RNA Caps: Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.RNA Cap-Binding Proteins: Proteins that specifically bind to RNA CAPS and form nuclear cap binding protein complexes. In addition to stabilizing the 5' end of mRNAs, they serve a diverse array of functions such as enhancing mRNA transport out of the CELL NUCLEUS and regulating MRNA TRANSLATION in the CYTOPLASM.RNA Cap Analogs: Analogs of RNA cap compounds which do not have a positive charge. These compounds inhibit the initiation of translation of both capped and uncapped messenger RNA.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E: A peptide initiation factor that binds specifically to the 5' MRNA CAP STRUCTURE of MRNA in the CYTOPLASM. It is a component of the trimeric complex EIF4F.Peptide Initiation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.Nuclear Cap-Binding Protein Complex: A heterodimeric protein complex of RNA cap-binding proteins, which binds with high affinity to the 5' MRNA CAP STRUCTURE in the CELL NUCLEUS. The complex contains two subunits, one of 80-kDa molecular weight and another of 20-kDa molecular weight.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4F: A trimeric peptide initiation factor complex that associates with the 5' MRNA cap structure of RNA (RNA CAPS) and plays an essential role in MRNA TRANSLATION. It is composed of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4A; EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4E; and EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4G.Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4G: A component of eukaryotic initiation factor-4F that is involved in multiple protein interactions at the site of translation initiation. Thus it may serve a role in bringing together various initiation factors at the site of translation initiation.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.S-Adenosylmethionine: Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational: A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).Poly(A)-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.RNA, Catalytic: RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Eukaryotic Initiation Factors: Peptide initiation factors from eukaryotic organisms. Over twelve factors are involved in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL in eukaryotic cells. Many of these factors play a role in controlling the rate of MRNA TRANSLATION.RNA Folding: The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Exoribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.13.-, EC 3.1.14.-, EC 3.1.15.-, and EC 3.1.16.-. EC 3.1.-Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.RNA, Antisense: RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.RNA Helicases: A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.RNA, Small Nuclear: Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Tacrolimus Binding Proteins: A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-

*Polyadenylation

These mRNAs then have longer half-lives and produce more of these proteins. RNA-binding proteins other than those in the ... "Arabidopsis mRNA polyadenylation machinery: comprehensive analysis of protein-protein interactions and gene expression ... PARN deadenylates less if the RNA is bound by the initiation factors 4E (at the 5' cap) and 4G (at the poly(A) tail), which is ... Cytoplasmic polyadenylation requires the RNA-binding proteins CPSF and CPEB, and can involve other RNA-binding proteins like ...

*DEAD box

Sonenberg N (1988). "Cap-binding proteins of eukaryotic messenger RNA: functions in initiation and control of translation". ... DExD/H proteins have also been found to be required components in pre- mRNA splicing, in particular the DEAH proteins, Prp2, ... helping RNA helicases unwind". Gene. 312: 1-16. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(03)00626-7. PMID 12909336. ... Tanaka N, Schwer B (July 2005). "Characterization of the NTPase, RNA-binding, and RNA helicase activities of the DEAH-box ...

*Myc

... mRNA contains an IRES (internal ribosome entry site) that allows the RNA to be translated into protein when 5' cap- ... The Myc Protein NCBI Human Myc protein Myc cancer gene myc Proto-Oncogene Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine ... "Control of c-myc mRNA half-life in vitro by a protein capable of binding to a coding region stability determinant". Genes & ... Myc (c-Myc) is a regulator gene that codes for a transcription factor. The protein encoded by this gene is a multifunctional, ...

*List of cis-regulatory RNA elements

23S methyl RNA motif 6C RNA Actino-pnp RNA motif AdoCbl riboswitch Alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein binding (CPB) RNA Alfalfa ... IbpB thermometer Infectious bronchitis virus D-RNA JUMPstart RNA motif Luteovirus cap-independent translation element (BTE) ... Potassium channel RNA editing signal Potato virus X cis-acting regulatory element PotC RNA motif Poxvirus AX element late mRNA ... UTR RNA stabilising element Red clover necrotic mosaic virus translation enhancer elements Regulatory region of repZ gene ...

*Messenger RNA

... end to bind PCBP2, which binds poly(A)-binding protein, forming the familiar mRNA-protein-mRNA circle. Barley yellow dwarf ... A 5' cap (also termed an RNA cap, an RNA 7-methylguanosine cap, or an RNA m7G cap) is a modified guanine nucleotide that has ... Transcription is when RNA is made from DNA. During transcription, RNA polymerase makes a copy of a gene from the DNA to mRNA as ... binding protein, which both bind to eIF4G, forming an mRNA-protein-mRNA bridge. Circularization is thought to promote cycling ...

*Togaviridae

... forming four non-structural proteins responsible for gene expression and replication. The formation of a sub-genomic fragment, ... Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive-stranded RNA-virus-transcription is the method ... The receptors for binding are unknown, however the tropism is varied and it is known that the glycoprotein petal-like spikes ... The 5'-terminus carries a methylated nucleotide cap and the 3'-terminus has a polyadenylated tail, therefore resembling ...

*RNA

... ribosomal RNA and protein combine to form a nucleoprotein called a ribosome. The ribosome binds mRNA and carries out protein ... Several types of RNA can downregulate gene expression by being complementary to a part of an mRNA or a gene's DNA. MicroRNAs ( ... cap are added to eukaryotic pre-mRNA and introns are removed by the spliceosome. There are also a number of RNA-dependent RNA ... Also, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is part of the RNA interference pathway in many organisms. Messenger RNA (mRNA) is the RNA ...

*Morpholino

Bound to the 5'-untranslated region of messenger RNA (mRNA), Morpholinos can interfere with progression of the ribosomal ... Gene knockdown is achieved by preventing cells from making a targeted protein. Knocking down gene expression is a method for ... initiation complex from the 5' cap to the start codon. This prevents translation of the coding region of the targeted ... In an mRNA rescue, a Morpholino is co-injected with an mRNA that codes for the morphlino's protein. However, the rescue mRNA ...

*Ectoderm specification

Also, high expression of this gene was observed in animal caps in embryos that lack VegT compared to wild type. FoxI1e mRNA is ... The p53 protein binds to the promoters of early mesodermal genes. p53 is maternally deposited transcript that forms a ... cloned into expression vector and generated mRNA. The synthetic RNA was then injected into embryos and the animal caps of these ... A cDNA library from the blastula stage of a frog embryo was cloned into RNA expression plasmids to generate synthetic mRNA. The ...

*RBM28

RNA-binding protein 28 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBM28 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000106344 - ... a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides". Gene. 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: RBM28 RNA binding motif protein 28". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: ... Damianov A, Kann M, Lane WS, Bindereif A (2006). "Human RBM28 protein is a specific nucleolar component of the spliceosomal ...

*RBM4

"Entrez Gene: RBM4 RNA binding motif protein 4". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap ... structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides". Gene. 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID ... RNA-binding protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBM4 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000173933 - ... "A novel zinc finger-containing RNA-binding protein conserved from fruitflies to humans". Genomics. 41 (3): 444-52. doi:10.1006/ ...

*RBM10

RNA-binding protein 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBM10 gene. The protein encoded by this gene contains RNA ... a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides". Gene. 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: RBM10 RNA binding motif protein 10". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: ... recognition motif found in a variety of RNA binding proteins, including various hnRNP proteins, proteins implicated in ...

*MAK16

"Entrez Gene: RBM13 RNA binding motif protein 13". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the ... cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides". Gene. 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID ... Protein MAK16 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAK16 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000198042 - ... 2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ...

*RBM23

Probable RNA-binding protein 23 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBM23 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ... a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides". Gene. 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi: ... GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000100461 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: RBM23 RNA binding ... U2AF-like family of RNA binding proteins. This protein interacts with some steroid nuclear receptors, localizes to the promoter ...

*Gene expression

... end of pre-mRNA and thus protect the RNA from degradation by exonucleases. The m7G cap is then bound by cap binding complex ... In the case of messenger RNA (mRNA) the RNA is an information carrier coding for the synthesis of one or more proteins. mRNA ... which protects the RNA from degradation. Poly(A) tail is bound by multiple poly(A)-binding proteins (PABP) necessary for mRNA ... A facultative gene is a gene only transcribed when needed as opposed to a constitutive gene. An inducible gene is a gene whose ...

*GJA1

Gap junction alpha-1 protein (GJA1), also known as connexin 43 (Cx43), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GJA1 gene ... The connexin-43 internal ribosome entry site is an RNA element present in the 5' UTR of the mRNA of GJA1. This internal ... The C-terminal tail is composed of 50 amino acids and includes post-translational modification sites, as well as binding sites ... ribosome entry site (IRES) allows cap independent translation during conditions such as heat shock and stress. As a member of ...

*Capping enzyme

... the capping enzymes are able to add the cap to the mRNA while it is produced by RNA polymerase II. Eukaryotic RNA must undergo ... Wen, Y; Yue, Z; Shatkin, AJ (Oct 13, 1998). "Mammalian capping enzyme binds RNA and uses protein tyrosine phosphatase mechanism ... cap to messenger RNA molecules that are in the process of being synthesized in the cell nucleus during the first stages of gene ... cap is therefore specific to RNAs synthesized by this polymerase rather than those synthesized by RNA polymerase I or RNA ...

*PRPF8

Hinz M, Moore MJ, Bindereif A (Aug 1996). "Domain analysis of human U5 RNA. Cap trimethylation, protein binding, and ... Pre-mRNA-processing-splicing factor 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRPF8 gene. Pre-mRNA splicing occurs in 2 ... which function in protein-protein interactions. This protein has a sequence similarity to yeast Prp8 protein. This gene is a ... "A mammalian protein of 220 kDa binds pre-mRNAs in the spliceosome: a potential homologue of the yeast PRP8 protein". ...

*LARP1

"La-related protein 1 (LARP1) binds the mRNA cap, blocking eIF4F assembly on TOP mRNAs". eLife. 6. doi:10.7554/elife.24146. PMID ... La-related protein 1 (LARP1) is a 124 kDa protein that in humans is encoded by the LARP1 gene. All LARP proteins, including ... "Nuclear trafficking of La protein depends on a newly identified nucleolar localization signal and the ability to bind RNA". The ... cap of mRNAs. LARP1 also appears to down-regulate the Ras-MAPK pathway. LARP1 protein colocalizes with P-bodies, which function ...

*MRNA (guanine-N7-)-methyltransferase

Pillutla RC, Yue Z, Maldonado E, Shatkin AJ (Sep 1998). "Recombinant human mRNA cap methyltransferase binds capping enzyme/RNA ... In humans, mRNA cap guanine-N7 methyltransferase is encoded by the RNMT gene. The systematic name of this enzyme class is S- ... 78 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 4 (5): 307-13. doi:10.1093/dnares/4.5.307. PMID ... Wen Y, Shatkin AJ (2001). "Cap methyltransferase selective binding and methylation of GpppG-RNA are stimulated by importin-α". ...

*HSUR

... saimiri small nuclear RNAs recruit AU-rich element-binding proteins but do not alter host AU-rich element-containing mRNA ... trimethylguanosine caps 3' terminal stem-loops canonical Sm protein-binding site (AUUUUUG) A proposed role for HSURs is that ... they use the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway to manipulate host-cell gene expression. One identified miRNA which responds to ... They are nuclear RNAs which bind host proteins to form small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). The RNAs are 114-143 ...

*Internal ribosome entry site

... cap structure bound to the 5' end of the mRNA molecule. In such a setup,both proteins are produced in the cell. The first ... cap, and the second gene is initiated at the IRES. IRESs are commonly located in the 5'UTR of RNA viruses and allow translation ... Lack of essential proteins contributes to the death of the cell, as does translation of IRES mRNA sequences coding proteins ... is a RNA element that allows for translation initiation in a cap-independent manner, as part of the greater process of protein ...

*PHAX

Phosphorylated adapter RNA export protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PHAX gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides". Gene. 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi: ... "The evolutionarily conserved region of the U snRNA export mediator PHAX is a novel RNA-binding domain that is essential for U ... "Entrez Gene: RNUXA RNA U, small nuclear RNA export adaptor (phosphorylation regulated)". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo- ...

*EIF4E

Rychlik W, Domier LL, Gardner PR, Hellmann GM, Rhoads RE (February 1987). "Amino acid sequence of the mRNA cap-binding protein ... Culjkovic B, Topisirovic I, Borden KL (2007). "Controlling gene expression through RNA regulons: the role of the eukaryotic ... RNA-BC1 is a non-translatable, dendritic mRNA, which binds FMRP to allow for its association with a specific target mRNA. BC1 ... Sonenberg N, Rupprecht KM, Hecht SM, Shatkin AJ (September 1979). "Eukaryotic mRNA cap binding protein: purification by ...

*Rotavirus

NSP1, the product of gene 5, is a nonstructural RNA-binding protein. NSP1 also blocks the interferon response, the part of the ... cap in the post-transcriptional modification of mRNA. The cap stabilises viral mRNA by protecting it from nucleic acid ... At least six of the twelve proteins encoded by the rotavirus genome bind RNA. The role of these proteins play in rotavirus ... rotavirus produces mRNA for both protein biosynthesis and gene replication. Most of the rotavirus proteins accumulate in ...
Looking for cap-binding protein? Find out information about cap-binding protein. A protein that specifically recognizes the methylated cap of eukaryotic messenger ribonucleic acid and is essential in the regulation of mRNA translation Explanation of cap-binding protein
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In vertebrates, a nuclear cap-binding complex (CBC) formed by two cap- binding proteins, CBP20 and CBP80, is involved in several steps of RNA metabolism, including pre-mRNA splicing and nuclear export of some RNA polymerase II-transcribed U snRNAs. The CBC is highly conserved, and antibodies against human CBP20 cross-react with the CBP20 counterpart in the dipteran Chironomus tentans. Using immunoelectron microscopy, the in situ association of CBP20 with a specific pre-mRNP particle, the Balbiani ring particle, has been analyzed at different stages of pre-mRNA synthesis, maturation, and nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. We demonstrate that CBP20 binds to the nascent pre-mRNA shortly after ...
The 5 cap of eukaryotic messenger RNA is bound at all times by various Cap-binding complexes. In the nucleus freshly transcribed mRNA molecules are bound on the 5 cap by the nuclear cap-binding complex of Cbc1/Cbc2 in yeast or CBP20/CBP80 in metazoans. These aid in the export of the mRNA and protect it from decapping. They also serve as a marker for the so-called pioneer round of translation when the message is examined by nonsense mediated decay. After the first round of translation ("pioneer round"), CBC20/80 is replaced by the translation initiation factor eIF4E. The eIF4F complex (eIF4E, eIF4G and eIF4A) then regulates translation in response to the state of the cell via its phosphorylation state and ...
Using UV cross-linking assays and coprecipitation studies, we have shown that there are several CIPs in HeLa nuclear extracts (Fig. 1). Although the identity and function of many of these proteins remain to be determined (e.g., CIP160, CIP130, and CIP100), we have identified CIP200 as eIF4GI (Fig. 2). Cellular fractionation and indirect immunofluorescence have shown that significant amounts of eIF4GI are present in the nucleus in addition to the expected cytoplasmic localization (Fig. 3 and 5). In the cytoplasm, eIF4G plays an essential role in translation by acting as an adapter molecule during the initiation phase of protein synthesis. Within its sequence, it contains domains that interact with eIF4E, eIF4A, eIF3, PABP, and Mnk1 (reviewed in references 19, 21, 39, and 48). More recently, S. cerevisiae eIF4G has also been shown to interact with the large subunit of CBC, CBP80, via a domain between those interacting with eIF4E and eIF3 (14). Our data suggest that, in contrast to the ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Pioneer round of translation occurs during serum starvation. AU - Oh, Nara. AU - Kim, Kyoung Mi. AU - Cho, Hana. AU - Choe, Junho. AU - Kim, Yoon Ki. PY - 2007/10/12. Y1 - 2007/10/12. N2 - The pioneer round of translation plays a role in translation initiation of newly spliced and exon junction complex (EJC)-bound mRNAs. Nuclear cap-binding protein complex CBP80/20 binds to those mRNAs at the 5′-end, recruiting translation initiation complex. As a consequence of the pioneer round of translation, the bound EJCs are dissociated from mRNAs and CBP80/20 is replaced by the cytoplasmic cap-binding protein eIF4E. Steady-state translation directed by eIF4E allows for an immediate and rapid response to changes in physiological conditions. Here, we show that nonsense-mediated ...
NCBP2 - NCBP2 (untagged)-Human nuclear cap binding protein subunit 2, 20kDa (NCBP2), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Degradation of mRNA is a highly regulated step important for proper gene expression. Degradation of eukaryotic mRNA is initiated by shortening of the 3 end located poly(A) tail. Poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN) is an oligomeric enzyme that degrades the poly(A) tail with high processivity. A unique property of PARN is its ability to interact not only with the poly(A) tail but also with the 5 end located mRNA cap structure. A regulatory role in protein synthesis has been proposed for PARN based on its ability to bind the cap that is required for efficient initiation of eukaryotic mRNA translation. Here we have investigated how the cap structure influences PARN activity and how PARN binds the cap. We show that the ...
Choe, J, Oh, N, Park, S, Lee, YK, Song, O-K, Locker, N, Chi, S-G and Kim, YK (2012) Translation Initiation on mRNAs Bound by Nuclear Cap-binding Protein Complex CBP80/20 Requires Interaction between CBP80/20-dependent Translation Initiation Factor and Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 3g ...
In this report we have provided experimental evidence supporting the notion that eIF4G is encoded as a single gene in sea urchins but that multiple protein isoforms of SgIF4G are present in eggs and early embryos. The existence of several isoforms of eIF4G in vivo has been described in mammals (Etchison et al., 1982; Grifo et al., 1983), but the nature of these different polypeptides has long remained unclear. Multiple isoforms of sea urchin eIF4G could be the result of a complex translation strategy involving internal initiation (Gan and Rhoads, 1996; Gan et al., 1998; Johannes and Sarnow, 1998; Byrd et al., 2005), upstream ORF codons, alternative splicing or alternate translation initiation sites (Byrd et al., 2002; Byrd et al., 2005). Since it is known that human eIF4G mRNA can direct translation by internal initiation, ...
In enzymology, a mRNA guanylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.50) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction GTP + (5)ppPur-mRNA ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } diphosphate + G(5)pppPur-mRNA Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are GTP and (5)ppPur-mRNA, whereas its two products are diphosphate and G(5)pppPur-mRNA. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring phosphorus-containing nucleotide groups (nucleotidyltransferases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is GTP:mRNA guanylyltransferase. Other names in common use include mRNA capping enzyme, messenger RNA guanylyltransferase, and Protein 2. As of late 2007, 5 structures have been solved for this class of ...
The 5′ terminal cap structure, m7GpppX (where X is any nucleotide), is a ubiquitous feature of eukaryotic mRNAs that plays an important role in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. In the cytoplasm the cap...
The 5´terminal m7G cap present on most eukaryotic mRNAs promotes translation in vitro at the initiation level. For most RNAs, elimination of the cap structure causes a loss of stability, especially against exonuclease degradation, and a decrease in the formation of the initiation complex of mRNAs for protein synthesis. Certain prokaryotic mRNAs containing a 5´ terminal cap structure are translated as efficiently as or more efficiently than eukaryotic mRNAs in a eukaryotic cell-free protein synthesizing system. Also a cap requirement has been observed for splicing eukaryotic substrate RNAs. A method for efficient in vitro synthesis of capped ...
When faced with the selection pressure of chronic mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibition by AZD8055, SW620 cells remodelled mTOR signalling to allow them to continue to proliferate. We anticipated that this adaptation might involve a switch from cap-dependent to IRES-dependent translation because: (1) compensatory IRES-dependent translation is seen upon inhibition of cap-dependent translation (supplementary material Fig. S2) (Svitkin et al., 2005); (2) this was observed upon acute AZD8055 treatment (Fig. 1D); and (3) some oncogenes are translated by IRES-dependent mechanisms (Stoneley and Willis, 2004). However, IRES-dependent translation was not upregulated in SW620:8055R cells. Rather the cells adapted to chronic mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibition by amplifying eIF4E (Fig. 4) to increase eIF4E protein levels, thereby maintaining or even increasing cap-dependent translation (Fig. 5). ...
New RNA cap analogs are disclosed containing one or more phosphorothioates groups. The analogs also contain modifications at the 2′-O position of 7-methylguanosine that prevent them from being incorporated in the reverse orientation during in vitro synthesis of mRNA and that hence are
RNA (guanine-7-)methyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for methylating the 5 cap structure of eukaryotic mRNA, was isolated from extracts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yeast enzyme catalyzed methyl group transfer from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to the guanosine base of capped, unmethylated poly(A). Cap methylation was stimulated by low concentrations of salt and was inhibited by S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine, a presumptive product of the reaction, but not by S-adenosyl-D-homocysteine. The methyltransferase sedimented in a glycerol gradient as a single discrete component of 3.2S. A likely candidate for the gene encoding yeast cap methyltransferase was singled out on phylogenetic grounds. The ABD1 gene, located on yeast chromosome II, encodes a 436-amino-acid ...
Research in my lab focuses on RNA decay pathways. One pathway, called nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) or mRNA surveillance, surveys all newly synthesized mRNAs during what we call a "pioneer" round of translation. This round of translation involves mRNA that is associated with the cap-binding heterodimer CBP80 and CBP20. It is distinct from the type of translation that supports the bulk of cellular protein synthesis and involves a different cap-binding protein, eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E. Generally, if translation terminates more than 50-55 nt upstream of an exon-exon junction that is marked by the NMD factors Upf3 or Upf3X, Upf2 and ultimately Upf1, then the mRNA will be ...
A common structural feature of all cellular eukaryotic mRNAs (except for organelle mRNAs) analyzed to date is the presence of a 5′-terminal m7GpppN (where N is any nucleotide) structure, termed the cap (140). This structure is added early during RNA polymerase II-driven transcription and is required for several steps of mRNA biogenesis. Consistent with the diverse roles of the cap during gene expression, a number of cap binding proteins have been identified in the cytoplasm and nucleus (54, 140). The first-described, and best-characterized of these, is eukaryotic initiation factor-4E (eIF-4E), a 24-kDa polypeptide that has been cloned and characterized from a number of species. This protein shows strong ...
Component of the cap-binding complex (CBC), which binds co-transcriptionally to the 5 cap of pre-mRNAs and is involved in various processes such as pre-mRNA splicing, translation regulation, nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, RNA-mediated gene silencing (RNAi) by microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNA export. The CBC complex is involved in mRNA export from the nucleus via its interaction with ALYREF/THOC4/ALY, leading to the recruitment of the mRNA export machinery to the 5 end of mRNA and to mRNA export in a 5 to 3 ...
5-3 decay is the major mRNA decay pathway in many eukaryotes, including trypanosomes. After deadenylation, mRNAs are decapped by the nudix hydrolase DCP2 of the decapping complex and finally degraded by the 5-3 exoribonuclease. Uniquely, trypanosomes lack homologues to all subunits of the decapping complex, while deadenylation and 5-3 degradation are conserved. Here, I show that the parasites use an ApaH-like phosphatase (ALPH1) as their major mRNA decapping enzyme. The protein was recently identified as a novel trypanosome stress granule protein and as involved in mRNA binding. A fraction of ALPH1 co-localises exclusively with the trypanosome 5-3 exoribonuclease XRNA to a special granule at ...
Overexpression of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins is emerging seeing that a crucial contributor to anticancer medication level of resistance. assays. eIF4G mRNA degradation was accelerated in cells transfected with miR-503 mimics. Furthermore, it had been demonstrated that eIF4G and ABC translation protein were downregulated in MCF-7/ADR cells after transfection with miR-503 significantly. It was discovered that miR-503 mimics could sensitize the cells to treatment with ADM, TAX and TAM. These findings confirmed for the very first time that eIF4G acted as an integral element in MCF-7/ADR cells, and Riociguat could end up being a competent agent for preventing and reversing multi-drug resistance in breast malignancy. (11) determinded that cisplatin-resistance cells upregulated MRP1 when compared with sensitive MCF-7 cells. The eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4F complex consists of three ...
The RNA genome of tobacco etch virus (TEV), a plant potyvirus, functions as an mRNA for synthesis of a 346-kilodalton polyprotein that undergoes extensive proteolytic processing. The RNA lacks a normal 5 cap structure at its terminus, which suggests that the mechanism of translational initiation differs from that of a normal cellular mRNA. We have identified a translation-enhancing activity associated with the 144-nucleotide, 5 nontranslated region (NTR) of the TEV genome. When fused to a reporter gene encoding ,β-glucuronidase (GUS), the 5 NTR results in an 8- to 21-fold enhancement over a synthetic 5 NTR in a transient-expression assay in protoplasts. A similar effect was observed when the 5 NTR-GUS fusions were expressed in transgenic plants. By using a cell-free translation system, the translation enhancement activity of ...
Abstract: The development of cancer is a consequence of mutations that lead to dysfunctional cell processes such as unrestrained cell proliferation resistance to apoptosis and improper regulation of cell processes such as translation. Cell proliferation and apoptosis are linked to specific gene expression events regulated by protein synthesis which begins with the binding of various eukaryotic initiation factors (eIF) to mRNA and ribosomes to initiate translation. eIF4G-1 catalyzes two types of translation initiation. Cap-dependent translation requires eIF4E to bind a 5-methylated mRNA cap and eIF4G-1. This in turn facilitates recruitment and promotes translation of cell cycle and growth-related proteins. Cap-independent translation initiates internally ...
FIG. 1. The SAHH gene is a Myc target gene. (A) P493-6 cells were incubated with doxycycline (Dox) to inhibit exogenous Myc expression or vehicle control (veh). Rat1A fibroblasts, primary MEFs, and IMECs were infected with retroviruses to express vector control, MycWT, or MycΔMBII, and pools of cells were drug selected. Primary murine T cells were incubated with IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15 for 24 h. Rat1A cells were incubated with a control siRNA (con si; cyclophilin B siRNA) or an siRNA directed against Myc (Myc si) for 24 h. Western blotting was performed to detect SAHH, Myc, β-tubulin, or POLR2A expression, as loading controls. (B) RNA was extracted from the cell lines indicated, and RT-PCR was performed to detect SAHH mRNA levels relative to GAPDH (or 18S rRNA for P493-6). ...
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15-3 Cap Structure Purified cap by DEAE chromatography; digested with enzymes to figure structure  -phosphate of NTP remains only in first nucleotide in RNA -Cap is 5-terminus of RNA -Cap is m 7 G, 7- methylguanosine, -Linkage is triphosphate -Charge on cap area is ~ -5 Fig. 1 vaccinia virus 3H methyl from S-AdoMet; 32P-GTP label RNA); KOH to digest RNA Fig. 2 shows me7-G
Previously, the in vitro production of mRNA was limited in yield and translational activity by the co-transcriptional capping method using cap analog.The presence of dinucleotide cap analog in the transcription reaction mix greatly decreases the mRNA yields and inhibits translation when non-incorporated dinucleotide analogs are not carefully removed. Instead of using a costly and inefficiently incorporated nucleotide cap analog, the C3P3® mRNA Production System uses a virus-derived capping enzyme physically coupled to the RNA polymerase to add the cap at high efficiency capping - versus 80% for other systems using standard m7GpppG ...
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Influenza virus polymerase uses a capped primer, derived by cap-snatching from host pre-messenger RNA, to transcribe its RNA genome into mRNA and a stuttering mechanism to generate the poly(A) tail. By contrast, genome replication is unprimed and generates exact full-length copies of the template. Here we use crystal structures of bat influenza A and human influenza B polymerases (FluA and FluB), bound to the viral RNA promoter, to give mechanistic insight into these distinct processes. In the FluA structure, a loop analogous to the priming loop of flavivirus polymerases suggests that influenza could initiate unprimed template replication by a similar mechanism. Comparing the FluA and FluB structures suggests that cap-snatching involves in ...
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a hypermethylated cap structure consisting of 7-methylguanosine (m(7)G) followed by four methylated nucleotides (cap 4): 7-methylguanosine-ppp-N6, N6, 2-O-trimethyladenosine-p-2-O-methyladenosine-p-2-O-me…
In cancer the activation of cap-dependent protein translation by AKT or PIM ensures the expression of short-lived oncoproteins including c-MYC, MCL1 and Cyclin D1 (Sonenberg and Hinnebusch, 2009). Treatment of PIM-expressing human lymphoma cells with the PIM inhibitor SGI-1773 (10 µM) somewhat reduced Cyclin D1, but had no effect on c-MYC or MCL1 (Fig. 4 F). In contrast, silvestrol (10 nM) caused almost complete loss of Cyclin D1, c-MYC, and MCL1. Moreover, silvestrol completely ablated the expression of both PIM1 and PIM2 kinases (Fig. 4 F). Silvestrol had similar effects on PIM expression in DoHH2 and Su-DHL-10 (Fig. 4 G). This is consistent with the known short half-life of PIM1 and PIM2 and indicates that PIM expression is controlled, at least in part, by cap-dependent translation (Hoover et al., 1997). This dual effect of translation inhibition on PIM and its downstream targets likely accounts for silvestrols dramatic ...
Blocking of the 3´ -hydroxyl of m7G with 3´-0-Me assures that the capped transcripts are homogeneous. The 3´ - hydroxyl of the non-methylated G is the only 3´ - hydroxyl available for initiation.
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant Human SNURPORTIN1 protein (ab117179). Please download our general protocols booklet
Video articles in JoVE about repressor proteins include Luciferase Complementation Imaging Assay in Nicotiana benthamiana Leaves for Transiently Determining Protein-protein Interaction Dynamics.
Video articles in JoVE about hypoxia inducible factor 1 include Mechanism of Regulation of Adipocyte Numbers in Adult Organisms Through Differentiation and Apoptosis Homeostasis, Quantification of Neurovascular Protection Following Repetitive Hypoxic Preconditioning and Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Mice, Quantitative Analysis of Chromatin Proteomes in Disease, Immunohistochemical Detection of 5-Methylcytosine and 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Developing and Postmitotic Mouse Retina, Anaerobic Growth and Maintenance of Mammalian Cell Lines, Isolation of Cerebral Capillaries from Fresh Human Brain Tissue, Co-immunoprecipitation Assay Using Endogenous Nuclear Proteins from Cells Cultured Under Hypoxic Conditions, Induction of Hypoxia in Living Frog and Zebrafish Embryos, A Mouse Distraction Osteogenesis Model, Human Primary Trophoblast Cell Culture Model to Study the Protective Effects of Melatonin Against ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - 2′-O methylation of the viral mRNA cap evades host restriction by IFIT family members. AU - Daffis, Stephane. AU - Szretter, Kristy J.. AU - Schriewer, Jill. AU - Li, Jianqing. AU - Youn, Soonjeon. AU - Errett, John. AU - Lin, Tsai Yu. AU - Schneller, Stewart. AU - Zust, Roland. AU - Dong, Hongping. AU - Thiel, Volker. AU - Sen, Ganes C.. AU - Fensterl, Volker. AU - Klimstra, William B.. AU - Pierson, Theodore C.. AU - Buller, R. Mark. AU - Gale Jr, Michael. AU - Shi, Pei-Yong. AU - Diamond, Michael S.. PY - 2010/11/18. Y1 - 2010/11/18. N2 - Cellular messenger RNA (mRNA) of higher eukaryotes and many viral RNAs are methylated at the N-7 and 2′O positions of the 5-2 guanosine cap by specific nuclear and cytoplasmic methyltransferases (MTases), respectively. Whereas N-7 methylation is essential ...
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A phosphoprotein adapter involved in the XPO1-mediated U snRNA export from the nucleus. Bridge components required for U snRNA export, the cap binding complex (CBC)-bound snRNA on the one hand and the GTPase Ran in its active GTP-bound form together with the export receptor XPO1 on the other. Its phosphorylation in the nucleus is required for U snRNA export complex assembly and export, while its dephosphorylation in the cytoplasm causes export complex disassembly. It is recycled back to the nucleus via the importin alpha/beta heterodimeric import receptor. The directionality of nuclear export is thought to be conferred by an asymmetric distribution of the GTP- and GDP-bound forms of Ran between the cytoplasm and nucleus. Its compartmentalized phosphorylation cycle may also contribute to the directionality of export. Binds ...
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The research goal of this laboratory is to identify all of the eukaryotic translation initiation factors and determine their sequential utilization in the initiation pathway. A secondary goal is to characterize how the initiation pathway is regulated and the different consequences depending on the exact point of regulation. Current research is focusing on two major aspects of translation initiation, cap-dependent and cap-independent (or internal) initiation. Although much of the gross work has been determined using hemoglobin mRNA as a model mRNA, it has become clear that other elements influence both the regulation and mechanism of translation initiation in mammalian systems. Within the realm of cap-dependent translation, we are examining the influence of individual initiation factors on both overall affect ...
EC 3.6.1.59 Accepted name: 5-(N7-methyl 5-triphosphoguanosine)-[mRNA] diphosphatase. Reaction: a 5-(N7-methyl 5-triphosphoguanosine)-[mRNA] + H2O = N7-methylguanosine 5-phosphate + a 5-diphospho-[mRNA]. Other name(s): DcpS; m7GpppX pyrophosphatase; m7GpppN m7GMP phosphohydrolase; m7GpppX diphosphatase; m7G5ppp5N m7GMP phosphohydrolase. Systematic name: 5-(N7-methyl 5-triphosphoguanosine)-[mRNA] N7-methylguanosine 5-phosphate phosphohydrolase. Comments: The enzyme removes (decaps) the N7-methylguanosine 5-phosphate cap from an mRNA degraded to a maximal length of 10 nucleotides [3,6]. Decapping is an important process in the control of eukaryotic mRNA degradation. The enzyme functions to clear the cell of ...
Recognizes and binds the 7-methylguanosine-containing mRNA cap during an early step in the initiation of protein synthesis and facilitates ribosome binding by inducing the unwinding of the mRNAs secondary structures. May play an important role in spermatogenesis through translational regulation of stage-specific mRNAs during germ cell development (By similarity). Its translation stimulation activity is repressed by binding to the complex CYFIP1-FMR1. Component of the CYFIP1-EIF4E-FMR1 complex which binds to the mRNA cap and mediates translational repression. In the CYFIP1-EIF4E-FMR1 complex this subunit mediates the binding to the mRNA cap.
Polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2) complexes with polymerase basic protein 1 and polymerase acidic protein (PA) to form an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex. During transcription, PB2 binds the 5′,7-methylguanosine cap of the host pre-mRNA, which will be subsequently cleaved by PA. PB2 also inhibits type I interferon induction through interaction with and inhibition of the host mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein MAVS ...
This methylated ribonucleotide can be incorporated onto the 5´-end of in vitro transcripts and simulates the cap structure found on most eukaryotic mRNA molecules.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation is an important element of gene expression that can be modulated by alterations in translation, such as reductions in initiation or elongation rates. Reducing translation initiation strongly affects mRNA degradation by driving mRNA toward the assembly of a decapping complex, leading to decapping. While mRNA stability decreases as a consequence of translational inhibition, in apparent contradiction several external stresses both inhibit translation initiation and stabilize mRNA. A key difference in these processes is that stresses induce multiple responses, one of which stabilizes mRNAs at the initial and rate-limiting step of ...
Chikungunya (CHIK-un-goon-ya) virus (also known as CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that has spread around the world and is currently infecting people in about 60 countries globally. CHIKV is rarely fatal, but causes severe joint pain for months to years that can debilitate affected patients for long periods of time. There are currently no known drugs to treat CHIKV infection, primarily due to a lack of understanding of the structure of CHIKV proteins involved in viral genome replication. The Geiss lab has worked on developing drug targeting the membrane bound CHIKV nsP1 protein, which is the anchor for the viral genome replication complex on cellular membranes and a multifunctional enzyme that forms a 5 RNA cap structure on the end of the CHIKV RNA genome. Solving the structure of the CHIKV nsP1 protein would provide critical information for designing drugs that inhibit nsP1 ...
Decapping 2; Catalytic component of the decapping complex necessary for the degradation of mRNAs, both in normal mRNA turnover and in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Removes the 7-methyl guanine cap structure from mRNA molecules, yielding a 5-phosphorylated mRNA fragment and 7m-GDP. Essential for postembryonic development, especially during the formation of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) (386 aa ...
What is the difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic mRNA? Prokaryotic mRNA is polycistronic while eukaryotic mRNA is monocistronic. In prokaryotic mRNA,..
RNA triphosphatase is an essential mRNA processing enzyme that catalyzes the first step in cap formation. The 2.05 A crystal structure of yeast RNA triphosphatase Cet1p reveals a novel active site fold whereby an eight-stranded beta barrel forms a topologically closed triphosphate tunnel. Interactions of a sulfate in the center of the tunnel with a divalent cation and basic amino acids projecting into the tunnel suggest a catalytic mechanism that is supported by mutational data. Discrete surface domains mediate Cet1p homodimerization and Cet1p binding to the guanylyltransferase component of the capping apparatus. The structure and mechanism of fungal RNA triphosphatases are completely different from those of mammalian mRNA ...
The IRESite database presents information about the experimentally studied IRES (Internal Ribosome Entry Site) segments. IRES regions are known to attract eukaryotic ribosomal translation initiation complex and thus promote translation initiation independently of the presence of the commonly utilized 5-terminal 7mG cap structure. It is not yet clear whether the activity could be attributed to a common sequence or to a common secondary structure present in them. Such IRES regions were found in a broad range of +RNA viruses and in some eukaryotic cellular mRNAs. Certain IRESs have been predicted based on the fact that closely related viruses should share its features and indeed, their sequences are in some regions conserved enough to allow identification of a new IRES. In contrast, cellular IRESs do not have almost anything in common in terms of their sequence or secondary ...
Survival of mosquitoes from dengue virus (DENV) infection is a prerequisite of viral transmission to the host. This study aimed to see how mosquito cells can survive the infection during prosperous replication of the virus. In C6/36 cells, global protein translation was shut down after infection by DENV type 2 (DENV2). However, it returned to a normal level when infected cells were treated with an inhibitor of the protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK) signaling pathway. Based on a 7-Methylguanosine 5′-triphosphate (m7GTP) pull-down assay, the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) complex was also identified in DENV2-infected cells. This suggests that most mosquito proteins are synthesized via canonical cap-dependent translation. When the PERK signal pathway was inhibited, both accumulation of reactive oxygen species and changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential increased. This suggested that ER ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-SNURPORTIN1 Antibody (2B2-1B4) [PE]. Validated: WB, ELISA, ICC/IF. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed.
The cervical cap is a barrier method of birth control. A cervical cap, which is made of rubber, fits tightly over the opening to the uterus (the cervix). It is used with a spermicide. You can insert the cap ahead of time or just before sex. To work best, the cap should be left in place for 6 hours after sex. Do not leave it in for more than 48 hours total. If you have sex more than one time while the cap is in place, youll need to add more spermicide and check the position of the cap. To do this, put a small amount of spermicide on your finger, then insert your finger into your vagina to reach the cap. Make sure the cap is still in place. Dont remove the cap. ...
The report titled Global Adult EEG Cap Market 2017 provides the intrinsic research study based on qualitative and the quantitative aspect of the Adult EEG Cap industry along with a complete description of top market players which will provide the thorough understanding of the market on a global scale.. The Global Adult EEG Cap Market 2017 delivers the current industry scenario of Adult EEG Cap market as well as the past and upcoming market trends which will fuel the development of the Adult EEG Cap market. The Adult EEG Cap report also depicts the technological advancements taking place in this industry based on market volume, sales revenue, driving forces behind the market development.. Do Inquiry Before Accessing Global Adult EEG Cap Market 2017 Report at: ...
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I am a Type 1 diabetic and I have been since 1994. Just a couple of years ago the cost for a 3-month supply of Novolog insulin, which I have to inject every time I eat, was $100. Now, a 1-month supply costs $458.77 and there is no discount for a 3-month supply, meaning I would have to pay almost $1,500 for a 3-month supply -- about $6,000 a year for just one type of insulin.. However, pricing elsewhere shows that this high cost is not necessary. Canadas price for insulin is $90, and Colorado recently passed an insulin price cap of $100 per month. Its time for Florida to join Colorado in passing a price cap on this life-saving drug.. Type 1 diabetes, which according to the CDC accounts for about 5 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes, is an autoimmune condition in which the body attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Because their bodies cannot make insulin, type 1 diabetics require insulin prescriptions ...
The decay of eukaryotic mRNA is triggered mainly by deadenylation, which leads to decapping and degradation from the 5 end of an mRNA. Poly(A)-binding protein has been proposed to inhibit the decapping process and to stabilize mRNA by blocking the recruitment of mRNA to the P-bodies where mRNA degradation takes place after stimulation of translation initiation. In contrast, several lines of evidence show that poly(A)-binding protein (Pab1p) has distinct functions in mRNA decay and translation in yeast. To address the translation-independent function of Pab1p in inhibition of decapping, we examined the contribution of Pab1p to the stability of non-translated ...
Health, ...CINCINNATI Shortening end caps on chromosomes in human cervical cance...Researchers would to like see their laboratory findings published in ... Children with pediatric brain cancers dont have very many options be...Before treating cells with ionizing radiation the researchers blocked...,Cancer,cells,DNA,repair,disrupted,to,increase,radiation,sensitivity,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Im finishing my time in the UK today and head back home tomorrow. The British Society for Rheumatology 2017 conference was interesting, on the news the key headlines were pay for National Health Service employees, nurses in particular.. Due to budget shortfalls, the NHS froze nurse pay between 2010 and 2012. Beginning in 2012, pay raises resumed but were capped at 1% per year. Because of these austerity measures, the Royal College of Nursing claims that real wages-i.e., the differences between nominal wage increases and increases to the cost of living-for nurses have actually fallen by 14%.. Economists would predict that when prices or wages fall below market rate, there will be shortages. Sure enough, that is the case in the UK. There is an estimated 50,000 person labor shortfall for NHS, equivalent to 6% of the current NHS workforce.. The Labor party is trying to address this situation. They are campaigning on lifting the the 1% cap on ...
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Justices were sharply divided, with the four-member majority finding that the caps on non-economic damages violated equal-protection rights.
Premiers Want Caps on Provincial Nominee Programs Lifted - Canada Immigration and Visa Information. Canadian Immigration Services and Free Online Evaluation.
Gov. Jay Inslee today directed the state Department of Ecology to step up enforcement of existing state pollution laws and develop a regulatory cap on carbon emissions. Inslee said Washingtonians have too much at stake to wait any longer for legislative action.
The Food and Drug Administration has finally decided to put a cap on daily sugar intake for Americans. The recommendation will be for a maximum of 10 percent of calories, meaning no more than 12.5 teaspoons of sugar per day.
APTA, in conjunction with the Therapy Cap Coalition, is launching a national grassroots campaign to "Stop the Therapy Cap" on Monday, December 3. The patient impact of the cap is the theme of Mondays campaign. Almost 50 associations, organizations and patient groups will be sending action alerts to their members. With about 30 days left until expiration of the therapy cap exceptions process, the goal is to create a significant surge in Congressional e-mails and phone calls urging members of Congress to stop the therapy cap from taking effect in 2013. APTA has provided association members form letters and e-mails in its Legislative Action Center. To access the materials, log in to the website, click "Take Action" under "Stop the Medicare Therapy Cap and Prevent SGR Payment Cuts," and follow the instructions. ...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. Disposable Heparin Cap Market research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Disposable Heparin Cap Industry.. The Report provides a basic overview of the Disposable Heparin Cap Market including definitions, classifications, applications and chain structure. The Disposable Heparin Cap Industry analysis is provided for the international market including development history, competitive landscape analysis, and major regional development status.. Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Disposable Heparin Cap Market @ http://www.360marketupdates.com/10453338. To begin with, the report elaborates Disposable Heparin ...
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Filed Jam 8, -; I Q J. G. LIVINGSTON: I :3,49 cLosURE CAP AND CONTAINER-AND-CAP ASSEMBLY 6 Sheefs-Sheet 1 J.G.LIVINIGSTONE 3,494,496" I Feb. 10-, 1910 I CLOSURE CAP AND CONTAINER-AND-CAP ASSEMBLY 6 Sh ets-Sheet 2 Filed Jan, 8." 19 68 I JAY G. LIVI IVEITOR IGSTOIB a! ATTORIBY A Fe51011970 v J. G. LIVINGSTONE CLOSURE CAP AND CONTAINE R-"AND"CAPv ASSEMBLY I 6 Sheets-Shet S Filed Jan. 8, 1968 I JAY G. LIVI BY g ATTORNEY J. G. LIVINGSTON: $494,496 Feb. 10, 197.0 CLOSURE CAP AND CONTAINER-AND-CAP ASSEMBLY I v 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Jan. 8, 1968 FIG.I7 II VEITOR JAY G. LIVIIGSTOIE BY Z ATTORIEY Feb. 10,1970 J. G. LIVINGSTON: 3,494,496 CLOSURE CAP AND CONTAINER-AND-CAP ASSEMBLY Y ...
An assembly such as an anchor screw, bone plate, offset hook, post, transverse connector or other spinal anchor for anchoring to bone and clamping a linkage such as a rod, wire cable or the like. The assembly has a top member with an open slot to receive the linkage, and a twist-lock closure cap to close the open end, capturing the linkage in the slot. One closure cap fits over and around the top member, with a set of segmented protrusions that extend through a corresponding set of protruding flange segments spaced about the circumference of the top member. The cap is configured to rotate and lock against the top member like a flange-locking bayonet mount when turned through a limited degree of rotation. Slots may be provided through the face of the closure cap allowing reduction tabs to project through the ...
In a hypodermic syringe having a sliding cap to prevent accidental pricking of the user, a needle hub assembly is provided with radial flaps having arcuate bands which extend in both circumferential directions from the ends of the radial flaps. The arcuate bands make a sliding engagement with the interior surface of the cap. An interference bead is positioned on the interior surface of the cap so that when the arcuate bands are positioned between the interference bead and the mouth of the cap and in engagement with the interference bead, the proximal end of the needle hub assembly will be spaced from the mouth of the cap within the cap.
Insert the FemCap no more than 24 hours before sexual intercourse. Before use, hold it up to the light and look closely for holes or weak spots. Put 1/4 teaspoon of spermicide cream or jelly in the dome of the Fem Cap, spread a thin layer on the brim, and put 1/2 teaspoon in the folded area between the brim and the dome. Insert the Fem Cap in the vagina with the long brim entering first and the dome-side down. Push towards the rectum and then up and onto the cervix. Do not remove the Fem Cap for at least 8 hours after intercourse. It can be worn for up to 48 hours. During this time, you can have sex again, just make sure the Fem Cap is still in place and and you can insert more spermicide into your vagina if you like. To remove, grip the removal strap and rotate Fem Cap. Push on the dome with your finger to ...
... Information for Physicians. The pharmacists at AnazaoHealth, Nuclear Medicine Division, strive to innovate existing prescriptions to improve your patients quality of life. Our I-131 Mini Caps formulation is 75% smaller than the traditional I-131 capsules, making them easier for your patient to swallow. Each Mini Cap can contain up to 200 mCi of I-131, allowing a single capsule to provide the same dose that would take up to four traditional capsules. With our one capsule therapy, your patient is ingesting less phosphate, greatly reducing the possibility of stomach irritation.. Your patient benefits from exact dosing as each Mini Cap is compounded to your exact specification and dose per prescription. Most prescriptions can be delivered nationally on an overnight basis.. ...
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Activated cap-dependent translation promotes cancer by stimulating translation of mRNAs encoding malignancy-promoting proteins. The nucleoside monophosphat
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HEINEKEN UK is a funder of Community Alcohol Partnerships (CAP). CAP is a key partner in the Local Alcohol Actions Areas (LAAAs). During the period April 2014 to March 2015, 9 new CAPs were established in the LAAAs - bringing to 12 the total number of CAPs in the LAAAs. The LAAA project gave fresh impetus to new CAP development. At the beginning of the project there were three existing CAPs in LAAAs - Hastings, Gravesham, Wigan (part of Greater Manchester) - and at the end of the project there were a total of 12 CAPs in LAAAs. CAP continues to work with the "Social Responsibility Alliance" to support roll-out of additional new CAPs and maintenance of existing CAPs in LAAAs ...
RECOMMENDED CONSUMPTION. Daily dose: 6 capsules daily. For optimum digestibility, best taken at mealtimes with a little water (non-carbonated).. IMPORTANT INFORMATION. The stated recommended daily dose may not be exceeded. Food supplements should not be used as a substitute for a varied and balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle. The product is designed for adults and should be stored out of the reach of young children.. RINGANA CAPS are not a medicinal product, and are not intended to replace consultations with your doctor. RINGANA CAPS are not intended to treat or cure diseases. If you are taking prescribed medication, suffer from health problems, or are breastfeeding or pregnant, consult your doctor before taking RINGANA CAPS.. The product is dry, and should not be stored above 25 °C. CAPS may not be passed on to others. Due to the ...
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Centrifuge Tubes - Round Bottom, Heavy Duty with Screw Cap, Kimax® Brand - 72-4708 72-4708-47 29 x 100 72-4708-53 29 x 123 ProductClasses, class-XJ These tubes are useful for the safe handling of sputum specimens. Digestion, shaking, neutralizing and centrifuging can be performed in one container. Useful, also, for either clinical or microbiological tests. Screw cap is fabricated of a resin which is specially formulated to resist the effects of temperature and steam. Caps have cemented-in white rubber liner. For replacement caps, see 14-8480, 14-8485. Cap size is 24-410. (Kimble 45212)
We read Dr Lim and Dr Woodheads update on the British Thoracic Society (BTS) 2009/2010 community acquired pneumonia (CAP) audit with interest and noted the high inpatient mortality rate of 18.3%.1 As a contributing site, we received a useful summary of our data in comparison with the national data and local mortality rates for severe CAP (CURB65 3-5) were 21.4% versus 42.6% nationally. This provoked an examination of local severe CAP admissions between December 2009 and May 2011 (n=169) that found 25% mortality with age, gender and comorbidity distributions similar to national audit data. We suspect variations in case definitions may be important in understanding differences between local and national data.. The Thorax report focuses on adherence to local antibiotic guidelines. Nationally, 55.5% of patients received antibiotics in line with local prescribing policies (64% in severe ...
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Indias decision to list coronary stents as "essential medicines" and put a cap on their pricing was urged as one of the talking points during a visit by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and US President Donald Trump yesterday, although theres no official word as to whether that came to pass.. Last month, 18 members of the US Congress signed onto a letter sent to Navtej Sarna, Indias ambassador to the United States, asking for his assistance in paving the way for the topic to be discussed during Modis visit.. As previously reported by TCTMD, a number of medical device companies in the United States have protested Indias decision to cap the price of all coronary stents sold in India at approximately 25% of their previous cost. Earlier this year, stent manufacturers Abbott, Medtronic, and Boston Scientific petitioned the Indian government to bump up the price cap, pleas that ...
BTW, capacitive dividers wouldnt pass a DC voltage, but problems like this assume that you turned on the power supply at some time, and that caused currents to flow to charge up the caps to their final DC values. Note that the same current I = dQ/dt flows through two series capacitors in a voltage divider, so the same change in charge would have to happen on each capacitor in the series string. Thats why you get different voltages across the two caps in a series voltage divider -- because the same charge is being stored on each of the caps, but the different capacitance values Cx result in different cap voltages Vx ...
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Double Es Cap King is made from heat treated alloy steel. Our most popular Cap King model weighs 54 pounds. It is available in thread sizes of 2-3/8 inch and 2-7/8 inch EU. Designed with an integrated hanger, the Cap King provides an economical option for suspending tubing while retaining well pressure.. Double E stocks the following six versions of its standard Cap King model:. ...
Discount Twinlab Copper Caps 2mg, 100 tabs at Arnold Supplements. Save 20-40% off Twinlab Copper caps along with all your Twinlab supplements. Read Twinlab Copper Caps reviews and detailed product information.
The National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority on Monday revised the price of drug eluting stents (DES) downwards by about Rs 2,300 to just under Rs 28,000, while marginally raising the cap on bare metal stents from Rs 7,400 to Rs 7,660. These caps are excluding GST. With DES accounting for about 95% of all stents used in India, this means most stents will become cheaper ...
Electronic Decapper Tool for 11, 13, and 20 mm crimp caps. Reduce strain from repetitive manual crimping. Crimp with the push of a button! 800 crimps per charge!
LSM 880 is a unique confocal that provides high resolution, sensitivity and speed and that enables to increase productivity when performing quantitative imaging, thanks to the Airyscan principle.

Nuclear Cap Binding Protein Subunit 1, 80kDa ELISA & Assay KitsNuclear Cap Binding Protein Subunit 1, 80kDa ELISA & Assay Kits

Compare and order Nuclear Cap Binding Protein Subunit 1, 80kDa ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, ... The encoded protein promotes high-affinity mRNA-cap binding and associates with the CTD of RNA polymerase II. The CBC promotes ... The product of this gene is a component of the nuclear cap-binding protein complex (CBC), which binds to the monomethylated 5 ... 80 kDa nuclear cap-binding protein , nuclear cap-binding protein subunit 1-B , nuclear cap binding protein subunit 1, 80kDa , ...
more infohttps://www.antibodies-online.com/ribonucleoprotein-complex-subunit-organization-pathway-73/ncbp1-elisa-kit-11751/

Expression and purification of recombinant poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN)Expression and purification of recombinant poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN)

... end located mRNA cap structure. A regulatory role in protein synthesis has been proposed for PARN based on its ability to bind ... We identified tryptophan 475, located within the RNA recognition motif (RRM) of PARN, as crucial for cap binding. A crystal ... Degradation of mRNA is a highly regulated step important for proper gene expression. Degradation of eukaryotic mRNA is ... Further we show that the cap binding complex (CBC) inhibits PARN activity through a protein-protein interaction. To investigate ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:171828

LSM1 Gene - GeneCards | LSM1 Protein | LSM1 AntibodyLSM1 Gene - GeneCards | LSM1 Protein | LSM1 Antibody

Protein Coding), LSM1 Homolog, MRNA Degradation Associated, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and ... Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include RNA cap binding. ... Entrez Gene Summary for LSM1 Gene. * This gene encodes a member of the LSm family of RNA-binding proteins. LSm proteins form ... No data available for DME Specific Peptides for LSM1 Gene Domains & Families for LSM1 Gene Gene Families for LSM1 Gene. HGNC:. ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=LSM1

NCBP2 Antibody
                
		        
	NCBP2 Antibody

RNA cap binding. RNA 7-methylguanosine cap binding. RNA binding. mRNA binding. protein binding. snRNA binding. poly(A) RNA ... Protein Aliases: 20 kDa nuclear cap-binding protein; CBC2; CBP20; Cell proliferation-inducing gene 55 protein; NCBP 20 kDa ... nuclear cap binding protein subunit 2, 20kD; nuclear cap binding protein subunit 2, 20kDa; Nuclear cap-binding protein subunit ... The encoded protein has an RNP domain commonly found in RNA binding proteins, and contains the cap-binding activity. The CBC ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/NCBP2-Antibody-Polyclonal/PA5-38625

RCSB PDB - 3BLA: Synthetic Gene Encoded DcpS bound to inhibitor DG153249RCSB PDB - 3BLA: Synthetic Gene Encoded DcpS bound to inhibitor DG153249

Synthetic Gene Encoded DcpS bound to inhibitor DG153249 ... GpppN mRNA cap structure and a modulator of RNA metabolism. ... DcpS is a nuclear shuttling protein that binds and hydrolyzes the m(7) ... The severity of SMA is modified by variable copy number of a second gene,SMN2, which produces an mRNA that is incorrectly ... The severity of SMA is modified by variable copy number of a second gene,SMN2, which produces an mRNA t ... ...
more infohttps://www.rcsb.org/structure/3BLA

EIF3D Gene - GeneCards | EIF3D Protein | EIF3D AntibodyEIF3D Gene - GeneCards | EIF3D Protein | EIF3D Antibody

... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Protein Coding), Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 3 Subunit D, including: function, ... The RNA gate region regulates mRNA cap recognition to prevent promiscuous mRNA-binding before assembly of EIF3D into the full ... Activation of the mRNA upon binding of the cap-binding complex and eIFs, and subsequent binding to 43S. Activation of the mRNA ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=EIF3D

OriGene - NCBP2 (NM 007362) cDNA CloneOriGene - NCBP2 (NM 007362) cDNA Clone

Human nuclear cap binding protein subunit 2, 20kDa (NCBP2), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your ... cap of nascent pre-mRNA in the nucleoplasm. The encoded protein has an RNP domain commonly found in RNA binding proteins, and ... Gene Summary: The product of this gene is a component of the nuclear cap-binding protein complex (CBC), which binds to the ... Mouse nuclear cap binding protein subunit 2 (Ncbp2). $390. Next day. MG219175. Ncbp2 (GFP-tagged) - Mouse nuclear cap binding ...
more infohttp://www.origene.com/human_cdna/NM_007362/SC115562.aspx

NCBP2 - Nuclear cap-binding protein subunit 2 - Homo sapiens (Human) - NCBP2 gene & proteinNCBP2 - Nuclear cap-binding protein subunit 2 - Homo sapiens (Human) - NCBP2 gene & protein

The conventional cap-binding complex with NCBP2 binds both small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and messenger (mRNA) and is involved in ... NMD only taking place in mRNAs bound to the CBC complex, but not on eIF4E-bound mRNAs. The CBC complex enhances NMD in mRNAs ... which binds co-transcriptionally to the 5 cap of pre-mRNAs and is involved in various processes such as pre-mRNA splicing, ... RNA-mediated gene silencing (RNAi) by microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNA export. The CBC complex is involved in mRNA export from the ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/C9JQX9

Novel Cytoplasmic Cap Binding Proteins in Yeast | Springer for Research & DevelopmentNovel Cytoplasmic Cap Binding Proteins in Yeast | Springer for Research & Development

... is a ubiquitous feature of eukaryotic mRNAs that plays an important role in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. In the cytoplasm the ... terminal cap structure, m7GpppX (where X is any nucleotide), ... mRNA cap-binding protein:cloning of the gene encoding protein ... Sonenberg N (1988). Cap-binding proteins of eukaryotic messenger RNA: Functions in initiation of translation. Prog Nucl Acid ... Pelletier J, Sonenberg N (1985). Photochemical cross-linking of capbinding proteins to eukaryotic mRNAs: Effect of mRNA 5′ ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-84921-3_38

RBMY1F - RNA-binding motif protein, Y chromosome, family 1 member F/J - Homo sapiens (Human) - RBMY1F gene & proteinRBMY1F - RNA-binding motif protein, Y chromosome, family 1 member F/J - Homo sapiens (Human) - RBMY1F gene & protein

Required for sperm development, possibly by participating in pre-mRNA splicing in the testis. ... RNA-binding protein which may be involved in spermatogenesis. ... "caps">NCBI,/span> to the source organism of the protein. This ... "A Y chromosome gene family with RNA-binding protein homology: candidates for the azoospermia factor AZF controlling human ... "A Y chromosome gene family with RNA-binding protein homology: candidates for the azoospermia factor AZF controlling human ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q15415

Karla M Neugebauer, PhD > Biological & Biomedical Sciences | Yale...Karla M Neugebauer, PhD > Biological & Biomedical Sciences | Yale...

Specialized Terms: pre-mRNA splicing, transcription, gene architecture, SR proteins, cap-binding complex, RNA-protein ... The RNA-binding landscapes of two SR proteins reveal unique functions and binding to diverse RNA classes. Änkö, M-L., M. Müller ... The RNA-binding landscapes of two SR proteins reveal unique functions and binding to diverse RNA classes. Genome Biology 13: ... Müller-McNicoll M, Neugebauer KM: Good cap/bad cap: how the cap-binding complex determines RNA fate. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2014 ...
more infohttp://medicine.yale.edu/bbs/people/karla_neugebauer-2.profile

Chemical Approaches for Structure and Function of RNA in Postgenomic EraChemical Approaches for Structure and Function of RNA in Postgenomic Era

... and functional aspects of DNA and RNA research. ... G caps and Sm protein binding sites. These pre-mRNAs, ... BMP/OP-responsive-gene-associated RNACTN RNA: Cationic amino acid transporter protein coding region RNAANRIL RNA: Antisense ... G cap), IFE-3 (m7G cap binding only), IFE-4 (m7G cap binding only), and IFE-5 (m7G cap and m. 3. 2. ,. 2. ,. 7. G cap binding ... G cap binding [85]. These may provide translational regulation of m7G cap mRNA and transspliced m. 3. 2. ,. 2. ,. 7. G cap mRNA ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jna/2012/369058/

mRNA cap guanine-N7 methyltransferase isoform 2 [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBImRNA cap guanine-N7 methyltransferase isoform 2 [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI

... and thereby restrict the cap structure to RNAs made by RNA polymerase II, the capping enzymes bind directly to the RNA ... RefSeq protein isoforms See 9 reference sequence protein isoforms for the RNMT gene. ... The cap is thought to influence splicing of the first intron, and is bound by cap-binding proteins, CBP80 an ... [bsid1269687 ... mRNA Capping mRNA CappingThe 5-ends of all eukaryotic pre-mRNAs studied thus far are converted to cap structures. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/4506567?report=genpept

Polyadenylation - WikipediaPolyadenylation - Wikipedia

These mRNAs then have longer half-lives and produce more of these proteins. RNA-binding proteins other than those in the ... "Arabidopsis mRNA polyadenylation machinery: comprehensive analysis of protein-protein interactions and gene expression ... PARN deadenylates less if the RNA is bound by the initiation factors 4E (at the 5 cap) and 4G (at the poly(A) tail), which is ... Cytoplasmic polyadenylation requires the RNA-binding proteins CPSF and CPEB, and can involve other RNA-binding proteins like ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyadenylation

Nuclear Cap Binding Protein Subunit 1, 80kDa (NCBP1) AntibodiesNuclear Cap Binding Protein Subunit 1, 80kDa (NCBP1) Antibodies

The encoded protein promotes high-affinity mRNA-cap binding and associates with the CTD of RNA polymerase II. The CBC promotes ... Protein Summary The product of this gene is a component of the nuclear cap-binding protein complex (CBC), which binds to the ... 80 kDa nuclear cap-binding protein , nuclear cap-binding protein subunit 1-B , nuclear cap binding protein subunit 1, 80kDa , ... anti-Nuclear Cap Binding Protein Subunit 1, 80kDa Antibodies 79 Nuclear Cap Binding Protein Subunit 1, 80kDa (NCBP1) Antibodies ...
more infohttps://www.antibodies-online.com/ribonucleoprotein-complex-subunit-organization-pathway-73/ncbp1-antibody-4313/

Anti-CNBP, ID (CNBP, RNF163, ZNF9, Cellular nucleic acid-binding protein, Zinc finger protein 9) (AP | United States Biological...Anti-CNBP, ID (CNBP, RNF163, ZNF9, Cellular nucleic acid-binding protein, Zinc finger protein 9) (AP | United States Biological...

The protein has a preference for binding single stranded DNA and RNA… ... This gene encodes a nucleic-acid binding protein with seven zinc-finger domains. ... The protein functions in cap-independent translation of ornithine decarboxylase mRNA, and may also function in sterol-mediated ... This gene encodes a nucleic-acid binding protein with seven zinc-finger domains. The protein has a preference for binding ...
more infohttps://www.biomol.com/products/antibodies/primary-antibodies/general/anti-cnbp-id-cnbp-rnf163-znf9-cellular-nucleic-acid-binding-protein-zinc-finger-protein-9-ap-034033-ap.200

RNA processing facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about RNA processingRNA processing facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about RNA processing

Make research projects and school reports about RNA processing easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia ... and pictures about RNA processing at Encyclopedia.com. ... see also Gene; Nuclear Transport; Protein Synthesis; RNA; ... end of the mRNA is protected. The 5′ CAP also aids in transport out of the nucleus and helps bind the mRNA to the ribosome . ... gene splicing). The primary transcript, or pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA), associates with other small RNA molecules and proteins ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/biology-and-genetics/genetics-and-genetic-engineering/rna-processing

Quiz408 - General Genetics Page 1 of 3 General Genetics 3100:211 Fall 2008 Quiz 4 ID Form A 1 What is the significance of the 5...Quiz408 - General Genetics Page 1 of 3 General Genetics 3100:211 Fall 2008 Quiz 4 ID Form A 1 What is the significance of the 5...

In a ribosome what is the order of progression of binding sites for a tRNA used to add an amino acid to the growing protein? A- ... P-E 8. What three processes are involved in RNA processing in a eukaryotic cell? 5 cap, 3 poly A tail, intron removal 9. What ... What product would a DNA-RNA hybridization look like for a gene with three exons and two introns? 5. What is a Shine-Delgarno ... sequence? Sequence in mRNA the designates a AUG codon as the start codon, aligns mRNA on the ribosome 6. What amino acid is ...
more infohttps://www.coursehero.com/file/6753409/Quiz408/

Difference between revisions of Orthomyxoviridae - microbewikiDifference between revisions of "Orthomyxoviridae" - microbewiki

A transmembrane protein derived from the matrix gene (M2) forms an ion channel for protons to enter the virion and destabilize ... The virus scavenges cap sequences from the nascent mRNA generated in the nucleus by transcription of the host DNA and attaches ... The sequence has conserved regions in all RNA species or some RNA segments. The multipartite genome is encapsidated with each ... protein binding, allowing the nucleocapsid to be transported to the nucleus, where the genome is transcribed by vital enzymes ...
more infohttps://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php?title=Orthomyxoviridae&diff=prev&oldid=5269

Frontiers | Targeting Non-coding RNA in Vascular Biology and Disease | PhysiologyFrontiers | Targeting Non-coding RNA in Vascular Biology and Disease | Physiology

... owing in some part to truly significant advances in genomic technology such as RNA sequencing and genome-wide profiling studies ... owing in some part to truly significant advances in genomic technology such as RNA sequencing and genome-wide profiling studies ... are known to regulate protein-coding gene expression principally through mRNA degradation, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can ... 2016). Unusual processing generates SPA LncRNAs that sequester multiple RNA binding proteins. Mol. Cell 64, 534-548. doi: ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2018.01655/full

Circular RNAs: Biogenesis, Function, and a Role as Possible Cancer BiomarkersCircular RNAs: Biogenesis, Function, and a Role as Possible Cancer Biomarkers

... by binding RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). (c) Some circRNAs may regulate protein expression by sequestering mRNA translation ... caps and 3. polyadenylated tails. They are generated by alternative splicing of pre-mRNA transcripts, where an upstream splice ... Z. Yao, J. Luo, K. Hu et al., "ZKSCAN1 gene and its related circular RNA (circZKSCAN1) both inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma ... d) CircRNA biogenesis, mediated by trans-acting factors, such as RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) (e.g., QKI, MBL/MBNL1) that bind ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2017/6218353/

WikiGenes - GOSR1 - golgi SNAP receptor complex member 1WikiGenes - GOSR1 - golgi SNAP receptor complex member 1

Identification of two messenger RNA cap binding proteins in wheat germ. Evidence that the 28-kDa subunit of eIF-4B and the 26- ... Vitamin-D dependent 9 kDa calcium-binding protein gene: cDNA cloning, mRNA distribution and regulation. Thomasset, M., Desplan ... Tumor necrosis factor induces phosphorylation of a 28-kDa mRNA cap-binding protein in human cervical carcinoma cells. Marino, M ... Tumor necrosis factor induces phosphorylation of a 28-kDa mRNA cap-binding protein in human cervical carcinoma cells [20]. ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/gene/e/9527.html

Jon  Lorsch, Ph.D. | Principal Investigators | NIH Intramural Research ProgramJon Lorsch, Ph.D. | Principal Investigators | NIH Intramural Research Program

7-methylguanosine cap-binding protein eIF4E; the scaffolding protein eIF4G; and the 40S subunit- and RNA-binding protein eIF4B ... Both eIF4A and eIF4E bind to eIF4G and form the eIF4F complex. Once loaded onto the mRNA, the 43S PIC is thought to scan the ... Eukaryotic translation initiation is a key control point in the regulation of gene expression. It begins when an initiator ... Met-tRNAi binds to the 40S subunit as a ternary complex (TC) with the GTP-bound form of the initiation factor eIF2. Three other ...
more infohttps://irp.nih.gov/pi/jon-lorsch

p53 target genes sestrin1 and sestrin2 connect genotoxic stress and mTOR signaling.  - PubMed - NCBIp53 target genes sestrin1 and sestrin2 connect genotoxic stress and mTOR signaling. - PubMed - NCBI

... and Sesn1 mRNA expression by Northern blotting (NB). 18S RNA was used to control for RNA loading. (B) Cells (30,000) from (A) ... Sesn2 was induced as in B and cell lysates were incubated with m7G-Sepharose beads for 6 hrs and bead-bound proteins were ... D) Sesn2 increases association of 4E-BP1 and eIF-4E with m7G-RNA Cap structures. ... Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18692468?dopt=Abstract

Anti-EIF4A2 | NSJ Bioreagents | Biomol.comAnti-EIF4A2 | NSJ Bioreagents | Biomol.com

Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF4A2 gene. … ... ATP-dependent RNA helicase which is a subunit of the eIF4F complex involved in cap recognition and is required for mRNA binding ... Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF4A2 gene. It is mapped to 18p11.2. ... Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A plays an important role in the binding of mRNA to the 43S preinitiation complex when protein ...
more infohttps://www.biomol.com/products/antibodies/primary-antibodies/general/anti-eif4a2-nsj-r32226?fs=4109959451
  • Note that the complete sequence of our molecular clones may differ from the sequence published for this corresponding reference, e.g., by representing an alternative RNA splicing form or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). (origene.com)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • In the study of cellular RNA chemistry, a major thrust of research focused upon sequence determinations for decades. (hindawi.com)
  • This characterization requires accurate determination of the RNA sequence. (hindawi.com)
  • It was also envisioned that processing mechanisms could be discerned by comparing the genomic structure with the RNA sequence determined using cDNA methods. (hindawi.com)
  • View conserved domains detected in this protein sequence using CD-search. (nih.gov)
  • See reference mRNA sequence for the RNMT gene (NM_003799.2). (nih.gov)
  • See 9 reference sequence protein isoforms for the RNMT gene. (nih.gov)
  • These are the only mRNAs in eukaryotes that lack a poly(A) tail, ending instead in a stem-loop structure followed by a purine-rich sequence, termed histone downstream element, that directs where the RNA is cut so that the 3' end of the histone mRNA is formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This site often has the polyadenylation signal sequence AAUAAA on the RNA, but variants of it that bind more weakly to CPSF exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • CFI recognises a third site on the RNA (a set of UGUAA sequences in mammals) and can recruit CPSF even if the AAUAAA sequence is missing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polyadenylation signal - the sequence motif recognised by the RNA cleavage complex - varies between groups of eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • An entire section of RNA sequence can be removed by cleavage in the middle of an RNA strand. (encyclopedia.com)
  • RNA splicing is similar to trimming in that it removes extra RNA sequences, but it is different because the sequence is removed from the middle of an RNA and the two flanking pieces are joined together again (see figure). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some internal modifications of mRNAs change the sequence of the message and so change the amino acid sequence of the protein coded for by the mRNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A strand of DNA has the sequence 5'-AGGCAGGCTA-3', what is the sequence of a complementary RNA strand? (coursehero.com)
  • The sequence has conserved regions in all RNA species or some RNA segments. (kenyon.edu)
  • Prp5 has been shown to assist in a conformational rearrangement of U2 snRNA, which makes the branch point recognition sequence of U2 available to bind the branch point sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a chimeric protein that was generated by replacing the N terminus of 4E-BP3 with the N-terminal sequence of 4E-BP1 (containing this RAIP motif) underwent a higher degree of phosphorylation and was released from eIF4E. (asm.org)
  • 4E-BP1 undergoes phosphorylation at five well-characterized S/T-P sites (Thr36, -45, and -69 and Ser64 and -82 [numbering according to the rat sequence]) in response to agents that activate mRNA translation, e.g., insulin (reviewed in references 11 , 21 ). (asm.org)
  • interaction with SLBP occurs when histone mRNA is being rapidly degraded during the S phase (PubMed:18172165). (genecards.org)
  • Mammalian genomes produce a large repertoire of RNAs, which experience very different fates. (phys.org)
  • Control of mRNA translation plays a pivotal role in regulating gene expression under a wide variety of conditions in mammalian cells (reviewed in reference 27 ). (asm.org)
  • The eIF-3 complex specifically targets and initiates translation of a subset of mRNAs involved in cell proliferation, including cell cycling, differentiation and apoptosis, and uses different modes of RNA stem-loop binding to exert either translational activation or repression (PubMed:25849773). (genecards.org)
  • Flaviviruses do not shut down the translation of host mRNA during infection, so work to understand the mechanisms that flaviviruses manipulate to compete with host mRNA for access to the translational apparatus will provide important insight into the function of the viral RNA. (mdpi.com)
  • eIF4F-mRNA interactions stabilised by stress are predominantly associated with translational repression, while more actively initiating mRNAs become relatively depleted for eIF4F. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dynamic eIF4F-mRNA interaction changes are part of a coordinated early translational control response shared across environmental stresses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In eukaryotes, polyadenylation is part of the process that produces mature messenger RNA (mRNA) for translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA molecules in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have polyadenylated 3'-ends, with the prokaryotic poly(A) tails generally shorter and less mRNA molecules polyadenylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the case of mRNAs, both eukaryotes and prokaryotes process their rRNAs and tRNAs in broadly similar ways. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the last decade, RNA-seq and other next-generation sequencing techniques have enabled a significant breakthrough in circRNA discovery, leading to the identification and characterization of a large number of circRNAs in humans and other eukaryotes [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Only recently have we begun to appreciate the importance and complexity of the non-coding genome, owing in some part to truly significant advances in genomic technology such as RNA sequencing and genome-wide profiling studies. (frontiersin.org)
  • The viral nonstructural protein 3 contains methyltransferase [ 1 ] and 5′ RNA triphosphatase activity [ 2 , 3 ] to generate a 5′ capped genomic viral RNA. (mdpi.com)
  • For further information, see RNA and Messenger RNA RNAs are a type of large biological molecules, whose individual building blocks are called nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name poly(A) tail (for polyadenylic acid tail) reflects the way RNA nucleotides are abbreviated, with a letter for the base the nucleotide contains (A for adenine, C for cytosine, G for guanine and U for uracil). (wikipedia.org)
  • The cleavage is catalysed by the enzyme CPSF and occurs 10-30 nucleotides downstream of its binding site. (wikipedia.org)
  • and modifying RNA nucleotides either at the ends of an RNA or within the body of the RNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The removal of individual nucleotides from the ends of the RNA strand is carried out by any of several ribonucleases (enzymes that cut RNA), called exoribonucleases. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We are interested in links between in transcription and splicing, as well as the role of cellular subcompartments in RNA biogenesis. (yale.edu)
  • Human cap methyltransferase (RNMT) N-terminal non-catalytic domain mediates recruitment to transcription initiation sites. (nih.gov)
  • The process of polyadenylation begins as the transcription of a gene terminates. (wikipedia.org)
  • In nuclear polyadenylation, a poly(A) tail is added to an RNA at the end of transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many eukaryotic non-coding RNAs are always polyadenylated at the end of transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, RNA processing refers to any modification made to RNA between its transcription and its final function in the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • By contrast, in eukaryotic cells many processing steps occur between mRNA transcription and translation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some functions of the P-TEFb/Ser2P CTD are executed by the Spt6 transcription elongation factor, which binds directly to the phosphorylated CTD and recruits the Iws1 ('interacts with Spt6') protein. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Required for proper processing of primary miRNAs to miRNAs, thereby playing a role in RNA-mediated gene silencing (RNAi) by miRNAs. (mybiosource.com)
  • 4E-BPs therefore compete with eIF4G for binding to eIF4E and act as inhibitors of eIF4F complex formation. (asm.org)
  • Increased expression of this gene may play a role in cellular transformation and the progression of several malignancies including lung cancer, mesothelioma and breast cancer. (genecards.org)
  • Cellular differentiation state modulates the mRNA export activity of SR proteins. (yale.edu)
  • Cellular RNAs are posttranscriptionally modified at various points in the primary RNA transcript as well as processed. (hindawi.com)
  • In cellular RNA metabolisms, RNA maturation is performed through various structural alterations that include chemical modifications of constituent components. (hindawi.com)
  • We will briefly examine each of these and then discuss how they are applied to the various types of cellular RNAs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The eIF-3 complex stimulates mRNA recruitment to the 43S PIC and scanning of the mRNA for AUG recognition. (genecards.org)
  • Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 9. (genecards.org)
  • This database is built by NCBI, and, provides only a single record for each gene/transcript. (origene.com)
  • Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (origene.com)
  • Therefore, polyadenylation can produce more than one transcript from a single gene (alternative polyadenylation), similar to alternative splicing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Just as with the cleavage enzymes, the splicing machinery recognizes particular sites within the RNA, in this case the junctions between exons and introns, and cleaves and rejoins the RNA at those positions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As with the other types of RNA processing, the enzymes that modify RNAs are directed to specific sites on the RNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Many organisms, including humans, contain DEAD-box helicases, which are involved in RNA metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought that each family has a specific role in RNA metabolism, for example both DEAD box and DEAH box proteins NTPase activities become stimulated by RNA, but DEAD box proteins use ATP and DEAH does not. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once loaded onto the mRNA, the 43S PIC is thought to scan the mRNA in search of an AUG start codon. (nih.gov)
  • We described previously the discovery of potent C5-substituted quinazolines that increase SMN2 gene expression by 2-fold. (rcsb.org)
  • It, therefore, forms part of the larger process of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • E) Sesn2 induction inhibits cyclin D1 and c-Myc protein expression, but does not affect their mRNAs. (nih.gov)
  • Acts as a regulator of meristem activity and adaxial leaf fate via the miRNA gene-silencing pathway by regulating the expression of PHB and by limiting the competence of shoot tissue to respond to KNOX expression. (mybiosource.com)
  • Like the untranslated regions, many of these non-coding RNAs have regulatory roles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RNA Exosome Adaptor ZFC3H1 Functionally Competes with Nuclear Export Activity to Retain Target Transcripts, Cell Reports (2018). (phys.org)
  • In addition, circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been recently identified as a relatively large class of ncRNAs, which are widespread and abundant in a variety of eukaryotic organisms and involved in multiple biological processes [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A CCTG expansion in the first intron of this gene results in myotonic dystrophy type 2. (biomol.com)
  • The part of the RNA that is removed is called an intron, whereas the two pieces that are joined together, or spliced, are called exons. (encyclopedia.com)
  • SR proteins are NXF1 adaptors that link alternative RNA processing to mRNA export. (yale.edu)
  • This hinted that so-called exosome adaptors, which are required for RNA exosome loading onto its substrates, might dually serve as RNA nuclear retention factors and counteract export activity. (phys.org)