Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Caspase Inhibitors: Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Caspase 6: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 7; CASPASE 8; and CASPASE 10. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Caspase 7: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 3 and CASPASE 10. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones: Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Caspase 9: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.Caspases, Effector: A subclass of caspases that contain short pro-domain regions. They are activated by the proteolytic action of INITIATOR CASPASES. Once activated they cleave a variety of substrates that cause APOPTOSIS.Caspase 8: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Caspase 2: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its caspase recruitment domain with CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 2 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating effector pro-caspases. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Caspases, Initiator: A subtype of caspases that contain long pro-domain regions that regulate the activation of the enzyme. The pro-domain regions contain protein-protein interaction motifs that can interact with specific signaling adaptor proteins such as DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS; DED SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS; and CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Once activated, the initiator caspases can activate other caspases such as the EFFECTOR CASPASES.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein: An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that is translated by a rare cap-independent mechanism. It blocks caspase-mediated cellular destruction by inhibiting CASPASE 3; CASPASE 7; and CASPASE 9.DNA Fragmentation: Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins: A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.Caspase 1: A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1: A CARD signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in the mitochondria-stimulated apoptosis (APOPTOSIS, INTRINSIC PATHWAY). It binds to CYTOCHROME C in the CYTOSOL to form an APOPTOSOMAL PROTEIN COMPLEX and activates INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Caspase 10: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 10 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.bcl-2-Associated X Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.bcl-X Protein: A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.Apoptosomes: Multimeric protein complexes formed in the CYTOSOL that play a role in the activation of APOPTOSIS. They can occur when MITOCHONDRIA become damaged due to cell stress and release CYTOCHROME C. Cytosolic cytochrome C associates with APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1 to form the apoptosomal protein complex. The apoptosome signals apoptosis by binding to and activating specific INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Apoptosis Inducing Factor: A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.Staurosporine: An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Calpain: Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 126.96.36.199.Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein: A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Caspase 12: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 12 is activated by pro-apoptotic factors that are released during cell stress and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Serpins: A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Annexin A5: A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Granzymes: A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cascara: Dried aged bark of a buckthorn, Frangula purshiana (FRANGULA), that contains the anthraquinone EMODIN and cascarosides. It is used as a laxative (CATHARTICS).Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.CRADD Signaling Adaptor Protein: A death domain receptor signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in signaling the activation of INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 2. It contains a death domain that is specific for RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES and a caspase-binding domain that binds to and activates CASPASES such as CASPASE 2.bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein: A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Caspase 14: A short pro-domain caspase that is almost exclusively expressed in the EPIDERMIS and may play a role in the differentiation of epidermal KERATINOCYTES.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Genes, bcl-2: The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by interacting with a variety of signaling adaptor proteins such as CRADD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEIN; TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2; and TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Although they were initially described as death domain-binding adaptor proteins, members of this family may contain other protein-binding domains such as those involving caspase activation and recruitment.Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins: Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Lamins: Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Coumarins: Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.U937 Cells: A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Receptors, Death Domain: A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.FlavoproteinsAdaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesTosyllysine Chloromethyl Ketone: An inhibitor of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES. Acts as an alkylating agent and is known to interfere with the translation process.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein: An APOPTOSIS-regulating protein that is structurally related to CASPASE 8 and competes with CASPASE 8 for binding to FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Two forms of CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulating protein exist, a long form containing a caspase-like enzymatically inactive domain and a short form which lacks the caspase-like domain.Bongkrekic Acid: An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.bcl-Associated Death Protein: A pro-apoptotic protein and member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by PHOSPHORYLATION. Unphosphorylated Bad protein inhibits the activity of BCL-XL PROTEIN.Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Propidium: Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
"Entrez Gene: CARD11 caspase recruitment domain family, member 11". Bertin J, Wang L, Guo Y, Jacobson MD, Poyet JL, Srinivasula ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CARD11 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the membrane-associated ... Human CARD11 genome location and CARD11 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Hillier LD, Lennon G, Becker M, Bonaldo ... This protein is also a member of the CARD protein family, which is defined by carrying a characteristic caspase-associated ...
"Entrez Gene: caspase recruitment domain family". Bertin J, Wang L, Guo Y, Jacobson MD, Poyet JL, Srinivasula SM, Merriam S, ... The CARD14 gene was recently identified as the first gene directly linked to the most common form of Psoriasis. It has been ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CARD14 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the membrane-associated ... This protein is also a member of the CARD protein family, which is defined by carrying a characteristic caspase-associated ...
"CARD11 caspase recruitment domain family, member 11 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". NCBI > Genes & Expression > Gene. NCBI. ... BENTA disease is caused by germline-encoded gain-of-function mutations in the gene CARD11. This is a 138 kB gene mapping to ... "Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 11 [Homo sapiens]". NCBI. Retrieved 4 September 2014. Kniffin, Cassandra. "# ... and is caused by germline heterozygous gain-of-function mutations in the gene CARD11 (see OMIM entry #607210). This disorder is ...
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HNRNPU gene. This gene belongs to the ... During apoptosis, this protein is cleaved in a caspase-dependent way. Cleavage occurs at the SALD site, resulting in a loss of ... "Entrez Gene: HNRNPU heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (scaffold attachment factor A)". Martens JH, Verlaan M, Kalkhoven ... The protein encoded by this gene contains a RNA binding domain and scaffold-associated region (SAR)-specific bipartite DNA- ...
Receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RIPK2 gene. This gene ... Lee SH, Stehlik C, Reed JC (2001). "Cop, a caspase recruitment domain-containing protein and inhibitor of caspase-1 activation ... "Entrez Gene: RIPK2 receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 2". McCarthy, J V; Ni J; Dixit V M (Jul 1998). "RIP2 is a novel ... The encoded protein contains a C-terminal caspase recruitment domain (CARD), and is a component of signaling complexes in both ...
das Fehlen einer CARD (caspase recruitment domain). * das Fehlen einer RING-Domäne (really interesting new gene) ... R. J. Clem u. a.: Control of programmed cell death by the baculovirus genes p35 and iap. In: Mol. Cell Biol. 14, 1994, S. 5212- ... G. Ambrosini u. a.: A novel anti-apoptosis gene, survivin, expressed in cancer and lymphoma. In: Nature Medicine. Bd. 8, 1997, ... N. E. Crook u. a.: An apoptosis-inhibiting baculovirus gene with a zinc fingerlike motif. In: J. Virol. 67, 1993, S. 2168-2174 ...
Intraflagellar transport protein 57 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IFT57 gene. IFT57 has been shown to ... "Recruitment and activation of caspase-8 by the Huntingtin-interacting protein Hip-1 and a novel partner Hippi". Nat. Cell Biol ... "Entrez Gene: IFT57 intraflagellar transport 57 homolog (Chlamydomonas)". Gervais FG, Singaraja R, Xanthoudakis S, Gutekunst CA ... "Recruitment and activation of caspase-8 by the Huntingtin-interacting protein Hip-1 and a novel partner Hippi". Nat. Cell Biol ...
Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 is an adaptor protein that in humans is encoded by the CARD9 gene. CARD9 is a ... "Entrez Gene: CARD9 caspase recruitment domain family, member 9". Gross O, Gewies A, Finger K, Schäfer M, Sparwasser T, Peschel ... Mutations in this gene have been associated to inflammatory diseases such as Ankylosing spondylitis and inflammatory bowel ... "CARD9 is a novel caspase recruitment domain-containing protein that interacts with BCL10/CLAP and activates NF-kappa B". J. ...
"Entrez Gene: ACIN1 apoptotic chromatin condensation inducer 1". Human ACIN1 genome location and ACIN1 gene details page in the ... Sahara S, Aoto M, Eguchi Y, Imamoto N, Yoneda Y, Tsujimoto Y (Sep 1999). "Acinus is a caspase-3-activated protein required for ... 2001). "Caspase activation is required for terminal erythroid differentiation". J. Exp. Med. 193 (2): 247-54. doi:10.1084/jem. ... 2007). "The ACIN1 gene is hypermethylated in early stage lung adenocarcinoma". Journal of thoracic oncology : official ...
Chen, Y R; Kori R; John B; Tan T H (Nov 2001). "Caspase-mediated cleavage of actin-binding and SH3-domain-containing proteins ... Hematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HCLS1 gene. HCLS1 has been shown to ... "Entrez Gene: HCLS1 hematopoietic cell-specific Lyn substrate 1". Ruzzene, Maria; Penzo Daniele; Pinna Lorenzo A (May 2002). " ... Chen YR, Kori R, John B, Tan TH (2001). "Caspase-mediated cleavage of actin-binding and SH3-domain-containing proteins ...
Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 10 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CARD10 gene. The caspase ... "Entrez Gene: CARD10 caspase recruitment domain family, member 10". Wang L, Guo Y, Huang WJ, Ke X, Poyet JL, Manji GA, Merriam S ... Human CARD10 genome location and CARD10 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Dunham I, Shimizu N, Roe BA, Chissoe S, ... "Card10 is a novel caspase recruitment domain/membrane-associated guanylate kinase family member that interacts with BCL10 and ...
Caspase, an enzyme which plays a role in catalyzing apoptosis, is thought to be activated by the mutated gene through damaging ... Gene silencing aims to reduce the production of the mutant protein, since HD is caused by a single dominant gene encoding a ... Similarly, gene splicing techniques are being looked at to try to repair a genome with the erroneous gene that causes HD, using ... If the repeat is present in a healthy gene, a dynamic mutation may increase the repeat count and result in a defective gene. ...
"Entrez Gene: Gasdermin D". Retrieved 2016-08-26. Dixit, Vishva (2015). "Caspase-11 cleaves gasdermin D for non-canonical ... Gasdermin D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GSDMD gene. Gasdermin D (GSDMD) is a member of the gasdermin family. ... Shao, Feng (2015). "Cleavage of GSDMD by inflammatory caspases determines pyroptotic cell death". Nature. 000. Lieberman (2016 ... Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 48 (3): 261-71. doi:10.1002/gcc.20636. PMID 19051310. This article incorporates text from the United ...
2000). "Frequent nuclear localization of ICAD and cytoplasmic co-expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3 in human lymphomas". J. ... "Entrez Gene: DFFA DNA fragmentation factor, 45kDa, alpha polypeptide". Fukushima K, Kikuchi J, Koshiba S, Kigawa T, Kuroda Y, ... 1998). "A caspase-activated DNase that degrades DNA during apoptosis, and its inhibitor ICAD". Nature. 391 (6662): 43-50. doi: ... Liu X, Zou H, Slaughter C, Wang X (May 1997). "DFF, a heterodimeric protein that functions downstream of caspase-3 to trigger ...
"Entrez Gene: COP1 caspase-1 dominant-negative inhibitor pseudo-ICE". Human CARD16 genome location and CARD16 gene details page ... Fagol Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 16 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CARD16 gene. GRCh38: ... 2006). "Protective role of Cop in Rip2/caspase-1/caspase-4-mediated HeLa cell death". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1762 (8): 742-54 ... 2006). "Dysregulation of receptor interacting protein-2 and caspase recruitment domain only protein mediates aberrant caspase-1 ...
... gene on chromosome 12. DIABLO is also referred to as second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases or SMAC. This protein ... to inhibit their caspase-binding activity and allow for caspase activation of apoptosis. SMAC is ubiquitously expressed in many ... "A conserved XIAP-interaction motif in caspase-9 and Smac/DIABLO regulates caspase activity and apoptosis". Nature. 410 (6824): ... This gene encodes a 130 Å-long, arch-shaped homodimer protein. The full-length protein product spans 239 residues, 55 of which ...
"Entrez Gene: NOL3 nucleolar protein 3 (apoptosis repressor with CARD domain)". Stoss O, Schwaiger FW, Cooper TA, Stamm S (Apr ... Wang M, Qanungo S, Crow MT, Watanabe M, Nieminen AL (2005). "Apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC) is ... Nucleolar protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NOL3 gene. NOL3 has been shown to interact with SFRS9 and ... Ekhterae D, Platoshyn O, Zhang S, Remillard CV, Yuan JX (2003). "Apoptosis repressor with caspase domain inhibits cardiomyocyte ...
Pro-interleukin-16 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL16 gene. This gene was discovered in 1982 at Boston ... Caspase 3 is reported to be involved in the proteolytic processing of this protein. Two alternatively spliced transcript ... This cytokine is produced as a precursor peptide (pro-IL-16) that requires processing by an enzyme called caspase-3 to become ... The protein encoded by this gene is a pleiotropic cytokine that functions as a chemoattractant, a modulator of T cell ...
The NLRP1 protein interacts strongly with caspase 2 and weakly with caspase 9. Overexpression of this gene was demonstrated to ... This gene encodes a member of the Ced-4 family of apoptosis proteins. Ced-family members contain a caspase recruitment domain ( ... "Entrez Gene: NLRP1 NLR family, pyrin domain containing 1". Chu ZL, Pio F, Xie Z, Welsh K, Krajewska M, Krajewski S, Godzik A, ... Damiano JS, Stehlik C, Pio F, Godzik A, Reed JC (2001). "CLAN, a novel human CED-4-like gene". Genomics. 75 (1-3): 77-83. doi: ...
"Entrez Gene: XAF1 XIAP associated factor-1". Fong WG, Liston P, Rajcan-Separovic E, St Jean M, Craig C, Korneluk RG (2000). " ... cysteine-rich domains of approximately 80 amino acids that bind and inhibit caspases (e.g., CASP3; MIM 600636). XIAP has 3 BIR ... XIAP-associated factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the XAF1 gene. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP; MIM ... Micali OC, Cheung HH, Plenchette S, Hurley SL, Liston P, LaCasse EC, Korneluk RG (2007). "Silencing of the XAF1 gene by ...
... human gene location in the UCSC Genome Browser. NOD1 human gene details in the UCSC Genome Browser.. ... NOD1 protein contains a caspase recruitment domain (CARD). NOD1 is a member of NOD-like receptor protein family and is a close ... Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 is a protein receptor that in humans is encoded by the NOD1 gene ... 2004). "The Status, Quality, and Expansion of the NIH Full-Length cDNA Project: The Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ...
Baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 2
"IAPs block apoptotic events induced by caspase-8 and cytochrome c by direct inhibition of distinct caspases". EMBO J. 17 (8): ... Baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 2 (also known as cIAP1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BIRC2 gene. ... "IAPs block apoptotic events induced by caspase-8 and cytochrome c by direct inhibition of distinct caspases". EMBO J. 17 (8): ... cIAP1 is a member of the Inhibitor of Apoptosis family that inhibit apoptosis by interfering with the activation of caspases. ...
When overexpressed, this gene has been shown to mediate caspase-dependent apoptosis. ENSG00000278268 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... Modulator of apoptosis 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MOAP1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene was ... "Entrez Gene: MOAP1 modulator of apoptosis 1". Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA (2001). "DNA cloning using in vitro site- ... 2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ...
Sadasivam S, Gupta S, Radha V, Batta K, Kundu TK, Swarup G (Jan 2005). "Caspase-1 activator Ipaf is a p53-inducible gene ... "Entrez Gene: NLRC4 NLR family, CARD domain containing 4". Hu Z, Yan C, Liu P, Huang Z, Ma R, Zhang C, Wang R, Zhang Y, Martinon ... NLR family CARD domain-containing protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NLRC4 gene. The NLRC4 protein is ... Damiano JS, Stehlik C, Pio F, Godzik A, Reed JC (Jul 2001). "CLAN, a novel human CED-4-like gene". Genomics. 75 (1-3): 77-83. ...
Death effector domain containing protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEDD gene. This gene encodes a protein ... Alcivar A, Hu S, Tang J, Yang X (Jan 2003). "DEDD and DEDD2 associate with caspase-8/10 and signal cell death". Oncogene. 22 (2 ... Overexpression of this gene was shown to induce weak apoptosis. Upon stimulation, this protein was found to translocate from ... "Entrez Gene: DEDD death effector domain containing". Zhan Y, Hegde R, Srinivasula SM, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Alnemri ES (Apr 2002 ...
HtrA serine peptidase 2
This protein is involved in caspase-dependent apoptosis and in Parkinson's disease. The gene HTRA2 encodes a serine protease. ... Omi interacts with caspase-inhibitor XIAP and induces enhanced caspase activity". Cell Death and Differentiation. 9 (1): 20-6. ... irreversibly inactivates IAPs and facilitates caspase activity in apoptosis". Genes & Development. 17 (12): 1487-96. doi: ... reducing the cell's inhibition to caspase activation. In summary, HTRA2/Omi contributes to apoptosis through both caspase- ...
Targeted molecular therapy for neuroblastoma
Genetic abnormalities frequently occur in a tumor-suppressor gene called caspase 8. Inactivation of this gene will result in ... ALK inhibitors can also be used to treat another cause of neuroblastoma referred to as MYCN gene amplification. Amplification ... al (2012). "Genotype analysis of tumor-initiating cells expressing CD133 in neuroblastoma". Gene Chromosome Canc. 51: 792-804. ...
There are two types of caspases: initiator caspases, caspase 2,8,9,10,11,12, and effector caspases, caspase 3,6,7. The ... This assay is used to disrupt gene function by creating an intragenic gene fusion. When an APAF-1 gene trap is introduced into ... caspase-8 and caspase-10. In some types of cells (type I), processed caspase-8 directly activates other members of the caspase ... Caspase-independent apoptosis. The characterization of the caspases allowed the development of caspase inhibitors, which ...
There are two types of caspases: initiator caspases, caspase 2,8,9,10,11,12, and effector caspases, caspase 3,6,7. The ... This assay is used to disrupt gene function by creating an intragenic gene fusion. When an APAF-1 gene trap is introduced into ... caspase-8 and caspase-10. In some types of cells (type I), processed caspase-8 directly activates other members of the caspase ... Caspases Caspases play the central role in the transduction of ER apoptotic signals. Caspases are proteins that are highly ...
The protein encoded by this gene shares strong similarity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Cdc27, and the gene product of ... Zhou BB, Li H, Yuan J, Kirschner MW (Jun 1998). "Caspase-dependent activation of cyclin-dependent kinases during Fas-induced ... "Entrez Gene: CDC27 cell division cycle 27 homolog (S. cerevisiae)". Vodermaier HC, Gieffers C, Maurer-Stroh S, Eisenhaber F, ... Cell division cycle protein 27 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDC27 gene. ...
Cruts M, Hendriks L, Van Broeckhoven C (1997). "The presenilin genes: a new gene family involved in Alzheimer disease pathology ... of the presenilin 1/beta-catenin interaction and preservation of the heterodimeric presenilin 1 complex following caspase ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • PDZ domain binding. • cadherin binding. • peptidase activity. • beta-catenin binding. • ... "Entrez Gene: PSEN1 presenilin 1 (Alzheimer disease 3)".. *^ Chan YM, Jan YN (August 1998). "Roles for proteolysis and ...
Genes. Number of genes. The following are some of the gene count estimates of human chromosome 16. Because ... CASP16P: encoding protein Caspase 16, pseudogene. *CCDC113: encoding protein Coiled-coil domain-containing protein 113 ... Gene list. See also: Category:Genes on human chromosome 16.. The following is a partial list of genes on human chromosome ... So CCDS's gene number prediction represents a lower bound on the total number of human protein-coding genes. ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Kaplan AS, Levitan RD, Yilmaz Z, Davis C, Tharmalingam S, Kennedy JL (January 2008). "A DRD4/BDNF gene-gene interaction ... condensed apoptotic nuclei and a 2-4 fold increase in cortical precursors that stained immunopositive for cleaved caspase-3.[30 ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene. ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • receptor binding. • neurotrophin TRKB receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • GO: ...
Gene expression profiling revealed the prevalence of specific fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and FGF receptors in NSCLC cell ... the Smac mimetic promotes formation of a RIPK1-dependent caspase-8-activating complex, leading to apoptosis. Recent studies ... Recent research revealed that IL-6 secretion induced by HER2 overexpression activated STAT3 and altered gene expression, ... or β-catenin promote β-catenin stabilization and transcription of genes encoding cancer-associated proteins. Furthermore, in ...
... whereas most bacteria possess heat shock genes hslV and hslU, whose gene products are a multimeric protease arranged in a two- ... The resulting deconstruction of cellular components is primarily carried out by specialized proteases known as caspases, but ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-Jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ... Sharp PM, Li WH (1987). "Ubiquitin genes as a paradigm of concerted evolution of tandem repeats". Journal of Molecular ...
Innate immune system
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q IMMUNOLOGY - CHAPTER ONE - INNATE (NON-SPECIFIC) IMMUNITY Gene Mayer, Ph.D. Immunology ... HR has some similarities to animal pyroptosis, such as a requirement of caspase-1-like proteolytic activity of VPEγ, a cysteine ... On one hand, γδ T cells may be considered a component of adaptive immunity in that they rearrange TCR genes to produce ... November 2004). "VPEgamma exhibits a caspase-like activity that contributes to defense against pathogens". Current Biology. 14 ...
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
Gene. The human TNF gene (TNFA) was cloned in 1985. It maps to chromosome 6p21.3, spans about 3 kilobases and ... Nevertheless, TRADD binds FADD, which then recruits the cysteine protease caspase-8. A high concentration of caspase-8 induces ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • protein binding. • protease binding. • ... negative regulation of gene expression. • protein localization to plasma membrane. • positive regulation of protein catabolic ...
Epigenetics of neurodegenerative diseases
Hallmarks include mutations to the alpha-synuclein gene, SNCA, as well as PARK2, PINK1, UCHL1, DJ1, and LRRK2 genes, and ... "Critical loss of CBP/p300 histone acetylase activity by caspase-6 during neurodegeneration". primary. The EMBO Journal. 22 (24 ... A gene called c9orf72 was found to have a hexanucleotide repeat in the non-coding region of the gene in association with ALS ... To date, multiple genes and proteins have been implicated in ALS. One of the common themes between many of these genes and ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Kaplan AS, Levitan RD, Yilmaz Z, Davis C, Tharmalingam S, Kennedy JL (January 2008). "A DRD4/BDNF gene-gene interaction ... condensed apoptotic nuclei and a 2-4 fold increase in cortical precursors that stained immunopositive for cleaved caspase-3.[27 ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene. BDNF ... The BDNF protein is encoded by a gene that is also called BDNF, found in humans on chromosome 11. Structurally, BDNF ...
Caspase 9 can then go on to activate caspase 3 and caspase 7, which are responsible for destroying the cell from within. ... "Entrez Gene: cytochrome c".. *^ Tafani M, Karpinich NO, Hurster KA, Pastorino JG, Schneider T, Russo MA, Farber JL (Mar 2002 ... Caspase 3. Pro-apoptotic:. BAX. BAK1/Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer. Bcl-2-associated death promoter. Anti-apoptotic:. Bcl- ... Apoptosis & Caspase 3 - PMAP The Proteolysis Map-animation. *UMich Orientation of Proteins in Membranes families/superfamily-78 ...
Nakayama K, Hara T, Hibi M, Hirano T, Miyajima A (August 1999). "A novel oncostatin M-inducible gene OIG37 forms a gene family ... This protein was reported to be specifically cleaved by CASP3-like caspases, which thus leads to a dramatic activation of CDK2 ... "Entrez Gene: CDKN1A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)".. *^ Gartel AL, Radhakrishnan SK (May 2005). "Lost in ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • metal ion binding. • protein binding. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 10 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... "A novel form of DAP5 protein accumulates in apoptotic cells as a result of caspase cleavage and internal ribosome entry site- ... Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit A (eIF3a) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF3A gene. ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • protein binding. • structural molecule activity. • translation initiation factor activity ...
Factor de necrose tumoral alfa, a enciclopedia libre
Non obstante, a TRADD únese a FADD, o cal despois recruta a cisteína protease caspase-8. Unha alta concentración de caspase-8 ... "Genes Dev 25 (19): 2069-78. PMC 3197205. PMID 21979919. doi:10.1101/gad.17224711.. ... Por outra parte, as caspases activadas clivan varios compoñentes da vía NF-κB, incluíndo a RIP, IKK, e as propias subunidades ... "Human lymphotoxin and tumor necrosis factor genes: structure, homology and chromosomal localization". Nucleic Acids Res. 13 ...
Programmed cell death
Excess progenitor cell proliferation that leads to gross brain abnormalities is often lethal, as seen in caspase-3 or caspase-9 ... The ATG genes control the autophagosome formation through ATG12-ATG5 and LC3-II (ATG8-II) complexes. ATG12 is conjugated to ... Kuida, K (1998). "Reduced apoptosis and cytochrome c-mediated caspase activation in mice lacking caspase 9". Cell. 94: 325-337 ... c-Myc is involved in the regulation of apoptosis via its role in downregulating the Bcl-2 gene. Its role the disordered growth ...
망막색소상피세포 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전
Gene expression of the insulin-like growth factors and their receptors in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells. ... Martinon F, Burns K, Tschopp J (2002). "The inflammasome: a molecular platform triggering activation of inflammatory caspases ... Ferrari S, Di Iorio E, Barbaro V, Ponzin D, Sorrentino FS, Parmeggiani F, Retinitis pigmentosa: genes and disease mechanisms, ... Cellular adhesion regulates bFGF gene expression in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Exp Eye Res 58: 545-552, 1994 ...
It is an energy dependent process mediated by proteolytic enzymes called caspases, which trigger cell death through the ... DNA damages may block replication or gene transcription. These blockages can lead to cell death. In multicellular organisms, ... Genes Cells. 11 (7): 767-778. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2443.2006.00982.x. PMID 16824196.. ... "Elevated levels of mutation in multiple tissues of mice deficient in the DNA mismatch repair gene Pms2". Proc Natl Acad Sci U ...
H. Robert Horvitz initially established the importance of caspases in apoptosis and found that the ced-3 gene is required for ... Executioner Caspases (Caspase 3, Caspase 6 and Caspase 7). Once initiator caspases are activated, they produce a chain reaction ... Caspase-1, Caspase-4, Caspase-5 and Caspase-11 are considered 'Inflammatory Caspases'. ... Caspase-1, Caspase-4 and Caspase-5 in humans, and Caspase-1 and Caspase-11 in mice play important roles in inducing cell death ...
Interferencia de ARN, a enciclopedia libre
Izquierdo M (2005). "Short interfering RNAs as a tool for cancer gene therapy". Cancer Gene Ther 12 (3): 217-27. PMID 15550938 ... "Caspase 8 small interfering RNA prevents acute liver failure in mice". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100 (13): 7797-802. PMC 164667 ... "Introduction of a Chimeric Chalcone Synthase Gene into Petunia Results in Reversible Co-Suppression of Homologous Genes in ... Bass B (2000). "Double-stranded RNA as a template for gene silencing". Cell 101 (3): 235-8. PMID 10847677. doi:10.1016/S0092- ...
This complex then cleaves procaspase-9, activating caspase-9 and eventually inducing apoptosis via caspase-3 activation. Hsp70 ... The following is a list of currently named human HSP110 genes. HSPH2-4 are proposed names and the current name is linked: ... The following is a list of human Hsp70 genes and their corresponding proteins: ... that indicated the elevated gene transcription of an unknown protein. This was later described as the "Heat Shock ...
Farnesoid X receptor
"Entrez Gene: NR1H4 nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4".. *^ a b Forman BM, Goode E, Chen J, Oro AE, Bradley DJ, ... Stegh AH, Barnhart BC, Volkland J, Algeciras-Schimnich A, Ke N, Reed JC, Peter ME (Feb 2002). "Inactivation of caspase-8 on ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding. • sequence-specific DNA ... "Human kininogen gene is transactivated by the farnesoid X receptor". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (31): 28765-70. ...
Expression of this gene is up-regulated by interleukin-2.. References. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... This article on a gene on human chromosome 11 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. *v ... Caspase. *Caspase 1. *Caspase 2. *Caspase 3. *Caspase 4. *Caspase 5. *Caspase 6 ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • peptidase activity. • cysteine-type endopeptidase activity. • cysteine-type peptidase ...
"Reduced apoptosis and cytochrome c-mediated caspase activation in mice lacking caspase 9". Cell. 94 (3): 325-37. doi:10.1016/ ... Genes that influence cortical progenitor dynamics, neurogenesis and neuronal migration, as well as genes that influence the ... Trnp1 is a DNA-binding factor that has been shown to regulate other genes that regulate the proliferation of cortical ... The first gene reported to influence gyrification was Trnp1. Local expression levels of Trnp1, can determine the future ...
Ugonjwa wa Alzheimer, kamusi elezo huru
Virulent Newcastle disease
ITPR2 - Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
ITPR2 (do inglês, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor, type 2) é uma proteína que é codificado pelo gene humano ITPR2. A ... Diaz F, Bourguignon LY (2000). «Selective down-regulation of IP(3)receptor subtypes by caspases and calpain during TNF alpha - ... Entrez Gene: inositol 1». *↑ Yamamoto-Hino M, Sugiyama T, Hikichi K; et al. (1994). «Cloning and characterization of human type ... Ontologia do gene. Função molecular. •inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive calcium-release channel activity. •calcium ion ...
Gene. In humans, the gene that encodes TRAIL is located at chromosome 3q26, which is not close to other TNF family ... TRAIL binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase ... "NCBI Gene.. *^ a b Cormier Z (February 2013). "Small-molecule drug drives cancer cells to suicide". Nature. 494. doi:10.1038/ ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • cytokine activity. • metal ion binding. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • tumor necrosis ...
"Evidence That Caspase-13 Is Not a Human but a Bovine Gene". doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.5315.. ... Executioner Caspases (Caspase 3, Caspase 6 and Caspase 7). Once initiator caspases are activated, they produce a chain reaction ... Caspase-1, Caspase-4, Caspase-5 and Caspase-11 are considered 'Inflammatory Caspases'. ... Caspase-1, Caspase-4 and Caspase-5 in humans, and Caspase-1 and Caspase-11 in mice play important roles in inducing cell death ...
Multiple sequence alignment
Higgins DG, Sharp PM (1988). "CLUSTAL: a package for performing multiple sequence alignment on a microcomputer". Gene. 73 (1): ... Alignment of the seven Drosophila caspases colored by motifs as identified by MEME. When motif positions and sequence ... they can be extracted from unaligned sequences using a precalculated set of common motifs previously generated from known gene ...
Sitokrom c bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
T helper cell
Hu, Wanchung (2007). Microarray analysis of PBMC gene expression profiles after Plasmodium falciparum malarial infection (Ph.D ... leading to caspase-1 activation in inflammasomes, thus causing pyroptosis (a highly inflammatory form of programmed cell death ... "Entrez Gene: CD40LG CD40 ligand (TNF superfamily, member 5, hyper-IgM syndrome)".. ... A defect in this gene results in an inability to undergo immunoglobulin class switching and is associated with hyper IgM ...
Cancer gene therapy using a pro-apoptotic gene, caspase-3. - PubMed - NCBI
Gene Ther. 1999 Dec;6(12):1952-9. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Gene Ther. 1999 Dec;6(12):1952-9.. Cancer gene therapy using a pro-apoptotic gene, caspase-3.. Yamabe K1, Shimizu S, Ito T, ... We applied the human caspase-3 gene as a novel form of anticancer gene therapy. Overexpression of human caspase-3 alone could ... caspase-3 gene transduction accompanied by an additional death stimulus may be a useful method of anticancer gene therapy, ...
CASP7 - Caspase-7 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - CASP7 gene & protein
Involved in the activation cascade of caspases responsible for apoptosis execution. Cleaves and activates sterol regulatory ... PS01122 CASPASE_CYS, 1 hit. PS01121 CASPASE_HIS, 1 hit. PS50207 CASPASE_P10, 1 hit. PS50208 CASPASE_P20, 1 hit. ... PS01122 CASPASE_CYS, 1 hit. PS01121 CASPASE_HIS, 1 hit. PS50207 CASPASE_P10, 1 hit. PS50208 CASPASE_P20, 1 hit. ... IPR029030 Caspase-like_dom_sf. IPR033139 Caspase_cys_AS. IPR016129 Caspase_his_AS. IPR002398 Pept_C14. IPR002138 Pept_C14_p10. ...
CASP3 - Caspase-3 precursor - Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit) - CASP3 gene & protein
Cleaves and activates caspase-6, -7 and -9. Triggers cell adhesion in sympathetic neurons through RET cleavage (By similarity). ... Involved in the activation cascade of caspases responsible for apoptosis execution. At the onset of apoptosis it ... PS01122 CASPASE_CYS, 1 hit. PS01121 CASPASE_HIS, 1 hit. PS50207 CASPASE_P10, 1 hit. PS50208 CASPASE_P20, 1 hit. ... PS01122 CASPASE_CYS, 1 hit. PS01121 CASPASE_HIS, 1 hit. PS50207 CASPASE_P10, 1 hit. PS50208 CASPASE_P20, 1 hit. ...
Casp8ap2 MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:1349399 - caspase 8 associated protein 2
Mouse Genome Database (MGD), Gene Expression Database (GXD), Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB), Gene Ontology (GO), MouseCyc ... VEGA Gene Model , MGI Sequence Detail. 37815. C57BL/6J. ± kb. transcript. OTTMUST00000010978. VEGA , MGI Sequence Detail. 6799 ... J:55798 Imai Y, et al., The CED-4-homologous protein FLASH is involved in Fas-mediated activation of caspase-8 during apoptosis ... GXDs primary emphasis is on endogenous gene expression during development. Click on grid cells to view annotations.. *Blue ...
CASPALLO: Allodepleted T Cells Transduced With Inducible Caspase 9 Suicide Gene - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
CASPALLO: Allodepleted T Cells Transduced With Inducible Caspase 9 Suicide Gene (CASPALLO). The safety and scientific validity ... CASPALLO: A Phase I Study Evaluating the Use of Allodepleted T Cells Transduced With Inducible Caspase 9 Suicide Gene After ... MedlinePlus related topics: Genes and Gene Therapy Suicide Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Myeloid ... Administration of suicide gene-modified allodepleted T cells.. Biological: Allodepleted T Cells Dose Level 1 = 1 x 10e6 T cells ...
Evaluation of Bcl-2 Family Gene Expression and Caspase-3 Activity in Hippocampus STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats
4. Detection of Caspase-3 Activity. Caspase-3 activity was determined using the Caspase-3/CPP32 Fluorometric Assay Kit (K105) ... a) Amplification of the Bax gene (263 bp) compared with GAPDH gene (461 bp). (b) Amplification of the Bcl-2 gene (228 bp) ... Evaluation of Bcl-2 Family Gene Expression and Caspase-3 Activity in Hippocampus STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats. Iraj Jafari ... Caspases-3 activity was determined by using the Caspase-3/CPP32 Fluorometric Assay Kit. The result showed that mRNA and protein ...
Gene therapy with the caspase activation and recruitment domain reduces the ocular inflammatory response. | Sigma-Aldrich
Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy 2015-2-24 Gene therapy with the caspase activation and ... gene that binds caspase-1 and inhibits its activation by the inflammasome. The secretion and cell penetration characteristics ... Gene expression was monitored one month after vector injection by fluorescence fundoscopy. Ocular inflammation was then induced ... Our goal is to test anti-inflammatory genes delivered by an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector as potential treatments for ...
One of the apoptotic genes upregulated at the RNA level was caspase-3. Functional studies indicated that caspase-3 activity was ... 71 genes increased twofold or more. Of these genes, 63 were proapoptotic and 8 were antiapoptotic genes. Only three genes were ... Diabetes increases caspase-3 (A), caspase-8 (B), and caspase-9 (C) activities. Mice were inoculated with bacteria, and total ... Caspase-3 activity was detected, using the specific caspase-3 fluorogenic substrate DEVD [Z-Asp(OMe)-Glu(OMe)-Val-dl-Asp(OMe)] ...
Genome sequence comparison reveals independent inactivation of the caspase-15 gene in different evolutionary lineages of mammals
... caspase-15, whereas mouse and humans lack this enzyme. Here we investigated the evolutionary fate of the caspase-15 gene in ... caspase-15, whereas mouse and humans lack this enzyme. Here we investigated the evolutionary fate of the caspase-15 gene in ... which either lacked any caspase-15-like sequences or contained mutated remnants of the caspase-15 gene. Polymerase chain ... Caspase-15 gene sequences were found in representatives of all major mammalian clades except for the superorders Afrotheria ( ...
We examined the association between genetic variants in the caspase-3, caspase-7, and caspase-8 genes and risk for endometrial ... Polymorphisms and Haplotypes in the Caspase-3, Caspase-7, and Caspase-8 Genes and Risk for Endometrial Cancer: A Population- ... Polymorphisms and Haplotypes in the Caspase-3, Caspase-7, and Caspase-8 Genes and Risk for Endometrial Cancer: A Population- ... Polymorphisms and Haplotypes in the Caspase-3, Caspase-7, and Caspase-8 Genes and Risk for Endometrial Cancer: A Population- ...
Alterations of caspase 9 mRNA gene expression in survivors and nonsurvivors of severe sepsis
... M White,. 1 D Doherty,2 D ... Caspase 9 mRNA copy numbers were significantly increased on day 7 in the survivor group (5.4 × 106; 7.4 × 106 to 8.9 × 106) ... Caspase 9 may be an important regulator of apoptotic mechanisms in humans with late sepsis. Pro-apoptotic mechanisms may have a ... FADD, caspase 1, 3 and 8 mRNA copy numbers were not significantly different between patients who died and those discharged from ...
TMS1, a Novel Proapoptotic Caspase Recruitment Domain Protein, Is a Target of Methylation-induced Gene Silencing in Human...
... endogenous gene. TMS1 is the first gene to be identified in a functional screen for such methylation-induced gene silencing ... TMS1, a Novel Proapoptotic Caspase Recruitment Domain Protein, Is a Target of Methylation-induced Gene Silencing in Human ... TMS1, a Novel Proapoptotic Caspase Recruitment Domain Protein, Is a Target of Methylation-induced Gene Silencing in Human ... TMS1, a Novel Proapoptotic Caspase Recruitment Domain Protein, Is a Target of Methylation-induced Gene Silencing in Human ...
Genetic polymorphisms of caspase 8 and 10 genes and risk of non hodgkin s lymphoma for Mona Hazem Elnagdy Saleh
Genetic polymorphisms of caspase 8 and 10 genes and risk of non hodgkin s lymphoma for Mona Hazem Elnagdy Saleh ... Genetic polymorphisms of caspase 8 and 10 genes and risk of non hodgkin s lymphoma for Mona Hazem Elnagdy Saleh * ... Genetic polymorphisms of caspase 8 and 10 genes and risk of non hodgkin s lymphoma for Mona Hazem Elnagdy Saleh. Author(S). ... Genetic polymorphisms of caspase 8 and 10 genes and risk of non hodgkin s lymphoma for Mona Hazem Elnagdy Saleh ...
Mucin 1 gene silencing inhibits the growth of SMMC-7721 human hepatoma cells through Bax-mediated mitochondrial and caspase-8...
... and caspase‑8 and caspase‑9 were activated in MUC1 gene‑silenced SMMC‑7721 cells. The pro‑apoptotic protein Bcl‑2‑associated X ... the expression of caspase-8 was examined. The results demonstrated that caspase-8 was activated in MUC1 gene-silenced cell ... suggesting that caspase-3 was activated in MUC1 gene-silenced cells. Taken together, these results indicate that MUC1 gene ... MUC1 gene silencing decreases MUC1-CT binding with Bax and caspase-8 directly to induce apoptosis of SMMC-7721 cells. (A-C) ...
Effect of recombinant caspase-3 gene transfection on CNE2 cell apoptosis--《Journal of Southern Medical University》2009年01期
C1 containing the reporter gene using DNA recombinant technique.CNE2 cells were transfected with the recombinant caspase-3 gene ... which exhibited obvious morphological changes typical of apoptotic cells.Conclusion The recombinant caspase-3 gene can inhibit ... cell survival rate after the transfection was assessed by MTT assay.Results Transfection with the recombinant caspase-3 gene ... Methods Recombinant caspase-3 was subcloned into the eukaryotic expression vector PEGFP- ...
13-cis-Retinoic Acid Induces Apoptosis by Modulating Caspase-3, bcl-2, and p53 Gene Expression and Regulates the Activation of...
13-cis-Retinoic Acid Induces Apoptosis by Modulating Caspase-3, bcl-2, and p53 Gene Expression and Regulates the Activation of ... 13-cis-retinoic acid treatment also showed an inhibitory effect on bcl-2 expression and upregulated p53 and caspase-3 gene ... 13-cis-Retinoic Acid Induces Apoptosis by Modulating Caspase-3, bcl-2, and p53 Gene Expression and Regulates the Activation of ...
A comprehensive characterization of the caspase gene family in insects from the order Lepidoptera | BMC Genomics | Full Text
Sf-Caspase-1. Studies on Sf-Caspase-1 mode of activation suggested that apoptosis in Lepidoptera requires a cascade of caspase ... whereas Lep-Caspase-5 and -6 are putative initiators. The likely function of Lep-Caspase-4 remains unclear. Lep-Caspase-2 is ... Reception of death stimuli triggers the activation of initiator caspases, which in turn activate the effector caspases. In ... and to have arisen from a tandem duplication of the Caspase-1 gene. In the tobacco hawkmoth, 3 distinct transcripts encoding ...
caspase-1 [Mus musculus] - Protein - NCBI
The Casp1 gene is conserved in human, chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, dog, cow, rat, chicken, zebrafish, and frog. ... Caspase-1 cleaves PPARγ for potentiating the pro-tumor action of TAMs. [Nat Commun. 2017] Caspase-1 cleaves PPARγ for ... Caspase-1 as a multifunctional inflammatory mediator: noncytokine maturation roles. [J Leukoc Biol. 2016] Caspase-1 as a ... LSBio CASP1 / Caspase 1 Elisa Kits [LifeSpan BioSciences, Inc.] LSBio CASP1 / Caspase 1 Elisa Kits. LifeSpan BioSciences, Inc. ...
Oxidative repression of NHE1 gene expression involves iron-mediated caspase activity | [email protected]
Addgene: pcDNA-Caspase 12
Junying Yuans lab contains the insert Caspase 12 and is published in Nature. 2000 Jan 6. 403(6765):98-103. This plasmid is ... Gene/Insert * Gene/Insert name. Caspase 12 * Alt name. full-length * Species ... Caspase-12 mediates endoplasmic-reticulum-specific apoptosis and cytotoxicity by amyloid-beta. Nakagawa T, Zhu H, Morishima N, ... pcDNA-Caspase 12 was a gift from Junying Yuan (Addgene plasmid # 35574 ; http://n2t.net/addgene:35574 ; RRID:Addgene_35574) ...
Cancers | Free Full-Text | The Enigmatic Roles of Caspases in Tumor Development | HTML
From clinical data, however, there is little evidence that caspase genes are impaired in cancer. Executioner caspases have only ... In cancer, therefore, one would anticipate caspases to be frequently rendered inactive, either by gene silencing or by somatic ... We discuss several possible ways how tumor cells might evade the need for alterations of caspase genes. First, alternative ... Second, in tumor cells caspases might be kept in check by cellular caspase inhibitors such as c-FLIP or XIAP. Third, pathways ...
ER stress-induced apoptosis and caspase-12 activation occurs downstream of mitochondrial apoptosis involving Apaf-1 | Journal...
... the caspase-12 gene has a single nucleotide polymorphism that results in the production of either a truncated or full-length ... Murine caspase-12 is a member of the inflammatory group of the caspase family, and study of the caspase-12-deficient mice ... C3, caspase-3. (B) MEFs were introduced with wild or mutated caspase-12 and analyzed for caspase-12 processing by western ... 4F). These indicate that, in MEFs, caspase-12 is downstream of Apaf-1, cleaved by caspase-3 and possibly caspase-7, but not ...
A cytomegalovirus-encoded inhibitor of apoptosis that suppresses caspase-8 activation | PNAS
The UL36 gene product inhibits a more proximal event in Fas-mediated apoptosis by complexing with pro-caspase-8 in a way that ... indicating that pUL36 had affinity to pro-caspase-8 but not to active caspase-8. Pro-caspase-8 was detected in anti-myc ... pUL36 Prevents Caspase-8 Activation.. Fas-mediated signaling results in caspase-8 being recruited to the Fas complex through an ... 4C) but differed in their ability to form a complex with pro-caspase-8. AD169varDE pUL36 coprecipitated pro-caspase-8, whereas ...
gene. Locus. transription regulators. upstream regulators. Expression. cleaved by caspase. memo. death domain-like a-helix rich ... Caspase-9. FADD. Caspase-8. Caspase-3. Caspase-2. Caspase-1. Caspase-11. Caspase-12. Bcl-xL. Bcl-w. Bcl-2(1,2,3). Mcl1. A1. Bax ... Caspase. CARD/DED/BIR. Bcl-2. DD. TNF/TNFR. Kinases. ILs. Viral. Lipid. Engulf. TF. RING. Toll. Other Apop. Other NFkB. ... caspase-9. BIRx3/RING. 19q13.3-q13.4. testis. livin, ML-IAP, KIAP, BIRC7 (human,L). inhibit. caspase-9. BIR/RING. 1. 1. ...
Mitochondrial permeabilization engages NF-κB-dependent anti-tumour activity under caspase deficiency | Nature Cell Biology
Caspase activity can also have a variety of unwanted consequences that include DNA damage. We therefore investigated whether ... Moreover, they support a rationale for engaging caspase-independent cell death in cell-killing anti-cancer therapies. Tait and ... MOMP-induced caspase-independent cell death (CICD) might be a better way to kill cancer cells. We find that cells undergoing ... colleagues show that caspase-independent cell death induced by mitochondrial permeabilization stimulates NF-κB activity through ...
Maternal Hyperglycemia Activates an ASK1-FoxO3a-Caspase 8 Pathway That Leads to Embryonic Neural Tube Defects | Science...
J to L) Effect of Foxo3a gene deletion on TRADD mRNA (J), TRADD protein (K), caspase 8 (arrow indicates 18-kD cleaved product ... Caspases are classified as either executive or initiator caspases, which drive the caspase cascade leading to cell demise. To ... 2 Deletion of the Ask1 gene blocks maternal diabetes-induced caspase activation and apoptosis, and conditional deletion of the ... S4). Furthermore, conditional deletion of the Casp8 gene in the neural tube was associated with reduced cleavage of caspase 3 ( ...
RCSB PDB - 2H4W: Crystal structure of human caspase-1 (Glu390->Asp) in complex with 3-[2-(2-benzyloxycarbonylamino-3-methyl...
Crystal structure of human caspase-1 (Glu390-,Asp) in complex with 3-[2-(2-benzyloxycarbonylamino-3-methyl-butyrylamino)- ... Caspase-1. A. 178. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CASP1 (IL1BC, IL1BCE). EC: 188.8.131.52. ... An allosteric circuit in caspase-1.. Datta, D., Scheer, J.M., Romanowski, M.J., Wells, J.A.. (2008) J.Mol.Biol. 381: 1157-1167 ... Structural studies of caspase-1 reveal that the dimeric thiol protease can exist in two states: in an on-state, when the active ...
Marine Drugs | Free Full-Text | The Marine Fungal Metabolite, Dicitrinone B, Induces A375 Cell Apoptosis through the ROS...
Caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3 were activated during the process, leading to PARP cleavage. The pan-caspase inhibitor, Z- ... VAD-FMK, could reverse dicitrinone B-induced apoptosis, suggesting that it is a caspase-dependent pathway. Our data for the ... Tamburini, E.; Mastromei, G. Do bacterial cryptic genes really exist? Res. Microbiol. 2000, 151, 179-182. [Google Scholar] [ ... Caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3 were activated during the process, leading to PARP cleavage. The pan-caspase inhibitor, Z- ...
RCSB PDB - 2HBZ: Crystal structure of human caspase-1 (Arg286->Ala, Glu390->Ala) in complex with 3-[2-(2-benzyloxycarbonylamino...
Crystal structure of human caspase-1 (Arg286-,Ala, Glu390-,Ala) in complex with 3-[2-(2-benzyloxycarbonylamino-3-methyl- ... Caspase-1. A. 178. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: CASP1 (IL1BC, IL1BCE). EC: 184.108.40.206. ... A Common Allosteric Site and Mechanism in Caspases. Scheer, J.M., Romanowski, M.J., Wells, J.A.. (2006) Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA ... Highly specific thiol-containing inhibitors of the human inflammatory caspase-1 were identified by using disulfide trapping, a ...
Caspase induction was dependent on gene copy number, because p53+/− neurons displayed a degree of caspase activation after DNA ... Fluorogenic caspase assays. Caspase activity was determined by monitoring the cleavage of a specific fluorogenic caspase ... caspase-2 (Kumar et al., 1994), caspase-3 (Kuida et al., 1996; Krajewska et al., 1997; Ni et al., 1997), and caspase-9 (Hakem ... Thus, caspase activation induced by DNA damage in neurons required the presence of a functional p53 gene. ...
ProteinEffector caspasesPathwaysCleaveAntibodyRecombinantExpressionMitochondrialSubstratesTumorActivation of initiatorSubunitsCascadeFADDExecutionerRequired caspase activationVitroRole in apoptosisMutationsCPP32VariantsInhibitSpecificitySpeciesInactiveDeath effectorProteolyticHumanMutationSusceptibilityCellCellularSingle-nucleotide po
- The CED-4-homologous protein FLASH is involved in Fas-mediated activation of caspase-8 during apoptosis [see comments] [published erratum appears in Nature 1999 Jul 1;400(6739): (jax.org)
- The virus also has another gene called CD19, which will make the cells express the CD19 protein on their surface. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- We assessed the expression of Bcl-2 family members at both mRNA and protein levels as well as the Caspase-3 activity, in order to investigate the occurrence of apoptosis in hippocampus of STZ-induced diabetic rats. (hindawi.com)
- We developed a secretable and cell penetrating form of the caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) from the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) gene that binds caspase-1 and inhibits its activation by the inflammasome. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- TMS1 is localized to chromosome 16p11.2-12.1 and encodes a 22-kDa predicted protein containing a COOH-terminal caspase recruitment domain, a recently described protein interaction motif found in apoptotic signaling molecules. (aacrjournals.org)
- The pro‑apoptotic protein Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax) and the tumor suppressor p53 were increased, while the anti‑apoptotic protein B‑cell lymphoma 2 was decreased in MUC1 gene‑silenced cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
- The occurrence of HCC is associated directly or indirectly with the abnormal expression of multiple genes, including B lymphoma Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region 1 homolog (BMI1) ( 16 ), glypican-3 ( 17 ), heat shock protein 70 ( 18 ) and Sal-like protein 4 ( 19 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- The discovery of p35, a baculovirus protein inhibiting caspase activity, has led to the characterization of the first lepidopteran caspase, Sf-Caspase-1. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here we report that another CMV-encoded protein, pUL36, a product of the immediate-early gene UL36 , functions as a potent cell-death suppressor via a mechanism that is distinct from that of vMIA. (pnas.org)
- ASK1 activation stimulated the activity of the transcription factor FoxO3a, which increased the abundance of the apoptosis-promoting adaptor protein TRADD, leading to activation of caspase 8. (sciencemag.org)
- Casp ase-7 (also known as Mch-3 / ICE-LAP3 / CMH-1) is a 35 kDa protein that has the highest similarity to caspase-3 (52% amino acid identity) among all caspase members. (acris-antibodies.com)
- This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. (wikipedia.org)
- This protein cleaves and activates caspases 3 and 7, and the protein itself is processed by caspase 8. (wikipedia.org)
- UBE3A gene copy number variation and the resulting overexpression of the protein E6AP is directly linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). (jneurosci.org)
- SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Copy number variation of the UBE3A gene and aberrant overexpression of the gene product E6AP protein is a common cause of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). (jneurosci.org)
- We have studied IL-1β, IL-18, IFN-α/β, and TNF-α gene expression and protein production in human primary monocytes and GM-CSF-differentiated macrophages during influenza A and Sendai virus infections. (jimmunol.org)
- However, it is presently not known whether IL-18 gene expression and protein secretion during microbial infections are regulated in a similar way as that of IL-1β. (jimmunol.org)
- To define the role of IL-18 in viral infections, we have analyzed the gene expression and protein production of IL-18, IL-1β, IFN-α, and TNF-α in primary human monocytes and macrophages during influenza A and Sendai virus infections. (jimmunol.org)
- Cells experiencing ER stress will try to restore ER homeostasis by inducing the expression of unfolded-protein-response (UPR) genes. (frontiersin.org)
- The products of these genes help cells escape ER stress by increasing the protein folding capacity and secretion ability within the ER. (frontiersin.org)
- It is produced as a zymogen, which contains a long pro-domain that is similar to that of caspase 9 and contains a protein interaction domain known as a CARD domain. (wikipedia.org)
- Together with RAIDD and p53-induced protein with a death domain ([PIDD])(LRDD), caspase 2 has been shown to form the so-called PIDDosome, which may serve as an activation platform for the protease, although it may also be activated in the absence of PIDD. (wikipedia.org)
- CASP8 (Caspase 8) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein heterodimerization activity . (genecards.org)
- CASP10 (Caspase 10) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include ubiquitin protein ligase binding and cysteine-type peptidase activity . (genecards.org)
- Human Caspase 9 recombinant protein catalytic subunits (NP_001220). (novusbio.com)
- Recombinant full length protein corresponding to Human Caspase-3. (abcam.com)
- Stimulation of cell surface death receptors activates caspase-8, which targets a limited number of substrates including BAP31, an integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (rupress.org)
- Although multiple protein substrates of caspases have been found, the functional significance of the substrates is poorly understood ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
- We used an amount sufficient to cleave 80% of a known substrate of caspase-3, baculovirus protein p35 (Fig. 1 A) ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
- The arrows indicate a caspase-3-sensitive protein that is cleaved from an apparent size of 65 kD to 48 kD. (sciencemag.org)
- The NF-κB protein complex regulates the activity of multiple genes, including genes that control the body's immune responses and inflammatory reactions. (nih.gov)
- The CARD14 gene mutations associated with GPP (including GPP with PV) lead to production of an altered CARD14 protein that more readily turns on NF-κB. (nih.gov)
- Protein level changes of procaspase 8, procaspase 9 and cleaved caspase 9 were determined by Western blot. (arvojournals.org)
- The N-terminal FADD-like death effector domain of Caspase 8 suggests that it may interact with Fas-interacting protein FADD. (thermofisher.com)
- Caspase 8 binds to the death effector domain (DED) of FADD through an analogous DED domain present in tandem in the pro-form of the Caspase 8 protein. (thermofisher.com)
- Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Caspase 14, Apoptosis-Related Cysteine Peptidase Antikörper (92) und Caspase 14, Apoptosis-Related Cysteine Peptidase Proteine (17) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
- Upon activation of Fas by its ligand, the DD undergoes homotypic interaction with a DD in the adaptor protein FADD, which then recruits the initiator caspase 8 via their mutual N-terminal death effector domains (DED) ( 3 ). (asm.org)
- Interferon (IFN) mediates its antiviral effects by inducing a number of responsive genes, including the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase, PKR. (asm.org)
- However, it is known that the IFNs exert their multiple properties by inducing a number of cellular genes, one of the best characterized being the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent, serine/threonine protein kinase, PKR ( 28 ). (asm.org)
- Publications] Wang GH, Sawai N, Kotliarova S, Kanazawa I, Nukina N: 'Ataxin-3, the MJD1 gene product, interacts with the two human homologs of yeast DNA repair protein RAD23, HHR23A and HHR23B'Human Molecular Genetics. (nii.ac.jp)
- They are named caspases due to their specific cysteine protease activity - a cysteine in its active site nucleophilically attacks and cleaves a target protein only after an aspartic acid residue. (wikipedia.org)
- The CARD domain was amplified from the human apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) gene and fused to the cell-penetrating peptide sequence derived from the HIV Tat protein using PCR. (arvojournals.org)
- This protein cleaves and activates caspases 6, 7 and 9, and the protein itself is processed by caspases 8, 9 and 10. (abnova.com)
- Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants that encode the same protein. (abnova.com)
- Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the C-terminus region of human Caspase 7. (genetex.com)
- In this study, we investigated the function of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and caspase-8 in DATS-induced apoptosis of human CNE2 cells using MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide], flow cytometry assay, and Western blotting. (scielo.br)
- Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), an important intracellular signal transduction system, has a marked effect on the regulation of gene expression and cytoplasmic functional activities (1-3). (scielo.br)
- The CARD8 gene encodes different CARD8 isoforms that contain the caspase-associated recruitment domain (CARD) in their carboxy-termini that acts as a protein-protein interaction interface. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- 0.05) increases in the expression of caspase 9 protein and gene in HT-29 cells and mitochondrial ROS and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. (biomedcentral.com)
- Caspase-activated DNase (CAD) or DNA fragmentation factor subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DFFB gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Caspase 3 is responsible for cellular differentiation, although it is unclear how this kind of protein can promote the cell apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
- Nucleolar protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NOL3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- During apoptosis in humans, initiator caspases integrate molecular signals into proteolytic activity ( 11 ) and subsequently activate the downstream effector caspases, thus transmitting and amplifying the apoptotic signal ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Caspase-8 is a cysteine protease, which cleaves downstream substrates such as effector caspases, to initiate the apoptotic cascade and transmit apoptotic signals downstream of death receptors ( 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Reception of death stimuli triggers the activation of initiator caspases, which in turn activate the effector caspases. (biomedcentral.com)
- According to homology to their Drosophila counterparts and their primary structure, we determined that Lep-Caspase-1, -2 and -3 are putative effector caspases, whereas Lep-Caspase-5 and -6 are putative initiators. (biomedcentral.com)
- Depending on the structure of the prodomain and their function, caspases are typically divided into 3 major groups (Figure 1 A). The caspases with large prodomains are referred to as inflammatory caspases (group I) and initiator of apoptosis caspases (group II), while caspases with a short prodomain of 20-30 amino acids are named effector caspases (group III). (jci.org)
- group III: apoptosis effector caspases. (jci.org)
- Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. (curehunter.com)
- A hierarchy of caspase activation exists whereby initiator caspases become activated to cleave and activate effector caspases. (els.net)
- The prodomain of the initiator (also known as apical) caspases (2, 8, 9 and 10) is much longer than that of effector caspases 3, 6 and 7. (els.net)
- Once active, initiator caspases proteolytically cleave effector caspases at distinct aspartate residues, to release the prodomain, large and small subunits. (els.net)
- The above results indicate that MUC1 gene silencing induces growth inhibition in SMMC‑7721 cells through Bax‑mediated mitochondrial and caspase-8-mediated death receptor apoptotic pathways. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Third, pathways upstream of caspase activation might be disrupted in tumor cells. (mdpi.com)
- Thus, p53-mediated neuronal cell death may occur via both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways. (jneurosci.org)
- These data show that a low concentration of caffeine can induce p53-dependent apoptosis in JB6 cells through the Bax and caspase 3 pathways. (aacrjournals.org)
- Among PCD regulators, caspases are central components that mediate animal PCD pathways in response to various stimuli, including ER stress. (frontiersin.org)
- Among its related pathways are Apoptosis and survival Caspase cascade and CDK-mediated phosphorylation and removal of Cdc6 . (genecards.org)
- Among its related pathways are Direct p53 effectors and Apoptosis and survival Caspase cascade . (genecards.org)
- Among such mechanisms are their capacity to interfere with the generation of reactive oxygen species, the epigenetic modulation of gene expression, the targeting of the sarco-/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase pump, and the activation of the NF-kB and the p53 signaling pathways. (springer.com)
- Although benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone inhibited caspase activity in Bcl-2-overexpressing U937 cells, it completely prevented neither the induction of apoptosis or the nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor, which suggests that evodiamine is, at least in part, able to bypass the resistance of leukemia cells via caspase-independent apoptotic pathways. (aacrjournals.org)
- Moreover, our results indicated that COE could enhance cisplatin-induced activation of caspase-8 or caspase- 9/caspase-3/PARP1 signaling pathways. (eurekaselect.com)
- Activation of caspases through intrinsic and extrinsic death pathways. (els.net)
- Induction of stress signalling pathways JNK/SAPK causes release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and activation of apaf-1 (apoptosome), which in turn cleaves the pro-enzyme of caspase-9 into the active form. (creativebiomart.net)
- CASP Gene and orthologous enzymes have been identifies successfully in the signal transduction cascade and pathways. (gentaur.com)
- This mode of cell death is driven by caspases and proceeds via the extrinsic or intrinsic pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
- Caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-10 can cleave procaspase-6. (acris-antibodies.com)
- In some contexts, caspase-8 can bypass mitochondria and directly cleave downstream caspases. (rupress.org)
- In addition, caspases cleave the proenzyme precursors to produce the active subunits of caspases themselves ( 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Activated caspase-8 is able to cleave additional downstream caspases, which include caspase-3, to ultimately elicit the morphological hallmarks of apoptosis, including DNA fragmentation and cell shrinkage. (asm.org)
- Caspases proteolytically cleave a host of cellular substrates at aspartate residues, which may render them either functionally inactive or confer novel activities that help to promote cellular demise. (els.net)
- Once initiated caspase-9 goes on to cleave procaspase-3 & procaspase-7 and which cleave several cellular targets, including poly ADP ribose polymerase. (creativebiomart.net)
- Western blot analysis using caspase-6 antibody (AM05283PU-N) on MCF-7 cells negative (-) and positive (+) for caspase-3 after treatment for 48 hours with thapsigargin. (acris-antibodies.com)
- AM20344PU-N Caspase-7 antibody staining of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Human Spleen followed by biotinylated anti-Mouse IgG secondary antibody, Alkaline Phosphatase-Streptavidin and Chromogen. (acris-antibodies.com)
- Immunohistochemistry analyzes of Caspase-7 antibody (Cat. (acris-antibodies.com)
- Western blot (WB) analysis of Caspase-7 antibody (Cat. (acris-antibodies.com)
- Western blot analysis of caspase-7 in human skeletal muscle cell lysate with caspase-7 antibody (AP22940PU-N) at (A) 0.5 and (B) 1 µg/ml. (acris-antibodies.com)
- This caspase has been shown to be processed and activated by caspase 8 and caspase 10 in vitro, and by anti-Fas agonist antibody or TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand in vivo. (nih.gov)
- Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Caspase-9 Antibody [NB100-- Analysis Human Brain sections stained for cleaved Caspase-9 expression using this antibody at 1:2000. (novusbio.com)
- Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Caspase-9 Antibody [NB100-- Analysis of Capase-9 in mouse transplanted lung tumor section using anti-Caspase-9 antibody. (novusbio.com)
- This antibody detects both the pro- and active-Caspase 9 forms. (novusbio.com)
- This antibody is specific for the pro form and the p17 cleaved form of human Caspase-3. (abcam.com)
- Rat reactivity: We have preliminary internal testing data indicating this antibody does not react with mouse caspase 3. (abcam.com)
- The following product was used in this experiment: Caspase 8 Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 13423-1-AP. (thermofisher.com)
- This antibody can recognize the pro- and cleaved-caspase 8. (thermofisher.com)
- The peptide is used for blocking the antibody activity of caspase-10 (Cat. (antibody-antibodies.com)
- WB analysis of HeLa cells treated with Etoposide 25uM (60mins) lysate using GTX86928 Caspase 9 (cleaved Asp330) antibody. (genetex.com)
- IHC-P analysis of human lung carcinoma tissue using GTX86928 Caspase 9 (cleaved Asp330) antibody. (genetex.com)
- There are currently no references for Caspase 9 (cleaved Asp330) antibody (GTX86928) . (genetex.com)
- Wild-type (WT) and Caspase 7 knockout (KO) HeLa cell extracts (30 µg) were separated by 10% SDS-PAGE, and the membrane was blotted with Caspase 7 antibody (GTX123679) diluted at 1:1000. (genetex.com)
- Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human hepatoma, using Caspase 7 p11 subunit(GTX123679) antibody at 1:500 dilution. (genetex.com)
- 2. However, both the recombinant NC and the synthetic octapeptide (YL DESDFG) were scarcely cleaved in vitro by caspase-3 or -7. (springer.com)
- Furthermore, our study suggests that recombinant adeno-associated viral vector-mediated gene expression offers a novel tool for cancer gene therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
- In vitro translated human Bcl-2 was digested with purified recombinant caspase-3 (CPP32). (sciencemag.org)
- A ) 35 S-labeled in vitro translated Bcl-2 and the indicated Bcl-2 mutants were digested with purified recombinant caspase-3 and analyzed on 12% SDS-polyacrylamide gels ( 24 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Alternatively, Jurkat cell lysates were digested for 4 hours with recombinant caspase-3. (sciencemag.org)
- Currently, numerous novel approaches are being followed employing gene therapy, antisense strategies, recombinant biologics or organic chemistry in order to target caspases or their endogenous inhibitors. (eurekaselect.com)
- GXD's primary emphasis is on endogenous gene expression during development. (jax.org)
- Gene expression was monitored one month after vector injection by fluorescence fundoscopy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Thus, diabetes-enhanced apoptosis represents an important mechanism through which healing is impaired, and this can be explained, in part, by diabetes-increased expression of proapoptotic genes and caspase activity. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The expression levels of caspases in tumors are found to be distinct from levels in normal tissue in a series of cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
- For example, expression of caspase-3 was observed to be down-regulated in pediatric neuroblastoma ( 17 ), breast cancer ( 18 ), and gastric carcinoma ( 19 ), whereas caspase-7 was found to be down-regulated in colonic carcinoma ( 20 ), breast cancer ( 21 ), and gastric cancer ( 22 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Decreased expression of caspase-8 was also reported in neuroblastoma ( 23 ) and pediatric tumors ( 24 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Genetic polymorphisms in the caspase genes may affect cancer risk through altering expression levels and functions of these genes. (aacrjournals.org)
- We hypothesized that ICU mortality from severe sepsis is associated with distinctive gene expression of extrinsic apoptosis markers. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- To identify downstream targets of methylation-induced gene silencing, we used a human cell model in which aberrant CpG island methylation is induced by ectopic expression of DNA methyltransferase. (aacrjournals.org)
- 13-cis-retinoic acid treatment also showed an inhibitory effect on bcl-2 expression and upregulated p53 and caspase-3 gene expression in B16F-10 melanoma cells. (begellhouse.com)
- Similarly, in Heliothis virescens , apoptosis of the larval midgut has been correlated with higher caspase expression shortly before and after pupation [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- To identify candidate antiapoptotic genes encoded by CMV, we have used an expression library-screening strategy that is based on biological activity. (pnas.org)
- Over-expression of the isoform of caspase-6 without its prodomain can induce apoptosis. (acris-antibodies.com)
- Western blot analysis of Caspase-6 expression rat kidney tissue lysate. (acris-antibodies.com)
- CASP7 is supported by BioGPS gene expression data to be expressed in OVCAR3. (acris-antibodies.com)
- Caspase-8 gene expression in neuroblastoma. (sparrho.com)
- In addition, the apoptotic agent fenretinide (4HPR) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) induce caspase-8 expression without modifying the methylation status of this gene. (sparrho.com)
- To gain information on the mechanisms that regulate the expression of this crucial apoptotic gene, we searched for potential CASP8 regulatory regions and cloned a DNA element at the 5' terminus of this gene that functionally acts as a promoter only in NB cell lines that express caspase-8. (sparrho.com)
- The retinoic acid analogue 4HPR, IFN-gamma, and the demethylating agent 5-aza-cytidine activate this promoter in NB cells that lack endogenous caspase-8, indicating that this element may regulate both constitutive and inducible CASP8 expression. (sparrho.com)
- Furthermore, a reduction of caspase-4 expression by small interfering RNA decreases ER stress-induced apoptosis in some cell lines, but not other ER stress-independent apoptosis. (rupress.org)
- IL-18 acts synergistically with IL-12 and IFN-α in enhancing IFN-γ gene expression ( 6 , 8 , 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
- The expression and processing of this caspase may be involved in keratinocyte terminal differentiation, which is important for the formation of the skin barrier. (nih.gov)
- Furthermore, transiently expressed NC was cleaved even in the caspase-3-deficient cell line, MCF-7 cells, and this efficiency was not altered by the transfectional expression of caspase-3. (springer.com)
- Evaluation of the genes' tissue expression patterns revealed extremely high expression levels within the gland and gills, where the apoptotic process is highly active due to the clearance of damaged cells. (nih.gov)
- The PAMPs that mimicked bacterial infections (LPS, CPGs and LTA) were able to modulate caspase gene expression. (nih.gov)
- LPS and CPGs induced a less than 3.5-fold change in gene expression. (nih.gov)
- By the end of the experiment (6 h pt) LPS and LTA treatments had induced a significant up-regulation of the caspase-2 gene, whereas the CPGs treatment significantly up-regulated caspase-8 expression. (nih.gov)
- During CPGs treatment, the expression levels of caspase-3/7-1 and -3/7-2 peaked after 3 h pt followed by a significant decrease of the expression after 6 h pt. (nih.gov)
- Ectopic expression of caspase-1 has been shown to trigger apoptosis. (csic.es)
- In patients, high levels of caspase-1 expression may be associated with spontaneous regression in neuroblastomas and with a good clinical response to chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia and osteosarcoma. (csic.es)
- Caspase-1 expression mediated by an adenoviral vector was able to kill directly cells and to sensitise the remaining cells to cisplatin or γ-radiation in vitro. (csic.es)
- Immunofluorescence for cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3 depicted increased expression and colocalization of both molecules. (aacrjournals.org)
- The purpose of this study was to use laser capture microdissection (LCM) to isolate RGC coupled with real-time PCR to test the hypothesis that gene expression of initiator caspases would be elevated during RGC death in experimental glaucoma. (arvojournals.org)
- Jung, Choi, Lee, Kim, Hwang, Choi: Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid levels or caspase-14 expression in the corneocytes of lesional skin correlates with clinical severity, skin barrier function and lesional inflammation in atopic dermatitis. (antikoerper-online.de)
- Since GAG repeat expansion diseases are caused by the expression of the abnormal gene products, we planned to supress the disease by using a method based on RNAi. (nii.ac.jp)
- E2F1, down-regulated in cancer cells, regulates expression of genes involved in the cell cycle progression from G1 into S phase. (cancer.gov)
- Dynamic gene expression profiles showed that cell differentiation was induced in F3-treated THP-1 cells. (hindawi.com)
- Utilizing a mouse model with renal bilateral 30-min ischemia and 48-h reperfusion, the renoprotective effects of a single dose of CHBP (24 nmol/kg) or CASP3siRNA (0.03 mg/kg) were demonstrated on renal function and structure, active 17 kDa caspase-3 and HMGB1 expression in IR kidneys. (aspetjournals.org)
- Studies on alpha-proteobacteria, closely related species of the free-living ancestor of mitochondria, revealed the presence of genes similar to caspases, suggesting that ancestor of eukaryotic caspases derived from mitochondrial endosymbionts [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- During apoptosis, mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) typically kills cells even in the absence of caspase activity. (nature.com)
- Recent study says that in Fas-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis, active caspase-7 is associated almost exclusivel y with the mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, whereas active caspase-3 is confined primarily to the cytosol. (acris-antibodies.com)
- Several initiator caspases are known to be activated upstream of the mitochondrial dysfunction by specific apoptotic stimuli. (rupress.org)
- This involves release of mitochondrial apoptotic components, such as cytochrome c , apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), second mitochondrial-derived activator of caspase, endonuclease G, and Omi1/HtrA2 ( 11 - 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- On the other hand, mammalian cells in a certain circumstance can undergo caspase-independent apoptosis that is mediated by the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the translocation of AIF and endonuclease G to nucleus where they induce chromatin condensation and/or large-scale DNA fragmentation ( 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Overexpression of human caspase-3 alone could not induce apoptosis of tumor cell lines, but apoptosis was markedly enhanced by the addition of etoposide. (nih.gov)
- In an AH130 liver tumor model, transduction of human caspase- 3, but not the empty vector, induced extensive apoptosis and reduced tumor volume when combined with etoposide administration. (nih.gov)
- Gene silencing associated with aberrant methylation of promoter region CpG islands is an acquired epigenetic alteration that serves as an alternative to genetic defects in the inactivation of tumor suppressor and other genes in human cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
- In the present study, it was found that MUC1 gene silencing not only resulted in the inhibition of SMMC‑7721 cell growth, determined using a clone formation assay in vitro and a tumor xenograft mouse model with an in vivo imaging system, but also induced apoptotic alterations in SMMC‑7721 cells, determined using Hoechst 33342 staining, flow cytometry with an Annexin V-PE staining and a DNA ladder assay. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Caspase-1 cleaves PPARγ for potentiating the pro-tumor action of TAMs. (nih.gov)
- There is experimental evidence from transgenic mice that certain initiator caspases, such as caspase-8 and -2, might act as tumor suppressors. (mdpi.com)
- These data seem to question a general tumor-suppressive role of caspases. (mdpi.com)
- We discuss several possible ways how tumor cells might evade the need for alterations of caspase genes. (mdpi.com)
- First, alternative splicing in tumor cells might generate caspase variants that counteract apoptosis. (mdpi.com)
- Finally, caspase-independent cell death mechanisms might abrogate the selection pressure for caspase inactivation during tumor development. (mdpi.com)
- Herein, apoptosis and/or non-apoptotic functions of caspases may even promote tumor development. (mdpi.com)
- We thus propose a model wherein caspases are preserved in tumor cells due to their functional contributions to development and progression of tumors. (mdpi.com)
- The tumor suppressor gene p53 has been implicated in the loss of neuronal viability caused by excitotoxic and DNA damaging agents. (jneurosci.org)
- Aberrant methylation of candidate tumor suppressor genes in neuroblastoma. (sparrho.com)
- Western blot analysis showed increased transcriptional activities of Fas ligand, tumor necrosis factor-α, Bax, Fas-associated death domain, and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1-associated death domain as well as elevated levels of cleaved caspases and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. (aacrjournals.org)
Activation of initiator4
- Here, we investigated aberrancy in activation of initiator caspases related to two PS1 gene mutations, I143T and G384A. (elsevier.com)
- Our present data suggest that these PS1 mutants accelerate the activation of initiator caspases and promote apoptosis, which may be associated, at least in part, with amyloid-β production. (elsevier.com)
- Cytoplasmic cytochrome c drives the formation of the apoptosome and activation of initiator caspase 9. (els.net)
- The binding of extracellular ligands to death receptors triggers the formation of a DISC complex resulting in the activation of initiator caspases 8 and/or 10. (els.net)
- Caspases exist as inactive pr oenzymes in cells and are activated through their processing into two subunits in response to apoptotic stimulation. (acris-antibodies.com)
- Pro-caspase-2 contains two subunits, p19 and p12. (wikipedia.org)
- The presence of the large or small subunits in western blots is considered to be a marker of caspase activation. (novusbio.com)
- Involved in the activation cascade of caspases responsible for apoptosis execution. (uniprot.org)
- Caspase enzymes are working as a cascade and caspase 3 is the most important member of this family which plays an effective role in apoptosis of neurons of central nervous system [ 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Studies on Sf-Caspase-1 mode of activation suggested that apoptosis in Lepidoptera requires a cascade of caspase activation, as demonstrated in many other species. (biomedcentral.com)
- Most upstream protease of the activation cascade of caspases responsible for the TNFRSF6/FAS mediated and TNFRSF1A induced cell death. (genecards.org)
- this step is thought to be one of the earliest in the caspase activation cascade. (genetex.com)
- Specifically apoptosis markers such as caspases 1, 3, 8, 9 and FADD have been shown to be significant in animal models of infection [ 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- As such, v-FLIP can be recruited into the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) of Fas, thereby competing with recruitment of caspase 8 to FADD. (asm.org)
- We determined that the mechanism of influenza virus-induced apoptosis involved death signaling through FADD/caspase-8 activation, while other viruses such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Sindbis virus (SNV) did not significantly provoke PKR-mediated apoptosis but did induce cytolysis of fibroblasts via activation of caspase-9. (asm.org)
- The apical target of FADD is caspase-8/FLICE ( 30 ). (asm.org)
- Executioner caspases have only rarely been found mutated or silenced, and also initiator caspases are only affected in particular types of cancer. (mdpi.com)
- Apoptosome formation results in the activation of executioner caspases including caspase-3, -6, and -7. (biologists.org)
- In the present work, we characterized two initiator and four executioner caspases in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. (nih.gov)
- Executioner caspase-3/7-1 and -3/7-2 followed similar kinetics for all treatments. (nih.gov)
Required caspase activation1
- Although vICA is dispensable for viral replication in vitro , the common targeting of caspase-8 activation by diverse herpesviruses argues for an important role for this antiapoptotic mechanism in the pathogenesis of viral infection in the host, most likely in avoiding immune clearance by cytotoxic lymphocytes and natural killer cells. (pnas.org)
- In vitro has a preference for the substrate [WY]-X-X-D motif and is active on the synthetic caspase substrate WEHD-ACF (PubMed:16854378, PubMed:19960512). (nih.gov)
- Altogether, we conclude that caspase-1 can act as a radio- and chemo-sensitiser, in vitro and in vivo. (csic.es)
- The loop domain of Bcl-2 is cleaved at Asp 34 by caspase-3 (CPP32) in vitro, in cells overexpressing caspase-3, and after induction of apoptosis by Fas ligation and interleukin-3 withdrawal. (sciencemag.org)
- Bcl-2 is cleaved by caspases both in vitro and in intact cells. (sciencemag.org)
- Caspase-cleaved gelsolin severed actin filaments in vitro in a Ca 2+ -independent manner. (sciencemag.org)
- Publications] Yoshizawa T, Yamagishi Y, Koseki N, Goto J, Yoshida H, Shibasaki F, Shoji S, Kanazawa I: 'Cell cycle arrest enhances the in vitro cellular toxicity of the truncated Machado-Joseph disease gene product with an expanded polyglutamine stretch'Human Molecular Genetics. (nii.ac.jp)
Role in apoptosis1
- Blue squares indicate phenotypes directly attributed to mutations/alleles of this gene. (jax.org)
- In cancer, therefore, one would anticipate caspases to be frequently rendered inactive, either by gene silencing or by somatic mutations. (mdpi.com)
- Presenilin 1 (PS1) gene mutations are the major causes of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. (elsevier.com)
- Interestingly, thapsigargin treatment enhanced caspase-4 and -9 activities in I143T-mutant PS1-transfected cells, while hydrogen peroxide treatment enhanced caspase-4, -8 and -9 activities in G384A-mutant PS1-transfected cells, indicating diverse apoptosis-promoting effects of PS1 gene mutations. (elsevier.com)
- Mutations in this gene are associated with apoptosis defects seen in type II autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
- Mutations in this gene are associated with type IIA autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and gastric cancer. (genecards.org)
- At least three mutations in the CARD14 gene have been identified in people with familial pityriasis rubra pilaris, a rare hereditary skin condition characterized by a patchy, salmon-colored skin rash covered in fine scales. (nih.gov)
- CARD14 gene mutations increase the risk of developing GPP. (nih.gov)
- However, CARD14 gene mutations appear to be an uncommon risk factor for this condition. (nih.gov)
- Mutations in the caspase-8 gene not only affect apoptosis but also affect host defense. (aappublications.org)
- Caspase-8 mutations lead to a disorder characterized by expansion of lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid organs and abnormal lymphocyte activation. (aappublications.org)
- Gene mutations have not been described yet. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Dominant interfering Fas gene mutations impair apoptosis in a human autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. (medscape.com)
- We examined the association between genetic variants in the caspase-3 , caspase-7 , and caspase-8 genes and risk for endometrial cancer among Chinese women. (aacrjournals.org)
- These findings suggest that genetic variants in caspase-3 and caspase-7 may play a role in endometrial cancer susceptibility. (aacrjournals.org)
- Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Genetic variants in caspase genes and susceptibility to non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (cdc.gov)
- Several other rare variants of the CARD14 gene have been associated with an increased risk of psoriasis in people without a family history of the disorder. (nih.gov)
- Many alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for Caspase 8, however, not all variants have had their full-length sequences determined. (thermofisher.com)
- Almost all variants retained the ability to inhibit caspase-1, but many lacked caspase-8 inhibitory activity. (portlandpress.com)
- Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene, but the biological validity of some variants has not been determined. (wikipedia.org)
- Ac-DEVD-CHO can be used to inhibit Caspase-3/7 activity in apoptotic cells, and to study events downstream of Caspase-3/7 activation. (genetargetsolutions.com.au)
- The orthologs differed markedly in their propensity to inhibit non-mammalian caspases. (portlandpress.com)
- Furthermore, TUCAN/CARD8-54 was found to inhibit chemotherapy-induced caspase-9 activation and Fas ligand-induced caspase-8 activation. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Here we investigated the evolutionary fate of the caspase-15 gene in different mammalian lineages by analyzing whole-genome shotgun sequences of 30 mammalian species for the presence of caspase-15 orthologs. (nih.gov)
- The observed species distribution implies that caspase-15 has originated in an early ancestor of modern mammals and has been conserved, over more than 180 Myr, in marsupials and many placental mammals, whereas it was independently lost in 2 phylogenetically distant clades of placental mammals, that is, Afrotheria and Euarchontoglires. (nih.gov)
- We identified 66 sequences distributed among 27 species encoding putative caspases. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the tobacco hawkmoth, 3 distinct transcripts encoding putative Caspase-4 were identified, suggesting at least 2 duplication events in this species. (biomedcentral.com)
- It is one of the most conserved caspases in different species of animal. (wikipedia.org)
- Activation of caspases requires proteolytic processing at conserved internal asp. (genecards.org)
- 3. Using the fluorescent substrate (Ac-DESD-AMC), the characteristic proteolytic activities, which cleaved it more effectively than caspase-3 and whose pH dependences were different from those of caspase-3, were endogenously identified in the muscle extract. (springer.com)
- These findings indicate the presence of proteolytic activities that are distinguishable from caspase-3. (springer.com)
- We applied the human caspase-3 gene as a novel form of anticancer gene therapy. (nih.gov)
- Accordingly, the identification of gene targets of methylation-associated silencing could lead to novel genes involved in the initiation and progression of human neoplasia. (aacrjournals.org)
- Our previous study found that MUC1 gene silencing altered the phenotypic characteristics of the human hepatic cellular carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721 ( 23 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- We have identified a human cytomegalovirus cell-death suppressor, denoted vICA, encoded by the viral UL36 gene. (pnas.org)
- We are interested in the role that viral anti-apoptotic genes may play in the pathogenesis of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. (pnas.org)
- Examination of human neural tissues affected by neural tube defects revealed increased activation or abundance of ASK1, FoxO3a, TRADD, and caspase 8. (sciencemag.org)
- We found that human caspase-4, a member of caspase-1 subfamily that includes caspase-12, is localized to the ER membrane, and is cleaved when cells are treated with ER stress-inducing reagents, but not with other apoptotic reagents. (rupress.org)
- First, it has been demonstrated to have reliable knock-down for over 10,000 human genes. (novusbio.com)
- Human rabaptin-5 is selectively cleaved by caspase-3 during apoptosis. (springer.com)
- Synthetic peptide within Human Caspase-3 aa 50-150. (abcam.com)
- This review summarizes the recent advances in the field of caspase targeting and discusses its wide-ranging opportunities for different human diseases. (eurekaselect.com)
- The antiserum was produced against synthesized peptide derived from human Caspase 9 (281-330). (genetex.com)
- In conclusion, our data indicate that p38MAPK and caspase-8 are involved in the process of DATS-induced apoptosis in human CNE2 cells and interact with each other. (scielo.br)
- Description Human and some mouse caspases are active in apoptosis and cell death and even in necrosis and inflammation. (gentaur.com)
- The human CARD10 gene (NM_014550) contains 20 exons and the encoding sequence is 3099 bases. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Explore the normal functions of human genes and the health implications of genetic changes. (medlineplus.gov)
- Not everyone with a mutation in this gene has the characteristic problems with inflammation. (nih.gov)
- Additional factors in combination with the particular CARD14 gene mutation may help determine which form of skin inflammation develops. (nih.gov)
- Sequencing revealed a homozygous caspase-8 mutation. (aappublications.org)
- UBE3A is a major ASD gene located on chromosome 15q11-13, a region that has been in focus of genetic studies on autism susceptibility. (jneurosci.org)
- Insufficient activation of these caspases can increase an organism's susceptibility to infection, as an appropriate immune response may not be activated. (wikipedia.org)
- Our main aim was to evaluate the role of caspases' genes SNPs in Philadelphia-chromosome negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (PN-MPNs) susceptibility. (cdc.gov)
- Apoptosis is a gene-regulated occurrence characterized by special morphological features, including condensation of chromatin, shrinkage of cell and nucleus, membrane blebbing, and DNA fragmentation [ 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
- In addition, cell proliferation was inhibited significantly in MUC1 gene-silenced SMMC-7721 cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Moreover, experimental evidence suggests that caspases might play non-apoptotic roles in processes that are crucial for tumorigenesis, such as cell proliferation, migration, or invasion. (mdpi.com)
- We therefore investigated whether MOMP-induced caspase-independent cell death (CICD) might be a better way to kill cancer cells. (nature.com)
- Moreover, they support a rationale for engaging caspase-independent cell death in cell-killing anti-cancer therapies. (nature.com)
- We demonstrated that maternal hyperglycemia correlated with activation of the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) in the developing neural tube, and Ask1 gene deletion was associated with reduced neuroepithelial cell apoptosis and development of neural tube defects. (sciencemag.org)
- Studies from teratogen-induced NTDs such as maternal diabetes ( 2 - 7 ) and NTDs induced in mice by gene disruption ( 8 - 10 ) have implicated stress-induced aberrant signaling and excessive neuroepithelial cell apoptosis as potential causes of NTD formation. (sciencemag.org)
- Caspases play a pivotal role in neuronal cell death during development and after trophic factor withdrawal. (jneurosci.org)
- However, the relative importance of caspase activation in neurons depends on the developmental status of the cell and the specific nature of the death stimulus. (jneurosci.org)
- suggesting that caspases are essential to the regulation of developmental cell death in neurons. (jneurosci.org)
- We therefore examined whether caspases are activated in neurons after injury in a p53-dependent manner and, if so, whether such activation is essential for p53-dependent neuronal cell death. (jneurosci.org)
- We also describe the current knowledge of how interference with caspase signaling can be used to pharmacologically manipulate cell death. (jci.org)
- Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
- Knockout of caspase-8 , a cysteine protease that participates in the signaling for cell death by receptors of the TNF/nerve growth factor family, is lethal to mice in utero. (jimmunol.org)
- Consistent with its role in cell death induction, deletion of caspase-8 in hepatocytes protected them from Fas-induced caspase activation and death. (jimmunol.org)
- Caspase-8 deletion in bone-marrow cells resulted in arrest of hemopoietic progenitor functioning, and in cells of the myelomonocytic lineage, its deletion led to arrest of differentiation into macrophages and to cell death. (jimmunol.org)
- Thus, besides participating in cell death induction by receptors of the TNF/nerve growth factor family, caspase-8, apparently independently of these receptors, also mediates nonapoptotic and perhaps even antiapoptotic activities. (jimmunol.org)
- The caspase cysteine protease family is known mainly for the participation of some of its members in programmed cell death in eukaryotes ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Studies of caspase-8 have focused on the ability of this caspase to interact with receptors of the TNF/nerve growth factor (NGF) 5 family and to signal for their cell death-inducing effect ( 10 , 11 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Overall, caspase 2 appears to be a very versatile caspase with multiple functions beyond cell death induction. (wikipedia.org)
- Caspase 8 is involved in the programmed cell death induced by Fas and various apoptotic stimuli. (thermofisher.com)
- In contrast, activation-induced cell death of T cells in c-FLIP L Tg mice was unaffected, suggesting that this deletion process can proceed in the absence of active caspase 8. (asm.org)
- Defects in genes involved in the apoptosis (programmed cell death) of lymphocytes have been shown to cause disorders characterized by significant adenopathy and autoimmunity. (aappublications.org)
- The two bcl-2 genes in Drosophila modulate the response to stress-induced cell death, but not developmental cell death. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Caspases ( c ysteine- asp artic prote ases , c ysteine asp art ases or c ysteine-dependent asp artate-directed prote ases ) are a family of protease enzymes playing essential roles in programmed cell death (including apoptosis , pyroptosis and necroptosis ) and inflammation . (wikipedia.org)
- Activation of caspases ensures that the cellular components are degraded in a controlled manner, carrying out cell death with minimal effect on surrounding tissues . (wikipedia.org)
- Caspases have other identified roles in programmed cell death such as pyroptosis and necroptosis . (wikipedia.org)
- There are other identified roles of caspases such as cell proliferation, tumour suppression, cell differentiation, neural development and axon guidance and ageing. (wikipedia.org)
- Conversely, over-activation of some caspases such as caspase -3 can lead to excessive programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
- The integral role caspases play in cell death and disease has led to research on using caspases as a drug target. (wikipedia.org)
- Most caspases play a role in programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
- Caspase-14 plays a role in epithelial cell keratinocyte differentiation and can form an epidermal barrier that protects against dehydration and UVB radiation. (wikipedia.org)
- Antibodies to p38, phospho-p38 (p-p38), and caspase-8 were purchased from Cell Signaling (USA). (scielo.br)
- The observations that CARD10 leads to the up-regulation of cyclin D1 , which is involved in proliferation, and of Bcl-2 , a critical component in apoptosis, gene expressions in cell models derived from breast carcinoma (Zhao et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- The mechanistic study of gene profiling revealed more candidate genes such as BCL6, SLPI and SERPINA3M, associated with cell function, metabolism and immune response, might be potential new biomarkers of diagnosis and siRNA therapy for IR-induced AKI. (aspetjournals.org)
- Caspase-3 is activated in the apoptotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
- Caspase-3 activation is a cell requirement during early stages of the skeletal myoblast differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
- Caspase signals resulting from the activation of nuclease CAD indicate that the cell differentiation is due to a CAD modification in chromatin structure. (wikipedia.org)
- As of 2009, there are 11 or 12 confirmed caspases in humans [note and 10 in mice, carrying out a variety of cellular functions. (wikipedia.org)
- The aim of the current study is to identify the genes that could be altered to treat or ameliorate the cellular responses affected by a complex disease rather than to identify the causal genes. (biomedcentral.com)