Paleopolyploidy Susumu Ohno (1970). Evolution by gene duplication. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-04- ... In Evolution by Gene Duplication, he also suggested that vertebrate genome is the result of one or more entire genome ... While subsequent research has overwhelmingly confirmed the key role of gene duplication in molecular evolution, research to ...
Molecular evolution Gene duplication Gene conversion Pseudogenes Ancestral gene resurrection Bovinae Ribonuclease A ENCODE ... Among different models that exist, one model suggests that after the gene duplication, among the two copies of genes, one will ... Gene conversion is of two types - interallelic and interlocus gene conversions. The resurrection of seminal RNase gene function ... Ohno, S. (1970). Evolution by gene duplication. NY: Springer. ISBN 0-04-575015-7. Benner, S.A (1990). Bioorganic Chemistry ...
The duplication and divergence model for orphan genes involves a new gene being created from some duplication or divergence ... At the time, gene duplication was considered the only serious model of gene evolution and there were few sequenced genomes for ... Common mechanisms that have been uncovered as sources for new genes through studies of homologues include gene duplication, ... Another explanation for how orphan genes arise is through a duplication mechanism called horizontal gene transfer, where the ...
Evolution by Gene Duplication. London: Allen and Unwin, ISBN 0-04-575015-7. Watson JM, Riggs A, Graves JA (1992). "Gene mapping ... Additionally, for individual gene loci, a number of X-linked genes are common through mammalian species. Examples include ... Genes on the long arm of the human X are contained in the monotreme X and genes on the short arm of the human X are distributed ... Chloride channel gene (CLCN4) was mapped to the human X but on chromosome 7 of C57BL/6 mice, species of Mus musculus, though ...
A Continuation of Spetner v. Max - discusses the B-cell hypermutation model; role of gene duplication; interpretations of the ... and gene families as examples of duplication, mutation and selection. a review of Lee Spetner's "NOT BY CHANCE!" by Gert ... Spetner, L. M. (1970). "Natural selection versus gene uniqueness". Nature. 226 (5249): 948-949. Bibcode:1970Natur.226..948S. ...
Gene duplication may occur via cis-duplication or trans duplication. Cis-duplication, or intrachromosomal duplication, entails ... some genes may be lost. Loss of genes is dependent of the number of genes originating in the gene cluster. In the four gene ... When gene duplication occurs to produce a gene cluster, one or multiple genes may be duplicated at once. In the case of the Hox ... It postulates that gene clusters were formed as a result of gene duplication and divergence. These gene clusters include the ...
A gene duplication model". Journal of Molecular Biology. 206 (2): 313-21. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(89)90481-6. PMID 2541254. ... "DNMT1". Gene Symbol Report. HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee. Retrieved 2012-09-27. Chen T, Ueda Y, Xie S, Li E (October 2002 ... "DNMT3B". Gene Symbol Report. HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee. Retrieved 2012-09-27. Barau J, Teissandier A, Zamudio N, Roy S, ... "DNMT3L". Gene Symbol Report. HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee. Retrieved 2012-09-27. Kho MR, Baker DJ, Laayoun A, Smith SS ( ...
Genes that are related as a result of a gene duplication event are parologous genes. It is often assumed that the functions of ... Gene dosage Gene expression Gene family Gene nomenclature Gene patent Gene pool Gene redundancy Genetic algorithm Haplotype ... Sets of genes formed in this way compose a gene family. Gene duplications and losses within a family are common and represent a ... There are two types of molecular genes: protein-coding genes and non-coding genes. During gene expression, the DNA is first ...
Maeda N, Yang F, Barnett DR, Bowman BH, Smithies O (1984). "Duplication within the haptoglobin Hp2 gene". Nature. 309 (5964): ... Erickson LM, Kim HS, Maeda N (December 1992). "Junctions between genes in the haptoglobin gene cluster of primates". Genomics. ... Maeda N (June 1985). "Nucleotide sequence of the haptoglobin and haptoglobin-related gene pair. The haptoglobin-related gene ... the latter one having arisen due to the partial duplication of Hp1 gene. Three genotypes of Hp, therefore, are found in humans ...
Guillemette C, Lévesque E, Harvey M, Bellemare J, Menard V (2010). "UGT genomic diversity: beyond gene duplication". Drug Metab ...
However, the amount of DNA or the number of genes can also increase within an organism through gene duplication, a major ... Gene amplification refers to a number of natural and artificial processes by which the number of copies of a gene is increased ... Common sources of gene duplications include ectopic recombination, retrotransposition event, aneuploidy, polyploidy, and ... Zhang J (2003). "Evolution by gene duplication: an update". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 18 (6): 292-8. doi:10.1016/S0169- ...
Although Gottlieb did much pioneering work on gene duplication in polyploids, he also pioneered studying gene duplication in ... Gottlieb applied gene duplications in determining the phylogeny of "Clarkia", because "Duplications originating by chromosomal ... By far the majority of Gottlieb's gene duplication work was done with PGI in Clarkia, though he also compared the PGI from the ... Further, they found that the PGI gene duplications of PGI1 and PGI2 occurred well before the "radiation of extant species" of ...
Chromosome 17q12 duplication syndrome is a protein in humans that is encoded by the DUP17Q12 gene. "Human PubMed Reference:". ... "Entrez Gene: Chromosome 17q12 duplication syndrome". Retrieved 2013-02-16. v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... description matches Wikidata, Human genes, Genes on human chromosome 17, All stub articles, Human chromosome 17 gene stubs). ...
... and genes in cancer cells respectively). Gene duplication often leads to amplification of their gene products due to ... This duplication leads to amplification of the gene that suppresses the expression of any non-mutant pawn-B loci. Duplication ... a recessive mutant allele of a gene known as pawn-B found in this strain is inherited through gene duplication and ... Gene duplication occurs in a large number of organisms as part of evolution or as the cause or result of disease (as in the ...
Panchy, Nicholas; Lehti-Shiu, Melissa; Shiu, Shin-Han (2016). "Evolution of Gene Duplication in Plants". Plant Physiology. ... D'Hont et al., 2012 finds 3 whole genome duplications in the evolutionary history of this species. Their analysis is consistent ...
Gottlieb, L. D.; Weeden, N. F. (1979). "Gene duplication and phylogeny in Clarkia". Evolution. 33 (4): 1024-1039. doi:10.2307/ ... Odrzykoski, I. J.; Gottlieb, L. D. (1984). "Duplication of genes coding 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in Clarkia(Onagraceae ... Gene exchange between species must be restricted if they are to maintain genetic integrity, but, as we have seen, such ... A by-product of this accumulation of structural rearrangements has been the establishment of strong barriers to gene exchange ...
De novo gene birth Exon shuffling Gene fusion Gene duplication Horizontal gene transfer Mobile genetic elements Fiers W, ... Gene duplication is the process by which a region of DNA coding for a gene is duplicated. This can occur as the result of an ... Similar to gene duplication, whole genome duplication is the process by which an organism's entire genetic information is ... That is, after duplication of genes they often change their expression pattern, for instance by getting expressed in another ...
If pseudogenization is due to gene duplication, it usually occurs in the first few million years after the gene duplication, ... Gene duplication is another common and important process in the evolution of genomes. A copy of a functional gene may arise as ... Gene duplication generates functional redundancy and it is not normally advantageous to carry two identical genes. Mutations ... Most arise as superfluous copies of functional genes, either directly by gene duplication or indirectly by reverse ...
... can result from gene duplication. Such duplication events are responsible for many sets of paralogous genes. ... Gene redundancy most often results from Gene duplication. Three of the more common mechanisms of gene duplication are ... Gene duplication events can also be detected by looking at increases in gene duplicates. A good example of using gene ... This paper studies how one KCS gene evolved into an entire gene family via duplication events. The number of redundant genes in ...
"Duplication within the haptoglobin Hp 2 gene". Nature. 309 (5964): 131-135. Bibcode:1984Natur.309..131M. doi:10.1038/309131a0. ...
McLachlan, A.D. (1972). "Repeating sequences and gene duplication in proteins". Journal of Molecular Biology. 64 (2): 417-437. ...
"Duplication within the haptoglobin Hp 2 gene". Nature. 309 (5964): 131-135. Bibcode:1984Natur.309..131M. doi:10.1038/309131a0. ... and they discovered the different alleles of the HP gene that change how haptoglobins bind to free hemoglobin She received the ... Oliver Smithies and she showed that variations in haptoglobins were due to polymorphisms in the HP gene. Barbara Hyde Bowman ...
Gallach, Miguel; Betrán, Esther (May 2011). "Intralocus sexual conflict resolved through gene duplication". Trends in Ecology ... "Reshaping of global gene expression networks and sex-biased gene expression by integration of a young gene". The EMBO Journal. ... Kaessmann, Henrik; Vinckenbosch, Nicolas; Long, Manyuan (2009). "RNA-based gene duplication: mechanistic and evolutionary ... Long proposed and defined the concept of the "evolutionary new genes" or simply called "new genes" in early 1990s, different ...
Frequent insertions, deletions, changes in the order and number of genes, and segmental duplications near gaps, centromeres and ... If two genes were the same, they were presumed to be the original gene. The chimpanzee and human genome diverged 6 million ... The macaque gained 1,358 genes by duplication.[citation needed] Triangulation of human, chimpanzee, and macaque sequences ... and contractions of gene families. "The goal is to reconstruct the history of every gene in the human genome," said Evan ...
Both gene duplication and lateral gene transfer have the capacity to bring about relatively large changes that are saltational ... Serres, M. H.; Kerr AR, McCormack TJ, Riley M. (2009).Evolution by leaps: gene duplication in bacteria. Biology Direct 4: 46. ... ISBN 0262600692 Serres, M. H.; Kerr, A. R.; McCormack, T. J.; Riley, M. (2009). Evolution by leaps: gene duplication in ... Freeling, M. (2009). Bias in plant gene content following different sorts of duplication: tandem, whole-genome, segmental, or ...
In some gene families, this process is very fast, caused by random events of gene duplication and gene deletion and generates ... gene duplication, and gene inactivation, he predicted that higher organisms contain a large number of duplicate genes and ... Recent molecular data indicate that many sets of interacting genes such as the Hox genes, immunoglobulin genes, and histone ... Nei, M (1969). "Gene duplication and nucleotide substitution in evolution". Nature. 221 (5175): 40-42. Bibcode:1969Natur.221... ...
... greatly facilitating the evolutionary studies of gene regulation after gene duplication or speciation. Gene duplications can ... The gene duplication rate in C. elegans is on the order of 10−7 duplications/gene/generation, that is, in a population of 10 ... Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is ... It can be defined as any duplication of a region of DNA that contains a gene. Gene duplications can arise as products of ...
Emerging Human Metapneumovirus Gene Duplication Variants in Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Infection, China, 2017-2019 ... Emerging Human Metapneumovirus Gene Duplication Variants in Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Infection, China, 2017-2019 ...
We provide a detailed study of the differences between alternative splicing and gene duplication and discuss potential ... The former reflects the ability of many genes to express different products, while the latter results in several copies of the ... same gene that are similar but not identical. In spite of these obvious differences, recent computational studies as well as ... and gene duplication (GD) followed by sequence divergence constitute two fundamental biological processes contributing to ...
Pancreatic cancer: Gene duplication explains tumor aggressiveness. Until now, scientists have failed to establish a link ... In cases where a tumor had not doubled the mutated KRAS gene copy, the researchers discovered duplications in other cancer ... Such genes are referred to as oncogenes. The team headed by Roland Rad made a surprising discovery: The mutant gene was often ... For their experiments, the researchers mutated one of the two copies of the KRAS gene in mice. The gene plays a key role in ...
What are Genome Evolution, Mutations, Gene Duplications, Gene Losses, and Inversions?. Rogério de Leon Pereira ... Types of Gene- Structural, Constitutive, Regulatory, Jumping, Overlapping, Split gene#Bio knowledge ... HHMI BioInteractive: The Making of the Fittest: The Birth and Death of Genes ...
The butterfly plant arms-race escalated by gene and genome duplications. *Mark ... and the role of gene and genome duplications as a substrate for novel traits.,/p,}}, author = {{Edger, Patrick P. and Heidel- ... key innovations are associated with gene and genome duplications. Furthermore, we show that the origins of both chemical ... key innovations are associated with gene and genome duplications. Furthermore, we show that the origins of both chemical ...
We first describe the mathematical model of evolution by tandem duplication and introduce duplication histories and duplication ... We then provide a simple recursive algorithm which determines whether or not a given rooted phylogeny can be a duplication ... Identity between most parsimonious duplication trees and most parsimonious phylogenies for the same data, combined with the ... shows strong evidence that our reconstruction procedure providesgood insights into the duplication histories of these loci. ...
Here, we consider the problem of reconciling a gene tree with a species network via duplication and loss events. Two variants ... the first one finds the best tree in the network with which to reconcile the gene tree, and the second one finds the best ... Reconciliation methods explain topology differences between a species tree and a gene tree by evolutionary events other than ... reconciliation between the gene tree and the whole network. ... In the gene tree reconciliation problem, G represents a gene ...
MECP2 duplication syndrome is a condition that occurs almost exclusively in males and is characterized by moderate to severe ... The MECP2 gene is always included in this duplication, and other genes may also be involved, depending on the size of the ... MECP2 duplication syndrome is caused by a genetic change in which there is an extra copy of the MECP2 gene in each cell. This ... MECP2 duplication syndrome is inherited in an X-linked pattern. The gene associated with this condition is located on the X ...
Digestive duplication cyst of the tongue. Synonyms: Enteric duplication cyst of the tongue , Foregut duplication cyst of the ... Digestive duplication cyst of the tongue?. Our RARE Concierge Services Guides are available to assist you by providing ... Digestive duplication cyst of the tongue. Get in touch with RARE Concierge.. Contact RARE Concierge ... Donate to Global Genes 28 Argonaut, Suite 150. Aliso Viejo, CA 92656. Phone: (+1) 949-248-RARE (7273) ...
... January 8, 2019 By Eric Hamilton For news media ... Grasses have multiple copies of the florigen gene, thanks to an ancient duplication in their genomes. One of those copies has ... The team found that the duplicate, named FTL9, has evolved to act as a sort of inverse of its parent gene florigen. Where ... The researchers pinpointed the cause of that variation to a single letter change in a single gene that is one of 14 duplicates ...
The zebra finch MHC exhibits a complex structure and history involving gene duplication and fragmentation. The zebra finch MHC ... Our analyses of the zebra finch MHC suggest a complex history involving chromosomal fission, gene duplication and translocation ... evidence and the genome assembly itself place core MHC genes on as many as four chromosomes with TAP and Class I genes mapping ... Lastly, we find strong evidence of selection acting on sites within passerine MHC Class I and Class II genes. The zebra finch ...
... gene, and result in defective central nervous system (CNS) myelination (see the image below).... ... they are at opposite ends of a clinical spectrum of X-linked diseases caused by mutations of the same gene, the proteolipid ... Gene duplications. Approximately 60-70% of cases of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease result from duplications of the region of the ... Inclusion of other genes in the duplicated region, or inclusion of aberrations of genes at the duplication endpoints, may ...
Ancestral duplications and highly dynamic opsin gene evolution in percomorph fishes. Fabio Cortesia*, Zuzana Musilová, Sara M. ... Ancestral duplications and highly dynamic opsin gene evolution in percomorph fishes. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Ancestral duplications and highly dynamic opsin gene evolution in percomorph fishes. Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Ancestral duplications and highly dynamic opsin gene evolution in percomorph fishes. / Cortesia, Fabio; Musilová, Zuzana; Stieb ...
Cortical gene expression is affected by inheritance pattern of chromosome 15q duplication. Genetics plays a substantial role in ... In those with the maternally inherited duplication, we found that there were significant changes in the genes related to ... Both the maternal and paternal duplication groups shared changes in genes related to synapses and cell homeostasis. More work ... Project Title: Cortical gene expression is affected by inheritance pattern of chromosome 15q duplication ...
In agreement with GSS activity localization in vivo, we identified six genes encoding arylsulfatase-like enzymes with a ... PcGSS evolved from arylsulfatase-like genes by gene duplication and neofunctionalization. To investigate the evolutionary ... PxGSS genes are located in tandem in a conserved lepidopteran arylsulfatase gene cluster comprising SulfB, SulfC, and SulfD, ... Analysis of PcSulf and PcGSS gene expression in the gut and remaining body tissues. To determine whether PcSulf and PcGSS genes ...
The Institute of Evolutionary Science of Montpellier (ISEM - University of Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, EPHE, CIRAD, INRAP) has been focusing research on biodiversity origins and dynamics and the associated evolutionary mechanisms. ...
My comment: RNA-directed DNA methylation and gene duplication are nutrient-dependent. That missing fact links the presence of ... That claim is made because the exclusive relationship between the link from nutrient uptake and gene duplication "…could not be ... Divergence of Gene Body DNA Methylation and Evolution of Plant Duplicate Genes. Excerpt 1) "A recent study demonstrated that ... gene duplication, hypomethylated, metabolism, morphological, mutations, natural selection, Nutrient-dependent, organized ...
Gene Deletion. Gene Duplication. Genes, Duplicate. Humans. Likelihood Functions. Models, Genetic. Models, Statistical. ... We found that the expected number of changes (duplication and deletion) per gene for the tumor genomes is significantly higher ... A phylogenetic model for understanding the effect of gene duplication on cancer progression. ... The model assumes that duplication and deletion occur in accordance with a continuous time Markov Chain along the branches of a ...
Is natural selection therefore completely relaxed after duplication? Does one gene evolve more rapidly than the other? Several ... recent genome-wide studies have suggested that duplicate genes are always under purifying selection and do not always evolve at ... Immediately after a gene duplication event, the duplicate genes have redundant functions. ... gene conversion could substantially distort inferences of selection pressures after gene duplication. How prevalent is gene ...
We have optimized all our processes to accept a wide range of samples, always adapting to each case ...
DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT DUE TO 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE DEFICIENCY , DELETIONS-DUPLICATIONS (MLPA) SRD5A2 GENE ...
Gene duplication. Duplication of a given gene owing to replication errors and resulting in two redundant copies of the original ... Homologous genes that separated because of a gene duplication event.. Immunological synapse. A region that can form between two ... Genome duplication. Duplication of an entire genome that results in an abundance of duplicated genes, most of which are lost. ... PLoS ONE 2, e506 (2007). A detailed and careful study of 36 postsynaptic gene families in poriferans and cnidarians ...
However, gene duplications repeatedly spawned daughter genes in which mutations optimized either isomaltase or maltase activity ... Gene duplications are believed to facilitate evolutionary innovation. However, the mechanisms shaping the fate of duplicated ... Here, we study a large family of fungal glucosidase genes that underwent several duplication events. We reconstruct all key ... and neofunctionalization are helpful to conceptualize the implications of gene duplication, the three mechanisms co-occur and ...
α-Synuclein gene duplication is present in sporadic Parkinson disease: Reply. / Jeon, Beom S.; Ahn, Tae B.; Park, Sung S. ... α-Synuclein gene duplication is present in sporadic Parkinson disease: Reply. Neurology. 2008 Oct 14;71(16). doi: 10.1212/01. ... Jeon, B. S., Ahn, T. B., & Park, S. S. (2008). α-Synuclein gene duplication is present in sporadic Parkinson disease: Reply. ... Jeon, Beom S. ; Ahn, Tae B. ; Park, Sung S. / α-Synuclein gene duplication is present in sporadic Parkinson disease: Reply. In ...
Gene duplications resulting in over expression of glucokinase are not a common cause of hypoglycaemia of infancy in humans ... Gene duplications resulting in over expression of glucokinase are not a common cause of hypoglycaemia of infancy in humans ...
Gene loss and evolutionary rates following whole genome duplication in Teleost fishes. ... Gene loss and evolutionary rates following whole genome duplication in Teleost fishes. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 2006, ...
Rett Syndrome (MECP2 gene only) - full sequencing + deletions/duplications#. Requires patient informed consent. Sample Reqs ...
... tumor suppressor genes, and DNA repair genes. Learn more here. ... The main types of genes that play a role in cancer are ... Gene duplication: Some cells have extra copies of a gene, which might lead to them making too much of a certain protein. ... Tumor suppressor genes. Tumor suppressor genes are normal genes that slow down cell division or tell cells to die at the right ... Genes known as DNA repair genes act like a person who repairs a car. They help fix mistakes in the DNA, or if they cant fix ...
Gene duplications increase genetic and phenotypic diversity and occur in complex genomic regions that are still difficult to ... Expanding duplication of the testis PHD Finger Protein 7 (PHF7) gene in the chicken genome.. ... Expanding duplication of the testis PHD Finger Protein 7 (PHF7) gene in the chicken genome.. ... Home Expanding duplication of the testis PHD Finger Protein 7 (PHF7) gene in the chicken genome. ...
  • Rapid evolution and functional divergence have been observed at the level of the transcription of duplicated genes, usually by point mutations in short transcription factor binding motifs. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the KRAS mutation was induced by the researchers, other mutations in what are known as tumor suppressor genes developed. (medizin-aspekte.de)
  • Although Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease and X-linked spastic paraplegia type 2 are nosologically distinguished, they are at opposite ends of a clinical spectrum of X-linked diseases caused by mutations of the same gene, the proteolipid protein 1 ( PLP1 ) gene, and result in defective central nervous system (CNS) myelination (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • The most common mutations that cause Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease are duplications of a region of the X chromosome that includes the entire PLP1 gene. (medscape.com)
  • Many deleterious mutations may then be harmless, because even if one gene suffers a mutation, the redundant gene copy can provide a back-up function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, gene duplications repeatedly spawned daughter genes in which mutations optimized either isomaltase or maltase activity. (pubchase.com)
  • FLT3 gene mutations, either internal tandem duplication or point mutation type, are common in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). (elsevierpure.com)
  • We describe 21 AML cases with both types of gene mutations, so-called dual mutations, representing approximately 1% of all cases. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Mutations in these genes affect proteins involved in the signaling pathway for pigment production and explain a large amount of the color variation in mammals. (creation.com)
  • Rather than single mutations , rearrangements such as gene gain and loss, which have been discussed as a possible driver for host adaption, were described in poxviruses . (bvsalud.org)
  • Better understanding of new mutations and the wide range of possible phenotypes led to the development of a new nomenclature proposal, based on the gene and inheritance pattern. (medscape.com)
  • [ 6 ] However, the gene mutations responsible for the different forms of CMT1 are clearly myelin genes. (medscape.com)
  • Splicing mutations are now recognized as quite common and may account for almost 20% of point mutations in the PLP1 gene. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 , 3 , 4 ] A full list of the described mutations is available at the TBX5 Gene Mutation Database , an online locus-specific database that contains germline and somatic mutations of the TBX5 gene. (medscape.com)
  • Mutations of this gene introduce a premature stop codon and result in truncated protein versions. (medscape.com)
  • Polyploidy, or whole genome duplication is a product of nondisjunction during meiosis which results in additional copies of the entire genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyploidy is common in plants, but it has also occurred in animals, with two rounds of whole genome duplication (2R event) in the vertebrate lineage leading to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a whole genome duplication, there is a relatively short period of genome instability, extensive gene loss, elevated levels of nucleotide substitution and regulatory network rewiring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Put differently, after gene duplication - which can arise through polyploidization (whole-genome duplication), non-homologous recombination, or through the action of retrotransposons - one or both duplicates should experience relaxed selective constraints that result in elevated rates of evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A deep gene duplication, which coincided with a whole-genome duplication, gave rise to two gene lineages. (lu.se)
  • Recent comparative genomic studies claim local syntenic gene-interleaving relationships in Ashbya gossypii and Kluyveromyces waltii are compelling evidence for an ancient whole-genome duplication event in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, phylogenetic trees reconstructed under alternative hypotheses placed the putative whole-genome duplication event after the divergence of the S. cerevisiae and K. waltii lineages, but in the lineage leading to K. waltii . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because the presence of syntenic patterns appears to be a condition that is necessary, but not sufficient, to support the existence of the whole-genome duplication event, our results prompt careful re-evaluation of paleopolyploidization in the yeast lineage and the evolutionary meaning of syntenic patterns. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The existence of an ancient whole-genome duplication (WGD) event in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [ 1 ] has been debated over the past several years. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Comparisons of genomes demonstrate that gene duplications are common in most species investigated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grasses have multiple copies of the florigen gene, thanks to an ancient duplication in their genomes. (wisc.edu)
  • The inspection of close to 100 fish genomes revealed that, triggered by frequent gene conversion between duplicates, the evolutionary history of SWS2 is rather complex and difficult to predict. (edu.au)
  • That missing fact links the presence of common developmental programming, which underlies the epigenetic regulation of duplicate genes across divergent cell types, to another missing fact: Nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions, which differentiate cell types in all individuals of species from microbes to man, are fixed in the organized genomes of mammals via the metabolism of nutrients to species-specific pheromones. (scentoferos.com)
  • In addition, there may be species-specific differences in K a /K s , but detection of such differences is sensitive to how information on gene duplicates is extracted from genomes and on how K a and K s are estimated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We compiled SITs from 37 diatom genomes to characterize shifts in selection following gene duplications and marine- freshwater transitions. (lu.se)
  • Here, we report five Mpox virus genomes from Germany with extensive gene duplication and loss, leading to the expansion of the ITR regions from 6400 to up to 24,600 bp. (bvsalud.org)
  • The existence of syntenic patterns between ancestral gene sets and A. gossypii , S. cerevisiae , and K. waltii , and other evidence, suggests that gene-interleaving relationships are the natural consequence of topological rearrangements in chromosomes and that a more gradual scenario of genome evolution involving segmental duplication and recombination constitutes a more parsimonious explanation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We first describe the mathematical model of evolution by tandem duplication and introduce duplication histories and duplication trees. (cnrs.fr)
  • There are other duplicated genes in the identified BAC sequences, suggesting that these genomic regions exhibit a high rate of tandem duplication. (inra.fr)
  • Table 2 Intron gain by tandem duplication as suggested by proto-splice sites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The researchers pinpointed the cause of that variation to a single letter change in a single gene that is one of 14 duplicates of the florigen gene. (wisc.edu)
  • Even very closely related gene duplicates, no older than a few million years, experience selective constraints - the ratio K a /K s is smaller than one even in these cases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analysis of this novel gene is compatible with the duplication-degeneration-complementation (DOC) model as our study suggests that duplicates of an ancestral Emx gene suffered regulatory element innovation allowing for complementary Emx subfunctionalization. (kzoo.edu)
  • Although the vast majority of protein-encoding genes (95%) show homology to S. cerevisiae genes, only ~10% are gene duplicates in DS patterns. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Identity between most parsimonious duplication trees and most parsimonious phylogenies for the same data, combined with the agreement with additional knowledge about the sequences, such as the presence of polymorphisms, shows strong evidence that our reconstruction procedure providesgood insights into the duplication histories of these loci. (cnrs.fr)
  • 1 Some of these, such as the MC1R 2 and ASIP 3 genes, have been fairly well studied and useful information has been obtained by examining mutation patterns at these loci. (creation.com)
  • However, further MGPA increase through gene duplications are found in Secale (including cultivated rye with 2 PAPhy_a type plus 1 PAPhy_b type) and in the polyploid Triticum (homeologs, 2 or 3 PAPhy_a and 2 or 3 PAPhy_b loci in tetra- or hexaploids, respectively). (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, rapid evolution of protein phosphorylation motifs, usually embedded within rapidly evolving intrinsically disordered regions is another contributing factor for survival and rapid adaptation/neofunctionalization of duplicate genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This refutes the idea that [RNA-directed] DNA methylation of genes is strictly determined in a tissue-by-tissue manner and indicates the presence of a common developmental programming underlying regulation of duplicate genes across divergent cell types. (scentoferos.com)
  • However, duplicate gene evolution provides an excellent system to investigate genetic and environmental factors of epigenetic divergence because we can study divergence of duplicate genes in the same genome, free from other confounding factors. (scentoferos.com)
  • Immediately after a gene duplication event, the duplicate genes have redundant functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several recent genome-wide studies have suggested that duplicate genes are always under purifying selection and do not always evolve at the same rate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • And how frequent is gene conversion of duplicate genes, in which recombination and DNA repair between very similar genes convert the sequence of one to that of the other? (biomedcentral.com)
  • In other words, the duplicate genes are under few or no selective constraints. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results are unequivocal: the vast majority of duplicate genes experience purifying selection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene duplications can arise as products of several types of errors in DNA replication and repair machinery as well as through fortuitous capture by selfish genetic elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Repetitive genetic elements such as transposable elements offer one source of repetitive DNA that can facilitate recombination, and they are often found at duplication breakpoints in plants and mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replication slippage is an error in DNA replication that can produce duplications of short genetic sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • MECP2 duplication syndrome is caused by a genetic change in which there is an extra copy of the MECP2 gene in each cell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chromosome 15q11-13 duplication occurs when there is an additional copy of genetic material on chromosome 15, which results in 15q duplication syndrome, a condition characterized by neurodevelopmental delay, hypotonia, epilepsy, and autism spectrum disorder. (ucla.edu)
  • Single-gene and whole-genome duplications are important evolutionary mechanisms that contribute to biological diversification by launching new genetic raw material. (edu.au)
  • Gene duplications increase genetic and phenotypic diversity and occur in complex genomic regions that are still difficult to sequence and assemble. (inra.fr)
  • Secular scientists attempt to explain their origin using terms such as duplication (a form of mutation that overwhelmingly destroys genetic information) and translocation . (icr.org)
  • Under a phylogenetic analysis, we recovered a pattern consistent with two rounds of duplication that generated the genetic diversity of scallop G q -opsins. (iastate.edu)
  • Our results uncover novel genetic and functional diversity in the light-sensing structures of the scallop, demonstrating the complicated nature of G q -opsin diversification after gene duplication. (iastate.edu)
  • Duplications arise from an event termed unequal crossing-over that occurs during meiosis between misaligned homologous chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In females (who have two X chromosomes), a duplication of one of the two copies of the gene typically does not cause the disorder, but can be associated with neurodevelopmental problems such as depression , anxiety, and features of autism spectrum disorder that affect communication and social interaction. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cytogenetic (FISH) evidence and the genome assembly itself place core MHC genes on as many as four chromosomes with TAP and Class I genes mapping to different chromosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two variants are proposed and solved with effcient algorithms: the first one finds the best tree in the network with which to reconcile the gene tree, and the second one finds the best reconciliation between the gene tree and the whole network. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Characterization of T gene sequence variants and germline duplications in familial and sporadic chordoma. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Some MHC-linked genes encode proteins that interact with MHC molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It usually contains 37 genes, encoding for 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 13 proteins, and 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This first comprehensive analysis includes genes and proteins and their relation to human disease, repeated sequences, comparative genome-wide studies of mammalian orthologous chromosomal regions and rearrangement breakpoints, reconstruction of ancestral karyotypes and the events leading to existing species, rates of variation, and lineage-specific and lineage-independent evolutionary events such as expansion of gene families, orthology relations and protein evolution. (nih.gov)
  • The products of this recombination are a duplication at the site of the exchange and a reciprocal deletion. (wikipedia.org)
  • We present a novel approach to deal with the problem of reconstructing the duplication history of tandemly repeated genes that are supposed to have arisen from unequal recombination. (cnrs.fr)
  • We then provide a simple recursive algorithm which determines whether or not a given rooted phylogeny can be a duplication history and another algorithm that simulates the unequal recombination process and searches for the best duplication trees according to the maximum parsimony criterion. (cnrs.fr)
  • Thus, a link seems to exist between gene regulation (at least at the post-translational level) and genome evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC genes are perhaps the most thoroughly studied example of adaptive molecular evolution, representing a classic example of balancing selection [ 2 - 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, the evolution of animal vision is tightly linked to the expansion of the opsin gene family encoding light-absorbing visual pigments. (edu.au)
  • In this study, we report a previously unnoticed duplication of the violet-blue short wavelength-sensitive 2 (SWS2) opsin, which coincides with the radiation of highly diverse percomorph fishes, permitting us to reinterpret the evolution of this gene family. (edu.au)
  • Thus, our study highlights the importance of comparative approaches in gaining a comprehensive view of the dynamics underlying gene family evolution and ultimately, animal diversification. (edu.au)
  • In summary, our study indicates that epigenetic modifications are important facilitators of duplicate gene evolution owing to their effect on functional divergence as well as potential dependence on genomic determinants. (scentoferos.com)
  • This hypothesis originated as least as early as Ohno's seminal book [ 1 ], which emphasized the importance of gene duplications in organismal evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The presence of repeats and duplications in over half of the species herein assembled indicates that their occurrence is a principle of mitochondrial structure rather than an exception, shedding new light on mitochondrial genome evolution and organization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Reconciling gene trees with a species tree is a fundamental problem to understand the evolution of gene families. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Numerous factors shape the evolution of protein-coding genes, including shifts in the strength or type of selection following gene duplications or changes in the environment. (lu.se)
  • The study of Emx genes, their evolution and expression, can provide valuable information into the timing and consequences of gene duplication events in chordates. (kzoo.edu)
  • Furthermore, these approaches have provided insights into the mechanisms of chemical evolution, including neofunctionalization and subfunctionalization, structural variation, and modulation of gene expression. (york.ac.uk)
  • Lichman, BR , Godden, GT & Buell, CR 2020, ' Gene and genome duplications in the evolution of chemodiversity: perspectives from studies of Lamiaceae ', CURRENT OPINION IN PLANT BIOLOGY , vol. 55, pp. 74-83. (york.ac.uk)
  • By comparing the similarities and differences between kiss1 and kiss2 of neuronal localization and sensitivity to gonadal steroids in various tetrapods and teleosts, we discuss the evolution of kisspeptin neuronal systems after gene duplication of ancestral kisspeptin genes to give rise to kiss1 and kiss2 . (frontiersin.org)
  • To understand the parallel evolution of these genes in the kisspeptin neuronal systems, we here propose that the steroid sensitivity helps to identify the functionally equivalent neuronal populations among different species, because the steroid sensitivity appears to be the evolutionarily well conserved feature of certain populations of the kisspeptin neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our findings provide a starting point to study how gene duplication may coincide with eye evolution, and more specifically, different ways neofunctionalization of G q -opsins may occur. (iastate.edu)
  • The evolution of MGPA demonstrates a significant potential of elevating a specific enzyme activity through increasing the number gene copies for the corresponding enzyme. (frontiersin.org)
  • Evolution of the codling moth pheromone via an ancient gene duplicationJean Marc Lassance, Bao Jian Ding & Christer Löfs. (lu.se)
  • Those with the paternally inherited duplication showed changes in genes connected to cell sensing, cell potential energy, and overall energy levels. (ucla.edu)
  • Both the maternal and paternal duplication groups shared changes in genes related to synapses and cell homeostasis. (ucla.edu)
  • This happens where there are changes in genes that affect cell growth. (cancer.org)
  • Many retrogenes display changes in gene regulation in comparison to their parental gene sequences, which sometimes results in novel functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparing our assemblies to purportedly complete reference mitogenomes based on short-read sequencing, we identify errors, missing sequences, and incomplete genes in those references, particularly in repetitive regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The identification of orthologous genes, a prerequisite for numerous analyses in comparative and functional genomics, is commonly performed computationally from protein sequences. (ethz.ch)
  • We investigate the impact of various evolutionary forces (gene duplication, insertion, deletion, and lateral gene transfer) and technological artefacts (ambiguous sequences) on orthology inference. (ethz.ch)
  • We focus on (1) pairwise comparison of gene arrangement sequences in A. gossypii and S. cerevisiae , (2) reconstruction of gene arrangements ancestral to A. gossypii , S. cerevisiae , and K. waltii , (3) synteny patterns arising within and between lineages, and (4) expected gene orientation of duplicate gene sets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Healthy cells in humans possess two copies of each gene. (medizin-aspekte.de)
  • For their experiments, the researchers mutated one of the two copies of the KRAS gene in mice. (medizin-aspekte.de)
  • It therefore appears that the cell amplifies the growth signal due to the presence of extra gene copies. (medizin-aspekte.de)
  • It is unclear whether extra copies of these other genes affect the severity of the condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some patients with Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease have been found to have 3 or more copies of the PLP1 gene. (medscape.com)
  • However, new opsin copies may also acquire novel function or subdivide ancestral functions through changes to temporal, spatial or the level of gene expression. (iastate.edu)
  • Here, we test how opsin gene copies diversify in function and evolutionary fate by characterizing four rhabdomeric (G q -protein coupled) opsins in the scallop, Argopecten irradians , identified from tissue-specific transcriptomes. (iastate.edu)
  • In contrast, genes in the second SIT lineage (SIT3) were present in just half the species, the result of multiple losses. (lu.se)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of this novel Emx gene is not consistent with the 2R hypothesis, which states that the early vertebrate lineage underwent one or more complete genome duplications. (kzoo.edu)
  • However, there is now a growing body of evidence to suggest that kiss2 , the paralogous gene for kiss1 , evolved in parallel during vertebrate lineage, and the kiss2 product also activates the GPR54 (kisspeptin receptor) signaling pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • The zebra finch MHC includes multiple Class I and Class II genes, some of which appear to be pseudogenes, and spans a much more extensive genomic region than the chicken MHC, as evidenced by the presence of MHC genes on each of seven BACs spanning 739 kb. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The major histocompatibility complex ( MHC ) is a gene-dense genomic region within which many genes play a role in vertebrate immune response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phylogeny revealed that the duplications occurred first between chromosomal regions and then inside each region. (inra.fr)
  • In both studies, regions of 'double synteny' (DS) were identified in which single genes or groups of genes expressed homology relationships with alternating chromosomal regions of S. cerevisiae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • It contains rare gene duplications, only 221 introns, and no transposons of subtelomeric repeats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The extent and breakpoints of duplications vary among different families. (medscape.com)
  • Characterisation of breakpoints in patients with apparently balanced constitutional chromosome rearrangements and phenotypic abnormalities has proved an invaluable strategy for identifying disease causing genes, especially those on the X chromosome. (bmj.com)
  • This is not surprising given the strong evidence for interaction between myelin and axon gene expression in development and after experimental nerve lesions. (medscape.com)
  • Kandel, E. R. The molecular biology of memory storage: a dialogue between genes and synapses. (nature.com)
  • Together, our results provide a detailed picture of the molecular mechanisms that drove divergence of these duplicated enzymes and show that whereas the classic models of dosage, sub-, and neofunctionalization are helpful to conceptualize the implications of gene duplication, the three mechanisms co-occur and intertwine. (pubchase.com)
  • MHC Class I genes encode surface receptors in most nucleated cell types and facilitate immune responses to intracellular pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MHC Class II genes also encode receptors but are restricted to antigen presenting cells of the immune system where they play a role in combating extracellular pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Kisspeptin attracts particular attention, since previous reports have shown that the lack of kisspeptin receptors gene, GPR54 , in both mice and humans, or of the ligand gene ( Kiss1 ) in mice results in reproductive dysfunctions. (frontiersin.org)
  • MECP2 duplication syndrome is a condition that occurs almost exclusively in males and is characterized by moderate to severe intellectual disability. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Individuals with MECP2 duplication syndrome have delayed development of motor skills such as sitting and walking. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Many individuals with MECP2 duplication syndrome have recurrent respiratory tract infections. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The MECP2 gene is always included in this duplication, and other genes may also be involved, depending on the size of the duplicated segment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The MECP2 gene provides instructions for making a protein called MeCP2 that is critical for normal brain function. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An extra copy of the MECP2 gene leads to the production of excess MeCP2 protein and an increase in protein function. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These neuronal changes disrupt normal brain activity, causing the signs and symptoms of MECP2 duplication syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • MECP2 duplication syndrome is inherited in an X-linked pattern. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In males (who have only one X chromosome), a duplication of the only copy of the MECP2 gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Females with a MECP2 gene duplication tend to be unaffected or less severely affected than males because the X chromosome that contains the duplication may be turned off (inactive) in many of their cells due to a process called X-inactivation . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Females with a MECP2 gene duplication often have skewed X-inactivation, which results in the inactivation of the X chromosome containing the duplication in most cells of the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This showed that the four known genes involved in non-syndromic mental retardation in Xq28, FMR2 , SLC6A8 , MECP2 , and GDI1 , were not involved in the translocation. (bmj.com)
  • Coincidentally, we also report potential cases of gene resurrection in vertebrate opsins, whereby pseudogenized genes were found to convert with their functional paralogs. (edu.au)
  • Excerpt 2) "In human, a exclusive relationship of gene body [RNA-directed] DNA methylation with evolutionary and expression divergence of paralogs could not be revealed [48] . (scentoferos.com)
  • If we assume that the genome duplication indeed took place about 45 MYA (average of the peak in Fig. 1), and we assume that genes duplicated at that time have an average KS value of 0.85 (see Fig. 1), we can infer the rate of synonymous substitutions by simply dividing 0.85 by two times 45 MY (two times since Ks accumlate independently in the paralogs after the duplication). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, genes involved in regulation are preferentially retained. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcriptional regulation of the genes in metabolic pathways is a highly successful strategy, which is virtually universal in microorganisms. (lu.se)
  • With a minimalist model of metabolism, cell growth and transcriptional regulation in a microorganism, we explore how the interaction between environmental conditions and gene regulation set the growth rate of cells in the phase of exponential growth. (lu.se)
  • INTRODUCTION broken, which in realistic situations can severly constrain the Transcriptional regulation of effector genes is a highly successful regulatory options. (lu.se)
  • A very natural place to study gene detecting and metabolizing lactose, it is known that the overall regulation is in the metabolism of the cell, and then specifically in effect of expressing the lac genes in vain is a drop in the growth rate the regulation of genes that code for enzymes and transporter of as much as 5% [1,6]. (lu.se)
  • Here, the function of regulation is quite clear: expressing energy and carbon, that a number around 0.2% would be the right genes at the right time will enable the cell to make the expected, and that the difference is more or less specific to the lac most of the resources within its reach, by maximizing the uptake operon [7]. (lu.se)
  • A number of studies have explored how regulation of generally, and at least to a first approximation, it is obvious that metabolic pathways affects the growth rate of microorganisms, gene regulation only is useful if the environmental conditions vary both in the steady state and in response to changes in the local with time. (lu.se)
  • Reconstruction of ancestral metabolic enzymes reveals molecular mechanisms underlying evolutionary innovation through gene duplication. (pubchase.com)
  • However, the mechanisms shaping the fate of duplicated genes remain heavily debated because the molecular processes and evolutionary forces involved are difficult to reconstruct. (pubchase.com)
  • However, other mechanisms of disease causation have also been described where (1) a breakpoint disrupts or alters gene expression via a position effect 7 or (2) a cryptic deletion or duplication is identified at the translocation breakpoint. (bmj.com)
  • We are interested in understanding what biological and molecular pathways are affected by the 15q duplication when it is inherited either paternally or maternally. (ucla.edu)
  • We performed exploratory data analysis and differential gene expression using the programming language, R. We looked at the sources of variation within the genes and the biological and molecular pathways that were affected. (ucla.edu)
  • In this study we isolated a second Emx gene from lamprey that is sister to PmEmxA and orthologous to all other gnathostome Emx genes. (kzoo.edu)
  • Here, we study a large family of fungal glucosidase genes that underwent several duplication events. (pubchase.com)
  • These unique expression patterns suggests that innovations in regulatory elements following an EmxA/B ancestral gene duplication allowed for the apparent subfunctionalization of PmEmxB, thus supporting the DDC model. (kzoo.edu)
  • Gene duplication and subsequent functional divergence of opsins have played an important role in expanding photoreceptive capabilities of organisms by altering what wavelengths of light are absorbed by photoreceptors (spectral tuning). (iastate.edu)
  • Depending on how the duplication is inherited, this can lead to differing phenotypic expression within an affected individual. (ucla.edu)
  • 3- 6 Phenotypic abnormalities seen in cases with apparently balanced chromosome rearrangements have usually been explained by the disruption of a gene at the breakpoint causing the loss of gene function. (bmj.com)
  • Our analyses of the zebra finch MHC suggest a complex history involving chromosomal fission, gene duplication and translocation in the history of the MHC in birds, and highlight striking differences in MHC structure and organization among avian lineages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To investigate the possibility that a novel candidate gene for XLMR was disrupted at the X chromosome translocation breakpoint, we mapped the breakpoint using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). (bmj.com)
  • Intriguingly, we found that the X chromosome breakpoint in the daughter could not be defined by a single breakpoint spanning genomic clone and further analysis showed a 650 kb submicroscopic duplication between DXS7067 and DXS7060 on either side of the X chromosome translocation breakpoint. (bmj.com)
  • On the other hand, it has been generally accepted in evolutionary biology that genes duplicated from a single gene in the ancestral vertebrate undergo sub-functionalization, neo-functionalization, or non-functionalization ( Ohno, 1970 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Xq28 appears to be an unstable region of the human genome and genomic rearrangements are recognised as major causes of two single gene defects, haemophilia A and incontinentia pigmenti, which map within Xq28. (bmj.com)
  • To do this we collected and analyzed RNA sequencing data representing gene expression from the cerebral cortex of mice carrying either maternal or paternal 15q duplications. (ucla.edu)
  • Such genes are referred to as oncogenes. (medizin-aspekte.de)
  • Proto-oncogenes are genes that normally help cells grow and divide to make new cells, or to help cells stay alive. (cancer.org)
  • Researchers believe that this protein has several functions, including regulating other genes in the brain by controlling when they are able to participate in protein production. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In those with the maternally inherited duplication, we found that there were significant changes in the genes related to inhibitory neurons, the unfolded protein response, and anion transport. (ucla.edu)
  • [ 1 ] is a congenital hypomyelination disorder caused by changes affecting the proteolipid protein 1 gene (PLP1) located on Xq22.2. (medscape.com)
  • Expanding duplication of the testis PHD Finger Protein 7 (PHF7) gene in the chicken genome. (inra.fr)
  • This complex gene codes for a complex protein important in a number of pathways. (creation.com)
  • This complex organization of the gene reflects the complex nature of the protein receptor it produces. (creation.com)
  • Rensing SA, Ick J, Fawcett JA, Lang D, Zimmer A, Van de Peer Y, Reski R. An ancient genome duplication contributed to the abundance of metabolic genes in the moss Physcomitrella patens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Digestive duplication cyst of the tongue is an extremely rare otorhinolaryngological malformation which occurs during early embryogenesis and is characterized by a single and on occasion multiple cystic lesion that is most frequently located in the anterior portion of the tongue either deeply embedded within it or superficially on it. (globalgenes.org)
  • The KIT gene is rather complex consisting of 21 exons in a 70 kb region. (creation.com)
  • We sequenced all T exons in 24 familial cases and 54 unaffected family members from eight chordoma families (three with T duplications), 103 sporadic cases, and 160 unrelated controls. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Comparisons of vertebrate PSD and synaptogenesis genes with orthologues from sponges and cnidarians open an avenue for speculating as to what may have contributed to the origin of the first synapse. (nature.com)
  • We aimed to explore and characterise in the chicken genome the expanding family of the numerous orthologues of the unique mouse Phf7 gene (highly expressed in the testis), observing the fact that this information is unclear and/or variable according to the versions of databases. (inra.fr)
  • Excerpt 1) "A recent study demonstrated that the DNA methylation in promoter may play a significant role for functional divergence of duplicated genes in human [48] . (scentoferos.com)
  • In agreement with GSS activity localization in vivo , we identified six genes encoding arylsulfatase-like enzymes with a predicted C-terminal transmembrane domain, of which five showed GSS activity upon heterologous expression in insect cells. (nature.com)
  • In a study on vertebrate globins, Jay Storz and his colleagues wrote, "The retention of the proto- Hb and Mb genes in the ancestor of jawed vertebrates permitted a physiological division of labor between the oxygen-carrier function of Hb [hemoglobin] and the oxygen-storage function of Mb [myoglobin]. (icr.org)
  • Reconciliation methods explain topology differences between a species tree and a gene tree by evolutionary events other than speciations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we consider the problem of reconciling a gene tree with a species network via duplication and loss events. (biomedcentral.com)
  • But, for ancient hybridizations, the polyploidy of the extant species being reduced, a model where each gene of an hybridization species can be inherited from at most one of its two parents is more pertinent. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In other words, for solving the latter problem, we are interested in finding a tree that is "displayed" by the species network such that its reconciliation with a given gene tree is optimum. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We showed that the PHF7 gene, which is highly expressed in the rooster testis, is a highly duplicated gene family in the chicken genome, and this phenomenon probably concerns other bird species. (inra.fr)
  • We show that while gene duplication/loss and insertion/deletion are well handled by most methods (albeit for different trade-offs of precision and recall), lateral gene transfer disrupts all methods. (ethz.ch)
  • Consequently, the WGD scenario requires that almost an entire gene complement be deleted, and that deletion within regions (termed 'blocks') establishing DS patterns proceed with precision and without leaving massive evidence of relics (gene remnants) or pseudogenes (Fig. 1A ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • But the variation across gene pairs is huge. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, variation in a gene affecting the development and movement of pigment cells, KIT , is examined. (creation.com)
  • The extensive but relatively balanced history of duplications and losses, together with paralog-specific expression patterns, suggest diatoms continuously balance gene dosage and expression dynamics to optimize silicon transport across major environmental gradients. (lu.se)
  • We describe duplications of up to 18,200 bp to the opposed genome end, and deletions at the site of insertion of up to 16,900 bp. (bvsalud.org)
  • Extensive ITR expansion of the 2022 Mpox virus genome through gene duplication and gene loss. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Emx gene family is widespread and originally thought to only be involved in forebrain development, but expression seen in other areas suggests a more widespread role. (kzoo.edu)