Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Norwalk virus: The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Caliciviridae: A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most individual species are restricted to their natural hosts. They possess a characteristic six-pointed starlike shape whose surfaces have cup-shaped (chalice) indentions. Transmission is by contaminated food, water, fomites, and occasionally aerosolization of secretions. Genera include LAGOVIRUS; NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES; SAPPORO-LIKE VIRUSES; and VESIVIRUS.Calicivirus, Feline: A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Reoviridae: A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.Parvovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, infecting a variety of vertebrates including humans. Parvoviruses are responsible for a number of important diseases but also can be non-pathogenic in certain hosts. The type species is MINUTE VIRUS OF MICE.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Polyomavirus: A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.Caliciviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.Parvoviridae: A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.Norovirus: A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Parvovirus, Canine: A species of the genus PARVOVIRUS and a host range variant of FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS. It causes a highly infectious fulminating ENTERITIS in dogs producing high mortality. It is distinct from CANINE MINUTE VIRUS, a species in the genus BOCAVIRUS. This virus can also infect cats and mink.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Nodaviridae: A family of RNA viruses infecting insects and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.Picornaviridae: A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.Virus Uncoating: Intracellular step that follows VIRUS INTERNALIZATION during which the viral nucleic acid and CAPSID are separated.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Aphthovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. They cause vesicular lesions and upper respiratory tract infections. FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS is the type species.Parvoviridae Infections: Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Iridovirus: A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE comprising small iridescent insect viruses. The infected larvae and purified virus pellets exhibit a blue to purple iridescence.Bromovirus: A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Enterovirus B, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Rabbit: A species in the genus LAGOVIRUS which causes hemorrhagic disease, including hemorrhagic septicemia, in rabbits.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Parvovirus B19, Human: The type species of ERYTHROVIRUS and the etiological agent of ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM, a disease most commonly seen in school-age children.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Circovirus: A genus of the family CIRCOVIRIDAE that infects SWINE; PSITTACINES; and non-psittacine BIRDS. Species include Beak and feather disease virus causing a fatal disease in psittacine birds, and Porcine circovirus causing postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs (PORCINE POSTWEANING MULTISYSTEMIC WASTING SYNDROME).Minute virus of mice: The type species of PARVOVIRUS prevalent in mouse colonies and found as a contaminant of many transplanted tumors or leukemias.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cyclophilin A: A 17-KDa cytoplasmic PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE involved in immunoregulation. It is a member of the cyclophilin family of proteins that binds to CYCLOSPORINE.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Insect Viruses: Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Enterovirus A, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.Orthoreovirus, Mammalian: A species of ORTHOREOVIRUS infecting mammals (other than baboons). There are four serotypes. In humans they are generally benign but may sometimes cause upper respiratory tract illness or enteritis in infants and children. MAMMALIAN ORTHOREOVIRUS 3 is a very pathogenic virus in laboratory rodents.Virosomes: Semi-synthetic complex derived from nucleic-acid free viral particles. They are essentially reconstituted viral coats, where the infectious nucleocapsid is replaced by a compound of choice. Virosomes retain their fusogenic activity and thus deliver the incorporated compound (antigens, drugs, genes) inside the target cell. They can be used for vaccines (VACCINES, VIROSOME), drug delivery, or gene transfer.Infectious bursal disease virus: A species of AVIBIRNAVIRUS causing severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens and other fowl. Transmission is thought to be through contaminated feed or water. Vaccines have been used with varying degrees of success.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.DNA Virus InfectionsNucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Aleutian Mink Disease Virus: A species of PARVOVIRUS that causes a disease in mink, mainly those homozygous for the recessive Aleutian gene which determines a desirable coat color.Protein PrecursorsDNA Packaging: The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Ranavirus: A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Totivirus: A genus of RNA fungi viruses in the family TOTIVIRIDAE. Some of the viruses contain additional satellite RNA or defective RNA. Transmission occurs during cell division, sporogenesis and cell fusion. The type species is Saccharomyces cerevisiae virus L-A.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Bacteriophage T4: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.Rous sarcoma virus: A species of replication-competent oncogene-containing virus in the genus ALPHARETROVIRUS. It is the original source of the src oncogene (V-SRC GENES) and causes sarcoma in chickens.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Mamastrovirus: A genus of small, circular RNA viruses in the family ASTROVIRIDAE. They cause GASTROENTERITIS and are found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route and there are at least eight human serotypes. The type species is Human astrovirus.Comovirus: A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.Virus Release: Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Hepatovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Enterovirus InfectionsRhinovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Feline panleukopenia virus: A species of PARVOVIRUS infecting cats with a highly contagious enteric disease. Host range variants include mink enteritis virus, canine parvovirus (PARVOVIRUS, CANINE), and raccoon parvovirus. After infecting their new hosts, many of these viruses have further evolved and are now considered distinct species.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Aleutian Mink Disease: A slow progressive disease of mink caused by the ALEUTIAN MINK DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by poor reproduction, weight loss, autoimmunity, hypergammaglobulinemia, increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, and death from renal failure. The disease occurs in all color types, but mink which are homozygous recessive for the Aleutian gene for light coat color are particularly susceptible.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Levivirus: A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.Closterovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE containing highly flexuous filaments. Some members are important pathogens of crop plants. Natural vectors include APHIDS, whiteflies, and mealybugs. The type species is Beet yellows virus.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Chenopodium quinoa: A species of the Chenopodium genus which is the source of edible seed called quinoa. It contains makisterone A and other STEROIDS, some having ECDYSTEROID activity on insects.Sapovirus: A genus of the family CALICIVIRIDAE associated with worldwide sporadic outbreaks of GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The first recorded outbreak was in human infants in Sapporo, Japan in 1977. The genus is comprised of a single species, Sapporo virus, containing multiple strains.Bovine papillomavirus 1: A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Iridoviridae: A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Bacteriophage P2: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.Circoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CIRCOVIRIDAE.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Foot-and-Mouth DiseaseParvovirus, Porcine: A species of PARVOVIRUS causing reproductive failure in pigs.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Densovirus: A genus of PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily DENSOVIRINAE, comprising helper-independent viruses containing only two species. Junonia coenia densovirus is the type species.Helminthosporium: A mitosporic fungal genus including both saprophytes and plant parasites.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Polyomavirus Infections: Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.HIV Core Protein p24: A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.Luteovirus: A genus of plant viruses that infects both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Its organisms are persistently transmitted by aphids, and weeds may provide reservoirs of infection.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Human papillomavirus 16: A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Mengovirus: A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, isolated from rodents and lagomorphs and occasionally causing febrile illness in man.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Mason-Pfizer monkey virus: A species of BETARETROVIRUS isolated from mammary carcinoma in rhesus monkeys. It appears to have evolved from a recombination between a murine B oncovirus and a primate C oncovirus related to the baboon endogenous virus. Several serologically distinct strains exist. MPMV induces SIMIAN AIDS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.RNA Virus InfectionsTransfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Hepatitis A Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).Negative Staining: The technique of washing tissue specimens with a concentrated solution of a heavy metal salt and letting it dry. The specimen will be covered with a very thin layer of the metal salt, being excluded in areas where an adsorbed macromolecule is present. The macromolecules allow electrons from the beam of an electron microscope to pass much more readily than the heavy metal; thus, a reversed or negative image of the molecule is created.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Bacteriophage PRD1: Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.Mutant Proteins: Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.Nuclear Localization Signals: Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Plum Pox Virus: A species of the genus POTYVIRUS that affects many species of Prunus. It is transmitted by aphids and by infected rootstocks.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Reoviridae Infections: Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.Birnaviridae: A family of bisegmented, double-stranded RNA viruses causing infection in fish, mollusks, fowl, and Drosophila. There are three genera: AQUABIRNAVIRUS; AVIBIRNAVIRUS; and ENTOMOBIRNAVIRUS. Horizontal and vertical transmission occurs for all viruses.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Myoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Alphavirus: A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.Mice, Inbred BALB CEpitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Orbivirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE infecting a wide range of arthropods and vertebrates including humans. It comprises at least 21 serological subgroups. Transmission is by vectors such as midges, mosquitoes, sandflies, and ticks.
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus
... and is remarkable since it has stolen numerous genes from host cells including genes that encode for complement-binding protein ... called the capsid, which is then surrounded by an amorphous protein layer called the tegument, and finally enclosed in a lipid ... KSHV genes. KSHV encodes for ~90 genes and multiple non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs. The "ORF" genes are named ... ORF35 - unclear function, mutant does not express early viral genes ORF36 - vPK - viral protein kinase with multiple roles in ...
Middle tumor antigen
The "late region" contains genes encoding the viral capsid proteins.) In MTag-containing polyomaviruses, the early region ... but has a number of protein-protein interaction sites that mediate interactions with proteins in the host cell. Particularly in ... The LTag gene is usually encoded in two exons, of which the first overlaps with the genes for STag and MTag. The result of this ... A somewhat more common tumor antigen variant, an overprinted gene encoding a protein called ALTO, may be evolutionarily related ...
Small tumor antigen
The "late region" contains genes encoding the viral capsid proteins.) The early region typically contains at least two genes ... The STag protein is expressed from a gene that overlaps the large tumor antigen (LTag) such that the two proteins share an N- ... The LTag gene is usually encoded in two exons, of which the first overlaps with the gene for STag (and sometimes other tumor ... STag is known to interact with host cell proteins, most notably protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and may activate the expression ...
Large tumor antigen
The "late region" contains genes encoding the viral capsid proteins.) The early region typically contains at least two genes ... The ATPase domain also contains regions responsible for protein-protein interactions with host cell proteins, most notably ... without affecting these protein-protein interaction sites. LTag is a large protein whose domains can be detected and annotated ... The LTag gene is usually encoded in two exons, of which the first overlaps with the gene for the small tumor antigen (STag); as ...
... and genes themselves. This includes genes that encode reverse transcriptase, integrase, and capsid proteins. The reverse ... The ability to infect other cells in determined by the presence of the retroviral env genes which encode coat proteins. ... In some cases, virus-like particles can be formed from capsid proteins. Some assembled Metaviridae particles can penetrate and ... transcriptase and integrase proteins are needed for the retrotransposon activity of the virus. ...
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence associated DNA virus 1
The capsid is composed on the viral coat protein. The genome encodes only two proteins-a replicase and the coat protein. The ... genes are encoded on complementary strands. This virus appears to be related to but distinct from members of the Geminiviridae ... Unlike geminiviruses, this virus does not have a movement protein. It has been officially classified into the genus ...
Feline immunodeficiency virus
The capsid protein derived from the polyprotein Gag is assembled into a viral core (the protein shell of a virus) and the ... encoding the Vif and Rev proteins. An additional short ORF termed orfA (also known as orf2) precedes the env gene. The function ... The Gag polyprotein is cleaved into matrix (MA), capsid (CA) and nucleocapsid (NC) proteins. Cleavage between CA and NC ... The bovine protein is homologous with other mammalian species and is a homogeneous 50 kDa glycoprotein with an isoelectric ...
... except genes 9, which codes for two. The RNA is surrounded by a three-layered icosahedral protein capsid. Viral particles are ... Each helix, or segment, is a gene, numbered 1 to 11 by decreasing size. Each gene codes for one protein, ... rotavirus produces mRNA for both protein biosynthesis and gene replication. Most of the rotavirus proteins accumulate in ... NSP6 is a nucleic acid binding protein and is encoded by gene 11 from an out-of-phase open reading frame. This table is based ...
Apple mosaic virus
There capsid consists of 5 or more proteins: gp8 (the major capsid protein); gp6, gp7 and gp8 (minor capsid proteins); and gp3 ... Gene transcription is by the host's cellular machinery each gene having a specific promoter. The viral protein gp2 plays an ... The activity of gp2 is regulated by two other viral proteins: gp5 (single strand binding protein) and gp10. New viral genomes ... the number of major capsid protein subunits per virion). This process involves both gp1 and gp11. Assembly is completed by the ...
Following integration, the genes responsible for virus replication and the capsids were (eventually) no longer included in the ... But they are composed of proteins that are closer in structure and function to Hymenoptera's proteins than to viral proteins. ... thanks to its gene PTP-H2. It also decreases the adhesion capacity of hematocytes, thanks to its gene Glc1.8. The gene also ... The first suggests that the virus is derived from wasp genes. Many parasitoids that do not use PDVs inject proteins that ...
The right hand ORF (ORF3) encodes the capsid proteins (VP1, VP2, and VP3). The NP1 gene is in an alternate reading frame to VP1 ... The capsid has a T = 1 symmetry and consists of 60 copies of coat protein. The coat proteins have a conserved, eight stranded ... This process involves proliferating cell nuclear antigen, the single strand-binding protein replication protein A and NS1. In ... The NS1 protein remains covalently linked to the 5′ end of nicked DNA with the 3′-hydroxyl group being used for synthesis of ...
There are five or more proteins in the capid: gp8 (the major capsid protein); gp6, gp7 and gp8 (minor capsid proteins); and gp3 ... They encode 4 to 11 proteins. Replication of the genome occurs via a dsDNA intermediate and the rolling circle mechanism. Gene ... The activity of gp2 is regulated by two other viral proteins: gp5 (single strand binding protein) and gp1# New viral genomes ... The capsid has a helical symmetry and is generally has a length of 85-280 nm or 760-1950 nm and a width of 10-16 nm or 6-8 nm ...
Hepatitis C virus
An 11th protein has also been described. This protein is encoded by a +1 frameshift in the capsid gene. It appears to ... Structural proteins made by the hepatitis C virus include Core protein, E1 and E2; nonstructural proteins include NS2, NS3, ... The Alternate Reading Frame Protein/F-Protein, the Double-Frameshift Protein, and Others". Seminars in Liver Disease. 25 (1): ... This protein is a 63 amino acid membrane-spanning protein which locates itself in the endoplasmic reticulum. Cleavage of p7 is ...
Viral capsid proteins come together to form a precursor prohead, into which the genome enters. Once this has occurred, the ... Once inside the genes are expressed from transcripts made by the host machinery, using host ribosomes. Typically, the genome is ... The tails consist of helix based proteins with 6-fold symmetry. After maturation of virus particles, the cell is lysed by ... The order encompasses a wide range of viruses, many of which containing genes of similar nucleotide sequence and function. Some ...
Calcium-binding and coiled-coil domain-containing protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CALCOCO2 gene. The ... 2002). "Reorganization of nuclear domain 10 induced by papillomavirus capsid protein l2". Virology. 295 (1): 97-107. doi: ... CALCOCO2 human gene location in the UCSC Genome Browser. CALCOCO2 human gene details in the UCSC Genome Browser.. ... 2004). "HCC-associated protein HCAP1, a variant of GEMIN4, interacts with zinc-finger proteins". J. Biochem. 133 (6): 713-8. ...
Lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus
"The Lactate Dehydrogenase-Elevating Virus Capsid Protein is a Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Protein". Archives of Virology. pp. 1071-1080 ... Anderson, Grant W.; Raymond R. R. Rowland; Gene A. Palmer; Chen Even; Peter G. W. Plagemann (August 1995). "Lactate ... The virions have four structural proteins which include a nucleocapsid protein, a non-glycosylated envelope protein, a major ... The envelope consists of two proteins, VP2 and VP3. VP2 has a molecular weight of 18,000, and VP3 is a heterogeneous ...
Chimpanzee stool associated circular virus
The three genes in the late region express the three capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3. Between the early and late regions is a ... The capsid contains three proteins; capsid protein VP1 is the primary component and self-assembles into a 360-unit outer capsid ... MPyV capsid protein VP1 binds to sialic acids of gangliosides GD1a and GT1b on the cell surface. The functions of VP2 and VP3 ... Capsid proteins, produced in the cytoplasm of the host cell, enter the nucleus as assembled capsomers consisting of pentameric ...
"Capsid Protein-Encoding Genes of Hamster Polyomavirus and Properties of the Viral Capsid". Virus Genes. 18 (1): 39-47. doi: ... Following the typical pattern for polyomaviruses, the HaPyV viral capsid contains three proteins: VP1, VP2, and VP3, of which ... However, the HaPyV capsid differs from its close relative MPyV and from another well-studied polyomavirus, SV40, in having a T= ... At around 5.3 kilobase pairs in length, it contains genes for the small, middle, and large tumor antigens and three viral coat ...
P1 encodes the virus capsid proteins, P2 and P3 encode genes required for genome replication to occur. For replication to occur ... The genome is approximately 8400nt in length, and has 5' VG protein (Virus genome protein) and a 3' polyadenine tail. The ... A single polypeptide is made, and is cleaved into individual proteins by viral proteases. The genome is divided into three ... Zoll et al., 2002, "The Mengovirus Leader Protein Suppresses Alpha/Beta Interferon Production by Inhibition of the Iron/ ...
Viral replicase proteins are made up of 303 amino acids and the viral capsid is constructed out of 270 amino acids. The gene ... The icosahedral triangulation number is 1, the smallest size a viral capsid can be, in which there are a total of 60 protein ... The important protein dimer that needs to be coded for in the DNA is the replication protein, Rep. Rep cleaves a location of ... There are only two open reading frames (ORFs) that code for specific viral replicase and capsid proteins. ...
Carrot Yellow-leaf Virus
The major capsid protein is essential for virus assembly; mutations in the gene responsible for encoding it result in ... However, minor capsid protein is not essential for assembly nor genome protection. A virus with a mutated minor capsid protein ... is covered in major capsid proteins, while the tail of virus is coated in minor capsid proteins. This virus is non-enveloped, ... Hsp70h binds to the minor capsid protein tail and consequently it attaches to the major capsid protein virion Hsp70h binds to ...
The main structural component of the protein capsid is the major capsid protein (MCP). Ranaviral replication is well-studied ... approximately 150 nm in diameter with a large single linear dsDNA genome of roughly 105 kbp which codes for around 100 gene ... Synthesis of viral proteins begins within hours of viral entry with necrosis or apoptosis occurring as early as a few hours ...
P24 capsid protein CA, encoded by the viral gene gag. 24000 Da. ... P9 capsid protein NC, also encoded by gag. 7000-11000 Da.. *The ... dUTPase DU encoded by the pro gene (part of pol gene in some viruses), the role of which is still unknown. Protein size 14000 ... Retroviruses carry specific proteins within their capsids, which typically associate with the RNA genome. These proteins are ... As with all retroviruses, lentiviruses have gag, pol and env genes, coding for viral proteins in the order: 5´-gag-pol-env-3´. ...
The abundance of genes coding for proteins belonging to the RHH superfamily present in the genomes of crenarchaea and their ... The structure revealed a previously unknown form of virion organization, in which the alpha-helical major capsid protein of ... In contrast, at least 10% of its genes were predicted to have of different DNA binding motifs in the proteins they code and ... A high proportion of viral genes coding for DNA binding proteins with the ribbon-helix-helix (RHH) DNA binding motifs has been ...
The capsid itself is elongated and exhibits helical symmetry. The core itself is helical. There are two major capsid proteins ( ... Viruses from the two families have linear dsDNA genomes and share up to nine genes. In addition, the filamentous particles of ... homologous major capsid proteins. Due to these shared properties viruses from the two families are classified into an order ... The capsid varies considerably in length - 410-1950 nanometers (nm) - and is 24-38 nm in diameter. The envelope has a monolayer ...
Curiously, homologues of the genes for the capsid proteins of His2 are widely distributed in genomes of haloarchaea. The ... with terminal proteins) can enter. It is the virus capsid that determines cell selection, most likely by proteins in the short ... The genus name is derived from salt terminal protein virus, as their linear dsDNA genomes have proteins attached to the 5' ... The capsid is similar in shape to that of viruses infecting thermophilic Archaea, the Fuselloviridae, and His1V was originally ...
Self-complementary adeno-associated virus
The genes encoded in this ORF build capsid proteins and are responsible (along with intracellular processing) for conveying ... Rep proteins participate in the integration of the genome into preformed capsids. Despite the fact that scAAV is designed to ... Thus the sequence of scAAV is likely unwound by a virally encoded DNA helicase before being packaged into viral protein capsid ... Because the endogenous rep ORF has been replaced with transgene, exogenously provided rep genes encode the proteins required ...
1985). "Amino terminal myristylation of the protein kinase p60src, a retroviral transforming protein". Science. 227 (4685): 427 ... "Entrez Gene: NMT1 N-myristoyltransferase 1". Rajala RV, Datla RS, Moyana TN, et al. (2000). "N-myristoyltransferase". Mol. Cell ... Göttlinger HG, Sodroski JG, Haseltine WA (1989). "Role of capsid precursor processing and myristoylation in morphogenesis and ... 1990). "Myristoylation of gag proteins of HIV-1 plays an important role in virus assembly". AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 6 (6 ...
... the enumeration corresponds to the arrangement of the protein coding genes in the genome. Minimal yellow fever virus (YFV) ... The capsid enters the cytosol, decays, and releases the genome. Receptor binding, as well as membrane fusion, are catalyzed by ... and forms a complex with protein E. The immature particles are processed in the Golgi apparatus by the host protein furin, ... At first, an immature form of the virus particle is produced inside the ER, whose M-protein is not yet cleaved to its mature ...
... has genes of capsid proteins in the 3' part of the genome. Virology 244(1):50-58 Hartley CJ, Greenwood DR, Gilbert RJ, Masoumi ... The 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D proteins are the capsid proteins VP4, VP2, VP3, and VP1, respectively.Virus-coded proteases perform the ... Binding causes a conformational change in the viral capsid proteins, and myristic acid are released. These acids form a pore in ... The rest of the genome encodes structural proteins at the 5' end and non-structural proteins at the 3' end in a single ...
A map of the genome of JC virus, indicating the position of the tumor antigen genes (red), the three capsid protein genes ( ... gene.com/gene/products/information/pdf/rituxan-prescribing.pdf *^ Major, Eugene O; Yousry, Tarek A; Clifford, David B (May 2018 ... virus as well as performing a transcriptional switch to allow for the formation of the various capsid and regulatory proteins ... Immunohistochemical detection of JC virus protein (stained brown) in a brain biopsy (glial cells demonstrating progressive ...
For example, the gag gene is translated into molecules of the capsid protein, the pol gene is translated into molecules of ... Proteins: consisting of gag proteins, protease (PR), pol proteins, and env proteins. *Group-specific antigen (gag) proteins are ... Env proteins play a role in association and entry of virions into the host cell. Possessing a functional copy of an env gene ... transcribing and translating the viral genes along with the cell's own genes, producing the proteins required to assemble new ...
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
negative regulation of gene expression. • protein localization to plasma membrane. • positive regulation of protein catabolic ... but also found in viral capsid proteins. Cell signaling. TNF can bind two receptors, TNFR1 (TNF receptor type 1; CD120a; ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • protein binding. • protease binding. • ... Gene. The human TNF gene (TNFA) was cloned in 1985. It maps to chromosome 6p21.3, spans about 3 kilobases and ...
The virus consists of four nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins. The structural proteins are the capsid and ... RT-PCR using nested primer pairs is used to amplify several chikungunya-specific genes from whole blood, generating thousands ... monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG), and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 ... a nonstructural protein that degrades RBP1 and turns off the host cell's ability to transcribe DNA. NS2 interferes with the ...
Immature capsids are formed from coiled DNA. L genes are transcribed "after the synthesis of DNA and viral protein onset". ... During this phase IE genes are transcribed without other proteins. The E genes are also transcribed before viral DNA ... AHV-1 has 67 genes in its genome, 65 of which are likely coding genes. Three of the genes have no homologs to other herpesvirus ... DNA and proteins enter the host cell nucleus and turn-off host cell synthesis of nucleic acids, proteins, and other macro ...
... for evasion of these host immune systems by small mutations in the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes that make the protein ... In the influenza virus, the two relevant antigens are the surface proteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. The ... R. M. Bush; W. M. Fitch; C. A. Bender; N. J. Cox (1999). "Positive selection on the H3 hemagglutinin gene of human influenza ... Antigenic drift is a mechanism for variation in viruses that involves the accumulation of mutations within the genes that code ...
... and the virus has four known genes which encode seven proteins: the core capsid protein, the viral polymerase, surface antigens ... Envelope Proteins. The hepatitis envelope proteins are composed of subunits made from the viral preS1, preS2, and S genes ... These envelope proteins can assemble independently of the viral capsid and genome into non-infectious virus-like particles that ... The L (for "large") envelope protein contains all three subunits. The M (for "medium") protein contains only preS2 and S. The S ...
Gene ontology. Molecular function. • ferric iron binding. • metal ion binding. • protein binding. • ferric iron transmembrane ... "Asymmetric binding of transferrin receptor to parvovirus capsids". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... "Transferrin is an insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 binding protein". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and ... regulation of protein stability. • transferrin transport. • iron ion homeostasis. • platelet degranulation. • ion transport. • ...
Genes. Capsid diameter. Hair cover. Genbank # Megavirus chilensis. 1,259,197. 1120 proteins (predicted). 440 nm. 75 nm. ... 1023 proteins (predicted). 390 nm. 120 nm. JF801956 Mimivirus. 1,181,549. 979 proteins (39 non-coding). 390 nm. 120 nm. ... 756 proteins (predicted). 390 nm. No. JN036606 Cafeteria roenbergensis virus. 617,453 (730 kb). 544 proteins (predicted). ... The Megavirus particle exhibits a protein capsid diameter of 440 nanometres (as seen by electron microscopy on thin sections of ...
... an example is a virus capsid protein fragment). Antibodies contribute to immunity in three ways: They prevent pathogens from ... Combining these genes with an array of genes for other domains of the antibody generates a large cavalry of antibodies with a ... Stevens FJ, Solomon A, Schiffer M (1991). "Bence Jones proteins: a powerful tool for the fundamental study of protein chemistry ... the number of genes available to make these proteins is limited by the size of the human genome. Several complex genetic ...
In molecular biology, Tat is a protein that is encoded for by the tat gene in HIV-1. Tat is a regulatory protein that ... Protein transduction domain. Tat contains a protein transduction domain, which is therefore known as a cell-penetrating ... The protein is released by infected cells in culture, and is found in the blood of HIV-1 infected patients. ... The basic region of HIV-Tat protein is suggested to form an alpha helix. The basic region is involved in RNA (TAR, trans- ...
The entire STMV particle consists of 60 identical copies of one protein that make up the viral capsid (coating), and a 1063 ... The Blue Gene Project (IBM)JawBreakers.org. *Materials modelling and computer simulation codes ... protein folding and protein structure prediction studies are often carried out using one, or a few, pseudo-atoms per amino acid ... AD; Brooks III, Charles L (2004). "CHARMM fluctuating charge force field for proteins: II protein/solvent properties from ...
Complement component 1 Q subcomponent-binding protein, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C1QBP gene.[ ... "Rubella virus capsid associates with host cell protein p32 and localizes to mitochondria". J. Virol. 74 (12): 5569-76. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: C1QBP complement component 1, q subcomponent binding protein".. *^ Jiang, Jianzhong (1999). "rystal structure of ... C1QBP has been shown to interact with Protein kinase D1, BAT2, PRKCD, PKC alpha and Protein kinase Mζ. ...
Panicum mosaic virus
... with an icosohedral capsid. PMV itself has a genome of 4,326 nucleotides, encapsulated into 30-nm particles by a capsid protein ... Cross-protection appears to be the most promising option in the case of switchgrass because of the lack of resistance genes for ... The capsid protein of satellite panicum mosaic virus contributes to systemic invasion and interacts with its helper virus. ... panicum mosaic virions spread through the plant by producing three proteins (p8, p6.6, and p15) as part of their capsids. The ...
தீநுண்மி - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா
Viral capsid proteins come together to form a precursor prohead, into which the genome enters. Once this has occurred, the ... Once inside the genes are expressed from transcripts made by the host machinery, using host ribosomes. Typically, the genome is ... Xu J, Hendrix RW, Duda RL (2004). "Conserved translational frameshift in dsDNA bacteriophage tail assembly genes". Mol. Cell. ... The tails consist of helix based proteins with 6-fold symmetry. After maturation of virus particles, the cell is lysed by ...
They are utilized to investigate genes in cell cultures of the proteins which are encoded by those genes via mass production ... The capsid is also constructed from 60 protein molecules and one of them creates the majority of the viral capsid structure. ... The viral capsid of a parvovirus is made up of two to four proteins, known as VP1-4 that form an icosahedral symmetry that is ... The mutation affects capsid proteins of feline parvovirus giving it the ability to infect dogs. Both forms of the virus are ...
... capsid proteins F (Virus Protein 1) and DNA pilot protein H (Virus Protein 2) and do not use scaffolding proteins. They also ... The nonessential genes are E and K. Several of the genes have overlapping reading frames. Protein A* is encoded within protein ... Gene E is encoded with gene D with a +1 frameshift. Gene K overlaps genes A, B, and C. The origin of replication lies within a ... Members of the subfamily Microvirinae have four structural proteins: major capsid protein F, major spike protein G, a small DNA ...
Norovirus, a enciclopedia libre
"The P Domain of Norovirus Capsid Protein Forms Dimer and Binds to Histo-Blood Group Antigen Receptors". J. Virol. 78 (12): 6233 ... "Organization and expression of calicivirus genes". J. Infect. Dis. 181 Suppl 2: S309-16. PMID 10804143. doi:10.1086/315575 ... Tan M, Huang PW, Meller J, Zhong WM, Farkas T, Jiang X (2004). "Mutations within the P2 domain of norovirus capsid affect ...
Evolution of sexual reproduction
The genes coding for immune system proteins evolve considerably faster. ... These include a double stranded DNA genome, a linear chromosome with short telomeric repeats, a complex membrane bound capsid, ... even though it is a form of horizontal gene transfer. However, it does support the "selfish gene" part theory, since the gene ... the rate of molecular evolution of genes for kinases and immunoglobulins in the immune system with genes coding other proteins ...
The virus-like particle contains 180 subunits of the capsid protein, and each capsid protein (CP) shows three major domains: (i ... Its RNA strand is split in two sections RNA1 and RNA2 that together account for 3.5 kbp (approx) that encode 3 genes. ... The average diameter of the viral capsid is only 37 nm. ... Mechanisms of Capsid Assembly and Viral Infection. PLoS ...
SMA is a neuromuscular disorder caused by a mutation in the SMN1 gene, which leads to a decrease in SMN protein, a protein ... Onasemnogene abeparvovec is a biologic drug consisting of AAV9 virus capsids that contains a SMN1 transgene along with ... Onasemnogene abeparvovec works by providing a new copy of the gene that makes the human SMN protein. ... 2.1m Novartis gene therapy to become world's most expensive drug". The Guardian. London. Reuters. 25 May 2019. ISSN 0261-3077. ...
Rotavirus - Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
Rainsford EW, McCrae MA (2007). «Characterization of the NSP6 protein product of rotavirus gene 11». Virus Res. 130 (1-2): 193- ... Hoshino Y, Jones RW, Kapikian AZ (2002). «Characterization of neutralization specificities of outer capsid spike protein VP4 of ... Proteínas e genes de rotavírus Segmento de RNA (gene). Tamanho (pares de bases). Proteína. Peso molecular (kDa). Localização. ... Cada gene codifica uma proteína, excepto o gene 9, que codifica duas. O RNA é rodeado por uma cápside proteica icosaédrica ...
"Detection of Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus RNA and Capsid Protein in Lymphoid Tissues of Convalescent Pigs Does Not Indicate ... for a given gene. This means FMD vaccines must be highly specific to the strain involved. Vaccination only provides temporary ... "Detection of Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus RNA and Capsid Protein in Lymphoid Tissues of Convalescent Pigs Does Not Indicate ... In the 1970s, scientists discovered that a vaccine could be made using only a single key protein from the virus. The task was ...
Lipaza - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
Girod A, Wobus C, Zádori Z, Ried M, Leike K, Tijssen P, Kleinschmidt J, Hallek M (2002). „The VP1 capsid protein of adeno- ... characterisation and expression analysis of a new gene family with at least ten members". Arch. Microbiol. 174 (5): 362-374. ... Eric J. Toone (2006). Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, Protein Evolution (Volume 75 изд.). Wiley- ... Nicholas C. Price; Lewis Stevens (1999). Fundamentals of Enzymology: The Cell and Molecular Biology of Catalytic Proteins ( ...
Feline Calicivirus: A Challenge for Vaccines - WSAVA2004 - VIN
Sequencing of the entire capsid gene showed that FCVG1 and FCV431 shared the same degree of distance as any pair of strains ... DNA vaccination against feline calicivirus infection using a plasmid encoding the mature capsid protein. Vaccine 20, 1787-1796. ... High genetic diversity of the immunodominant region of the feline calicivirus capsid gene in endemically infected cat colonies ... Vaccination of cats with an attenuated recombinant myxoma virus expressing feline calicivirus capsid protein. Vaccine 20, 2454- ...
VP1 - Capsid protein - Murine norovirus - VP1 gene & protein
... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Capsid proteinImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href ... Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF00915, Calici_coat, 1 hit. PF08435, Calici_coat_C, 1 ... p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source ...
alpha - Capsid protein alpha - Boolarra virus (BoV) - alpha gene & protein
Capsid maturation occurs via autoproteolytic cleavage of capsid protein alpha generating capsid protein beta and the membrane- ... and consisting of 60 capsid proteins trimers. The capsid encapsulates the two genomic RNAs. ... Capsid protein alpha self-assembles to form an icosahedral procapsid with a T=3 symmetry, about 30 nm in diameter, ... Capsid maturation occurs via autoproteolytic cleavage of capsid protein alpha generating capsid protein beta and the membrane- ...
The T=1 capsid protein of Penicillium chrysogenum virus is formed by a repeated helix-rich core indicative of gene duplication....
Structure of the PcV T=1 capsid and model of the capsid protein fold. (A) Surface-shaded virion capsid viewed along an ... The T=1 Capsid Protein of Penicillium chrysogenum Virus Is Formed by a Repeated Helix-Rich Core Indicative of Gene Duplication ... The T=1 Capsid Protein of Penicillium chrysogenum Virus Is Formed by a Repeated Helix-Rich Core Indicative of Gene Duplication ... The T=1 Capsid Protein of Penicillium chrysogenum Virus Is Formed by a Repeated Helix-Rich Core Indicative of Gene Duplication ...
Promoter analysis of the Chilo iridescent virus DNA polymerase and major capsid protein genes
... genes were used as models to study promoter activity in Chilo iridescent virus (CIV). Infection of Bombyx mori SPC-BM-36 cells ... in the presence of inhibitors of DNA or protein synthesis showed that DNApol, as well as helicase, is an immediate … ... is an immediate-early gene and confirmed that the major capsid protein (MCP) is a late gene. Transcription of DNApol initiated ... Promoter analysis of the Chilo iridescent virus DNA polymerase and major capsid protein genes Virology. 2003 Dec 20;317(2):321- ...
Identification of the major capsid protein gene of human cytomegalovirus. | Journal of Virology
Identification of the major capsid protein gene of human cytomegalovirus.. M Chee, S A Rudolph, B Plachter, B Barrell, G Jahn ... Identification of the major capsid protein gene of human cytomegalovirus. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... The coding region for the major capsid protein (MCP) of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was identified by comparing the protein ... A portion of the open reading frame was expressed in Escherichia coli plasmid pBD2 IC2OH as a beta-galactosidase fusion protein ...
Inducible Gene Expression from African Swine Fever Virus Recombinants: Analysis of the Major Capsid Protein p72 | Journal of...
Role of the major capsid protein p72.This report shows, by analysis of the B646L gene, which encodes the major capsid protein ... Inducible Gene Expression from African Swine Fever Virus Recombinants: Analysis of the Major Capsid Protein p72. Ramón García- ... 1990) Mapping and sequence of the gene encoding for p72, the major capsid protein of African swine fever virus. Virology 175: ... 1993) Identification of the gene encoding the major capsid protein of fish lymphocystis disease virus. J. Gen. Virol. 74:2143- ...
Remarkable variability of apple mosaic virus capsid protein gene after nucleotide position 141, Archives of Virology | 10.1007...
"Remarkable variability of apple mosaic virus capsid protein gene after nucleotide position 141, Archives of Virology" on ... Remarkable variability of apple mosaic virus capsid protein gene after nucleotide position 141. Petrzik, K.; Lenz, O. ... Remarkable variability of apple mosaic virus capsid protein gene after nucleotide position 141 Petrzik, K.; Lenz, O. 2002-07-01 ... Remarkable variability of apple mosaic virus capsid protein gene after nucleotide position 141. ...
Identification and Comparison of Viral Genes Coding for Capsid Proteins of Ustilago maydis Virus | Microbiology Society
The capsid proteins from P1 and P4 were translated from their respective H2 dsRNA segments, whereas the capsid protein for P6 ... These results suggest that the three strains code for a similar capsid protein, and that the information for capsid protein ... The capsid proteins of the three strains cross-react immunologically, have similar mol. wt. and similar peptide maps after ... These in vitro translation products were each precipitated by the antiserum to capsid proteins of all three strains, had ...
RCSB PDB - 1E6J: Crystal structure of HIV-1 capsid protein (p24) in complex with Fab13B5 Macromolecule Annotations...
Mutual Conformational Adaptations in Antigen and Antibody Upon Complex Formation between an Fab and HIV-1 Capsid Protein P24 ... Gene Product Annotation Gene Ontology Consortium Homepage. Chains. Polymer. Molecular Function. Biological Process. Cellular ... Retrovirus capsid protein, N-terminal core domain Retrovirus capsid protein, N-terminal core domain HIV-1 capsid protein Human ... All alpha proteins Acyl carrier protein-like Retrovirus capsid dimerization domain-like Retrovirus capsid protein C-terminal ...
RCSB PDB - 1D1D: NMR SOLUTION STRUCTURE OF THE CAPSID PROTEIN FROM ROUS SARCOMA VIRUS Macromolecule Annotations Page
Solution structure and dynamics of the Rous sarcoma virus capsid protein and comparison with capsid proteins of other ... Gene Product Annotation Gene Ontology Consortium Homepage. Chains. Polymer. Molecular Function. Biological Process. Cellular ... Retrovirus capsid protein, N-terminal core domain Retrovirus capsid protein, N-terminal core domain RSV capsid protein Rous ... RSV capsid protein Rous sarcoma virus [TaxId: 11886] A11-150. d1d1da2. All alpha proteins Retrovirus capsid protein, N-terminal ...
Genome Sequence of Bluetongue Virus Type 2 from India: Evidence for Reassortment between Outer Capsid Protein Genes |...
Genome Sequence of Bluetongue Virus Type 2 from India: Evidence for Reassortment between Outer Capsid Protein Genes. Sushila ... Genome Sequence of Bluetongue Virus Type 2 from India: Evidence for Reassortment between Outer Capsid Protein Genes ... Genome Sequence of Bluetongue Virus Type 2 from India: Evidence for Reassortment between Outer Capsid Protein Genes ... Genome Sequence of Bluetongue Virus Type 2 from India: Evidence for Reassortment between Outer Capsid Protein Genes ...
Structural and functional similarities between the capsid proteins of bacteriophages T4 and HK97 point to a common ancestry |...
The protein shell consists of the major capsid protein gene product (gp) 23*, the pentameric vertex protein gp24*, the portal ... and the two accessory proteins, gp hoc (highly antigenic outer capsid protein) and gp soc (small outer capsid protein) (3), ... Abbreviations: gp, gene product; soc, small outer capsid protein; E loop, elongated loop; P domain, peripheral domain; A domain ... A number of mutations in different genes coding capsid proteins lead to various abnormalities in assembly ranging from ...
Structures and organization of adenovirus cement proteins provide insights into the role of capsid maturation in virus entry...
Replication-deficient adenoviruses are among the most frequently used vectors for human gene therapy. However, the structural ... Protein V.. Even though protein V is considered a core protein and along with protein VII is known to interact with the Ad ... The capsid shell of an adenovirus (Ad) comprises multiple copies of three major capsid proteins (MCPs; hexon, penton base, and ... Protein IX.. Protein IX is the most flexible molecule among the cement proteins, displaying a primarily extended structure (Fig ...
Sequence Analysis of VP4 and VP7 Genes of Nontypeable Strains Identifies a New Pair of Outer Capsid Proteins Representing Novel...
To determine the genotypes of these isolates, the nucleotide sequences of the genes encoding the outer capsid proteins VP4 and ... Sequence Analysis of VP4 and VP7 Genes of Nontypeable Strains Identifies a New Pair of Outer Capsid Proteins Representing Novel ... Sequence Analysis of VP4 and VP7 Genes of Nontypeable Strains Identifies a New Pair of Outer Capsid Proteins Representing Novel ... Sequence_Analysis_of_VP4_and_VP7_Genes_of_Nontypeable_Strains.pdf Restricted to Registered users only Download (305Kb) , ...
Detention of HPV L1 Capsid Protein and hTERC Gene in Screening of Cervical Cancer
Conclusion: HPV L1 capsid protein and hTERC gene may serve as markers for the early diagnosis and prediction of cervical ... L1 capsid protein, and human telomerase RNA component (hTERC) in cervical cancer and the role of detection of both genes in ... Results: The expression of HPV L1 capsid protein reduced with the increase of the histological grade of cervical cells and was ... Immunocytochemistry was employed to detect HPV L1 capsid protein, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to ...
Germline viral "fossils" guide in silico reconstruction of a mid-Cenozoic era marsupial adeno-associated virus | Scientific...
In silico gene reconstruction and molecular modelling indicate remarkable conservation of viral structure over a geologic ... gene mutation, and the phylogenetic relationships among host organisms. Here, we describe a lineage-specific, adeno-associated ... Cap protein. The mAAV-EVE1 capsid gene encodes a VP1-like protein with a predicted molecular weight of 82.2 kDa. A ... Examination and Reconstruction of Three Ancient Endogenous Parvovirus Capsid Protein Gene Remnants Found in Rodent Genomes * ...
Phylogenetic distribution of the capsid assembly protein gene (g20) of cyanophages in paddy floodwaters in Northeast China
Epidemiology of AIDS
Major capsid protein (p24) • Nuclear protein (p7) • RNA with reverse transcriptase * 24. RETRO VIRAL GENES • gag (group- ... Virus protein U gene is required for efficient viral replication • Found only in HIV-1 • vpx • The virus protein X gene has an ... RETRO VIRAL GENES • Tat The Trans activator gene influences the function of genes some distance away. • Rav The differential ... RETRO VIRAL GENES • vif • The virus infectivity factor gene required for infectivity • nef • The negative regulator factor ...
WikiGenes - VP4 - outer capsid spike protein
Molecular characterization of the outer capsid spike protein (VP4) gene from human group C rotavirus. Fielding, P.A., Lambden, ... wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary ... suggests that gene 4 encodes the VP4 protein equivalent present on the outer capsid of ADRV . ... The rhesus rotavirus outer capsid protein VP4 functions as a hemagglutinin and is antigenically conserved when expressed by a ...
Transcriptional activation of the adenoviral genome is mediated by capsid protein VI. - PubMed - NCBI
Capsid proteins from other DNA viruses were also shown to activate the Ad E1A promoter independent of Ad gene expression and ... HCMV tegument protein pp71 and HPV minor capsid protein L2 can substitute transcriptional activation of the Ad genome. ... HCMV tegument protein pp71 and HPV minor capsid protein L2 stimulate E1A promoter activation. ... A schematic representation of Daxx restriction mediated by human adenovirus capsid protein VI (A), HCMV tegument protein pp71 ( ...
Cloning and expression of the gene encoding for the major capsid protein, VP-1, of the D-variant of encephalomyocarditis virus...
Phosphorylation and membrane association of the Rubella virus capsid protein is important for its anti-apoptotic function -...
The yeast SEC17 gene product is functionally equivalent to mammalian alpha-SNAP protein. J Biol Chem 267: 12106-12115.. *PubMed ... West Nile virus capsid protein interaction with importin and HDM2 protein is regulated by protein kinase C-mediated ... Rubella virus capsid protein interacts with poly(a)-binding protein and inhibits translation. J Virol 82: 4284-4294.. *CrossRef ... Beatch, M.D., Everitt, J.C., Law, L.J., and Hobman, T.C. (2005) Interactions between rubella virus capsid and host protein p32 ...
PDB-6htx: WT Hepatitis B core protein capsid - Yorodumi
Source: (gene. exp.) Hepatitis B virus ayw/France/Tiollais/1979. Production host: Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) (bacteria) / ... 1: Protein/peptide. B. A. C. D. Capsid. protein. / Capsid / Core antigen / Core protein / HBcAg / p21.5. Details. Function. ... WT Hepatitis B core protein capsid. Components. Capsid protein. Capsid Details. Keywords. VIRUS LIKE PARTICLE / Hapatitis B ... Capsid protein. <<. Function and homology information. Specimen source. Hepatitis B virus ayw/France/Tiollais/1979. Method. ...
PDB-5khf: Fitted structure of rubella virus capsid protein - Yorodumi
Source: (gene. exp.) Rubella virus / virus / 風疹ウイルス. References: UniProt: P07566 ... Fitted structure of rubella virus capsid protein. Descriptor. capsid protein. Keywords. VIRAL PROTEIN / rubella virus capsid ... capsid. protein. Details. Functions (11). Sequence. Sites (6). Mass: 30016.332 Da / Num. of mol.: 2 / Fragment: UNP residues 9- ... Protein Databank Japan (PDBj) PDBj Help Contact us Developed by H. [email protected] ...
Human Papillomaviruses (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 64, 1995)
The late region contains two genes, which code for the capsid proteins L1 and L2. Several advances have recently been made in ... The status of the p53 tumour suppressor gene has been most extensively studied; somatic mutations within this gene occur only ... The long control region contains cis-responsive elements, which are required for the regulation of gene expression and DNA ... Seroreactive and T-cell epitopes of HPV proteins have been identified using a variety of techniques. In most instances, it is ...
Cervical Screening: Overview, Human Papillomavirus, Papanicolaou Test
L genes encode viral capsid proteins. E genes are responsible for episomal replication. E proteins made by the viral genome ... Disruption of E1 and E2 allows for dysregulated downstream genes and the expression of E6 and E7 proteins, which are ... All HPV subtypes contain early (E) genes and late (L) genes, which are essential to viral integration and replication. ... This occurs with E1 and E2 genomes (see the image below). E1 protein has helicase activity for replication, and E2 encodes DNA- ...
Sequence analysis of the VP4, VP6, VP7, and NSP4 gene products of the bovine rotavirus WC3
The genes encoding the outer capsid spike protein VP4, the inner capsid protein VP6, the outer capsid glycoprotein VP7, and the ... The genes encoding the outer capsid spike protein VP4, the inner capsid protein VP6, the outer capsid glycoprotein VP7, and the ... Sequence analysis of the VP4, VP6, VP7, and NSP4 gene products of the bovine rotavirus WC3 Virus Genes. 2002 Mar;24(2):107-18. ... Comparative analysis of the deduced amino acids of the sequenced genes indicated that the BRV WC3 strain shares a high degree ...
Polymorphism of HIV type 1 gag p7/p1 and p1/p6 cleavage sites: clinical significance and implications for resistance to...
0/Capsid Proteins; 0/Fusion Proteins, gag-pol; 0/Gene Products, gag; 0/HIV Protease Inhibitors; 0/NCP7 protein, Human ... Capsid / genetics. Capsid Proteins*. Disease Progression. Drug Resistance, Microbial / genetics. Drug Therapy, Combination. ... Fusion Proteins, gag-pol / genetics, metabolism. Gene Products, gag / genetics*. HIV Infections / drug therapy, physiopathology ... 0/gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus; 0/gag protein p1, Human immunodeficiency virus; EC 3.4.23.-/HIV Protease ...
SequencesRecombinantEncodesGenomeStructuralPolymeraseOuter capsid spike proteinExpressing the major capsid proteinInner capsidNonstructuralGeneticAntigenicTranscriptionRecombinant capsid proteinsNucleicInteractionsNucleotidePhagesExpressionStructure of the capsidMaturationAssemblyVectorsReceptorStructuresAdeno-assocSubunitsCellsVaccinesMutationsAdenoviralIcosahedral capsidPolypeptideAntigensGlycoproteinsAminoSegmentsLipidBacteriophagesNucleocapsidDsRNAEnvelopeAdenovirusUniProt
- The PcV capsid, based on a T=1 lattice containing 60 subunits of the 982-amino-acid capsid protein, remains structurally undisturbed throughout the viral cycle, participates in genome metabolism, and isolates the virus genome from host defense mechanisms. (nih.gov)
- The spatial arrangement of the alpha-helical core resembles that found in the capsid protein of the L-A virus, a fungal totivirus with an undivided genome, suggesting a conserved basic fold. (nih.gov)
- The genome ordering might constitute a framework for dsRNA transcription at the capsid interior and/or have a structural role for capsid stability. (nih.gov)
- The BTV particle is icosahedral and nonenveloped and is composed of a three-layered protein capsid surrounding 10 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome segments ranging in size from 3,944 to 822 bp. (asm.org)
- The genome segments, identified as segments 1 to 10 (Seg-1 to Seg-10) in order of decreasing size ( 2 ), encode 7 structural proteins (VP1 to VP7) and 5 nonstructural proteins (NS1, NS2, NS3/3a, NS4, and NS5) ( 5 - 9 ). (asm.org)
- The protease activates once procapsid assembly has been completed and cleaves the proteins of the core into small peptides, most of which leave the maturing procapsid, freeing space for the genome. (pnas.org)
- Because of their broad cell tropism and ease of genome manipulation, replication-deficient or conditionally replicating HAdVs are also being evaluated in the clinic as potential vaccine and gene therapy vectors ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
- AAVs are among the smallest of the animal DNA viruses, with a ~5-kb genome packaged within a ~26-nm non-enveloped, icosahedral capsid. (nature.com)
- The typical AAV genome contains two protein-encoding genes termed rep and cap that, respectively, encode nonstructural proteins essential for viral genome replication and structural proteins that form the viral capsid. (nature.com)
- Transcriptional activation of the adenoviral genome is mediated by capsid protein VI. (nih.gov)
- Gene expression of DNA viruses requires nuclear import of the viral genome. (nih.gov)
- Our data further suggest a common principle for genome activation of DNA viruses by counteracting Daxx related repressive mechanisms through virion proteins. (nih.gov)
- E proteins made by the viral genome promote the activation of host DNA replication mechanisms that can then be used by the virus during its own replication. (medscape.com)
- Unlike cells, which contain all the structures needed for growth and reproduction, viruses are composed of only an outer coat (capsid), the genome, and, in some cases, a few enzymes. (encyclopedia.com)
- The length of helical viruses can depend on the length of the genome, the DNA or RNA within, since there are often regular structural interactions between the nucleic acids of the genome and the proteins that cover it. (encyclopedia.com)
- A point mutation in the core protein in which a phenylalanine at position 97 is exchanged for a smaller leucine leads to premature envelopment of the capsid before the genome maturation is fully completed. (pdbj.org)
- The genes for the small tumor antigen (STag), middle tumor antigen (MTag), and large tumor antigen (LTag) are encoded in the "early region" of the polyomavirus genome, so named because this region of the genome is expressed early in the infectious process. (wikipedia.org)
- Genome prediction of putative genome-linked viral protein (VPg) of astroviruses. (springer.com)
- The genome-linked protein VPg of the Norwalk virus binds eIF3, suggesting its role in translation initiation complex recruitment. (springer.com)
- All standard viruses share a general structure of genetic material, or viral genome, and a protein coat, called a capsid. (encyclopedia.com)
- The viral genome is made of either deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA), the genetic material found in plants and animals, or ribonucleic acid(RNA), a compound plant and animal cells use in protein synthesis. (encyclopedia.com)
- Instead, they use host cell machinery to make both the viral genome and capsids of the newly formed viruses, or virions. (encyclopedia.com)
- The fanlike arrangement of protein forms a three-dimensional ribbon-shaped structure that covers the viral genome. (encyclopedia.com)
- The combination of the capsid and the viral genome is known as a nucleocapsid. (encyclopedia.com)
- A major focus has been on the use of systems that express the structural proteins of the virus that self-assemble to generate "empty capsid" particles which share many features with the intact virus but lack the ribonucleic acid genome and are therefore non-infectious. (dovepress.com)
- Within the virus particle, a single copy of the genome is enclosed within a roughly spherical protein shell (capsid) which is about 30 nm in diameter. (dovepress.com)
- The capsid serves to protect the genome while the virus is outside of cells and also allows it to bind and subsequently gain entry to cells through interaction with specific cell-surface receptors (eg, certain integrins). (dovepress.com)
- Here we map host cell protein interaction profiles for each of the ten polypeptides encoded in the ZIKV genome, generating a protein topology network comprising 3033 interactions among 1224 unique human polypeptides. (mcponline.org)
- A schematic drawing regarding common sites for gene insertion in the PRV genome is shown in Figure 1 . (hindawi.com)
- Common sites in the PRV genome for inserting exogenous genes. (hindawi.com)
- In principle, the design of PRV vector vaccines is predicated upon the genome of live PRV being used to insert and express genes encoding protective antigens from other pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and parasites [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The existence of numerous nonessential genes in the large PRV genome permits the simultaneous insertion of multiple foreign genes in the hope of vaccinating against several diseases at the same time [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Every single nucleotide holds protein coding function and more than half of the genome is simultaneously part of 2 overlapping open reading frames. (uni-heidelberg.de)
- The structural proteins of some viruses occasionally mimic the three-dimensional nature of an actual virus while lacking the virus genome packaged inside its capsid [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- At 39,472 bp, the annotated genome revealed a closer relationship to coliphage T3 than T7 with Kvp1 containing homologs to T3 early proteins S-adenosyl-L-methionine hydrolase (0.3) and protein kinase (0.7). (biomedcentral.com)
- The viral genome consists of ten double stranded (ds) RNA segments encoding at least 7 structural and 4 non¬structural proteins. (up.ac.za)
- The capsid is the protein shell enclosing the viral genome. (coursehero.com)
- In the first wave of gene therapy, replication-defective retroviruses were utilized as gene delivery vectors, but the hope was soon dampened by concerns around side effects, including inflammatory responses to the vectors and the potential for genotoxicity caused by vector integration into the genome. (springer.com)
- The structure of herpes viruses consists of a relatively large double-stranded, linear DNA genome encased within an icosahedral protein cage called the capsid , which is wrapped in a lipid bilayer called the envelope . (wikidoc.org)
- The functions of some of these proteins have been analyzed ( 61 ), and the coding sequences for 12 structural proteins have been reported ( 17 , 39 , 51 , 52 , 61 ). (asm.org)
- Structural data show that capsid proteins of most tailed phages, and some eukaryotic viruses, may have evolved from a common ancestor. (pnas.org)
- These structural data, together with functional studies, made it possible to reveal striking features of lactococcal phages concerning their baseplate activation, and the specificity of their receptor binding proteins (RBPs). (frontiersin.org)
- The structural protein VP6 of rotavirus, an important pathogen responsible for severe gastroenteritis in children, forms the middle layer in the triple‐layered viral capsid. (embopress.org)
- Knowing the detailed architecture of the rotavirus particles and understanding the assembly process can provide a structural basis for the rational design of drugs that interfere specifically with capsid assembly. (embopress.org)
- Together, these data show that HClO and ONOOH consistently target oxidant-sensitive amino acids regardless of the structural organization of Qβ and MS2, even though the phenotypes change as a function of the interaction with adjacent proteins/RNA. (frontiersin.org)
- Such challenges can be addressed today using a combination of biological (i.e., cell culture) and physico-chemical (i.e., protein mass spectrometry, structural virology approaches) techniques ( Wigginton and Kohn, 2012 ). (frontiersin.org)
- furthermore, structural studies aimed at obtaining a better understanding of the structure of the capsid core have suggested new interactions w hich may be important for its formation, stability and consequent infectivity of the virus. (bl.uk)
- Banos-Lara MDR, Méndez E. Role of individual caspases induced by astrovirus on the processing of its structural protein and its release from the cell through a non-lytic mechanism. (springer.com)
- An outer capsid, consisting of two major structural proteins VP2 and VP5 surrounds the core. (up.ac.za)
- The DNA polymerase (DNApol) and major capsid protein (MCP) genes were used as models to study promoter activity in Chilo iridescent virus (CIV). (nih.gov)
- Glutathionylation of dengue and Zika NS5 proteins affects guanylyltransferase and RNA dependent RNA polymerase activities. (abcam.com)
- The C-terminal nsP1a protein of human astrovirus is a phosphoprotein that interacts with the viral polymerase. (springer.com)
- The P gene codes for the viral polymerase. (uni-heidelberg.de)
- Human adenovirus was detected by real-time and conventional polymerase chain reaction and molecular typed by partial hexon capsid protein gene sequencing. (cdc.gov)
- Transcription of HSV genes is catalyzed by RNA polymerase II of the infected host. (wikidoc.org)
- Cell culture and polymerase chain reaction of the viral major capsid protein gene were used for viral detection. (int-res.com)
Outer capsid spike protein1
Expressing the major capsid protein1
- The ability of this system to regulate the expression of ASFV genes was analyzed by constructing a recombinant virus inducibly expressing the major capsid protein p72. (asm.org)
- The viral nonstructural protein 3 contains methyltransferase [ 1 ] and 5′ RNA triphosphatase activity [ 2 , 3 ] to generate a 5′ capped genomic viral RNA. (mdpi.com)
- Heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein K interacts with Sindbis virus nonstructural proteins and viral subgenomic mRNA. (springer.com)
- These findings suggest the classification of the VP4 and VP7 genes of the bovine isolates represented by Hg18 as new P and G genotypes and provide further evidence for the vast genetic/antigenic diversity of group A rotaviruses. (iisc.ernet.in)
- To elucidate the genetic diversity of cyanophages in paddy floodwaters in NE China, viral capsid assembly protein gene (g20) sequences from five floodwater samples were amplified with the primers CPS1 and CPS8. (edu.au)
- candidate gene A gene whose function suggests that it may be involved in the genetic variation observed for a particular trait, e.g., the gene for growth hormone is a candidate gene for body weight. (fao.org)
- It has become apparent over the last decade that the single most outstanding barrier to the success of gene therapy as a strategy for treating inherited diseases, cancer, and other genetic dysfunctions is the development of useful gene transfer vehicles. (google.com)
- Polyomavirus STag proteins are usually around 170-200 residues long and consist of two distinct regions as a result of this genetic encoding. (wikipedia.org)
- Viral determinants of this restriction map to the virus capsid protein, however despite strong genetic ev idence, no direct interaction has been shown between capsid and restriction factor using a variety of biochemical approaches. (bl.uk)
- How are genetic conditions and genes named? (nih.gov)
- A virus is an infectious agent, often highly host-specific, consisting of genetic material surrounded by a protein coat. (encyclopedia.com)
- Within the host cell the genetic material of a DNA virus is replicated and transcribed into messenger RNA by host cell enzymes, and proteins coded for by viral genes are synthesized by host cell ribosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In gene therapy, a different paradigm is adopted where a virus is used to deliver the genetic material needed to make a particular protein to cells. (uk-cpi.com)
- In mice and flies, the Arc protein forms capsids and carries genetic information. (the-scientist.com)
- Many additional gene therapy programs targeting both inherited retinal diseases and other ocular diseases are in development, owing to an improved understanding of the genetic basis of ocular disease and the unique properties of the ocular compartment that make it amenable to local gene therapy. (springer.com)
- The term gene therapy refers to the treatment of human diseases using genetic methods, which can comprise either the introduction of a healthy copy of a flawed gene or correction of a gene to restore its biological function. (springer.com)
- The concept was initially proposed in the early 1990s ( 1 ), when both the knowledge of human genes and the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying disease progression opened up the possibility of genetic intervention to achieve a therapeutic outcome. (springer.com)
- Although gene therapy is being pursued as a strategy for the treatment of a range of genetic diseases, ocular disorders are particularly attractive targets for this type of therapy. (springer.com)
- The Breakefield laboratory uses molecular genetic techniques to elucidate the etiology of inherited neurological diseases and to develop vectors which can deliver genes to the nervous system for therapeutic purposes. (massgeneral.org)
- The protein shell consists of the major capsid protein gene product (gp) 23 * , the pentameric vertex protein gp24 * , the portal protein or "connector" gp20, and the two accessory proteins, gp hoc (highly antigenic outer capsid protein) and gp soc (small outer capsid protein) ( 3 ), that decorate the outside of the shell. (pnas.org)
- Taken together, these findings suggest the emer- assay of antigenic surface proteins in Streptococcus equi ssp. (cdc.gov)
- E. coli has many strains belonging to the same species, and these have antigenic variation for different surface proteins. (brainscape.com)
- More-sophisticated immunologic procedures, including the use of monoclonal antibodies directed to specific antigenic sites on proteins, gave a better insight into the structure and function of viral proteins. (britannica.com)
- These processes are associated with the production of antigenic proteins that make the virus vulnerable to immune control mechanisms 'warning' the host of the presence of an invader [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
- The extreme antigenic diversity that results from the mutability of the gene that codes for this protein would prevent HIV from being identified and attacked by circulating antibodies or killer T lymphocytes. (britannica.com)
Recombinant capsid proteins1
- KSHV is a herpesvirus , and is a large double-stranded DNA virus with a protein covering that packages its nucleic acids, called the capsid , which is then surrounded by an amorphous protein layer called the tegument , and finally enclosed in a lipid envelope derived in part from the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
- there may also be a few enzymes or regulatory proteins involved in assembling the capsid around newly synthesized viral nucleic acid, in controlling the biochemical mechanisms of the host cell, and in lysing the host cell when new virions have been assembled. (thefreedictionary.com)
- They are infectious particles consisting of nucleic acid encased in a protein coat and, in some cases, a membranous envelope. (coursehero.com)
- The present invention further provide methods of producing proteins and other products of interest and methods of controlling expression of nucleic acid sequences of interest using the seed specific promoter regions. (osti.gov)
- Mutations in gene 23 that affect capsid shape map to the capsomer's periphery, whereas mutations that allow gp23 to substitute for gp24 at the vertices modify the interactions between monomers within capsomers. (pnas.org)
- Here we present the crystal structure of VP6 determined to 2 Å resolution and describe its interactions with other capsid proteins by fitting the atomic model into electron cryomicroscopic reconstructions of viral particles. (embopress.org)
- Like STag, MTag has no enzymatic activity of its own, but has a number of protein-protein interaction sites that mediate interactions with proteins in the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
- however, MTag preferentially performs other protein-protein interactions that compete with the Hsc70 interaction. (wikipedia.org)
- This function is usually primarily provided by LTag through its interactions with retinoblastoma protein and p53. (wikipedia.org)
- Although a large number of host proteins have been physically and/or functionally linked to other Flaviviruses, very little is known about the virus-host protein interactions established by ZIKV. (mcponline.org)
- Second, most lactococcal phages possess a large organelle at their tail tip (termed the baseplate), bearing the receptor binding proteins (RBPs) and mediating host adsorption. (frontiersin.org)
- This observation along with the absence of identified protein receptors supported the hypothesis that non-c2 phages use saccharidic receptors, since only polysaccharides could provide a sufficient diversity to rationalize this data. (frontiersin.org)
- Knowledge on phage structures has to date primarily relied on the structures of Myoviridae or Podoviridae, since the flexible tail of Siphoviridae has prevented the application of single-particle reconstruction in a straightforward manner ( Figures 1A,B ). Lactococcal phages TP901-1 and p2 EM structures could be determined by dissecting the phages in smaller parts: capsid, connector, tail segments, and tail tip. (frontiersin.org)
- Our data show that ONOOH and HClO cross-linked the capsid proteins and RNA genomes of Qβ and MS2 phages. (frontiersin.org)
- Consistently, the capsids appeared intact by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) even when 99% of the phages were inactivated by oxidation. (frontiersin.org)
- Phage T2 and phage PP01 can infect different strains (K12 and O157), but what happens when you switch the surface proteins of the phages? (brainscape.com)
- The ability of each modified promoter to regulate expression of the firefly luciferase gene was assayed in the presence and in the absence of the inducer isopropyl β- d -thiogalactoside (IPTG). (asm.org)
- The results of this report demonstrate that the transferred inducible expression system is a powerful tool for analyzing the function of ASFV genes. (asm.org)
- In an attempt to facilitate the analysis of the role of individual ASFV genes, we have developed a system for inducible gene expression from ASFV recombinants. (asm.org)
- This allows the expression of genes to be conditionally, temporally, and quantitatively regulated, either individually or in combination with other genes. (asm.org)
- The system has been well characterized and can regulate the expression of transfected and integrated reporter genes in mammalian cells (for a review, see reference 30 ). (asm.org)
- To investigate the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) L1 capsid protein, and human telomerase RNA component (hTERC) in cervical cancer and the role of detection of both genes in screening of cervical cancer. (ac.ir)
- The expression of HPV L1 capsid protein reduced with the increase of the histological grade of cervical cells and was negatively related to the grade of cervical lesions. (ac.ir)
- Expression of HPV L1 capsid protein in cervical specimens with HPV infection. (ac.ir)
- The cellular transcriptional repressor Daxx prevents viral gene expression through the assembly of repressive chromatin remodeling complexes targeting incoming viral genomes. (nih.gov)
- Human gene therapy is an approach to treating human disease that is based on the modification of gene expression in cells of the patient. (google.com)
- In this study, we utilize gene deletion mutants in the ribosomal protein kinase called S6 kinase (S6K) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP) pathways downstream of mTORC1 to define the role of mTOR-dependent translation initiation signals in WNV gene expression and growth. (mdpi.com)
- We now show that WNV growth and protein expression are dependent on mTORC1 mediated-regulation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP/eIF4E) interaction and eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) complex formation to support viral growth and viral protein expression. (mdpi.com)
- STag is known to interact with host cell proteins, most notably protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and may activate the expression of cellular proteins associated with the cell cycle transition to S phase. (wikipedia.org)
- SV40 and murine polyomavirus STags appear to have a role in promoting host cell expression of genes under the control of certain types of promoters. (wikipedia.org)
- 2002 Increased expression of antioxidant and antiapoptotic genes in islets that may contribute to beta-cell survivalduring chronic hyperglycemia. (amazonaws.com)
- 13. M. Nishizawa, T. Okumura, Y. Ikeya and T. Kimura: Regulation of inducible gene expression by natural antisense transcripts. (bioscience.org)
- The virus and wasp are in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship: expression of viral genes prevents the wasp's host's immune system from killing the wasp's injected egg and causes other physiological alterations that ultimately cause the parasitized host to die. (wikipedia.org)
- Next, we showed that MP triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, reduction of total ascorbate, and expression of ROS scavenging genes. (apsnet.org)
- MP and MP×CP T42W plants showed increased levels of salicylic acid (SA) and SA-responsive gene expression. (apsnet.org)
- Expression of capsid (C) protein induced the accumulation, while mutations at residues L51 and A52 in C protein abrogated the accumulation. (prolekare.cz)
- The expression levels of LC3-II, an autophagy-related protein, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an autophagy inducer, were reduced in the cells infected with WT WNV, while the reduction was not observed in the cells infected with WNV with the mutations in C protein. (prolekare.cz)
- The authors found that neither viral DNA nor viral gene expression was necessary for inflammation. (medindia.net)
- All these proteins are responsible for recognizing viral components and induce proinflammatory cytokine expression or interferon (IFN) response factors. (intechopen.com)
- Similarly, the V protein of paramyxoviruses interacts with MD5-α and inhibits IFN-α expression [ 13 ]. (intechopen.com)
- For generation of the TEV CP expression constructs, tev cp gene (GenBank: JX512813.1) modified to contain a glycine codon at 5′- end for facilitating subsequent cloning and codon-optimized for improving E. coli expression was synthetically obtained (GenScript, USA). (biomedcentral.com)
- A method of producing lipids, containing the steps of: culturing a transformant in which the expression of a gene encoding the following protein (A) or (B). (patents.com)
- In Vivo Gene Electroinjection and Expression in Rat Liver", FEBS Letter vol. 389, pp. 225-228. (freepatentsonline.com)
- The second method for increasing the solubility and immunogenicity of the VP2 protein was by co-expression of VP2 and VP5, the two outer capsid proteins of AHSV¬3. (up.ac.za)
- For the dual expression of the two proteins it was necessary to characterise the AHSV-3 VP5 gene and express it as a baculovirus recombinant first. (up.ac.za)
- The yield of VP5 was low but was nevertheless better than the expression levels of AHSV-9 VP5 gene using an alternative baculovirus expression system. (up.ac.za)
Structure of the capsid1
- Capsid maturation occurs via autoproteolytic cleavage of capsid protein alpha generating capsid protein beta and the membrane-active peptide gamma (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
- This permits untethering and release of the membrane-lytic segment, thereby providing the molecular basis for maturation cleavage of protein VI in adenovirus-mediated endosome disruption. (pnas.org)
- Our results thus provide the molecular basis for the requirement of maturation cleavage of protein VI. (pnas.org)
- During procapsid assembly, gp23, gp24, and gp20 form a shell around the core structure composed primarily of the scaffolding protein gp22 and assembly protease gp21 ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
- A number of mutations in different genes coding capsid proteins lead to various abnormalities in assembly ranging from formation of isometric and/or giant capsids to substitution of all gp24 pentamers with gp23 pentamers at the vertices ( 3 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
- Experiments using a series of mutants defective for proper processing and assembly of capsid yielded evidence suggesting that the restriction factor binding site is in fact formed only when capsid is in its polymeric state in a mature virus, thus explaining why conventional approaches had failed to detect any interaction. (bl.uk)
- However, in most cases the self-assembly of viral capsid proteins (CPs) into VLPs still remains a challenge [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Recently, high-resolution structures of recombinant HAdV5 vectors have been determined using cryo-EM ( 11 ) and X-ray methods ( 12 ) that revealed the structures and organization of some of the cement proteins. (pnas.org)
- Other hybrid vectors form a polycation conjugate and incorporate an AAV rep gene in a single particle. (google.com)
- The present invention relates to the field of vectors useful in somatic gene therapy and the production thereof. (google.com)
- Also provided are methods of delivering genes via AAV-1 derived vectors. (google.com)
- They are also actively involved in use of viral vectors, including lentivirus and AAV and for gene therapy in the nervous system. (massgeneral.org)
- My research focuses on the utilization and development of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors for efficient gene transfer to target organs of the body, in particular the central nervous system (CNS). (massgeneral.org)
- Some AAV vectors can also deliver genes to the brain after vascular injection. (massgeneral.org)
- T=1 capsid protein structures, based on X-ray and cryo-EM data. (nih.gov)
- Electron microscopy analysis revealed that under nonpermissive conditions, electron-dense membrane-like structures accumulated in the viral factories and capsid formation was inhibited. (asm.org)
- T he protein shells of viral capsids are remarkably stable, yet dynamic structures. (pnas.org)
- There are three basic structures for standard viral capsids: icosahedral, helical, and complex. (encyclopedia.com)
- 6. The vector according to claim 2 further comprising an adeno-associated virus rep gene. (google.com)
- Self-reported bleeding and external use of factor VIII were profoundly reduced in cohorts of participants given a high dose of valoctocogene roxaparvovec, an adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) vector containing the B-domain-deleted F8 gene (AAV5-VIII), which replaces the gene missing in hemophilia A, factor VIII. (medscape.com)
- Taysha's gene therapies will be delivered by adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9), a virus that can cross the blood-brain barrier. (xconomy.com)
- Whereas the PcV capsid protein has two motifs with the same fold, most dsRNA virus capsid subunits consist of dimers of a single protein with similar folds. (nih.gov)
- These residues pack against the neighboring subunits and increase the inter-dimer contact suggesting that the C-termini play an important role in capsid stabilization and provide a much larger interaction interface than previously observed. (pdbj.org)
- The overall fold is similar to that of protein VP7 from bluetongue virus, with the subunits wrapping about a central 3‐fold axis. (embopress.org)
- Like STag, MTag can bind protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) through the same physical mechanism, interacting with the A subunit in a way that occludes binding of PP2A B subunits and thus inactivates the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
- The protein capsid is made of repeating, often-identical subunits known as capsomeres. (encyclopedia.com)
- Icosahedral capsids are 20-sided, made of triangular capsomere subunits. (encyclopedia.com)
- Capsids are built of a large number of protein subunits called capsomeres. (coursehero.com)
- In a luciferase reporter gene assay both promoters were active only when cells were infected with CIV. (nih.gov)
- A) U2OS cells were infected with HH-Ad5-VI-wt at a MOI of 1000 FFU/cell and fractionated at 20 min intervals and subjected to IB using serum against protein VI, polyclonal Ab (pAb) against the splicing factor SAF-A (nuclear fraction) and monoclonal Ab (MAb) against β-actin (cytoplasmic fraction) as indicated to the right. (nih.gov)
- Finally, the capacity of CVP1-N2 for delivery of gene into cells was determined, where it was able to carry red fluorescent protein (RFP) and apoptin genes into cells respectively and induce the apoptosis. (physiciansweekly.com)
- 3. CVP1-N2 was able to deliver the apoptin gene into HCT116 cells and induce apoptosis. (physiciansweekly.com)
- But no virus has the thousands of genes required by even the simplest cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The cells own machinery then produce the protein that the cells were not able to before. (uk-cpi.com)
- The advantage of this is that the therapy is long-lasting and the cells will continue to produce the protein for several years effectively providing a cure. (uk-cpi.com)
- In vitro - where patient cells are taken, and a viral vector used to introduce a specific gene to the patient's cells. (uk-cpi.com)
- In vivo - where a viral vector contains the gene of interest is injected into the patient, the virus targets a particular cell type, is infected by the virus and multiple copies of the protein are produced by the patient's cells. (uk-cpi.com)
- The team believed by blocking the pathways in cells that lead to cell death, it isolated the responsible gene in Rubella, also known as German measles. (redorbit.com)
- In this study, we attempted to elucidate the mechanisms of the accumulation of protein aggregates in the WNV-infected cells. (prolekare.cz)
- To identify the viral factor inducing the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, intracellular accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins was examined in the cells expressing the viral protein. (prolekare.cz)
- Researchers have used a modified rabies virus and fluorescent proteins to tag individual nerve cells in the mouse visual cortex. (the-scientist.com)
- It has been determined in this investigation that the majority of recombinant AHSV-3 VP2 proteins expressed in Sf-9 insect cells are in an insoluble, aggregated form. (up.ac.za)
- Spark Therapeutics, Inc., Philadelphia, PA), delivers a normal copy of the RPE65 gene to retinal cells for the treatment of biallelic RPE65 mutation-associated retinal dystrophy, a blinding disease. (springer.com)
- In vivo application of proteasome inhibitor in mouse lung augmented rAAV gene transfer from undetectable levels to a mean of 10.4 ± 1.6% of the epithelial cells in large bronchioles. (jci.org)
- These "next-generation capsids" could potentially get a gene therapy to different cells in the body more efficiently and effectively, which could lead to therapies that require a lower dose, ultimately improving safety, he says. (xconomy.com)
- The predicted folding of the translated protein is not influenced by the insertions or frameshift, and we speculate that the region after nt position 141 is without reasonable selection pressure and represents a hot spot for the accumulation of insertion mutations in ApMV. (deepdyve.com)
- Mutations in this gene caused an autosomal recessive progressive myoclonic epilepsy-4 (EPM4), also known as action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome (AMRF). (genecards.org)
- Monoallelic germline mutations in at least five genes involved in the FA pathway are associated with the development of sporadic hematological and solid malignancies. (mdpi.com)
- A resurgence of interest and investment in the field of gene therapy, driven in large part by advances in viral vector technology, has recently culminated in United States Food and Drug Administration approval of the first gene therapy product targeting a disease caused by mutations in a single gene. (springer.com)
- Using x-ray crystallography, we found the principal domain of gp24 to have a polypeptide fold similar to that of the HK97 phage capsid protein plus an additional insertion domain. (pnas.org)
- The interactome is enriched in proteins with roles in polypeptide processing and quality control, vesicle trafficking, RNA processing and lipid metabolism. (mcponline.org)
- The LTag gene is usually encoded in two exons, of which the first overlaps with the gene for STag (and sometimes other tumor antigens as well, such as the murine polyomavirus middle tumor antigen). (wikipedia.org)
- PRV has many nonessential genes which can be replaced with genes encoding heterologous antigens but without deleterious effects on virus propagation. (hindawi.com)
- Comparative analysis of the deduced amino acids of the sequenced genes indicated that the BRV WC3 strain shares a high degree of amino acid identity with serotype P7 VP4 (93-96%), serotype G6 VP7 (91-97%), subgroup (SG) I VP6 (96-99%), and NSP4 genogroup A (96-98%) BRV strains. (nih.gov)
- The full-length MTag protein is around 420 amino acids long. (wikipedia.org)
- The hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein represents the first 177 amino acids of the viral precursor polyprotein and is cotranslationally inserted into the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. (abcam.com)
- Compared to the S-protein (the classic HBs-Ag), the M-protein is extended to the 55 preS2- and the L-protein additionally to the 108 preS1-encoded amino acids (numbers according to subtype ayw). (uni-heidelberg.de)
- Direct evidence linking the capsid protein to specific dsRNA segments from the three killer strains of Ustilago maydis virus (P1, P4, P6) is presented. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- The capsid proteins from P1 and P4 were translated from their respective H2 dsRNA segments, whereas the capsid protein for P6 was translated from H1 dsRNA. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Some envelope proteins facilitate viral entry into the cell, and others have directly pathogenic effects. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The three envelope proteins are encoded by a single ORF with three in frame start codons. (uni-heidelberg.de)
- The envelope is joined to the capsid by means of a tegument . (wikidoc.org)
- They have found that torsinA, an AAA+ ATPase in the lumen of the nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum, is involved in positioning of the nucleus during cell migration and in chaperoning proteins in the secretory pathway. (massgeneral.org)