CpG Islands: Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Dinucleoside Phosphates: A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Azacitidine: A pyrimidine analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Sulfites: Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.Rhode IslandEarly Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Pacific Islands: The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)Indian Ocean Islands: Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to the 5-position of CYTOSINE residues in DNA.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.DNA Modification Methylases: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They are responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern, on either adenine or cytosine residues, in a specific short base sequence in the host cell's own DNA. This methylated sequence will occur many times in the host-cell DNA and remain intact for the lifetime of the cell. Any DNA from another species which gains entry into a living cell and lacks the characteristic methylation pattern will be recognized by the restriction endonucleases of similar specificity and destroyed by cleavage. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Microsatellite Instability: The occurrence of highly polymorphic mono- and dinucleotide MICROSATELLITE REPEATS in somatic cells. It is a form of genome instability associated with defects in DNA MISMATCH REPAIR.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Genes, p16: Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 9 in the region 9p21. This gene is either deleted or mutated in a wide range of malignancies. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995) Two alternatively spliced gene products are encoded by p16: CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Genes, Neoplasm: Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16: A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.Prince Edward Island: An island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence constituting a province of Canada in the eastern part of the country. It is very irregular in shape with many deep inlets. Its capital is Charlottetown. Discovered by the French in 1534 and originally named Ile Saint-Jean, it was renamed in 1799 in honor of Prince Edward, fourth son of George III and future father of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p981 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p433)Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mediterranean Islands: Scattered islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The chief islands are the Balearic Islands (belong to Spain; Majorca and Minorca are among these), Corsica (belongs to France), Crete (belongs to Greece), CYPRUS (a republic), the Cyclades, Dodecanese and Ionian Islands (belong to Greece), MALTA (a republic), Sardinia and SICILY (belong to Italy). (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p747)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements: Highly repeated sequences, 6K-8K base pairs in length, which contain RNA polymerase II promoters. They also have an open reading frame that is related to the reverse transcriptase of retroviruses but they do not contain LTRs (long terminal repeats). Copies of the LINE 1 (L1) family form about 15% of the human genome. The jockey elements of Drosophila are LINEs.Epigenomics: The systematic study of the global gene expression changes due to EPIGENETIC PROCESSES and not due to DNA base sequence changes.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Deoxyribonuclease HpaII: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequences C/CGG and GGC/C at the slash. HpaII is from Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Glutathione S-Transferase pi: A glutathione transferase that catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic substrates to GLUTATHIONE. This enzyme has been shown to provide cellular protection against redox-mediated damage by FREE RADICALS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf: A raf kinase subclass found at high levels in neuronal tissue. The B-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.5-Methylcytosine: A methylated nucleotide base found in eukaryotic DNA. In ANIMALS, the DNA METHYLATION of CYTOSINE to form 5-methylcytosine is found primarily in the palindromic sequence CpG. In PLANTS, the methylated sequence is CpNpGp, where N can be any base.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.United States Virgin Islands: A group of islands in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, the three main islands being St. Croix, St. Thomas, and St. John. The capital is Charlotte Amalie. Before 1917 the U.S. Virgin Islands were held by the Danish and called the Danish West Indies but the name was changed when the United States acquired them by purchase.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Melanesia: The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15: An INK4 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor containing four ANKYRIN-LIKE REPEATS. INK4B is often inactivated by deletions, mutations, or hypermethylation in HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Micronesia: The collective name for islands of the Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines, including the Mariana, PALAU, Caroline, Marshall, and Kiribati Islands. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p761 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p350)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Death-Associated Protein Kinases: A family of calcium/calmodulin-dependent PROETIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. They are ubiquitously expressed in adult and embryonic mammalian tissues, and their functions are tightly related to the early stages of eukaryotic programmed cell death.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.HCT116 Cells: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.National Cancer Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Channel Islands: A group of four British islands and several islets in the English Channel off the coast of France. They are known to have been occupied prehistorically. They were a part of Normandy in 933 but were united to the British crown at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066. Guernsey and Jersey originated noted breeds of cattle. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p242)Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)United StatesPolymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Core Binding Factor Alpha 3 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesTransfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Polynesia: The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Alu Elements: The Alu sequence family (named for the restriction endonuclease cleavage enzyme Alu I) is the most highly repeated interspersed repeat element in humans (over a million copies). It is derived from the 7SL RNA component of the SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE and contains an RNA polymerase III promoter. Transposition of this element into coding and regulatory regions of genes is responsible for many heritable diseases.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Falkland Islands: A British colony in the Atlantic Islands, comprising two principal islands, East Falkland and West Falkland. Its capital is Stanley. Discovered in 1592, it was not occupied until the French settled there briefly in 1764. Later the English settled there but were expelled by the Spanish in 1770. The Falklands were claimed by Argentina but were occupied in 1833 by the British who, after an April 1982 invasion by Argentina, regained them in June. The islands were named by British Captain John Strong in 1690 for the fifth Viscount Falkland who financed Strong's expedition. The Spanish name for the islands, Malvinas, is from the French Malouins, inhabitants of St. Malo who attempted to colonize the islands in 1764. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p389 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p182)Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Reunion: One of the Indian Ocean Islands, east of Madagascar. Its capital is Saint-Denis. It was discovered in 1507 by the Portuguese and claimed by France in 1638. It was first colonized in 1662 as Isle de Bourbon but renamed Reunion in 1793. In 1946 it was made an overseas department of France. The name commemorates the reunion of the revolutionaries from Marseilles with the National Guard in Paris in 1792. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1011; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p454; French Embassy)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Hydroxamic Acids: A class of weak acids with the general formula R-CONHOH.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.JapanRestriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Mice, Inbred C57BLNeoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Toll-Like Receptor 9: A pattern recognition receptor that binds unmethylated CPG CLUSTERS. It mediates cellular responses to bacterial pathogens by distinguishing between self and bacterial DNA.DNA-Cytosine Methylases: Methylases that are specific for CYTOSINE residues found on DNA.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
"Discovery of novel hypermethylated genes in prostate cancer using genomic CpG island microarrays". PLoS ONE. 4 (3): e4830. doi: ... 2008). "Candidate gene/loci studies in cleft lip/palate and dental anomalies finds novel susceptibility genes for clefts". ... 2009). "BMP7 influences proliferation, migration, and invasion of breast cancer cells". Cancer Lett. 275 (1): 35-43. doi: ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP7 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TGF-β superfamily ...
... in cancer typically occurs at multiple CpG sites in the CpG islands that are present in the promoters of protein coding genes. ... Distal promoters also frequently contain CpG islands, such as the promoter of the DNA repair gene ERCC1, where the CpG island- ... The presence of multiple methylated CpG sites in CpG islands of promoters causes stable silencing of genes. Silencing of a gene ... Generally, in progression to cancer, hundreds of genes are silenced or activated. Although silencing of some genes in cancers ...
For example, in colorectal cancers about 600 to 800 genes are transcriptionally silenced by CpG island methylation (see ... In vertebrates, the majority of gene promoters contain a CpG island with numerous CpG sites. When many of a gene's promoter CpG ... The latter (heterochromatin) includes gene-poor regions such as telomeres and centromeres but also regions with normal gene ... catalyses the transcription of all rRNA genes except 5S. These rRNA genes are organised into a single transcriptional unit and ...
For example, in colorectal cancers about 600 to 800 genes are transcriptionally silenced by CpG island methylation (see ... In vertebrates, the majority of gene promoters contain a CpG island with numerous CpG sites. When many of a gene's promoter CpG ... Similarly, enhancers can regulate more than one gene without linkage restriction and are said to "skip" neighboring genes to ... thereby orchestrating gene activity. A single gene can be regulated in a range of ways, from altering the number of copies of ...
For example, in colorectal cancers about 600 to 800 genes are transcriptionally inhibited by CpG island methylation (see ... In vertebrates, the majority of gene promoters contain a CpG island with numerous CpG sites. When many of a gene's promoter CpG ... The stretch of DNA transcribed into an RNA molecule is called a transcription unit and encodes at least one gene. If the gene ... Telomerase is often activated in cancer cells to enable cancer cells to duplicate their genomes indefinitely without losing ...
Contained within the promoter region of the gene are three CpG islands. These imprint regions function in the regulation of ... A different type of malformation in the gene also has the potential to cause a variety of cancers. ... Neuronatin (Nnat) is a protein coding gene involved in mammalian brain development. It is located on Chromosome 20 in humans ... PMC 3276664 . Joseph, Rajiv Madathiparambil (15 December 2013). "Neuronatin gene: Imprinted and misfolded: Studies in Lafora ...
"De novo CpG island methylation in human cancer cells". Cancer Research. 66 (2): 682-92. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-1980. PMID ... "Differential requirement for DNA methyltransferase 1 in maintaining human cancer cell gene promoter hypermethylation". Cancer ... "DNMT1 and DNMT3b cooperate to silence genes in human cancer cells". Nature. 416 (6880): 552-6. doi:10.1038/416552a. PMID ... "Entrez Gene: DNMT1 DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1". Rountree MR, Bachman KE, Baylin SB (July 2000). "DNMT1 binds HDAC2 ...
2005). "Activation of human cancer/testis antigen gene, XAGE-1, in tumor cells is correlated with CpG island hypomethylation". ... a short major transcript of cancer/testis-associated gene XAGE-1, induced in melanoma metastasis". Int. J. Cancer. 97 (2): 195- ... This gene is a member of the XAGE subfamily, which belongs to the GAGE family. The GAGE genes are expressed in a variety of ... 2000). "XAGE-1, a new gene that is frequently expressed in Ewing's sarcoma". Cancer Res. 60 (17): 4752-5. PMID 10987281. ...
In numerous cancers, the CpG islands of selected genes are aberrantly methylated (hypermethylated) which results in ... Esteller M, Corn PG, Baylin SB, Herman JG (April 2001). "A gene hypermethylation profile of human cancer". Cancer Res. 61 (8): ... There are 3 types of tumor suppressor genes: Genes that affect cell growth Genes that limit the cell cycle and induce apoptosis ... "Hypermethylation of multiple genes in tumor tissues and voided urine in urinary bladder cancer patients". Clin. Cancer Res. 8 ( ...
... strand breaks can initiate gene silencing and SIRT1-dependent onset of DNA methylation in an exogenous promoter CpG island". ... are very common in cancers, and are ordinarily even more frequent than mutational defects in DNA repair genes in cancers. DNA- ... "Mutational analysis of thirty-two double-strand DNA break repair genes in breast and pancreatic cancers". Cancer Res. 68 (4): ... They were also found in 10% of breast and pancreatic cancers. Reductions in expression of DNA repair genes (usually caused by ...
... strand breaks can initiate gene silencing and SIRT1-dependent onset of DNA methylation in an exogenous promoter CpG island". ... UNG and SMUG1 genes in familial colorectal cancer predisposition". BMC Cancer. 6: 243. doi:10.1186/1471-2407-6-243. PMC 1624846 ... NEIL1 was also one of six DNA repair genes found to be hypermethylated in their promoter regions in colorectal cancer. While ... When 8 DNA repair genes were evaluated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors, 42% were hypermethylated in the NEIL1 ...
... strand breaks can initiate gene silencing and SIRT1-dependent onset of DNA methylation in an exogenous promoter CpG island". ... FANCF appears to be one of about 26 DNA repair genes that are epigenetically repressed in various cancers (see Cancer ... are very common in cancers, and are most often much more frequent than mutational defects in DNA repair genes in cancers. (Also ... DNA damage appears to be the primary underlying cause of cancer, and deficiencies in expression of DNA repair genes appear to ...
"Silencing effect of CpG island hypermethylation and histone modifications on O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene ... In a cancer, multiple DNA repair genes are often found to be simultaneously repressed. In one example, involving MGMT, Jiang et ... Only a minority of sporadic cancers with a DNA repair deficiency have a mutation in a DNA repair gene. However, a majority of ... Jin J, Xie L, Xie CH, Zhou YF (2014). "Aberrant DNA methylation of MGMT and hMLH1 genes in prediction of gastric cancer". Genet ...
J. Cancer. 124 (11): 2677-82. doi:10.1002/ijc.24231. PMID 19170207. Human CACNA2D3 genome location and CACNA2D3 gene details ... Analysis of methylation in the CACNA2D3 CpG island may have potential as a biomarker for risk of development of metastatic ... Number of studies reported an association between methylation of the CACNA2D3 gene and cancer. Methylation-dependent ... and CACNA2D3 gene methylation is a useful prognostic marker for patients with advanced gastric cancer. Physical exercise was ...
Methylation of a CpG island in the 5' promoter region of the caveolin-1 gene in human breast cancer cell lines". FEBS Lett. 448 ... Caveolin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAV2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a major component of ... 1999). "Molecular genetics of the caveolin gene family: implications for human cancers, diabetes, Alzheimer disease, and ... "Entrez Gene: CAV2 caveolin 2". Breuza, Lionel; Corby Séverine; Arsanto Jean-Pierre; Delgrossi Marie-Hélène; Scheiffele Peter; ...
The drastic increase is the result of DNA hypomethylation of a CpG island in the 5' promoter of the MAGE-A11 gene. Cyclic AMP ... It is observed on spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes, and in some prostate and breast cancers. This gene is a member of ... The promoters and first exons of the MAGEA genes show considerable variability, suggesting that the existence of this gene ... MAGE-A genes have several noncoding exons followed by one protein-coding exon. MAGEA11 is mapped to the human chromosome X, ...
... silencing of microRNA-34b/c and B-cell translocation gene 4 is associated with CpG island methylation in colorectal cancer". ... 2009). "Frequent promoter hypermethylation and transcriptional downregulation of BTG4 gene in gastric cancer". Biochem. Biophys ... Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 43 (1): 1-10. doi:10.1002/gcc.20159. PMID 15672409. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. ( ... Cancer Res. 68 (11): 4123-32. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-0325. PMID 18519671. Tirone F (2001). "The gene PC3(TIS21/BTG2), ...
CpG island of the mitotic stress checkpoint gene Chfr in colorectal and non-small cell lung cancer". Carcinogenesis. 24 (1): 47 ... 2002). "Chfr expression is downregulated by CpG island hypermethylation in esophageal cancer". Carcinogenesis. 23 (10): 1695-9 ... 2004). "Inactivating mutations targeting the chfr mitotic checkpoint gene in human lung cancer". Cancer Res. 63 (21): 7185-9. ... "Entrez Gene: CHFR checkpoint with forkhead and ring finger domains". Human CHFR genome location and CHFR gene details page in ...
In a normal cell, the bulk genome is highly methylated at CpGs whereas CpG islands (CPI) at gene promoter regions remain highly ... Aberrant DNAm is the most common type of molecular abnormally in cancer cells, where the bulk genome because globally ' ... including CpG islands and surrounding sequences), but also covers with a lower density across the gene bodies, 3′ untranslated ... The array still only covers less than 2% of the CpG sites in the genome, but does attempt to cover all known genes with a high ...
... of CpG islands upstream of tumor supressor genes in order to silence them seems to be criticial for these type of cancers. So ... Therefore, cancer cells which divide much more rapidly than most other cells in the body will be more severely affected by ... In cancer cells, and more specifically in haematological malignancies, it seems that DNA hypermethylation is really critical ... Dunn, J; Thabet, S; Jo, H (July 2015). "Flow-Dependent Epigenetic DNA Methylation in Endothelial Gene Expression and ...
... including CpG islands, shores, and shelves as well as promoters, gene bodies, and intergenic regions. Cancer is also a major ... Epigenetic repression of DDR genes occurs more frequently than gene mutation in many types of cancer (see Cancer epigenetics). ... One major source of epigenetic change is altered methylation of CpG islands at the promoter region of genes (see DNA ... found that passenger genes, with chromosomal proximity to tumor suppressor genes, are collaterally deleted in some cancers. ...
"CpG island promoter hypermethylation of the Ras-effector gene NORE1A occurs in the context of a wild-type K-ras in lung cancer ... Ras association domain-containing protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RASSF5 or F5 gene. This gene is a ... breakpoint-spanning genes LSAMP and NORE1 are involved in clear cell renal cell carcinomas". Cancer Cell. 4 (5): 405-13. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: RASSF5 Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family 5". Ortiz-Vega S, Khokhlatchev A, Nedwidek M, Zhang XF, Dammann ...
... including the expressed gene EMS1". Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 6 (4): 222-31. doi:10.1002/gcc.2870060406. PMID 7685625. Daly RJ ... "Amplified region of chromosome band 11q13 in breast and squamous cell carcinomas encompasses three CpG islands telomeric of ... including the expressed gene EMS1". Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 6 (4): 222-31. doi:10.1002/gcc.2870060406. PMID 7685625. Maruyama ... "Amplified region of chromosome band 11q13 in breast and squamous cell carcinomas encompasses three CpG islands telomeric of ...
Cancer cells show a significant increase in the accumulation of methylation in CpG islands in the promoter region of p16. This ... gene are associated with increased risk of a wide range of cancers and alterations of the gene are frequently seen in cancer ... "A systematic review of hypermethylation of p16 gene in esophageal cancer". Cancer Biomarkers. 13 (4): 215-26. doi:10.3233/CBM- ... On one end, the hypermethylation, mutation, or deletion of p16 leads to downregulation of the gene and can lead to cancer ...
The inactivation of this gene was found to be correlated with the hypermethylation of its CpG-island promoter region. The ... Loss or altered expression of this gene has been associated with the pathogenesis of a variety of cancers, which suggests the ... Cervical cancer is known to be one of the most severe forms of cancer and is frequently associated with human papilloma virus ( ... Ras association domain-containing protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RASSF1 gene. This gene encodes a ...
About 50% of miRNA genes are associated with CpG islands,[64] that may be repressed by epigenetic methylation. Transcription ... Epigenetic alterations of DNA repair genes or cell cycle control genes are very frequent in sporadic (non-germ line) cancers, ... "Role of nucleosomal occupancy in the epigenetic silencing of the MLH1 CpG island". Cancer Cell. 12 (5): 432-44. PMC 4657456 . ... CpG sites are frequently mutated and become rare in the genome, except at CpG islands where they remain unmethylated. ...
Mapping of ER Gene CpG Island Methylation by Methylation-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction. Rena G. Lapidus, Sharyl J. Nass, ... Mapping of ER Gene CpG Island Methylation by Methylation-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction ... Mapping of ER Gene CpG Island Methylation by Methylation-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction ... Mapping of ER Gene CpG Island Methylation by Methylation-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction ...
Our results show that siRNA targeted to the CpG island of the CDKNA gene is able to knock-down gene expression. Expression ... Abstract #4221: siRNAs targeted to the CpG island region of the CDKN2A gene cause transcriptional gene silencing. Ugur ... Recent studies indicate that siRNAs targeted to CpG islands of many genes can lead to transcriptional gene silencing. In this ... Abstract #4221: siRNAs targeted to the CpG island region of the CDKN2A gene cause transcriptional gene silencing ...
Promoter CpG Island Methylation of Genes in Key Cancer Pathways Associates with Clinical Outcome in High-Grade Serous Ovarian ... Promoter CpG Island Methylation of Genes in Key Cancer Pathways Associates with Clinical Outcome in High-Grade Serous Ovarian ... Promoter CpG Island Methylation of Genes in Key Cancer Pathways Associates with Clinical Outcome in High-Grade Serous Ovarian ... Promoter CpG Island Methylation of Genes in Key Cancer Pathways Associates with Clinical Outcome in High-Grade Serous Ovarian ...
PC tissues had HOPX gene hypermethylation as compared to the corresponding normal pancreas tissues, and its uniqueness was ... we for the first time examined methylation level of HOPX and tested the functional relevance in pancreatic cancer (PC). ... characterized by tumor-specific promoter DNA hypermethylation in human cancers, and it can remarkably inhibit tumors ... expression of HOPX which is consistent with promoter DNA hypermethylation may explain aggressive phenotype of pancreatic cancer ...
DNA repair genes are frequently repressed in cancers due to hypermethylation of CpG islands within their promoters. In head and ... CpG islands (or CG islands) are regions with a high frequency of CpG sites. Though objective definitions for CpG islands are ... Unlike CpG sites in the coding region of a gene, in most instances the CpG sites in the CpG islands of promoters are ... 2 Methylation, silencing, cancer, and aging *2.1 CpG islands in promoters. *2.2 Methylation of CpG islands stably silences ...
5′ CpG island methylation is associated with transcriptional silencing of the tumor suppressor p16/CDKN2/MTS1 in human cancers. ... A comparison of the ARF and INK4a CpG islands revealed that the CpG density of the ARF CpG island (number of CpG sites/bp = ... Sp1 sites in the mouse Aprt gene promoter are required to prevent methylation of the CpG island.Genes Dev. 8 1994 2282 2292 ... CpG islands are regions rich in the CpG dinucleotide which are often associated with genes and are normally kept unmethylated ...
Definitive molecular cytogenetic characterization of 15 colorectal cancer cell lines. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2010;49:204-23. ... Analysis of promoter CpG island hypermethylation in cancer: location, location, location! Clin Cancer Res 2011;17:4225-31. ... CpG island methylator phenotype in colorectal cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999;96:8681-6. ... CpG island methylator phenotype-low (CIMP-low) in colorectal cancer: possible associations with male sex and KRAS mutations. J ...
Altered gene expression profiles define pathways in colorectal cancer cell lines affected by celecoxib. Cancer Epidemiol ... CpG island methylator phenotype in cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 2004;4:988-93. ... Ethnicity and risk for colorectal cancers showing somatic BRAF V600E mutation or CpG island methylator phenotype. Cancer ... associations with promoter CpG island hypermethylation in colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18:3086-96. ...
Epigenetic Control of Gene Expression. This week well bring together much of what weve learned in previous weeks of the ... this methylation at CpG islands thats found in cancer.. So this is, tends to be called CpG island hypermethylation, or CGI ... CPG island, so you dont see methylation in general at CPG islands. ... 7.2 Hypermethylation of CpG islands in cancer. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web ...
In CRC, epigenetic changes, in particular promoter CpG island methylation, occur more frequently than genetic mutations. ... is a common malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. It results from the accumulation of multiple ... over 600 candidate hypermethylated genes have been identified. Over the past decade, a deeper understanding of epigenetics ... contributes to carcinogenesis by inducing transcriptional silencing or downregulation of tumour suppressor genes and currently ...
This study describes the methylation status of TMS1/ASC and CASP8 genes in cervical cancer. We also examined the prevalence of ... The methylation pattern of the TMS1/ASC and CASP8 genes in specimens of cervical cancer and adjacent normal tissues were ... The present study conclude that the frequency of TMS1/ASC and CASP8 genes methylation in cervical cancer are rare (< 6%), and ... TMS1/ASC and CASP8 genes methylation in cervical cancer tissue and none - neo plastic samples in an effort to correlate with ...
... hypomethylation of CpG islands in promoters can result in gene over-expression. In cancers, loss of expression of genes occurs ... Genes can be silenced by multiple methylation of CpG sites in the CpG islands of their promoters. Even if silencing of a gene ... about 600 to 800 heavily methylated CpG islands occur in promoters of genes in the tumors while these CpG islands are not ... of bladder cancers, 88% of stomach cancers, 74% of thyroid cancers, 40%-90% of colorectal cancers and 50% of brain cancers. ...
... diet-gene interactions and promoter CpG island hypermethylation in colorectal cancer. Cancer Causes & Control, 22(1), 1-12. ... diet-gene interactions and promoter CpG island hypermethylation in colorectal cancer., Cancer Causes & Control, vol. 22, no. 1 ... diet-gene interactions and promoter CpG island hypermethylation in colorectal cancer. In: Cancer Causes & Control. 2011 ; Vol. ... diet-gene interactions and promoter CpG island hypermethylation in colorectal cancer. Cancer Causes & Control. 2011 Jan 1;22(1 ...
Systematic CpG Islands Methylation Profiling of Genes in the Wnt Pathway in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Identifies Biomarkers of ... Systematic CpG Islands Methylation Profiling of Genes in the Wnt Pathway in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Identifies Biomarkers of ... We aimed to evaluate DNA methylation at promoter CpG islands (CGI) of Wnt pathway genes in ovarian tumors at presentation and ... Robert Cancer Research UK ; Ovarian Cancer Action The study was financially supported by Cancer Research UK and Ovarian Cancer ...
Some single gene examples include MLH1 in colorectal cancer and BRCA1 in breast cancer. Hypermethylated CpG islands also act as ... gene revived the idea of the hypermethylation of the CpG island promoter being a mechanism to inactivate genes in cancer. ... CpG island hypermethylation is an epigenetic control aberration that is important for gene inactivation in cancer cells. ... called CpG island methylator prototype, or CIMP. Higher levels of CpG island hypermethylation are found in CIMP. The frequent ...
CpG island methylator phenotype associates with low-degree chromosomal abnormalities in colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2008 ... DNA copy-number alterations underlie gene expression differences between microsatellite stable and unstable colorectal cancers ... CpG island methylator phenotype, microsatellite instability, BRAF mutation and clinical outcome in colon cancer. Gut 2009;58:90 ... CpG island methylator phenotype-low (CIMP-low) in colorectal cancer: possible associations with male sex and KRAS mutations. J ...
... a humanized monoclonal anti VEGF-A antibody-is now used as anti-angiogenic drug in several forms of cancers, yet with variable ... CpG rich regions, called CpG islands are mainly located in gene promoter regions and other genomic regulatory loci, and are ... Ferreira, H.J.; Esteller, M. CpG Islands in Cancer: Heads, Tails, and Sides. Methods Mol. Biol. 2018, 1766, 49-80. [Google ... The human colon cancer methylome shows similar hypo- and hypermethylation at conserved tissue-specific CpG island shores. Nat. ...
These CGIs are enriched at genes, about 60% of all genes in the human genome containing a CpG island upstream [2]. The ... Role of nucleosomal occupancy in the epigenetic silencing of the MLH1 CpG island. Cancer Cell. 2007;12:432-444. [PubMed] ... CpG island coordinates CGIs genomic coordinates were obtained from the UCSC GB CpgIslandExt track. In this track CpG islands ... To estimate the methylation of each CpG island we calculated the mean of all CpGs methylation values into a CpG island. We were ...
... and can also be used for diagnosing cancer in a patient. This method uses the gene for azurin from P. aeruginosa as an ... The present invention includes specific CpG DNAs from Pseudomonas aeruginosa that are useful for treating cancer and other ... These methods may be used to express therapeutic or diagnostic proteins near cancer cells in a patient suffering from cancer or ... The present invention further relates to methods to express proteins near cancer cells. ...
Significant differential methylation was validated in the CpG islands of 15 genes (P. CONCLUSION: Methylation changes of GFRA1 ... Breast Cancer. BNIP3 and Breast Cancer. View Publications. 18. Prostate Cancer. BNIP3 and Prostate Cancer. View Publications. ... Gene Summary. Cancer Overview. Specific Cancers (4). Useful Links. Latest Publications. Found this page useful? ... International Cancer Genome Consortium.. Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC ...
Epigenetic modification at CpG islands located on the promoter regions of tumor-suppressor genes has been associated with tumor ... Lung Cancer. CADM1 and Lung Cancer. View Publications. 24. Lung Cancer, Non-Small Cell. CADM1 and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. ... Gene Summary. Cancer Overview. Specific Cancers (3). Useful Links. Latest Publications. Found this page useful? ... sum of all methylated CpG islands in %/total number of CpG islands (MAL n=4; CADM1 n=3)].. RESULTS: In total, 30 clinical ...
Aberrant DNA methylation of CpG islands has been widely observed in human colorectal tumors and is associated with gene ... Department of Surgery, University of Southern California/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California 90089-9176 ... CpG island methylator phenotype underlies sporadic microsatellite instability and is tightly associated with BRAF mutation in ... A subset of colorectal tumors has an exceptionally high frequency of methylation of some CpG islands, leading to the suggestion ...
Cancer Res. 2014 Jul 1;74(13):3617-3629. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-3147. Epub 2014 May 1. Research Support, N.I.H., ... Analysis was performed for promoters overlapping with CpG islands. The Pearson correlations between 5mC and H3K4me3 data sets ... The numbers of genes in each subgroup are indicated.. D. Bivalent genes, which become activated in colorectal cancer and are ... Promoters of genes longer than 2 kb were sorted by cancer-associated H3K4me3 changes. Each row represents a gene promoter. Red ...
Autophagy has also been found to play an important role in colorectal cancer, where it seems to have a pro-survival or pro- ... In this paper we discuss the dual role of autophagy in colorectal cancer and review evidence showing that modulation of ... The study of key players involved in autophagy might contribute to the design of new approaches for colorectal cancer, ... consisting in combined therapies capable of modifying cancer-specific metabolism rather than simply evoking a generic apoptotic ...
To resolve inconsistencies among the reported gene expression-based CRC classifications and facilitate clinical translation, we ... Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a frequently lethal disease with heterogeneous outcomes and drug responses. ... CpG Islands * DNA Copy Number Variations / genetics * DNA Methylation * Gene Expression Profiling ... The Consensus Molecular Subtypes of Colorectal Cancer Nat Med. 2015 Nov;21(11):1350-6. doi: 10.1038/nm.3967. Epub 2015 Oct 12. ...
  • Higher levels of CpG island hypermethylation are found in CIMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusions The results suggest that CIMP of a subset of cell-cycle regulatory genes has an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of ESCC. (bmj.com)
  • We developed a gene expression classifier for the CIMP-Atypical subtype that could classify atypical disease features in two independent patient cohorts, demonstrating the reproducibility of this subtype. (stanford.edu)
  • We'll then go on to discuss the potential therapeutic benefits that can come from using epigenetic biomarkers, and targeting epigenetic modifiers in cancer. (coursera.org)
  • The work was supported by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) with a project (FIRB-ACCORDI DI PROGRAMMA 2011) entitled "Application of High-Throughput Technology Platforms for the Characterization of New Biomarkers and Molecular Targets in Nanovectors for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Cancer. (springer.com)
  • While the realisation that methylation can trigger gene activation represents a paradigm shift in thinking, our other finding - that the prostate cancer genome contains domains that harbour multiple gene families, tumour related genes, microRNAs and cancer biomarkers - is equally important. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Concentrating on molecular biomarkers in cancer research, Cancer Biomarkers publishes original research findings (and reviews solicited by the editor) on the subject of the identification of markers associated with the disease processes whether or not they are an integral part of the pathological lesion. (iospress.com)
  • Since miRNAs have a role in the cancer development and HPV status may affect the miRNAs expression pattern in HNSCC, the specific of miRNAs' expression in HPV positive HNSCC may expound the role of HPV in HNSCC and be new biomarkers for the early detection of HNSCC. (iospress.com)
  • Each miRNA negatively regulates its target genes in one of two ways, depending on the degree of complementarity between itself and its target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Aberrant promoter methylation of previously unidentified target genes is a common abnormality in medulloblastomas-implications for tumor biology and potential clinical utility," Oncogene , vol. 20, no. 36, pp. 5033-5042, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • Identification of novel target genes by an epigenetic reactivation screen of renal cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, their direct target genes are still unknown. (dkfz.de)
  • In collaboration with the group of Dr. Johannes Backs, Internal Medicine III of the University Heidelberg, we aim at the identification of novel, epigenetically deregulated heart failure target genes using state-of-the-art technologies like Methyl-CpG immunoprecipitation, microarray analysis, mass spectrometry, Next Generation Sequencing, mouse genetics (existing HDAC knockout mice) and experimental heart failure mouse models. (dkfz.de)
  • Using DNA sequencing technique, we narrowed down a short CpG-rich segment (eight specific CpG sites in the CpG island within exon 1) of the TCF21 gene, which was unmethylated in normal lung epithelial cells but predominantly methylated in lung cancer cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The list for hypermethylated genes is growing and functional and genetic studies are being performed to determine which hypermethylation events are relevant for tumorigenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, by analyzing SNP frequency in CpG islands, we demonstrated that CpG islands in regions under selective pressure show lower genetic variation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This is the case for major CRC genetic syndromes, which include familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), attenuated FAP (AFAP), hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or Lynch Syndrome, MUTYH (mut-Y homolog) associated polyposis and rare hamartomatous polyposis conditions such as the Peutz-Jeghers (PJ) syndrome, the juvenile polyposis (JP) syndrome, the Cowden syndrome and the Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba (BRR) syndrome. (mdpi.com)
  • Cancer is believed to arise through the accumulation of genetic and ep. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Genetic interactions in cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • Thus, it is not surprising that studies on the role of DNA methylation now occupy center stage in many fields of biology and medicine such as developmental biology, genetic imprinting, genetic disease, tumor biology, gene therapy, cloning of organisms and others. (fishpond.com.au)
  • You can earn a 5% commission by selling DNA Methylation: Development, Genetic Disease and Cancer (Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology) on your website. (fishpond.com.au)
  • Recently as I suggested all the way back in the BKlein.com period a study of Progeria has produced some very important genetic results that have highlighted the Lamin A gene. (longecity.org)
  • Clinical tissue samples were categorized according to TNM classification, 7th edition of the Union Internationale Contre Le Cancer (UICC) and the 6th edition of the Japan Pancreas Society (JPS). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent publications have shown the presence of promoter hypermethylation of various genes in clinical specimens containing exfoliated tumor cells (such as malignant effusions, sputum, serum, etc. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lymphocytic reactions to tumor were associated with improved prognosis among colorectal cancer patients, independent of lymph node count and other clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD57 + , CD8 + , CD45RO + , or FOXP3 + cells) have been associated with improved clinical outcome in colorectal cancer ( 7 - 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • To resolve inconsistencies among the reported gene expression-based CRC classifications and facilitate clinical translation, we formed an international consortium dedicated to large-scale data sharing and analytics across expert groups. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical and epidemiological studies have suggested a strong connection between cancer, inflammation, and chronic infection [ 12 , 19 - 22 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • DNA methylation is potentially an important clinical marker in cancer molecular diagnostics. (pnas.org)
  • Both the American Society of Clinical Oncology and National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend the use of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with resectable stage IIA to IIIA NSCLC. (amazonaws.com)
  • Without doubt, given the exciting development of these immunotherapeutic strategies, the importance and clinical relevance of intratumoral immune landscapes and cancer antigenomes is becoming increasingly appreciated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In women with ICC (invasive cervical cancer), the most common HPV types are HPV-16,18,33,45,31 and 58 [ 30 , 31 ], but among these genotypes, certain variants have linked to different clinical outcomes. (intechopen.com)
  • Lastly, we review findings regarding the inflammatory process yielded by certain clinical trials of agents that target members of the coagulation cascade in the treatment of cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The presence of HPV is a distinct group of head and neck cancers exhibiting epidemiological, histopathological, clinical and prognostic differences opposed to the typical HNSCC. (iospress.com)