Sex Determination Analysis: Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sex Determination by Skeleton: Validation of the sex of an individual by means of the bones of the SKELETON. It is most commonly based on the appearance of the PELVIS; SKULL; STERNUM; and/or long bones.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Disorders of Sex Development: In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sex-Determining Region Y Protein: A transcription factor that plays an essential role in the development of the TESTES. It is encoded by a gene on the Y chromosome and contains a specific HMG-BOX DOMAIN that is found within members of the SOX family of transcription factors.Genes, sry: The primary testis-determining gene in mammalians, located on the Y CHROMOSOME. It codes for a high mobility group box transcription factor (TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS) which initiates the development of the TESTES from the embryonic GONADS.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.TurtlesGerm Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Caenorhabditis: A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Hymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Dosage Compensation, Genetic: Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Alligators and Crocodiles: Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Forensic Anthropology: Scientific study of human skeletal remains with the express purpose of identification. This includes establishing individual identity, trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Forensic anthropologists do not certify cause of death but provide data to assist in determination of probable cause. This is a branch of the field of physical anthropology and qualified individuals are certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Jun;13(2):146)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Sex Preselection: Methods for controlling genetic SEX of offspring.Biosynthetic Pathways: Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.High Mobility Group Proteins: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.Wnt4 Protein: A Wnt protein that is involved in regulating multiple developmental processes such as the formation of the KIDNEY; ADRENAL GLANDS; MAMMARY GLANDS; the PITUITARY GLAND; and the female reproductive system. Defects in WNT4 are a cause of ROKITANSKY KUSTER HAUSER SYNDROME.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Sexual Development: The processes of anatomical and physiological changes related to sexual or reproductive functions during the life span of a human or an animal, from FERTILIZATION to DEATH. These include SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES; SEX DIFFERENTIATION; SEXUAL MATURATION; and changes during AGING.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Hermaphroditic Organisms: Animals and plants which have, as their normal mode of reproduction, both male and female sex organs in the same individual.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Tilapia: A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Sex: The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.

*Regulation of gene expression

Sex determination in the soma of a Drosophila requires the sensing of the ratio of autosomal genes to sex chromosome-encoded ... when densely clustered). Analysis of the pattern of methylation in a given region of DNA (which can be a promoter) can be ... Often, one gene regulator controls another, and so on, in a gene regulatory network. Gene regulation is essential for viruses, ... Examples include: The colinearity of the Hox gene cluster with their nested antero-posterior patterning It has been speculated ...

*Non-coding RNA

In drosophilids, which also use an XY sex-determination system, the roX (RNA on the X) RNAs are involved in dosage compensation ... The chromosomal locus containing the small nucleolar RNA SNORD115 gene cluster has been duplicated in approximately 5% of ... used 140kg of commercial baker's yeast to give just 1g of purified tRNAAla for analysis. The 80 nucleotide tRNA was sequenced ... Variation within the seed region of mature miR-96 has been associated with autosomal dominant, progressive hearing loss in ...

*Human genetics

Autosomal traits are associated with a single gene on an autosome (non-sex chromosome)-they are called "dominant" because a ... The XY sex-determination system is the sex-determination system found in humans, most other mammals, some insects (Drosophila ... Four different traits can be identified by pedigree chart analysis: autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, x-linked, or y- ... Genetic Chromosomal Human evolutionary genetics Human genome Human genetic clustering List of Mendelian traits in humans ...

*Polymorphism (biology)

In birds sex determination is ZZ/ZW, and unlike mammals, the heterogametic sex is the female. The determining gene (or super- ... They form a Mullerian 'ring' of similarly coloured models; the wasps are often accompanied by clusters of hover-fly mimics, who ... 2002). "Evidence for balancing selection from nucleotide sequence analyses of human G6PD". Am J Hum Genet. 71 (5): 1112-28. doi ... ZAL2m suppresses recombination in the heterokaryotype and is evolving as a rare nonrecombining autosomal segment of the genome ...

*European corn borer

In species of Lepidoptea, sex is determined through the ZW sex-determination system where males are homozygous ZZ and females ... "Sex pheromone production and perception in European corn borer moths is determined by both autosomal and sex-linked genes". ... Finally, response to the pheromone is controlled by two factors, a sex-linked gene on the Z chromosome and another on an ... Female corn borer moths lay clusters of eggs on corn leaves, usually on the undersides. The egg masses, or clusters, are laid ...

*Drosophila melanogaster

These are sex-lethal, sisterless, and deadpan. Deadpan is an autosomal gene which inhibits sex-lethal, while sisterless is ... Determination of sex in Drosophila occurs by the X:A ratio of X chromosomes to autosomes, not because of the presence of a Y ... Analysis of the cDNA has shown that different forms are expressed in males and females. Sex-lethal has been shown to affect the ... males have a cluster of spiky hairs (claspers) surrounding the reproducing parts used to attach to the female during mating. ...

*Koreans

2005). "Genetic features of Mongolian ethnic groups revealed by Y-chromosomal analysis". Gene. 346: 63-70. doi:10.1016/j.gene. ... 2005). Use of autosomal loci for clustering individuals and populations of East Asian origin. In Human Genetics, 117(6). Pages ... 1993). "Comfort Women" from Korea: Japan's World War II Sex Slaves and the Legitimacy of their Claims for Reparations. In ... "Y-SNP miniplexes for East Asian Y-chromosomal haplogroup determination in degraded DNA". Forensic Science International: ...

*Quantitative genetics

... coefficients of determination) of various components to the overall result. Path analysis includes partial correlations as well ... The appropriate parental gene-effects are therefore the second-stage redefined gene effects used to define the genotypic ... Cluster analysis for applications. New York: Academic Press. Mendel, Gregor (1866). "Versuche über Pflanzen Hybriden". ... These same rules apply also to any other viewpoint of descent in a two-sex reproductive system. One such is the proportion of ...

*Duffy antigen system

"Evolutionary insights into duffy gene in mammalian taxa with comparative genetic analysis". J Vector Borne Dis. 46 (3): 230-6. ... A study of 142 black South African high-risk female sex workers over 2 years revealed a seroconversion rate of 19.0%. Risk of ... Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor (DARC), also known as Fy glycoprotein (FY) or CD234 (Cluster of Differentiation 234), is a ... "Determination of Duffy genotypes in three populations of African descent using PCR and sequence-specific oligonucleotides". Hum ...

*Genome-wide complex trait analysis

... length can reveal whether the responsible genetic variants cluster or are distributed evenly across the genome or are sex- ... and Gene-Based Analyses of Cannabis Use Initiation and Age at Onset", Minca et al 2015 Demontis et al 2017, "Genome-wide ... Shared Determination of Axial Eye Length and Corneal Curvature", Guggenheim et al 2013 "First genome-wide association study on ... autosomal SNPs, 0.473(0.013), X chromosome, 0.046(0.03), 0.519 total, 0.94 melanin index: 0.191(0.263) facial features: Nares ...
SI}} {{CMG}} A sex-determination system is a [[biology,biological]] system that determines the development of [[sex,sexual characteristics]] in an [[organism]]. Most sexual organisms have two [[sex]]es. In many cases, sex determination is genetic: [[male]]s and [[female]]s have different [[allele]]s or even different [[gene]]s that specify their sexual [[Comparative anatomy,morphology]]. In [[animal]]s, this is often accompanied by [[chromosome,chromosomal]] differences. In other cases, sex is determined by [[ecosystem,environmental]] variables (such as [[temperature]]) or social variables (the size of an [[organism]] relative to other members of its [[population]]). The details of some sex-determination systems are not yet fully understood. ==Chromosomal ...
Author Summary The sex determination system extremely diverse among organisms including insects in which even each order occupy a different manner of sex determination. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a lepidopteran model insect with economic importance. The mechanism of the silkworm sex determination has been in mystery for a long time until a Fem piRNA was identified as the primary female sex determinator recently. However, genetic and phenotypic proofs are urgently needed to fully exploit the mechanism, especially of the male sex determination. In the current study, we provided comprehensively genetic evidences by generating CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout mutations for those genes BmSxl, Bmtra2, BmImp, BmImpM, BmPSI and BmMasc, which were considered to be involved in insect ...
SEX ratio is a central demographic parameter directly related to the reproductive potential of individuals and populations (Penman and Piferrer 2008). The phenotypic sex depends on the processes of both sex determination and sex differentiation. Exogenous factors, such as temperature, hormones, or social behavior, can modify the gonad development pathway in fish (Baroiller and DCotta 2001; Piferrer and Guiguen 2008). Both genetic (GSD) and environmental sex determination has been reported in this group (Devlin and Nagahama 2002; Penman and Piferrer 2008), although primary sex determination is genetic in most species (Valenzuela et al. 2003). Among GSD, single, multiple, or polygenic sex-determining (SD) gene systems have been documented (Kallman 1984; Matsuda et al. 2002; Lee et al. 2004; ...
This is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, of a molecular difference in a sex-determining gene between reptiles with GSD or TSD. Several lines of evidence support the idea that this amino acid shift accompanies turnover of sex-determining mechanisms. Dmrt1 is known to direct sexual development in chicken [12], a species found within Reptilia, a clade known for frequent and reversible changes in sex-determining mechanism [1]. Dmrt1 is expressed more in gonadal tissues of males than of females, even in a turtle that has TSD [26]. In other species, including mice and rats, Dmrt1 contributes to male sexual development but does not act first among sex-differentiating genes [27]. Capture or influence by one gene on sexual development could occur at any point in the gene cascade [28]. Therefore, we are not surprised to ...
ONeill, D., Turner, P. D., OMeara, D. B., Chadwick, E. A., Coffey, L. and OReilly, C. (2013), Development of novel real-time TaqMan® PCR assays for the species and sex identification of otter (Lutra lutra) and their application to noninvasive genetic monitoring. Molecular Ecology Resources, 13: 877-883. doi: 10.1111/1755-0998.12141 ...
The autosomal sex-determining gene tra-1 plays a major role in controlling sexual phenotype in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This gene is the terminal global regulator in a well-characterized cascade of sex-determining genes. It governs all aspects of somatic sexual differentiation, and it also has important functions in governing germ-line differentiation. Previous genetic analyses have led to the characterization of many loss-of-function (masculinizing) and gain-of-function (dominant feminizing) alleles, and to models for the functions and regulation of tra-1. The gene was cloned by identifying linked transposon insertions, about 200 kb away from tra-1. From this starting point a series of YAC, cosmid and phage clones were assembled into a genomic walk covering over 400 kb. Much of this region was found to be unrepresented in the ...
B chromosomes have a functional effect on sex determination in a species of cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria [...] The researchers found sex-ratio distortions caused by B chromosomes in the breeding line of the cichlids, as well as several protein-coding genes in the B chromosomes. The resultant ratio was female biased, suggesting a role for B chromosomes in female sex determination. [...] In the present study, the researchers performed an extensive analysis of B chromosomes in cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria to investigate their effect on cichlid evolution. Karyotype analysis of Lake Victoria cichlids suggested that, in one species, Lithochromis rubripinnis, there are female-specific B chromosomes. Crossbreeding experiments suggested that an effector of female sex determination in this species was the B ...
CONSIDERING the fundamental importance of sex for species propagation, it is surprising that primary sex-determining mechanisms are not strongly conserved among animal taxa (Bull 1983; Charlesworth 1996; Ming et al. 2011; Bachtrog et al. 2014). Closely related species or even populations of the same species can have different sex-determining mechanisms (Takehana et al. 2007; Ross et al. 2009; Kobayashi et al. 2013; Heule et al. 2014; Larney et al. 2014). Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a popular model for studies of vertebrate development, behavior, physiology, evolution, disease, and human health (Mills et al. 2007; Seth et al. 2013; Braasch et al. 2014; Ota and Kawahara 2014; Wilkinson et al. 2014), but researchers struggle with highly variable and distorted sex ratios, and investigations into the genetic nature of zebrafish sex determination are conflicting. To help understand these issues, we ...
Define primary sex character. primary sex character synonyms, primary sex character pronunciation, primary sex character translation, English dictionary definition of primary sex character. Noun 1. primary sex character - the genetically determined sex characteristics bound up with reproduction primary sex characteristic, primary sexual...
Looking for online definition of chromosomal sex in the Medical Dictionary? chromosomal sex explanation free. What is chromosomal sex? Meaning of chromosomal sex medical term. What does chromosomal sex mean?
Diptera have an extraordinary variety of sex determination mechanisms, and Drosophila melanogaster is the paradigm for this group. However, the Drosophila sex determination pathway is only partially conserved and the family Tephritidae affords an int
Sex determinations are diverse in vertebrates. Although many sex-determining genes and pathways are conserved, the mechanistic roles of these genes and pathways in the genetic sex determination are not well understood. DAX1 (encoded by the NR0B1 gene) is a vertebrate specific orphan nuclear receptor that regulates gonadal development and sexual determination. In human, duplication of the NR0B1 gene leads to male-to-female sex reversal. In mice, Nr0b1 shows both pro-testis and anti-testis functions. We generated inheritable nr0b1 mutation in the zebrafish and found the nr0b1 mutation caused homozygous mutants to develop as fertile males due to female-to-male sex reversal. The nr0b1 mutation did not increase Caspase-3 labeling nor tp53 expression in the ...
As a consequence of genetic sex determination, the indifferent gonadal blastema normally becomes either a testis or an ovary. This applies to mammals and to the majority of non-mammalian vertebrates. With the exception of placental mammals, however, partial or complete sex inversion can be induced in one sex by sexual steroid hormones of the opposite sex during a sensitive period of gonadogenesis. There is evidence that also during normal gonadogenesis in these species, in the XY/XX mechanism of sex determination testicular differentiation is induced by androgens, and in the ZZ/ZW mechanism, ovarian differentiation by oestrogens. In either case, the hormones may act via serological H-Y antigen as a morphogenetic factor. In contrast, in placental mammals including man, primary gonadal differentiation is ...
In Drosophila, Sxl functions as a binary switch in sex determination. Under the control of the primary sex-determining signal, it produces functional protein only in XX animals to implement female development. Here we report that, in contrast to Drosophila, the Sxl homologue in the Medfly, Ceratitis capitata, expresses the same mRNAs and protein isoforms in both XX and XY animals irrespective of the primary sex-determining signal. Also, experiments with two inducible transgenes demonstrate that the corresponding Ceratitis SXL product has no significant sex-transforming effects when expressed in Drosophila. Similar results have been obtained for the Sxl homologue of Musca domestica (Meise, M., Hilfiker-Kleiner, D., Brunner, C., DLbendorfer, A., N?thiger, R. and Bopp, D. (1998) Development 125, 1487-1494). Our findings suggest that Sxl acquired its master regulatory role in sex ...
Brief oversimplification: Most bees, ants, and true wasps have a single sex-determining locus (no sex chromosomes) with many alleles. Haploids are male, and diploids are almost always heterozygous at the sex locus and become female. Homozygous diploids develop as males, and these diploid males are usually inviable or infertile. This is called single-locus complementary sex determination, or sl-CSD (or just CSD). Just a few years ago, the sex locus of the honeybee was definitively identified by Martin Beye and co-workers ...
Our analysis demonstrates that snf is a positive regulator of Sex-lethal in both the germline and the soma. In the germline, unregulated expression of Sex-lethal can bypass the requirement for snf+ gene function, implying that snf is required for Sex-lethal activity in the germline. This conclusion is supported by the finding that the Sex-lethal transcription pattern is abnormal in a snf mutant background. In the soma, activation of Sex-lethal appears to be sensitive to snf gene dosage only when the probability of Sex-lethal activation has been otherwise reduced. We also show that the activity of one of the constitutive Sex-lethal alleles (SxlM1) is sensitive to snf gene dosage, demonstrating that, in spite of its constitutive behavior in some assays, SxlM1 is still subject to some regulation. In spite of ...
In most mammals, the Y chromosomal Sry gene initiates testis formation within the bipotential gonad, resulting in male development. SRY is a transcription factor and together with SF1 it directly up-r
India has witnessed a decline in sex ratio in the past few decades. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out to find out the attitude toward gender preference and knowledge as well as practice toward prenatal sex determination and female feticide among pregnant women. A majority (66.0%) of the pregnant women did not show any gender preference, followed by male preference (22.2%) and female preference (11.8%). A high proportion, i.e. 84.7% and 89.7%, of the total subjects were aware that prenatal sex determination and female feticide is illegal, respectively. ...
Teleost fishes, thanks to their rapid evolution of sex determination mechanisms, provide remarkable opportunities to study the formation of sex chromosomes and the mechanisms driving the birth of new master sex determining (MSD) genes. However, the evolutionary interplay between the sex chromosomes and the MSD genes they harbor is rather unexplored. We characterized a male-specific duplicate of the anti-Müllerian hormone (amh) as the MSD gene in Northern Pike (Esox lucius), using genomic and expression evidence as well as by loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments. Using RAD-Sequencing from a family panel, we identified Linkage Group (LG) 24 as the sex chromosome and positioned the sex locus in its sub-telomeric region. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this MSD originated from an ancient duplication of the ...
Many different sex-determining mechanisms prevail among insects. Flies in particular are well suited for examining the evolution of this variety. The wide-spread housefly (Musca domestica) is very unusual in this regard: Depending on where they live, they use different methods for sex determination. In northern latitudes, females have X chromosomes, while males have an X and a Y chromosome. Here, as well, the Y chromosome carries a gene that determines maleness. In southern latitudes, on the other hand, houseflies do not have a Y chromosome. The male-determining gene lies on one of the other five chromosomes.. The gene responsible for determining maleness in houseflies has been unknown until now. Together with colleagues from Groningen (the Netherlands) and Göttingen (Germany), the group of researchers led by Daniel Bopp of the Institute of Molecular Life Sciences of the University of Zurich has succeeded in ...
The recent development of simple, DNA-based methods for the determination of an individuals sex will make possible large-scale studies of sex allocation and the consequence of gender in birds. Birds provide ideal systems for studying these questions in v. ...
Recently going through my mayfly photographs I found a nice set of pictures from the Paflyfish Spring Jam in 2010. The Green Drake Ephemera guttulata hatch was in full swing that year and photographs of these mayflies was easy and plentiful. Most of the weekend was overcast and rain as normally forecasted for the Spring Jam. Emergers subimigo and spinners imago were not so much active during the day, but lined the sides of the streams in the hundreds of thousands. I am always torn between fishing and photography on days like this but glad put down my fly rod for a while and captured a lot of great shots.With so many mayflies and photos it was easy to get so nice shots of the Green Drake spinners, which are referred to as Coffin Flies because of their white extended body. I wanted to demonstrate the differences between spinner imago male and female. These two Coffin Flies attached show these differences. Most notably the male has longer extended fore legs and claspers at the rear of the
Unless machines are properly managed, goose eggs do not hatch very well in artificial incubators. Hatches often are no better than 40% of the eggs set, even though fertility is about 90%. This is because of poor management and because incubators available in Australia are not manufactured specifically for geese.. With forced-draught machines, maintain a constant temperature of 37.5°C throughout the incubation period. The desired humidity will be obtained if the wet bulb thermometer is kept at a reading of 32.2°C to the 29th day. Then increase it to 34°C for the rest of the incubation time, using moisture trays and adjusting the ventilation.. Incubators with a slow air movement over the eggs will hatch goose eggs better than those with a fast air movement. Slow air movement ensures complete distribution of air over all parts of the egg to maintain uniform and equal evaporation.. Experiments in France, using 2000 eggs in eighteen incubators, have substantiated the need to place eggs ...
INTRODUCTION. Forensic anthropology is a relatively new scientific discipline, born at the intersection of physical anthropology and forensic medicine. It is usually defined as the application of physical anthropology methodology and techniques within the medico-legal context.1 Although considerable advances have been made within the discipline in recent years, numerous challenges still face its practitioners. The roots of forensic anthropology can be traced to research in the late 19th century, such as Alphonse Bertillones anthropometric system for human identification and the dubious discipline of criminal anthropology.2 Much closer to modern practices are several pioneering studies for identifying human remains carried out by anatomists and anthropologists such as Thomas Dwight and Harris Hawthorne Wilder.2 The rise and development of the discipline was strongly accelerated with the publication of Wolton M. Krogmans 1939 Guide to the Identification of Human Skeletal Material3 and by ...
Gonadal sex differentiation is increasingly recognized as a remarkably plastic process driven by species-specific genetic or environmental determinants. Among aquatic vertebrates, gonadal sex differentiation is a frequent endpoint in studies of endocrine disruption with little appreciation of underlying developmental mechanisms. Work in model organisms has highlighted the diversity of master sex-determining genes rather than uncovering any broad similarities prompting the highly conserved developmental decision of testes versus ovaries. Here we use molecular genetic markers of chromosomal sex combined with traditional histology to examine the transition of the bipotential gonads to ovaries or testes in threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Serially-sectioned threespine stickleback fry were analyzed for qualitative and quantitative indications of sexual ...
An optical recording slider includes a slider body having a leading slider edge, a trailing slider edge and a center line extending from the leading slider edge to the trailing slider edge. The slider body carries an optical head along the center line. First and second longitudinal rails are positioned on the slider body. A third longitudinal rail is positioned on the slider body, between the first and second longitudinal rails and forward of the optical head. The third rail has a leading section, a waist section and a trailing rail edge. The leading section is rectangular and extends from the leading slider edge to the waist section. The waist section widens from a first width at the rectangular leading section to a maximum width of the third rail and then narrows from the maximum width toward the trailing rail edge. A recessed area extends from the leading slider edge to the trailing slider edge, between the first, second and third rails.
For more than 20 years, sex allocation in hymenopteran societies has been a major topic in insect sociobiology. A recurring idea was that relatedness asymmetries arising from their haplodiploid sex determination system would lead to various parent-offspring conflicts over optimal reproduction. A possible weakness of existing theory is that only interests of nuclear genes are properly accounted for. Yet, a diversity of maternally transmitted elements manipulate the reproduction of their host in many solitary arthropod groups. The bacterium Wolbachia is a striking example of such a selfish cytoplasmic element, with effects ranging from reproductive incompatibility between host strains, induction of parthenogenesis and feminization of males. This paper reports on a first PCR-based Wolbachia screening in ants. Out of 50 Indo-Australian species, 50% screened positive for an A-group strain. One of these species also harboured a ...
Vainer, O. B., Katokhin, A. V., Kustov, S. M., Vlassov, V. V. and Laktionov, P. P. (2008), A New Y Chromosome Marker for Noninvasive Fetal Gender Determination. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1137: 157-161. doi: 10.1196/annals.1448.041 ...
A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an caninariojana.com organisms that create their offspring using sexual reproduction have two sexes. Occasionally, there are hermaphrodites in place of one or both sexes. There are also some species that are only one sex due to .
Definition of primary sex c's in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is primary sex c's? Meaning of primary sex c's as a legal term. What does primary sex c's mean in law?
Accurate identification of the biological sex of ancient remains is vital for critically testing hypotheses about social structure in prehistoric societies. However, morphological methods are imprecise for juvenile individuals and fragmentary remains, and molecular methods that rely on particular sex-specific marker loci such as the amelogenin gene suffer from allelic dropout and sensitivity to modern contamination. Analyzing shotgun sequencing data from 14 present-day humans of known biological sex and 16 ancient individuals from a time span of 100 to ~70,000 years ago, we show that even relatively sparse shotgun sequencing (about 100,000 human sequences) can be used to reliably identify chromosomal sex simply by considering the ratio of sequences aligning to the X and Y chromosomes, and highlight two examples where the genetic assignments indicate morphological misassignment. Furthermore, we show that ...
GreenScreen GreenScreen Plant Sex ID Kit - What is the Plant Sex ID Kit? The GreenScreen Plant Sex ID Kit is a plant sex identification kit that enables growers to identify the sex of their baby plants after only 2 weeks from germination! Benefits No Males Allowed! Kick-start your crop by eliminating males early! Avoid high plant
GreenScreen GreenScreen Plant Sex ID Kit - What is the Plant Sex ID Kit? The GreenScreen Plant Sex ID Kit is a plant sex identification kit that enables growers to identify the sex of their baby plants after only 2 weeks from germination! Benefits No Males Allowed! Kick-start your crop by eliminating males early! Avoid high plant
Sweden has taken a long-overdue step to end the requirement that transgender people who wish to update their sex identification on legal documents undergo sex reassignment surgeries that require them to sacrifice their ability to have children. This is thanks to a court judgment that now applies to the whole country circumventing the sterilization law, which is set to be rewritten and removed from the books by July 1, 2013. Only 16 other countries in the European Union require transgender citizens to undergo the surgery, which many trans people do not want or require.. Last year, liberal and moderate members of Swedens Parliament were prepared to change the law, but were initially blocked by conservative political groups led by the Christian Democrat Party. Nova Colliander, a trans woman opposed to the sterilization requirements, expresses the pain of sacrificing her reproductive ability and her bitterness that its taken so long to change the policy [edited via Google ...
Cave fishes need to rely on non-visual senses, such as the sense of smell or the lateral line to communicate in darkness. In the present study, we investigated sex identification by females of a...
1. Molecular Ecology (A J Baker). 2. General Molecular Biology (R E Carter).. 3. Polymerase Chain Reaction (T P Birt & A J Baker).. 4. Protein Electrophoresis (A J Baker).. 5. Solution DNA-DNA Hybridisation (A H Bledsoe & F H Sheldon).. 6. DNA Fingerprinting using minisatellite probes (R E Carter).. 7. Mitochondrial DNA (E Randi).. 8. Characterization and Evolution of Major Histocompatibility Complex (Mhc) Geners in Non-Model Organisms, with Examples from Birds (S V Edwards, J Nusser & J Gasper).. 9. DNA-fragment markers in plants (C Ritland & K Ritland).. 10. Microsatellites: Evolutionary and Methodological Background and Empirical Applications at individual, population and phylogenetic levels (K T Scribner & J M Pearce).. 11. Introns (V Friesen).. 12. Sex Identification using DNA markers (R Griffiths) ...
Persistent pain could be a sign that one thing is unsuitable, and solely a medical professional can really rule out an issue. Ive been having some gentle spotting with some mild methods of childbirth. The Webster Technique is often used to treat chiropractic patients during pregnancy. This is especially so in the case of foods that are pungent or have strong flavors. Pregnant. California legislation requires insurers to offer infertility benefits to employers as an additional rider when they buy their yearly insurance advantages. The body pregnancy 16 weeks gender determination going by a lot of adjustments on this stage and youll anticipate fatigue, chest tenderness, frequent journeys to the bathroom, and that dreaded morning parenting magazine editorial calendar 2013. Completely different ranges of those substances will assist your physician determine your babys threat stage for some developmental and chromosomal conditions. Also recommended (with the same concern) royal victoria maternity ...
Listen: Play in new window , Download. Condition of Mr. Segundo: Considering cold water solutions if he attempts to sire sons.. Author: Mara Hvistendahl. Subjects Discussed: Lyndon Johnsons 1965 address on the occasion of the UNs 20th anniversary, the relationship between birth rate, sex selection, and development, the history of amniocentesis in India, cultural relativism, U.S. efforts to push population policy in the 1960s, forced sterilization programs, Paul Erlichs The Population Bomb, Bernard Berlesons "Beyond Family Planning," cheap ultrasound machines flooded into the East, fetal sex determination in India, China and South Korea, efforts to crack down on sex-selective abortion, the influence of GE ultrasound machines, where the pursuit of "market demand: creates skewered sex ratios, surplus men in China who wont be able to find wives, the UN Population Fund using the term "prenatal sex selection" ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common internal modification of eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) and is decoded by YTH domain proteins1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. The mammalian mRNA m6A methylosome is a complex of nuclear proteins that includes METTL3 (methyltransferase-like 3), METTL14, WTAP (Wilms tumour 1-associated protein) and KIAA1429. Drosophila has corresponding homologues named Ime4 and KAR4 (Inducer of meiosis 4 and Karyogamy protein 4), and Female-lethal (2)d (Fl(2)d) and Virilizer (Vir)8, 9, 10, 11, 12. In Drosophila, fl(2)d and vir are required for sex-dependent regulation of alternative splicing of the sex determination factor Sex lethal (Sxl)13. However, the functions of m6A in introns in the regulation of alternative splicing remain uncertain3. Here we show that m6A is absent in the mRNA of Drosophila lacking Ime4. In contrast to mouse and plant knockout models5, 7, 14, Drosophila Ime4-null mutants remain viable, though ...
In recent times, major advances have been made towards understanding sexual dimorphism in the brain on a molecular basis. This thesis summarises my modest contributions to these endeavours. Sexual dimorphisms are manifested throughout the spectrum of biological complexity, and can be studied by numerous approaches. The approach of this thesis is to explore sex-biased gene expression in mammalian somatic tissues. Paper I describes an evolutionarily conserved sexual gene expression pattern in the primate brain. Conserved sex-biased genes may underlie important sex differences in neurobiology. In Paper II, Y-chromosome genes expressed across several regions of the human male brain during mid-gestation are identified. Such genes may play male-specific roles during brain development. The studies of Papers III and IV explore ...
Unlike sex determination in the soma, which is an autonomous process, sex determination in the germline of Drosophila has both inductive and autonomous components. In this paper, we examined how sexual identity is selected and maintained in the Drosophila germline. We show that female-specific expression of genes in the germline is dependent on a somatic signaling pathway. This signaling pathway requires the sex-non-specific transformer 2 gene but, surprisingly, does not appear to require the sex-specific genes, transformer and doublesex. Moreover, in contrast to the soma where pathway initiation and maintenance are independent processes, the somatic signaling pathway appears to function continuously from embryogenesis to the larval stages to select and sustain female germline identity. We also show that the ...
Sex determination (male/female) at the biological level is determined by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome. Initially, we did not know what this factor was and it was designated the "testis determining factor" (TDF). We now know (since 1990) that TDF is the protein product encoded by the SRY gene on the Y chromosome. Without this gene/protein the potential sex is female (see Male below). For some time, female was considered the "default" sex in the absence of SRY, we now know this is not the case, with several genes specifically required for ovary formation. In females, sex determination involves at least one X chromosome gene, DAX1 encoding a nuclear hormone receptor. Another critical genetic issue is related to the presence of two X chromosomes, "gene dosage", and in the case of mammals this is ...
I happened to be deserting her, recreant to my bloodstream at the time that my duty lay in the way of giving The Delegate Wranglers Primary Sex Characteristics Psychology up all my selfish plans in order that I might comfort my mother in her growing infirmity, and counsel and defend my sister but I did not that I was re Safe And Secure Primary Sex Characteristics Psychology enacting the Top Ten Sex Pills most characteristic of all American dramas in thus pursuing an ambitious career in a far off city I most poignantly realized and yet I went It seemed to me.. I hope you re right, but i could t think it. You don t need certainly to. You retain her thinking you re the suns rays god that s your work. It rained all that time, top Sex Pills as soon as evening settled down it expanded unreasonably warm for the altitude, and down in the marshes the horses stood, patiently suffering the gnats and mosquitoes.. We thought this a deal that is great of ...
Sex chromosomes change more frequently in fish than in mammals or birds. However, certain chromosomes or genes are repeatedly used as sex determinants in different members of the teleostean lineage. East African cichlids are an enigmatic model system in evolutionary biology representing some of the most diverse extant vertebrate adaptive radiations. How sex is determined and if different sex-determining mechanisms contribute to speciation is unknown for almost all of the over 1,500 cichlid species of the Great Lakes. Here, we investigated the genetic basis of sex determination in a cichlid from Lake Tanganyika, Astatotilapia burtoni, a member of the most species-rich cichlid lineage, the haplochromines. We used RAD-sequencing of crosses for two populations of A. burtoni, a lab strain and fish caught at the south of Lake Tanganyika. Using association mapping and comparative ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Sex Selection Migrates to Canada. Easy access to abortion and advances in prenatal sex determination have combined to make Canada a haven for parents who would terminate female fetuses in favour of having sons, despite overwhelming censure of the practice.. Arguing that Canadian lawmakers silence on the issue is undermining the status of women, theyre calling for federal legislation to uphold societal and professional values opposing sex-selective abortion, either through a direct ban or restrictions on the disclosure of fetal gender. They also contend that sex selective abortion is forcing physicians to compromise between their ethical obligations to discourage sex selection and legal obligations to respect their patients autonomy.. "It really works against everything we believe in Canada in terms of equality. It works against our Charter [of Rights and Freedoms]," says Kerry Bowman, a bioethicist at the ...
Drosophila switch gene Sex-lethal can bypass its switch-gene target transformer to regulate aspects of female behavior. [Evans,D.S. and T.W. Cline (2013) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S. 110, E4474-4481]. Cline, T.W., Dorsett, M., Sun, S., Harrison, M.M., Dines, J., Sefton, L., and L. Megna, 2010. Evolution of the Drosophila feminizing switch gene Sex-lethal. [Cline, T.W., Dorsett, M., Sun, S., Harrison, M.M., Dines, J., Sefton, L., and L. Megna (2010) Genetics 186, 1321-1336](PMID#20837995).. Grainyhead and Zelda compete for binding to the promoters of the earliest-expressed Drosophila genes. [Harrison, M.M., Botchan, M.R., and T.W. Cline (2010) Dev. Biol. 345, 248-255] Effects of Wolbachia infection and ovarian tumor mutations on Sex-lethal germline functioning in Drosophila. [S. Sun and T.W. Cline (2009) Genetics 181, 1291-1301]. Sexual back ...
Drosophila determines its sex by "counting" X chromosomes. We show that premature expression of the pair-rule segmentation gene hairy interferes with this process, resulting in female-specific lethality by inhibiting initiation of the master control gene Sex-lethal (Sxl). The female-specific lethality can be suppressed by a constitutive Sxl allele or by extra copies of X-linked "counting elements." These results are best explained by competition between hairy and other helix-loop-helix transcription factors that act in chromosome counting. We have confirmed this model by showing that misexpression of the achaete-scute T4 gene induces ectopic Sxl expression and male-specific lethality, confirming that achaete-scute T4 is the sisterless-b counting element. We propose that X chromosomes are counted through heterodimers of helix-loop-helix transcription factors that act synergistically to initiate Sxl ...
Large deletions in the dystrophin gene account for | 60% of mutations responsible for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We have developed a genetic test that can be used directly for the preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of a majority of coupl
Brachytherapy is a radiation treatment, which is often considered to treat cancer. The radiation therapy is given inside the body using radioactive isotopes using seeds, rods and wires termed as implants. The surgery has a number of benefits when it comes to choose in countries like India. We all know India caters this surgery or any other medical treatment at much lesser cost as compared to the nations in the west, which give enough reasons to international patients to choose the same. Similar is the story with Brachytherapy in India, which comes at the cost of highly affordable price even when you add the fare for and away from their country along with the local stay and the cost, the amount you pay for this surgery is simply less. Secondly, India has the best doctors and surgeons who are highly competent and known to cater these healthcare services at much affordable cost. Lastly, the Indian hospitals catering Brachytherapy in India give enough reasons to the global patients to choose this ...
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I posted this on Yahoo Answers a couple of days ago, and it just seems like everyone there are MEAN! Ugh...So, Im turning to you guys! :)I have an...
One of the major changes that have taken place in India over the last two decades is a significant shift in the sex ratio at birth, as techniques for prenatal sex determination have become more widely available. There has, however, been little analysis of which factors influence the decision to abort female fetuses at the individual level. Furthermore, the sparse literature does not address the relationship between fertility, spacing and the demand for sex selective abortions, which may lead to biased estimates. Using data from the three rounds of the National Family and Health Survey this paper relies on the observed spacing between births to examine the determinants of the demand for sex selective abortions. By employing a discrete hazard model it is possible to simultaneously control for the fertility and abortion decisions, while taking account of censoring and unobservable ...
The current study found that 44% of primary-partnered men and 26% of primary-partnered women surveyed in informal drinking venues reported outside sex partners in the previous month. Having outside sex partners was associated with multiple risk factors for HIV infection, including having been diagnosed with an STI and higher rates of unprotected sex. Having multiple partners was also associated with greater use of alcohol, as well as greater use of alcohol by participants and their partners before sex. In addition, one in four men and women shebeen patrons with outside partners had recently met sex partners at drinking venues. These results confirm our study hypothesis, demonstrating that individuals who had outside sex partners in the previous month were at higher sexual risk in general, and posed a particularly high risk to their primary sex partners.. ...
Transcriptional regulator that controls a genetic switch in male development. It is necessary and sufficient for initiating male sex determination by directing the development of supporting cell precursors (pre-Sertoli cells) as Sertoli rather than granulosa cells. In male adult brain involved in the maintenance of motor functions of dopaminergic neurons (By similarity). Involved in different aspects of gene regulation including promoter activation or repression. SRY HMG box recognizes DNA by partial intercalation in the minor groove. Promotes DNA bending. Also involved in pre-mRNA splicing (By similarity). Binds to the DNA consensus sequence 5-[AT]AACAA[AT]-3.
Many animals exhibit innate sexually dimorphic sexual behaviours. Male flies, for example, follow elaborate courtship rituals to secure a female mate. Nervous system sexual dimorphisms probably underlie many sex-specific behaviours, but how are these neuronal dimorphisms generated? On p. 323, David Mellert and colleagues report that one such dimorphism - midline crossing by gustatory (taste) receptor neuron (GRN) axons in male, but not female, Drosophila - is regulated by the sex determination genes fruitless (fru) and doublesex (dsx) and the Roundabout (Robo) axon guidance receptors. fru and dsx are regulated during pre-RNA splicing to produce male- and female-specific isoforms, with female-specific fru mRNA not being translated. The researchers show that, in male flies, male-specific Fru and Dsx promote midline crossing by foreleg GRN axons, whereas in ...
Zeis et al. (2004) recently reported that hemoglobin concentration in daphnids increased with increasing temperature. Mitchell (2001) noted a low incidence of sexually ambiguous offspring when daphnids were reared at 30°C. Elevated temperature may prove to be an environmental signal that stimulates both hemoglobin induction and male sex determination through the common signaling pathway. Preliminary experiments in our laboratory support this premise. However, elevated temperature may stimulate different signaling pathways, resulting in multiple outcomes. For example, oxygen saturation decreases with increasing water temperature, which may stimulate hemoglobin production via the hypoxia signaling pathway. Increased temperature may also adversely impact the uptake or assimilation of nutrients resulting in male production via the terpenoid signaling pathway.. The minimum components to the putative terpenoid signaling pathway described in this study would ...
by the Institute of Forensic Research ISSN FORENSIC APPLICATION OF A RAPID TEST FOR RED HAIR COLOUR PREDICTION AND SEX DETERMINATION Wojciech BRANICKI 1, Paulina WOLAÑSKA-NOWAK 1, Urszula BRUDNIK
Read "Linkage of Genes Responsible for Sex Determination and Expression of a Sperm-Specific Isozyme of Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase in the Polychaete Polydora breviapalpa, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Sexual reproduction in most multi-cellular species requires the development of sex-specific adult structures and the potential to perform sex-specific behaviors. These adult sex-specific phenotypes are typically patterned during development. Therefore, a more thorough understanding of how the genome is deployed in a sex-differential manner during development provides insight into how gene networks give rise to sex-specific traits. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an excellent model system for studying how sex-specific differences are established at the molecular-genetic level. The Drosophila sex determination hierarchy is responsible for establishing adult sex-specific morphologies and behaviors through an alternative pre-mRNA splicing cascade that culminates in the production of ...
Sexual reproduction in most multi-cellular species requires the development of sex-specific adult structures and the potential to perform sex-specific behaviors. These adult sex-specific phenotypes are typically patterned during development. Therefore, a more thorough understanding of how the genome is deployed in a sex-differential manner during development provides insight into how gene networks give rise to sex-specific traits. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an excellent model system for studying how sex-specific differences are established at the molecular-genetic level. The Drosophila sex determination hierarchy is responsible for establishing adult sex-specific morphologies and behaviors through an alternative pre-mRNA splicing cascade that culminates in the production of ...
In past decades, it was common medical practice to perform surgical gender reassignment or "reconstruction" of these different but generally healthy DSD bodies to make them "normal." This surgery often happened/happens as early as birth (and often without parental consent or notice), but usually very early in childhood when the individual is too young to comprehend or consent to the procedure. This practice has become increasingly controversial, as some adults who went through the treatment report being physically, emotionally, and sexually harmed by the procedures. The Intersex Society of North America recommends social, legal, and parental gender assignment of children born with an intersex condition based on best judgment. It opposes any surgical gender assignment until the child is old enough to make his/her own decision.2 ...
Embryonic Development of the Gonad:. Primitive gonad (genital ridge) develops near a mesonephric duct and a paramesonephric duct, as paired thickenings of the coelomic epithelial layer that lines the body cavity, specifically in the region that overlays the surface of the mesonephros. Bipotential gonad, that able to adopt either male or female fate, is the first sign of development of the reproductive organs, which appears in mouse at around E10.5. The gonadal ridge continues to grow and form primary sex cords (ovigerous/testis cords) within it. Development of a testis (male) or an ovary (female) is triggered by the expression and proper function of Sry, the testis-determining gene. The primary sex cords in the male will eventually mature to become the sperm-nurturing seminiferous tubules. In the female, the primary sex cords will contribute to nurturing tissue of developing ova.. The gonad consists of germ cells and somatic cells. The ...
Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case-control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C21H30O2; MW: 314.46) and no other hormonal preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of ...
Prenatal androgens are responsible for sex differences in behaviour and morphology in many species, causing changes in neural structure and function that persist throughout life. Some variation in the expression of behaviour between individuals of the same sex can also be attributed to differences in exposure to prenatal sex hormones. The ratio of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D ratio) is a proposed biomarker for prenatal androgen effects (PAE). Through assessment of 2D:4D ratios, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between inferred PAE and social behaviours in female chacma baboons (Papio ursinus). We validated a new method to measure 2D:4D indirectly using digital photographs and computer-assisted image analysis software. There was a strong correlation between 2D:4D ratio and dominance rank amongst female baboons. Low 2D:4D ratios were associated with high rank, lower submission rates and higher rates of ...
L. The girl child. Paragraph 259. The Convention on the Rights of the Child recognizes that States Parties shall respect and ensure the rights set forth in the present Convention to each child within their jurisdiction without discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the childs or his or her parents or legal guardians race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or status (article 2, para. 1).16 However, in many countries available indicators show that the girl child is discriminated against from the earliest stages of life, through her childhood and into adulthood. In some areas of the world, men outnumber women by 5 in every 100. The reasons for the discrepancy include, among other things, harmful attitudes and practices, such as female genital mutilation, son preference -which results in female infanticide and prenatal sex selection - early marriage, including child marriage, violence ...
SRY is a sex-determining gene on the Y chromosome in the therians.This intronless gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the high mobility group (HMG)-box family of DNA-binding proteins. This protein is the testis determining factor (TDF), also referred to as the SRY protein, which initiates male sex determination. Mutations in this gene give rise to XY females with gonadal dysgenesis ; translocation of part of the Y chromosome containing this gene to the X chromosome causes XX male syndrome.SRY has been linked to the fact that men are more likely than women to develop dopamine-related diseases such as schizophrenia and Parkinsons disease. makes a protein that controls concentrations of dopamine, the neurotransmitter that carries signals from the brain that control movement and coordination.
These findings raise the question of whether the Wolbachia insert was integrated in the female sex-determining region of the native W sex chromosome of the pillbug genome, or was integrated in another genomic locus that has since become a new sex-determining region. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, we performed genetic crosses spanning three generations (Materials and Methods). We predicted that F2 progenies should exclusively consist of females if the Wolbachia insert were linked to the native female sex-determining region of the pillbug genome, or up to 50% males if the Wolbachia insert occurred in a ZZ genetic male background (i.e., lacking the native female sex-determining region). We found that all 25 F2 progenies (939 individuals) were composed of ,21% males, thus verifying the second prediction (Table S2). These results provide direct evidence that the ...
A 16-year-old girl with a masculinizing adrenal carcinoma treated surgically is presented. Following surgery a full clinical and steroid remission has been achieved, without any adjuvant chemotherapy. In the 7th year after the surgical treatment the patient became pregnant. Pregnancy and labour were uncomplicated. The patient continues in complete remission, and her son has been noted to have normal development at 21 mth of age.
Watch the Video ] By mating with nearly 100 males, queen bees on isolated islands avoid inbreeding and keep colonies healthy.. The results, published in the current issue of PLoS ONE, focused on giant honey bee colonies on Hainan Island, off the coast of China. Since these bees have long been separated from their continental cousins, it was thought that the island bees would be prime candidates for inbreeding as well as having very different genes, said Zachary Huang, Michigan State University entomologist.. "We believed that the island bees would show evidence of the founder effect, or random genetic changes in an isolated population, on a unique sex determination gene from the mainland bees," he said. "At first we were surprised when we couldn´t document this effect. Looking at it further, I asked myself, ℠Why didn´t I think of this before?´". When compared to bees, humans have a rather simplistic ...
The morphological difference between male and female stag beetles is widely known. Male stag beetles have a pair of fully developed mandibles that are commonly called "hasami," while females do not exhibit such mandible growth. What is the mechanism that causes such significant difference within the same species? In order to understand this mechanism, a developmental study was carried out on Cyclommatus metallifer, focusing on sex-determination genes and juvenile hormone*2 signaling pathways.. Results indicate that the dsx gene, a sex-determining gene for insects, regulates sexual dimorphism in stag beetles. It is also suggested that a large difference in sexual dimorphism of mandible growth is due to the dsx gene that regulates juvenile hormone responsiveness in different directions depending on whether the individual is male or female. These results are a ...
i keep away from heat, hot surfaces, sparks, open flames and other ignition sources. No smoking, wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection, IF SWALLOWED: rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting, IF ON SKIN (or hair): Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water [or shower], IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing, immediately call a POISON CENTER/doctor ...
A pair of muscles span the fifth abdominal segment of male but not female Drosophila melanogaster adults. To establish whether genes involved in the development of other sexually dimorphic tissues controlled the differentiation of sex-specific muscles, flies mutant for five known sex-determining genes were examined for the occurrence of male-specific abdominal muscles. Female flies mutant for alleles of Sex-lethal, defective in sex determination, or null alleles of transformer or transformer-2 are converted into phenotypic males that formed male-specific abdominal muscles. Both male and female flies, when mutant for null alleles of doublesex, develop as nearly identical intersexes in other somatic characteristics. Male doublesex flies produced the male-specific muscles, whereas female doublesex flies lacked ...
Differences between the X chromosome and Y chromosome versions of the amelogenin gene (AMELX and AMELY respectively) enable it to be used in sex determination of unknown human samples. AMELXs intron 1 contains a 6 bp deletion relative to intron 1 of AMELY. This can be detected at low cost using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of intron 1, followed by gel electrophoresis. Two bands of DNA, at 106bps and 112bps, are resolved if both the AMELX and AMELY versions of the gene are present (i.e. the sample is from a male) or one band of DNA, at 106bps, if the AMELX version only is present (i.e. the sample is from a female).[3]. However because of AMELY variation among individuals and populations, this method of sex determination is not 100% accurate. Mutation in regions of AMELY intron 1 commonly used as primer annealing sites may disable PCR amplification. A 6bp insertion to AMELY intron 1 results in an amplicon ...
Read "The late pollen actins are essential for normal male and female development in Arabidopsis, Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Detail záznamu - Accumulation of Y-specific satellite DNAs during the evolution of Rumex acetosa sex chromosomes - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
Many countries already have tight regulations. India started as early as 1983, followed by South Korea in 1987 and China in 1989. Nepal banned sex-selective abortions in 2002 when it liberalized its own law on abortions. But these laws have proved extremely difficult to enforce. Indias Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Technology Act of 1994 prohibited both the use and advertising of gender determination techniques, but remains largely ignored. Reducing sex-ratio imbalances is better achieved through advocacy, sensitization and awareness-raising programs says the UNFPA report. "By targeting special groups, such as health personnel, young women and students," peoples mindsets and attitudes towards girls can be changed ...
Saying that intervention X caused result Y is quite different than saying there is a correlation between intervention X and result Y. Suppose for a minute a study was published that found women who chewed gum in pregnancy were more likely to have male children. If the results say chewing gum caused women to have male children, we would assume that the gum was involving in gender determination. If the results say that a correlation was found between chewing gum and having male children, we only know that the two things are somehow related. We do not know if chewing gum determined the gender of the baby OR if mothers with male children crave gum more than mothers with female children. Both situations would lead to a correlation between gum and gender, but only one of those situations would mean that chewing gum actually increases the chance of having a male child. Of course there is no truth to the scenario I just described. I simply used the gum and gender scenario to make a point that just ...
Sex determination in Drosophila is based on the ratio of sex chromosomes to autosomes. If the ratio equals 1, i.e. 2X chromosomes are present, the fly is female via the activation of Sxl gene. Whereas, if the ratio is 0.5, i.e. a single X chromosome is present, the fly is male and Sxl gene is not activated. Therefore, Sxl is a significant factor in determining the sex of Drosophila. The Sxl protein binds to the pre-mRNA of transformer and affects its splicing2. Overall, leading to female-specific physical characteristics and prevention of dosage compensation1. The modification, m6A is caused by the methylosome which is a protein complex that methylates adenosines within the mRNA. The methylosome in flies contains METTL14, Ime4 (Inducer of meiosis 4), KAR4 (Karyogamy protein 4), Female-lethal (2)d (Fl(2)d) and Virilizer (Vir)3.The biological effects of this alteration are dependent on protein readers such as ...
... XX. Majority of organisms are hermaphrodites; only about 1% males ... Hermaphrodite testis and ovaries. During larval stage, testis produce sperm (stored) ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 1430b-MjBhN
The most significant and widely studied remodeling of the African genetic landscape is the Bantu expansion, which led to an almost total replacement of the previous populations from the sub-Saharan region. However, a poor knowledge exists about other population movements, namely, the Nilotic migration, which is a pastoralist dispersal that, contrary to the Bantu expansion, impacted only East African populations. Here, samples from a Ugandan Nilotic-speaking population were studied for 37 Y chromosome-specific SNPs, and the obtained data were compared with those already available for other sub-Saharan population groups. Although Uganda lies on the fringe of both Bantu and Nilotic expansions, a low admixture with Bantu populations was detected, with haplogroups carrying M13, M182 and M75 mutations prevailing in Nilotes together with a low frequency of the main Bantu haplogroups from clade E1b1a-M2. The results of a comparative analysis with data from other ...
TheInfoList.com - (Cell-free_fetal_DNA) CELL-FREE FETAL DNA DNA (cffDNA) is fetal DNA DNA circulating freely in the maternal blood stream. It can be sampled by venipuncture on the mother. Analysis of cff DNA DNA provides a method of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis and testing. Cell free fetal DNA DNA shedding into maternal bloodstream cff DNA DNA originates from the trophoblasts making up the placenta
In eutherian (placental mammals, sex is determined by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome-borne gene SRY, which triggers testis determination. Marsupials also have a Y-borne SRY gene, implyi
34-year old man with complete masculinization and a history of several years of infertility was referred to us for genetic reviewing. His semen analysis showed azoospermia. Conventional chromosomal analysis indicates a 46,XX karyotype, molecular analyses excluded the presence of SRY (the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome) gene. This case is one of the rare cases reported in the literature in whom testicular differentiation and complete virilization were found in a 46,XX chromosomal constitution, with the absence of SRY gene. This finding suggests that other genes downstream from SRY play an important role in sex determination. Through reporting this rare case and reviewing previous literatures, the aim of this report is to highlight the value of genetically screening all males with azoospermia who ...
The investigation of genetic architecture in forest trees requires the establishment of large scale testing populations with predefined mating design. The results quality (i.e., accuracy and precision of genetic parameters) are often a reflection of the extent of efforts invested into the design of the field experiment. Commonly, quantitative genetics analyses are based on the animal model implemented in mixed model theory (Henderson 1984). Such analyses are based on the average numerator relationship matrix tracking probability of identity by descent (A matrix). The mixed model theory operates with the assumption that variance-covariance matrices of random terms used in the animal model are error free (Henderson 1984). The average numerator relationship matrix cannot fulfill this assumption as it is based on the pairwise expected relationship values and does not account for the Mendelian sampling term. Moreover, the contemporary shallow pedigrees of many ...
Measure antibiotic use as either days of therapy (DOT) or defined daily dose (DDD). DOT is an aggregate sum of days for which any amount of a specific antimicrobial agent is administered or dispensed to a particular patient (numerator) divided by a standardized denominator (e.g., patient days, days present, or admissions).(44, 89) If a patient is receiving two antibiotics for 10 days, the DOT numerator would be 20. An alternative measure of antibiotic use is defined daily dose (DDD). This metric estimates antibiotic use in hospitals by aggregating the total number of grams of each antibiotic purchased, dispensed, or administered during a period of interest divided by the World Health Organization-assigned DDD.(90) DDDs are often available in facilities with pharmacy systems that cannot calculate DOTs. Compared to DOT, DDD estimates are not appropriate for children, are problematic for patients with reduced drug excretion such as renal impairment, and are less accurate for between-facility ...
Overview: Locating Genes on Chromosomes ● A century ago the relationship between genes and chromosomes was not obvious ● Today we can show that genes are located on chromosomes ● The location of a particular gene can be seen by tagging isolated chromosomes with a fluorescent dye that highlights the gene
Researchers find that boas and pythons use an XY sex chromosome system, rather than the previously assumed ZW system found in some other snakes.
The first examples of protein induced, DNA kinking that I came across were in the field of DNA restriction and modification. The restriction enzymes EcoRI and EcoRV, finally yielded to the crystallographers when synthetic DNA became widely available in the 1980s-90s. Both of these enzymes hydrolyse DNA, with the help of Mg ions. The DNA adopts a kinked structure midway through the reaction pathway. There are significant differences in the conformation of the kinked DNA in both cases, but I think it is easy to get the logic of an enzyme applying "pressure" at the break point. The image on the left shows the outcome of Sac7d interacting with DNA, through the minor groove. It shows the striking kink really well. The promoter binding factor (TATA binding protein, or TBP is another great example of a promoter of kinks). Now just think about the consequences of kinking. Just bend your knee. The skin on your knee cap gets stretched and the space behind gets squeezed. The nice equilibrium has been ...
Ive been stumped on this on google scholar (maybe because I dont know the right keywords): What determines sex in cephalopods. I know some molluscs are...
Being the most common form of OT-DSD, ovotestis should be screened out during preoperative physical examination according to the typical morphological features. Internal genital ducts adjacent to the ovotestis are usually difficult to identify with naked eyes, and frozen biopsy is warranted in surgery.. On the basis of PVE classification system [16], we designed UVB measurement to assess the location of vagina confluence and the length of urogenital sinus and vagina. The critical factor in the vaginoplasty is not the length of the common sinus but rather the distance from the bladder neck to the location of vagina confluence. The former index is very useful in the surgical planning of vaginoplasty. Partial urogenital mobilization (PUM) or flap vaginoplasty is indicated based on these evaluations.. Our multidisciplinary team and the families took part in the gender assignment. Prader grading, karyotype, nature and function of gonads, values of UVB, presence of Müllerian ducts, psychological ...
A two-year post-doctoral researcher position is available in the Comai laboratory. The Comai laboratory is a plant genomics laboratory at the University of California at Davis and affiliated with the department of Plant Biology. It is located in the Genome Center, a state-of-the-art genomic research facility, and has an existing staff of about fifteen people (http://comailab.genomecenter.ucdavis.edu). The position is ideal for a candidate interested in molecular biology and plant genetics research. The Comai laboratory, in collaboration with researchers from Kyoto University, has identified two genes involved in sex determination in dioecious persimmon (Diospyros lotus, see our recent publication here). In short, expression of the MeGI transcription factor is required for the formation of female flowers. In male flower, the expression of MeGI is negatively regulated by a Y-specific smRNA encoded by a close homolog of MeGI called OGI. The ...
The position will depend heavily on coordination with the SBGrid Team at Harvard Medical School, particularly for infrastructure design, software support, and development of best-practice recommendations. A strong team player who will collaborate to develop an efficient and productive computing infrastructure is essential.. Preferred Qualifications: PhD in Structural Biology, 2-3 years of research computing experience and at least 1 year of experience with electron microscopy. The successful candidate will have excellent organizational skills and proven project and/or program management skills. Excellent interpersonal and communications skills. Ability to work with discretion.. Technical qualifications: Understanding of python or other programming languages; understanding of structural biology applications (e.g. EMAN, Chimera, Relion, Frealign, or SPIDER) and structure determination/analysis workflows; strong knowledge of Linux and OSX operating systems. ...
But we dont always need to go alien species. There are interesting variations among extant earthly taxa. You are almost certainly aware that some organisms have haploid genomes, while others are diploid. Some organisms are sexual, and others are asexual. And so forth. These structural issues are relevant to both mechanism, and the population and evolutionary phenomena. Consider for example sex determination. In many species there is a heterogametic sex (e.g., XY). This sex has a marginally functional sex-determining chromosome (e.g., Y), and is dependent on the other pair for most of the remaining functionality. Therefore, humans males are subject to "sex-linked traits." Diseases with recessive expression in females (i.e., both copies need to be mutant) are not recessive in males, who have only one copy. One of the possible evolutionary implications of this is that the X ...
When consensus grading is applied to microbiology modules in which more than one response may be reported for a given procedure in the same specimen, special formulas for generating percent scores for each specimen are mandated by the February 28 Rule of 1992. These formulas thus govern the grading of organism identifications and/or antimicrobial susceptibilities in Bacteriology, GC Culture, Parasitology, Throat, Throat/Urine and Urine Culture programs. For scoring organism identifications in a given specimen, the following ratio of responses is multiplied by 100:. 1. The numerator is the sum of all gradable correct participant responses. Only one participant response per organism is counted, and, in cases in which more than one response is given per organism, only the most definitive answer is used. For example, a species name takes precedence over a genus name which, in turn, takes precedence over an antigen screen result which, in turn, takes precedence over a Gram stain result ...
Both the numerator (number of microbial cells) and the denominator (human cells) of this 10:1 ratio are based on crude assessments....We performed a thorough review of the literature and found a long chain of citations originating from one "back of the envelope" estimate....Almost all recent papers in the field of gut microbiota directly or indirectly rely on a single paper (Savage, 1977) discussing the overall number of bacteria in the gut. Interestingly, review of the original paper (Savage, 1977) demonstrates that it actually cites another paper for the estimate (Luckey, 1972)...an illuminating example of a back-of-the-envelope estimate, which was elegantly performed, yet was probably never meant to serve as the cornerstone reference number to be cited decades later. On top of this historical contingency, a recent report from the NIH stated that 1%-3% of body mass is composed of bacteria (with no reference ascribed)....[After detailed review of recent literature] we use 3.9 × 10^13 as our ...
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Note: The impact factor is a metric whose use is debated.[3]*,**. * Citations during the most recent two year period (2015 and 2016) might be higher because Google Scholar might not have indexed yet articles citing the WikiJournal of Medicine during that period. Because the denominator (number of citable articles is known), and because the numerator (number of citations received) might increase, the estimated impact factor shown might be an underestimate.. ** No self-citations were detected.. ...

DiVA - Search resultDiVA - Search result

... analysis of a date palm sex-linked PdMYB1 gene in these species has revealed that sex-linked alleles have not clustered in a ... in the sex-determination region within the genus Phoenix as a whole by extending the analysis of P.dactylifera SSR sex-related ... species-dependent way but rather in X and Y-allele clusters. Our data show that sex chromosomes evolved from a common autosomal ... We discuss possible causes of such sexual dimorphism in gene expression and suggest that sex- and environment-specific genetic ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/resultList.jsf?af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22journalId%22%3A%221991%22%7D%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&language=en&query=

Reduced Expression of Genes Regulating Cohesion Induces Chromosome Instability that May Promote Cancer and Impact Patient...Reduced Expression of Genes Regulating Cohesion Induces Chromosome Instability that May Promote Cancer and Impact Patient...

In species with genetic sex determination, dosage compensation can evolve to equal expression levels of sex-linked and ... In mice, the Y chromosome encodes fewer than 700 gene.... Genes responsive to rapamycin and serum deprivation are clustered on ... Construction and Use of Lung Tumor Microarray for the Analysis of Gene Expression in Lung Cancer ... autosomal genes. Current knowledge about dosage compensation has mainly been deri.... Activation of Toll-like receptor 7/8 ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2592954/Reduced-Expression-of-Genes-Regulating-Cohesion-Induces-Chromosome-Instability-that-May-Promote.html

Professor Frank Grutzner | Researcher ProfilesProfessor Frank Grutzner | Researcher Profiles

DMRT gene cluster analysis in the platypus: New insights into genomic organization and regulatory regions. Genomics, 89(1), 10- ... Sex determination in platypus and echidna: autosomal location of SOX3 confirms the absence of SRY from monotremes. Chromosome ... Evolution of Mammalian Sex Chromosomes and Sex Determination Genes: Insights from Monotremes. Doctor of Philosophy. Doctorate. ... gene, the huntingtin associated protein (Hap1) gene, and the huntingtin interacting protein (Hip1) gene to rat chromosomes 14, ...
more infohttps://researchers.adelaide.edu.au/profile/frank.grutzner

PublicationsPublications

"DMRT gene cluster analysis in the platypus: new insights into genomic organization and regulatory regions", Genomics, 89:1, pp ... "Sex determination in platypus and echidna: autosomal location of SOX3 confirms the absence of SRY from monotremes", Chromosome ... view on avian sex determination", Cytogenetic and Genome Research, 89:1-2, pp 67-78. Rens, W. et. al (2004) "Resolution and ... with genetic sex determination", Chromosome Research, 14:2, pp 139-150. Yue, Y., et. al (2006), "Segmental duplication ...
more infohttps://grutznerlab.weebly.com/publications.html

IJMS  | Free Full-Text | Evolution of the Proto Sex-Chromosome in Solea senegalensis | HTMLIJMS | Free Full-Text | Evolution of the Proto Sex-Chromosome in Solea senegalensis | HTML

... formed a conserved cluster in all species. The analysis of repetitive sequences showed that the number of retroelements and ... This region contains all the dmrt genes, which are associated with sex determination in some species. In addition, the presence ... The first pair of metacentric chromosomes has been proposed as a proto sex-chromosome originated by a Robertsonian fusion ... which was described as sex determination (SD) gene that emerged from a segment duplication of a small autosomal region ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/20/5111/htm

The human genome: a multifractal analysis | BMC Genomics | Full TextThe human genome: a multifractal analysis | BMC Genomics | Full Text

Gene function, cluster of orthologous genes, metabolic pathways, and exons tended to increase their frequencies with ranges of ... Given the role of Alu sequences in gene regulation, genetic diseases, human genetic diversity, adaptation and phylogenetic ... multifractality and large gene families were located in genomic regions with varied multifractality. Additionally, a ... Similar behaviors might arise for chromosomes X and Y to explain XCI and sex determination. For example, the most remarkable ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-12-506

Genetics GlossaryGenetics Glossary

... selective effect of a gene can be defined by the probability that carriers of the gene will reproduce. Sex determination -- the ... Gene crossover during meiosis. Repeat sequences -- the length of a nucleotide sequence that is repeated in a tandem cluster. ... Linkage -- analysis of pedigree the tracking of a gene through a family by following the inheritance of a (closely associated) ... Many forms: autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked forms. ELSI -- ethical, legal and social implications (of HGP). ...
more infohttps://www.kumc.edu/gec/glossnew.html

Differential isoform expression and alternative splicing in sex determination in mice | BMC Genomics | Full TextDifferential isoform expression and alternative splicing in sex determination in mice | BMC Genomics | Full Text

Using deep RNA-sequencing, we performed a transcriptional analysis of XX and XY gonads during sex determination on embryonic ... Expression at time point E11 in males was significantly enriched in RNA splicing and mRNA processing Gene Ontology terms. ... Our data suggests an important role of splicing regulatory mechanisms for sex determination in mice. ... suggesting AS as a post-transcription mechanism that controls sex determination of the bipotential fetal gonad. ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12864-019-5572-x

Regulation of gene expression - WikipediaRegulation of gene expression - Wikipedia

Sex determination in the soma of a Drosophila requires the sensing of the ratio of autosomal genes to sex chromosome-encoded ... when densely clustered). Analysis of the pattern of methylation in a given region of DNA (which can be a promoter) can be ... Often, one gene regulator controls another, and so on, in a gene regulatory network. Gene regulation is essential for viruses, ... Examples include: The colinearity of the Hox gene cluster with their nested antero-posterior patterning It has been speculated ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regulation_of_gene_expression

JCI -
Genetic disorders of nuclear receptorsJCI - Genetic disorders of nuclear receptors

Analysis of the involvement of the NR2E3 gene in autosomal recessive retinal dystrophies. Clin Genet. 2008;73(4):360-366.. View ... A mutation in the gene encoding steroidogenic factor-1 causes XY sex reversal and adrenal failure in humans. Nat Genet. 1999;22 ... Nonsense or frameshift variants in NR0B1 occur throughout the gene, whereas pathogenic missense variants tend to cluster in key ... Gonadal determination and adrenal development are regulated by the orphan nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor-1, in a dose- ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/88892

A duplicated copy of DMRT1 in the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome of the medaka, Oryzias latipes | PNASA duplicated copy of DMRT1 in the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome of the medaka, Oryzias latipes | PNAS

The origin of DMRT1Y from an autosomal gene raises the question of what role gene duplication of sex determination and ... DMRT2, which is the next gene following DMRT3 on the autosomal cluster, is not found in the Y-specific region. ... The situation for a molecular analysis of sex determination is much more favorable in another fish model, the medaka (Oryzias ... DMRT1 is a candidate downstream sex-determination gene in mammals and appears to be involved in a certain type of XY sex ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/99/18/11778?ijkey=7bd9c6498a10a5de5b30b7a98d30834bfb40de46&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Sex determination in platypus and echidna: autosomal location ofSOX3confirms the absence ofSRYfrom monotremes | SpringerLinkSex determination in platypus and echidna: autosomal location ofSOX3confirms the absence ofSRYfrom monotremes | SpringerLink

... which triggers testis determination. Marsupials also have a Y-borne SRY gene, implyi ... sex is determined by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome-borne gene SRY, ... El-Mogharbel N, Wakefield M, Deakin JE, et al. (2007) DMRT gene cluster analysis in the platypus: new insights into genomic ... Ferguson-Smith MA (2007) The evolution of sex chromosomes and sex determination in vertebrates and the key role of DMRT1. Sex ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10577-007-1185-3

Sex-Specific Incompatibility Generates Locus-Specific Rates of Introgression Between Species | GeneticsSex-Specific Incompatibility Generates Locus-Specific Rates of Introgression Between Species | Genetics

We specified an autosomal marker gene and two autosomal incompatibility loci under multiplicative fitnesses and no linkage ... Our analysis extends previous work by accommodating sex specificity: differences between the sexes in the expression of ... For simplicity, we use terminology applicable to species with chromosomal sex determination in which males are heterogametic. ... where quantitative trait loci for hybrid pollen sterility tend to cluster (Strasburg et al. 2009). Lower introgression rates in ...
more infohttps://www.genetics.org/content/189/1/267

Non-coding RNA - WikipediaNon-coding RNA - Wikipedia

In drosophilids, which also use an XY sex-determination system, the roX (RNA on the X) RNAs are involved in dosage compensation ... The chromosomal locus containing the small nucleolar RNA SNORD115 gene cluster has been duplicated in approximately 5% of ... used 140kg of commercial bakers yeast to give just 1g of purified tRNAAla for analysis. The 80 nucleotide tRNA was sequenced ... Variation within the seed region of mature miR-96 has been associated with autosomal dominant, progressive hearing loss in ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-coding_RNA

Are ribosomal DNA clusters rearrangement hotspots? A case study in the genus Mus (Rodentia, Muridae) | BMC Evolutionary Biology...Are ribosomal DNA clusters rearrangement hotspots? A case study in the genus Mus (Rodentia, Muridae) | BMC Evolutionary Biology...

... and the temporal association between rDNA clusters, breakpoints and centromeres was tested by maximum likelihood analyses. Our ... of the observed breakpoints mapped near an rDNA cluster, and iv) a substantial rate of rDNA cluster change (insertion, deletion ... This study on the dynamics of rDNA clusters within the genus Mus has revealed a strong evolutionary relationship between rDNA ... The chromosomal distribution of rDNA clusters was determined by in situ hybridization of mouse probes in 19 species. Using a ...
more infohttps://bmcevolbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2148-11-124

Regulation of gene expression - WikipediaRegulation of gene expression - Wikipedia

Sex determination in the soma of a Drosophila requires the sensing of the ratio of autosomal genes to sex chromosome-encoded ... when densely clustered). Analysis of the pattern of methylation in a given region of DNA (which can be a promoter) can be ... "Gene modulation" redirects here. For information on therapeutic regulation of gene expression, see therapeutic gene modulation. ... Regulated stages of gene expression[edit]. Any step of gene expression may be modulated, from the DNA-RNA transcription step to ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gene_regulation

Chromosomal divergence and evolutionary inferences in Rhodniini based on the chromosomal location of ribosomal genesChromosomal divergence and evolutionary inferences in Rhodniini based on the chromosomal location of ribosomal genes

Pictipes lineage - In R. pictipes and R. stali, the rDNA clusters were located on the X and Y sex chromosomes (Fig. 2A, B, ... The determination of the chromosomal location of rDNA clusters is important to understanding karyotypic evolution in different ... We used FISH to analyse the chromosomal location of 45S rDNA clusters in the robustus and pictipes lineages and performed ... Autosomal synaptonemal complexes and sex chromosomes without axes in Triatoma infestans (Reduviidae, Hemiptera). Chromosoma 72 ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02762013000300376&lng=en&tlng=en

Items where Subject is Area 05 - Scienze biologiche | BIO/18 - Genetica - fedOAItems where Subject is "Area 05 - Scienze biologiche | BIO/18 - Genetica" - fedOA

... transcriptomics and CRISPR/CAS9 gene editing approaches to investigate embryonic sex determination in insect pest Ceratitis ... De Paolo, Sofia (2016) The inflorescence transcriptome of Orchis italica: analysis of coding and non-coding transcripts. [Tesi ... Mussolino, Claudio (2010) Mutation-independent treatment of autosomal dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa (adRP). [Tesi di dottorato ... Di Cara, Francesca (2007) Caratterizzazione molecolare delle unità trascrizionali del cluster 36 F ad espressione maschio- ...
more infohttp://www.fedoa.unina.it/view/subjects/BIO=5F18.html

Subject: population genetics - PubAg Search ResultsSubject: 'population genetics' - PubAg Search Results

... gene frequency; cluster analysis; Illinois; New York; Show all 11 Subjects. Abstract:. ... Aboveground and belowground ... population genetics, etc ; Musca domestica; males; sex determination; autosomes; geographical variation; latitude; insecticides ... A cline in frequency of autosomal males is not associated wtih insecticide resistance in house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) ... Analyses of variation at eight microsatellite loci p .... Handle:. 10113/1377. DOI:. 10.1603/0022-0493-99.3.685. PubMed:. ...
more infohttps://pubag.nal.usda.gov/?q=%22population+genetics%22&search_field=subject&sort=title

The BDGP Gene Disruption Project | GeneticsThe BDGP Gene Disruption Project | Genetics

B) Apollo display from the 65A larval cuticle protein gene cluster spanning ∼45 kb. No insertions in this region (solid regions ... Akerley, B. J., E. J. Rubin, V. L. Novick, K. Amaya, N. Judson et al., 2002 A genome-scale analysis for identification of genes ... Upon determination of the insertion site, the appropriate chromosome was balanced by backcrossing to the y w; L2/CyO; D1/TM3, ... We created lines by crossing them to y; ry506 flies of the opposite sex. The insertion-bearing chromosome of lines selected for ...
more infohttps://www.genetics.org/content/167/2/761?ijkey=03da40900b3098d4e007b807202f5e6164cac1ae&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Publications | Edwards LabPublications | Edwards Lab

... we also detect three statistically distinct clusters of gene trees among the 18 loci. Despite substantial variation in gene ... Chromatogram analysis showed that the sex chromosome composition of this female was ZZW. Together with two previously described ... Two models, Z Dosage and Dominant W, have been proposed to explain sex determination in birds, in which males are characterized ... a female triploid Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus identified by characteristic triallelic genotypes at 14 autosomal ...
more infohttps://edwards.oeb.harvard.edu/publications?page=3

Metabolic Studies Using Rat as Model Organism sub-cluster 21Metabolic Studies Using Rat as Model Organism sub-cluster 21

... we studied the sex-related differences and roles of sex steroids in liver ID1 mRNA levels in the rat. In both euthyroid and ... Differential display analysis was carried out to find, in the rat prostate, genes that could be regulated by Luteinizing ... Human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common inherited disease and displays a gender dimorphism in ... Expression and androgen regulation of the gene for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS I) were examined in neurons of the major ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/cluster/0/Metabolic-Studies-Using-Rat-as-Model-Organism/sub-21-p7.html

A Genome Search for Genetic Determinants That Influence Plasma Fibrinogen Levels | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular...A Genome Search for Genetic Determinants That Influence Plasma Fibrinogen Levels | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular...

Merlin-rapid analysis of dense genetic maps using sparse gene flow trees. Nat Genet. 2002; 30: 97-101. ... Age and sex were used as covariates in all of the analyses. Their effects were estimated simultaneously with the genetic ... It seems safe to conclude that this analysis showed that the effect of the fibrinogen locus in determination of fibrinogen ... Figure 1. Results from the autosomal multipoint genome scan. LOD scales are shown for all autosomes on which the maximum LOD ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/25/6/1287

The landscape of sex-differential transcriptome and its consequent selection in human adults | SpringerLinkThe landscape of sex-differential transcriptome and its consequent selection in human adults | SpringerLink

1). Besides the number of SDE genes, the tissues can also be clustered by the patterns of gene SDE scores. This analysis found ... examined the sex-specific genetic architecture of autosomal gene expression in whole blood samples from about one thousand men ... Bachtrog D, Mank JE, Peichel CL, Kirkpatrick M, Otto SP, Ashman T-L, Hahn MW, Kitano J, Mayrose I, Ming R. Sex determination: ... Gene enrichment analysis. Gene enrichment analysis was performed using the GeneAnalytics server, which can identify gene ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12915-017-0352-z

Characterization of the doublesex gene within the Culex pipiens complex suggests regulatory plasticity at the base of the...Characterization of the doublesex gene within the Culex pipiens complex suggests regulatory plasticity at the base of the...

... it is imperative to elucidate as much of the sex determination pathway as possible in the mosquito disease vectors. Here we ... Analysis of peptide evolutionary rates between Cxqdsx and Cxpipdsx (both members of the Culex pipiens complex) shows the male- ... the gene maintains functionality via evolutionarily conserved protein domains and sex-specific alternative splicing. The ... Utilizing next-gen sequence (NGS) data, we complete the Aeadsx gene model and identify a putative core promoter region in both ...
more infohttps://0-bmcevolbiol-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/s12862-015-0386-1
  • The chromosomal distribution of rDNA clusters was determined by in situ hybridization of mouse probes in 19 species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using a molecular-based reference tree, the phylogenetic distribution of clusters within the genus was reconstructed, and the temporal association between rDNA clusters, breakpoints and centromeres was tested by maximum likelihood analyses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • i) rDNA clusters showed extensive diversity in number between species and an almost exclusive pericentromeric location, ii) a strong association between rDNA sites and centromeres was retrieved which may be related to their shared constraint of concerted evolution, iii) 24% of the observed breakpoints mapped near an rDNA cluster, and iv) a substantial rate of rDNA cluster change (insertion, deletion) also occurred in the absence of chromosomal rearrangements. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study on the dynamics of rDNA clusters within the genus Mus has revealed a strong evolutionary relationship between rDNA clusters and centromeres. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridisation to determine the chromosomal location of 45S rDNA clusters in 10 species of the tribe Rhodniini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae). (scielo.br)
  • The rDNA variation in closely related species and the intraspecific polymorphism in Rhodnius ecuadoriensis suggested that the chromosomal position of rDNA clusters might be a useful marker to identify recently diverged species or populations. (scielo.br)
  • MUTATIONS represent an essential tool for analyzing gene function. (genetics.org)
  • We also identified a significant association between sex-specific gene transcription and reduced selection efficiency and accumulation of deleterious mutations, which might affect the prevalence of different traits and diseases. (springer.com)
  • None of the patients had mutations of the lipoprotein lipase gene common in subjects of French-Canadian descent. (ahajournals.org)
  • Parkinson's disease is sometimes thought of as consisting of an early-onset form, characterized by familial clustering and high penetrance mutations, and a late-onset form, which occurs more sporadically. (plos.org)
  • To explore this possibility, we employed clinical and fundamental approaches to systematically assess the impact reduced cohesion gene expression has on CIN and cancer. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We previously demonstrated that genome reorganization, through chromosome territory repositioning, occurred concurrently with significant changes in gene expression in normal primary human fibroblasts. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Expression at time point E11 in males was significantly enriched in RNA splicing and mRNA processing Gene Ontology terms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • AS is a ubiquitous regulatory mechanism of gene expression that has functions in developmental processes, regulating tissue and organ development and disease [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, the examination of developmental dynamics, estimating isoform expression and new AS events offers improved resolution over gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, respond to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virtually any step of gene expression can be modulated, from transcriptional initiation, to RNA processing, and to the post-translational modification of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initiating event leading to a change in gene expression includes activation or deactivation of receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any step of gene expression may be modulated, from the DNA-RNA transcription step to post-translational modification of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following is a list of stages where gene expression is regulated, the most extensively utilised point is Transcription Initiation: Chromatin domains Transcription Post-transcriptional modification RNA transport Translation mRNA degradation In eukaryotes, the accessibility of large regions of DNA can depend on its chromatin structure, which can be altered as a result of histone modifications directed by DNA methylation, ncRNA, or DNA-binding protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence these modifications may up or down regulate the expression of a gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of these modifications that regulate gene expression are inheritable and are referred to as epigenetic regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such modifications are considered to be responsible for more or less permanent changes in gene expression levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The combination of the two seems to be a signal for DNA to be packed more densely, lowering gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Repressors bind to the Operator, coding sequences on the DNA strand that are close to or overlapping the promoter region, impeding RNA polymerase's progress along the strand, thus impeding the expression of the gene.The image to the right demonstrates regulation by a repressor in the lac operon. (wikipedia.org)
  • For information on therapeutic regulation of gene expression, see therapeutic gene modulation . (wikipedia.org)
  • For vocabulary, see Glossary of gene expression terms . (wikipedia.org)
  • Sex steroid hormones have been shown to affect the expression of CYP2D in rat brain. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Expression and androgen regulation of the gene for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS I) were examined in neurons of the major pelvic ganglia in male rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The analysis of repetitive sequences showed that the number of retroelements and simple repeat per BAC showed its highest value in the subcentromeric region where 53B20, 16E16 and 48K7 BACs were localized. (mdpi.com)
  • The coding regions are defined, in part, by an alternative series of motifs responsible for a variety of functions that take place on the DNA and RNA sequences, such as, gene regulation, RNA transcription, RNA splicing, and DNA methylation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, some of these sequences are overlapped one to another, for example, the CpG islands (CGI), which complicates analysis of the genomic landscape. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 9 Moreover, there is strong evidence indicating that increased fibrinogen clusters with other cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, and smoking. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2 The measurement of HDL-associated apolipoproteins, especially apo AI and apo AII, has little additional predictive value over the measurement of HDL-C. 3 The measurement of HDL-C level is important in the determination of cardiovascular risk, 4 and it appears to be predictive of future coronary events. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions: A more complete examination of samples that may be mislabeled, contaminated, or have poor performance due to technical problems will improve downstream analyses and replication of findings. (deepdyve.com)
  • Marsupials also have a Y-borne SRY gene, implying that this mechanism is ancestral to therians, the SRY gene having diverged from its X-borne homologue SOX3 at least 180 million years ago. (springer.com)
  • In this study we show that its partner SOX3 is autosomal in platypus and echidna, mapping among human X chromosome orthologues to platypus chromosome 6, and to the homologous chromosome 16 in echidna. (springer.com)
  • In the same year he moved to the Australian National University where he led and international team that resolved the longstanding controversy about the complex sex chromosome system in the platypus. (edu.au)
  • 2007) Search for the sex determining switch in monotremes: Mapping WT1 , SF1 , LHX1 , LHX9 , FGF9 , WNT4 , RSPO1 and GATA4 in platypus. (springer.com)
  • 17 Positive findings were reported between the G allele of the -455 G/A polymorphism in the fibrinogen β-chain gene and coronary artery disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Quantitative Southern blot analysis of the apo AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster reveals no gene rearrangements or allele deletion. (ahajournals.org)
  • The resultant TRA/TRA2 peptide complex binds the dsx mRNA at the dsx repeat element (dsxRE), facilitated by the purine-rich enhancer (PRE) element [ 12 , 13 ], and directs sex-specific splicing of dsx mRNA for translation into male (DSX M ) or female (DSX F ) peptides. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Approximately 6300 lines that maximize genomic coverage were selected to be sent to the Bloomington Stock Center for public distribution, bringing the size of the BDGP gene disruption collection to 7140 lines. (genetics.org)
  • The reconstruction of the Tree of Life has relied almost entirely on concatenation methods, which do not accommodate gene tree heterogeneity, a property that simulations and theory have identified as a likely cause of incongruent phylogenies. (harvard.edu)
  • In contrast, the coalescent methods, which accommodate gene tree heterogeneity, yield a phylogeny that is robust to variable gene and taxon sampling and is congruent with geographic data. (harvard.edu)
  • 16 In these studies, Humphries et al 14,15 reported that between 5% and 9% of fibrinogen variability could be explained by the β-chain polymorphisms, whereas 4.2% was determined by the fibrinogen α-chain gene. (ahajournals.org)
  • Analysis of peptide evolutionary rates between Cxqdsx and Cxpipdsx (both members of the Culex pipiens complex) shows the male-specific portion of the transcript to have evolved rapidly with respect to female-specific and common regions. (beds.ac.uk)
  • molecular analyses have recovered estimated divergence times that are more compatible with the fossil record. (harvard.edu)
  • That work also reported an overlap of eQTLs and genome-wide association study single nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with sex-biased diseases. (springer.com)
  • As the induction of sex ratio biases is a central mode of action in many emerging molecular insecticides, it is imperative to elucidate as much of the sex determination pathway as possible in the mosquito disease vectors. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Whereas the literature from a low signal-to-noise ratio of fluorescence intensi- about preprocessing and statistical analysis of microar- ties), probes with too few beads, or discarding subsets of raydataisextensive [1, the need for upstream quality probes that are considered unreliable based on design fea- tures (e.g., those being cross-reactive or close to SNPs). (deepdyve.com)
  • Delbridge ML, Lingenfelter PA, Disteche CM, Graves JAM (1999) The candidate spermatogenesis gene RBMY has a homologue on the human X chromosome. (springer.com)