Biosynthetic Pathways: Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Ferrochelatase: A mitochondrial enzyme found in a wide variety of cells and tissues. It is the final enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. Ferrochelatase catalyzes ferrous insertion into protoporphyrin IX to form protoheme or heme. Deficiency in this enzyme results in ERYTHROPOIETIC PROTOPORPHYRIA.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Polyketide Synthases: Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Alkyl and Aryl Transferases: A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.HexosaminesPolyketides: Natural compounds containing alternating carbonyl and methylene groups (beta-polyketones), bioenergenetically derived from repeated condensation of acetyl coenzyme A via malonyl coenzyme A, in a process similar to fatty acid synthesis.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Tetrapyrroles: Four PYRROLES joined by one-carbon units linking position 2 of one to position 5 of the next. The conjugated bond system results in PIGMENTATION.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Hydro-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mevalonic AcidTerpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase: A membrane-bound flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxygen-dependent aromatization of protoporphyrinogen IX (Protogen) to protoporphyrin IX (Proto IX). It is the last enzyme of the common branch of the HEME and CHLOROPHYLL pathways in plants, and is the molecular target of diphenyl ether-type herbicides. VARIEGATE PORPHYRIA is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with deficiency of protoporphyrinogen oxidase.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Anthraquinones: Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.Thiamine: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.Glycosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.Aspartate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde, orthophosphate, and NADP+ to yield L-4-aspartyl phosphate and NADPH. EC 184.108.40.206.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Nucleoside Q: A modified nucleoside which is present in the first position of the anticodon of tRNA-tyrosine, tRNA-histidine, tRNA-asparagine and tRNA-aspartic acid of many organisms. It is believed to play a role in the regulatory function of tRNA. Nucleoside Q can be further modified to nucleoside Q*, which has a mannose or galactose moiety linked to position 4 of its cyclopentenediol moiety.Intramolecular Transferases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Intramolecular Lyases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Carboxy-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 220.127.116.11-Aminolevulinate Synthetase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes condensation of the succinyl group from succinyl coenzyme A with glycine to form delta-aminolevulinate. It is a pyridoxyal phosphate protein and the reaction occurs in mitochondria as the first step of the heme biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme is a key regulatory enzyme in heme biosynthesis. In liver feedback is inhibited by heme. EC 18.104.22.168.Coproporphyrinogen Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrinogen III to protoporphyrinogen IX by the conversion of two propionate groups to two vinyl groups. It is the sixth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME, and is encoded by CPO gene. Mutations of CPO gene result in HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Deoxy SugarsMixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Ergosterol: A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.Aflatoxins: Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate Transaminase (Isomerizing): An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.Betalains: Compounds derived from TYROSINE via betalamic acid, including BETAXANTHINS and BETACYANINS. They are found in the Caryophyllales order of PLANTS and some BASIDIOMYCETES.Coenzyme AAspartate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of beta-aspartyl phosphate from aspartic acid and ATP. Threonine serves as an allosteric regulator of this enzyme to control the biosynthetic pathway from aspartic acid to threonine. EC 22.214.171.124.Geranylgeranyl-Diphosphate Geranylgeranyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to give prephytoene diphosphate. The prephytoene diphosphate molecule is a precursor for CAROTENOIDS and other tetraterpenes.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Pantothenic Acid: A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.Erythritol: A four-carbon sugar that is found in algae, fungi, and lichens. It is twice as sweet as sucrose and can be used as a coronary vasodilator.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Polyisoprenyl Phosphates: Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cysteine Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 126.96.36.199.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Diphosphotransferases: A class of phosphotransferases that catalyzes the transfer of diphosphate-containing groups. EC 2.7.6.Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylglucosamine: Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.Coproporphyrinogens: Porphyrinogens which are intermediates in the heme biosynthesis. They have four methyl and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Coproporphyrinogens I and III are formed in the presence of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase from the corresponding uroporphyrinogen. They can yield coproporphyrins by autooxidation or protoporphyrin by oxidative decarboxylation.Hydroxymethylbilane Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the tetrapolymerization of the monopyrrole PORPHOBILINOGEN into the hydroxymethylbilane preuroporphyrinogen (UROPORPHYRINOGENS) in several discrete steps. It is the third enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. In humans, deficiency in this enzyme encoded by HMBS (or PBGD) gene results in a form of neurological porphyria (PORPHYRIA, ACUTE INTERMITTENT). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 188.8.131.52Serine O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-SERINE to COENZYME A and O-acetyl-L-serine, using ACETYL-COA as a donor.Catharanthus: A plant genus of the family Apocynaceae. It is the source of VINCA ALKALOIDS, used in leukemia chemotherapy.Dihydrodipicolinate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 2,3,4,5-tetrahydrodipicolinate to 2,3-dihydrodipicolinate using NAD(P)+ as a cofactor. It is found in BACTERIA and higher plants involved in the biosynthesis of DIAMINOPIMELIC ACID and LYSINE.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Cholestadienols: Cholestadiene derivatives containing a hydroxy group anywhere in the molecule.Pantetheine: An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Pyrrolnitrin: 3-Chloro-4-(3-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)pyrrole. Antifungal antibiotic isolated from Pseudomonas pyrrocinia. It is effective mainly against Trichophyton, Microsporium, Epidermophyton, and Penicillium.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.2-Isopropylmalate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the biosynthetic pathway to LEUCINE, forming isopropyl malate from acetyl-CoA and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206.Taxus: Genus of coniferous yew trees or shrubs, several species of which have medicinal uses. Notable is the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, which is used to make the anti-neoplastic drug taxol (PACLITAXEL).Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Transferases: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Coenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Isomerases: A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Petroselinum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE used for flavoring food.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Rauwolfia: A plant genus of the APOCYNACEAE or dogbane family. Alkaloids from plants in this genus have been used as tranquilizers and antihypertensive agents. RESERPINE is derived from R. serpentina.Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Mannosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose from a nucleoside diphosphate mannose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. The group includes EC 220.127.116.11, EC 18.104.22.168, EC 22.214.171.124, and EC 126.96.36.199.Oxytetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog isolated from the actinomycete STREPTOMYCES rimosus and used in a wide variety of clinical conditions.Farnesyl-Diphosphate Farnesyltransferase: The first committed enzyme of the biosynthesis pathway that leads to the production of STEROLS. it catalyzes the synthesis of SQUALENE from farnesyl pyrophosphate via the intermediate PRESQUALENE PYROPHOSPHATE. This enzyme is also a critical branch point enzyme in the biosynthesis of ISOPRENOIDS that is thought to regulate the flux of isoprene intermediates through the sterol pathway.Acyl Carrier Protein: Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.ATP Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the pathway for histidine biosynthesis in Salmonella typhimurium. ATP reacts reversibly with 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate to yield N-1-(5'-phosphoribosyl)-ATP and pyrophosphate. EC 188.8.131.52.Protoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.Ribosemonophosphates: Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Heptanoates: Salts and esters of the 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid heptanoic acid.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Aminolevulinic Acid: A compound produced from succinyl-CoA and GLYCINE as an intermediate in heme synthesis. It is used as a PHOTOCHEMOTHERAPY for actinic KERATOSIS.Hemiterpenes: The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 7-phospho-2-keto-3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptonate from phosphoenolpyruvate and D-erythrose-4-phosphate. It is one of the first enzymes in the biosynthesis of TYROSINE and PHENYLALANINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206.Penicillium chrysogenum: A mitosporic fungal species used in the production of penicillin.Carbohydrate Epimerases: Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of glutamine-derived ammonia and another molecule. The linkage is in the form of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.5.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Inositol: An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.Streptomyces antibioticus: An actinomycete from which the antibiotic OLEANDOMYCIN is obtained.Bacteriochlorophylls: Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.Transferases (Other Substituted Phosphate Groups): A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.Carbon-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.Aspergillus nidulans: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)SesquiterpenesThiosugars: Sugar analogs in which the ring oxygen is replaced by a sulfur.Aminoethylphosphonic Acid: An organophosphorus compound isolated from human and animal tissues.Sulfurtransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.PolyaminesSecologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids: Compounds formed by condensation of secologanin with tryptamine resulting in a tetrahydro-beta-carboline which is processed further to a number of bioactive compounds. These are especially found in plants of the APOCYNACEAE; LOGANIACEAE; and RUBIACEAE families.Micromonospora: A genus of gram-positive bacteria that forms a branched mycelium. It commonly occurs as a saprophytic form in soil and aquatic environments.Anthranilate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of anthranilate (o-aminobenzoate) and pyruvic acid from chorismate and glutamine. Anthranilate is the biosynthetic precursor of tryptophan and numerous secondary metabolites, including inducible plant defense compounds. EC 220.127.116.11.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Dihydroorotate Oxidase: An enzyme that in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotic acid to orotic acid utilizing oxygen as the electron acceptor. This enzyme is a flavoprotein which contains both FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE as well as iron-sulfur centers. EC 18.104.22.168.Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase: The enzyme catalyzing the formation of orotidine-5'-phosphoric acid (orotidylic acid) from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate in the course of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. EC 22.214.171.124.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.ortho-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Glutamate-5-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase: An NADP+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde to L-glutamyl 5-phosphate. It plays a role in the urea cycle and metabolism of amino groups.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Plicamycin: A tricyclic pentaglycosidic antibiotic from Streptomyces strains that inhibits RNA and protein synthesis by adhering to DNA. It is used as a fluorescent dye and as an antineoplastic agent, especially in bone and testicular tumors. Plicamycin is also used to reduce hypercalcemia, especially that due to malignancies.Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Dolichol: Eicosamethyl octacontanonadecasen-1-o1. Polyprenol found in animal tissues that contains about 20 isoprene residues, the one carrying the alcohol group being saturated.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Tryptophan Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer amino group from L-TRYPTOPHAN to 2-oxoglutarate in order to generate indolepyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Squalene Monooxygenase: The second enzyme in the committed pathway for CHOLESTEROL biosynthesis, this enzyme catalyzes the first oxygenation step in the biosynthesis of STEROLS and is thought to be a rate limiting enzyme in this pathway. Specifically, this enzyme catalyzes the conversion of SQUALENE to (S)-squalene-2,3-epoxide.Enzyme Repression: The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.SqualenePhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Acetolactate Synthase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetolactate from 2 moles of PYRUVATE in the biosynthesis of VALINE and the formation of acetohydroxybutyrate from pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate in the biosynthesis of ISOLEUCINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 126.96.36.199.Enediynes: Compounds with triple bonds to each side of a double bond. Many of these are CYTOTOXINS and are researched for use as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS.Glucosinolates: Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Threonine Dehydratase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the deamination of THREONINE to 2-ketobutyrate and AMMONIA. The role of this enzyme can be biosynthetic or biodegradative. In the former role it supplies 2-ketobutyrate required for ISOLEUCINE biosynthesis, while in the latter it is only involved in the breakdown of threonine to supply energy. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 188.8.131.52.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Porphobilinogen Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of porphobilinogen from two molecules of 5-aminolevulinic acid. EC 184.108.40.206.Uroporphyrinogen III Synthetase: An enzyme that catalyzes the cyclization of hydroxymethylbilane to yield UROPORPHYRINOGEN III and water. It is the fourth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME, and is encoded by UROS gene. Mutations of UROS gene result in CONGENITAL ERYTHROPOIETIC PORPHYRIA.Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Streptomyces coelicolor: A soil-dwelling actinomycete with a complex lifecycle involving mycelial growth and spore formation. It is involved in the production of a number of medically important ANTIBIOTICS.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.
Biosynthetic pathways help to define the subgroups of strictosidine derivatives. Strictosidine is found in the following plant ... This was accomplished by adding 21 genes and 3 gene deletions. Mizukami, H; Nordlöv, H; Lee, S. L.; Scott, A. I. (1979). " ...
"Co-targeting of convergent nucleotide biosynthetic pathways for leukemia eradication". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. ... Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) is an enzyme which is encoded by the DCK gene in humans. dCK predominantly phosphorylates ... Both the de novo pathway (DNP) and the nucleoside salvage pathway (NSP) are anabolic pathways that produce deoxyribonucleotide ... in case of de novo pathway downregulation. That is, the salvage pathway (and thus dCK) is upregulated when the de novo pathway ...
There are two distinct lysine biosynthetic pathways: the diaminopimelic acid pathway and the α-aminoadipate pathway. The most ... 2007). Molecular biology of the gene (6th ed.). San Francisco, Calif.: Benjamin Cummings. ISBN 978-0805395921. Kappock, TJ; ... The diaminopimelic acid biosynthetic pathway of lysine belongs to the aspartate family of amino acids. This pathway involves ... This process often consists of metabolic pathways. Some of these biosynthetic pathways are located within a single cellular ...
"Role of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway in diabetic nephropathy". Kidney Int. Suppl. 77: S13-8. PMID 10997685. Traxinger RR ... 2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ... GFAT controls the flux of glucose into the hexosamine pathway and catalyzes the formation of glucosamine 6-phosphate. GRCh38: ... Glucosamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase isomerizing 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GFPT1 gene. ...
"Histidine biosynthetic pathway and genes: structure, regulation, and evolution". Microbiological Reviews. 60 (1): 44-69. ISSN ... This pathway requires energy in order to occur therefore, the presence of ATP activates the first enzyme of the pathway, ATP- ... Roche Biochemical Pathways Map Roche biochemical pathways map Alifano, P; Fani, R; Liò, P; Lazcano, A; Bazzicalupo, M; ... For example, as shown in the pathway, His4 catalyzes 4 different steps in the pathway. Histidine is synthesized from ...
The melanin biosynthetic pathway may also be affected due to mutations. Sometimes one or many of the genes responsible for ... L-DOPA is a by-product of melanin biosynthetic pathway. During melanin synthesis, L-DOPA is released to the retina in the ... Human Oa1 gene has been identified by positional cloning as a 40kb gene mapped to Xp22.3-Xp22.2. Later, a mouse homolog of the ... A number of genes in Drosophila, like the hook gene that alter ocular pigment granules have been shown to affect lysosomal ...
Figure 1 describes a proposed Biosynthetic pathway of Apratoxins. The Apratoxin biosynthetic pathway is an organization of type ... the 58kb biosynthetic gene cluster is composed of 12 open reading frames (ORFs), as shown in Figure 1. Each type I polyketide- ... Apratoxin A comes from the Apratoxin biosynthetic pathway. ... Eventually, the post-pathway modification methylates the beta- ... The mixed peptide-polyketide natural product comes from a polyketide synthase/non-ribosomal peptide synthase pathway (PKS/NRPS ...
... biosynthetic pathway utilizes a variety of enzymes. Genes code for the enzymes on the Mg-tetrapyrroles of both ... Zeiger & Taiz 2006, Figure 7.11.A: The biosynthetic pathway of chlorophyll Ishikita H, Saenger W, Biesiadka J, Loll B, Knapp EW ... The pathway then uses either a light-dependent process, driven by the enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase. ...
This gene encodes an enzyme that functions in the biosynthetic pathways of sialic acids. In vitro, the encoded protein uses N- ... This gene is related to the E. coli sialic acid synthase gene neuB, and it can partially restore sialic acid synthase activity ... "Entrez Gene: NANS N-acetylneuraminic acid synthase (sialic acid synthase)". Lolas F (1978). "Event-related slow brain ... 2004). "The Status, Quality, and Expansion of the NIH Full-Length cDNA Project: The Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ...
"Activation of transcription by metabolic intermediates of the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway". Molecular and Cellular Biology ... URA3 is often used in yeast research as a "marker gene", that is, a gene to label chromosomes or plasmids. URA3 encodes ... URA3 is a gene on chromosome V in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). Its systematic name is YEL021W. ... The presence of the URA3 gene in yeast restores ODCase activity, facilitating growth on media not supplemented with uracil or ...
ALAD catalyzes the second step in the porphyrin and heme biosynthetic pathway; zinc is essential for enzymatic activity. ALAD ... Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase is an enzyme (EC 220.127.116.11) that in humans is encoded by the ALAD gene. It catalyzes the ...
Dombrink-Kurtzman, M. A. (2006). "The sequence of the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase gene of the patulin biosynthetic pathway in ...
The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the penultimate step of the arginine biosynthetic pathway. There are approximately ... Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. Mutations in the chromosome 9 copy of ASS ... "Entrez Gene: ASS1 argininosuccinate synthetase 1". Novel Bladder Cancer Therapy Based on Arginine Deprivation Shows Promising ... Carritt B, Goldfarb PS, Hooper ML, Slack C (Jun 1977). "Chromosome assignment of a human gene for argininosuccinate synthetase ...
... gene; that gene encodes the very first enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway. The mutation is caused by a frameshift mutation ... animal models and update in gene-based therapies". Curr Gene Ther. 8 (3): 176-86. doi:10.2174/156652308784746477. PMID 18537592 ... Additionally, unlike the other condition the arises out of a mutation of the ALAS2 gene, there is no anaemia. XDEPP is ... September 2008). "C-terminal deletions in the ALAS2 gene lead to gain of function and cause X-linked dominant protoporphyria ...
... (ASL) is an enzyme that catalyzes two reactions in the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway. In both ... Human ADSL genome location and ADSL gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Human ASL genome location and ASL gene ... ASL catalyzes two reactions in the purine biosynthetic pathway that makes AMP; ASL cleaves adenylosuccinate into AMP and ... an enzyme with dual activity in the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway". Structure. 8 (2): 163-74. doi:10.1016/S0969-2126(00) ...
"Targeted disruption of genes in the Bombyx mori sex pheromone biosynthetic pathway". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... According to the effects of gene disruption in the pheromone synthesis of Bombykol (the main pheromone component of the silk ...
The encoded protein catalyzes the first step in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Defects in this gene cause X-linked pyridoxine- ... "Entrez Gene: Delta-aminolevulinate synthase 2". Human ALAS2 genome location and ALAS2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... assignment of the housekeeping gene to 3p21 and the erythroid-specific gene to the X chromosome". Genomics. 7 (2): 207-14. doi: ... Its gene contains an IRE in its 5'-UTR region on which an IRP binds if the iron level is too low, thus inhibiting its ...
The Cremeomycin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster Encodes a Pathway for Diazo Formation (ChemBioChem 15/2015)". ChemBioChem. 16 (15): ...
Carotenoid biosynthetic pathway: molecular phylogenies and evolutionary behavior of crt genes in eubacteria. Phadwal K, Gene, ... CRT is the gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of carotenoids. Those genes are found in eubacteria, in algae and are ... 17 January 2005, volume 345, issue 1, pages 35-43, PMID 15716108 Molecular phylogenies and evolution of crt genes in algae. ... PMID 17578704 Activation and analysis of cryptic crt genes for carotenoid biosynthesis from Streptomyces griseus. Schumann G1, ...
A biosynthetic pathway has been hypothesized based on proposed gene functions (see figure). btmM, with homology to Zn+2 ... The complete biosynthetic gene cluster for bottromycin has been identified. It is predicted to contain 13 genes, including the ... It is likely that in vitro mechanistic studies to better elucidate the biosynthetic pathway will be forthcoming. The total ... Another gene, btmA, is proposed to export bottromycin. The remaining ten genes are expected to modify the precursor peptide ...
... (EC 18.104.22.168, PanK; CoaA) is the first enzyme in the Coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthetic pathway. It ... In humans, multiple PanK isoforms are expressed by four genes. PANK1 gene encodes the PanK1α and PanK1β forms, and PANK2 and ... Consequently, pantothenate kinase is a key regulatory enzyme in the CoA biosynthetic pathway. Three distinct types of PanK has ... gene encodes two differentially regulated pantothenate kinase isozymes". Gene. 291 (1-2): 35-43. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(02) ...
The biosynthetic genes of ergothioneine have been described in Mycobacterium smegmatis, Neurospora crassa, and ... "Genetic and metabolomic dissection of the ergothioneine and selenoneine biosynthetic pathway in the fission yeast, S. Pombe, ... "The Neurospora crassa mutant NcΔEgt-1 identifies an ergothioneine biosynthetic gene and demonstrates that ergothioneine ... The metabolic pathway to produce ergothioneine starts with the methylation of histidine to produce histidine betaine (hercynine ...
The phenolic biosynthetic and metabolic pathways and enzymes can be studied by mean of transgenesis of genes. The Arabidopsis ... Phenolics are formed by three different biosynthetic pathways: (i) the shikimate/chorizmate or succinylbenzoate pathway, which ... UGT1A6 is a human gene encoding a phenol UDP glucuronosyltransferase active on simple phenols. The enzyme encoded by the gene ... The aromatic amino acid phenylalanine, synthesized in the shikimic acid pathway, is the common precursor of phenol containing ...
... only a handful of genes encoding the enzymes of flavor biosynthetic pathways have been characterized to date. Contact with oils ... Singh RK, Sane VA, Misra A, Ali SA, Nath P, 2010, Differential expression of the mango alcohol dehydrogenase gene family during ... Expression profiling of various genes during the development and ripening of Alphonso mango, Plant Physiology and Biochemistry ...
More than 25 genes are expressed from the single late promoter, resulting in four parallel biosynthetic pathways. Three of the ... The first are the immediate early genes, the second is the delayed early genes and the third is the late genes. The following ... The fourth pathway is for lysis. In lambda 5 proteins are involved in lysis: the holin and antiholin from gene S, the endolysin ... Delayed early genes: These include the replication genes O and P and also Q, which encodes the anti-terminator responsible for ...
positive regulation of gene expression. • cell-cell signaling. • hormone-mediated signaling pathway. • follicle-stimulating ... progesterone biosynthetic process. • female gamete generation. • positive regulation of bone resorption. • regulation of ... 1999). "Characterization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in coding regions of human genes". Nat. Genet. 22 (3): 231-8. PMID ... transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of cell migration. • positive regulation of ...
... periwinkle secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene Str interacts with a jasmonate-and elicitor-inducible AP2-domein ... UV-B is also known to induce the production of phenolics in plants [13 - 17]. These require the shikimate pathway and ... The sequence result revealed that this gene fragment (designated probe DAHPS) was a part of the C. roseus DAHP synthase gene. ... Gene specific primers (forward primer -5-ATG GGT GGG GGA ACG TAC GAG ACA -3 and reverse primer -5-AGG AGA ATG GGC GTT GAG ...
Research on the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in fungi has focused on the identification of the specific sterol structure ... Cloning of the late genes in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae-A review. ... Nine of the eleven genes in the portion of the pathway committed exclusively to ergosterol biosynthesis have been cloned, and ... Research on the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in fungi has focused on the identification of the specific sterol structure ...
... which encodes enzymes and a regulator involved in the biosynthetic pathway from glutamate to protoheme.. Hashimoto Y1, ... The hemYHB genes appeared to be within the same transcription unit. Downstream from the hemB gene, three open-reading frames ... The two genes may thus be involved in hem transport and the regulation of hem gene expression respectively, and were ... One of these, transcribed in the same direction as the hemB gene, was identical to be the hemL gene, which encodes glutamate-1- ...
It is not well understood, however, how the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is regulated. Fortunately, the maize germplasm ... Here, the accumulation of carotenoids and the expression of genes from carotenoid metabolic and catabolic pathways were ... study demonstrate the use of maize germplasm to provide insight into the regulation of genes involved in the carotenoid pathway ... Carotenoid Biosynthetic and Catabolic Pathways: Gene Expression and Carotenoid Content in Grains of Maize Landraces. Rafael da ...
The expression plasmids were constructed by fusion of the GUS reporter gene to the... ... Expression ofArabidopsis tryptophan biosynthetic pathway genes: effect of the 5′ coding region of phosphoribosylanthranilate ... phosphoribosylanthranilate isomerase(PAI) tryptophan biosynthetic pathway gene expression and regulation plastid targeting ... Jefferson, R. A., Assaying chemeric genes in plants: The Gus gene fusion system,Plant Mol. Biol. Rep., 1987, 5: 387.CrossRef ...
Transcription of Genes in the Biosynthetic Pathway for Fumonisin Mycotoxins Is Epigenetically and Differentially Regulated in ... Transcription of Genes in the Biosynthetic Pathway for Fumonisin Mycotoxins Is Epigenetically and Differentially Regulated in ... Transcription of Genes in the Biosynthetic Pathway for Fumonisin Mycotoxins Is Epigenetically and Differentially Regulated in ... Transcription of Genes in the Biosynthetic Pathway for Fumonisin Mycotoxins Is Epigenetically and Differentially Regulated in ...
... and distribution of ask and hom genes revealed that the presence of multiple copies of these genes and their fusion events are ... This allowed us to depict a model to explain the evolution of ask and hom according to which the fused genes are the outcome of ... Moreover, the appearance of fused genes paralleled the assembly of operons of different sizes, suggesting a strong correlation ... The integration of data concerning gene structure, organization, phylogeny, distribution, and microarray experiments allowed us ...
Mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-M) and serine biosynthetic pathway genes are co-ordinately increased ... and serine biosynthetic pathway genes are co-ordinately increased during anabolic agent-induced skeletal muscle growth. ... Skeletal muscle mRNA expression of serine/one-carbon/glycine biosynthesis pathway genes (Phgdh, Psat1 and Psph) and the ... Longissimus Dorsi muscle gene expression was analyzed using Agilent porcine transcriptome microarrays and clusters of genes ...
... transformation of Jatropha curcas to overexpress a gene involved in the triglyceride biosynthetic pathway. [Ph.D. thesis] ... harbouring the gene coding for the YFP; pG29HD, harbouring the gene coding for the DGAT with the HA flag at the 5-terminal; ... Il gene codificante la diacilglicerolo aciltransferasi (DGAT) di A. thaliana è stato clonato nel vettore pG0029 sotto il ... The Arabidopsis thaliana gene coding for the diacylglycerol acyltransferase enzyme (DGAT) has been cloned into the delivery ...
The Structure of the Bifunctional Acetyltransferase/Decarboxylase LnmK from the Leinamycin Biosynthetic Pathway Revealing Novel ... The Structure of the Bifunctional Acetyltransferase/Decarboxylase LnmK from the Leinamycin Biosynthetic Pathway Revealing Novel ... Gene Names: LnmK. Find proteins for Q8GGP1 (Streptomyces atroolivaceus). Go to UniProtKB: Q8GGP1 ... Structure of the Bifunctional Acyltransferase/Decarboxylase LnmK from the Leinamycin Biosynthetic Pathway Revealing Novel ...
Evidence for a gene cluster involving trichothecene-pathway biosynthetic genes in Fusarium sporotrichioides. Curr Genet 24: 291 ... Table 2. Promoter analysis of genes in the cercosporin biosynthetic gene cluster of Cercospora nicotianae. Gene. Translation ... the genes contributing to self-defence are also situated in the biosynthetic gene cluster. For example, genes for longevity ... 6 suggest the presence of a feedback inhibition mechanism, in which disruption of one of the biosynthetic genes in the pathway ...
We have previously reported the nucleotide sequence of the first six genes of the Streptococcus pneumoniae type 19F capsular ... Comparison with sequence databases has allowed us to propose functions for 12 of the cps19f gene products, and a biosynthetic ... Characterization of the locus encoding the Streptococcus pneumoniae type 19F capsular polysaccharide biosynthetic pathway Mol ... Interestingly, the last four genes of the locus (cps19fL-O) exhibit very strong homology (up to 70% amino acid identity) to a ...
Catnip Biosynthetic Pathway Exhilarates Researchers. Latest Tweets. Tweets by @GENbio Stay Connected. ... Scientists have previously discovered that γ-globin gene mutations in HPFH reside in two regions of the genes promoter (at - ... "The fetal hemoglobin gene is naturally silenced after birth," comments Dr. Crossley. "For 50 years, researchers have been ... "Our new approach can be seen as a forerunner to organic gene therapy for a range of common inherited blood disorders ...
Catnip Biosynthetic Pathway Exhilarates Researchers. Latest Tweets. Tweets by @GENbio Stay Connected. ... Overexpressing the gene in uninjured mice also activated the astrocytes, confirming LZK as a trigger for astrogliosis. ... "Inducible LZK gene deletion in astrocytes of adult mice reduced astrogliosis and impaired glial scar formation, resulting in ... A new mouse study shows that triggering a gene inside astrocytes activates the star-shaped cells and may improve the brains ...
Significant progress has been made in the last decade in deciphering aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway (Bennett 1981 1987 1986 ... The homologous genes between the sterigmatocystin pathway gene cluster in A. nidulans and aflatoxin pathway gene cluster in A. ... 1996b) defined ST biosynthetic pathway gene cluster consisting of 25 coregulated transcripts in A. nidulans. The ST gene ... The aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway gene cluster in A. parasiticus and A. flavus (panel A), sterigmatocystin biosynthetic ...
In vitro studies of ScyA, ScyB and ScyC proved that these enzymes indeed catalyze initial pathway reactions. Here we ... An 18-gene cluster is responsible for scytonemin production in Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133. The upstream genes scyABCDEF in ... The upstream genes scyABCDEF in the cluster are proposed to be responsible for scytonemin biosynthesis from aromatic amino acid ... Here we characterize the role of ScyD, ScyE and ScyF, which were logically predicted to be responsible for late biosynthetic ...
B) Proposed biosynthetic pathway for perosamine in V. cholerae O1. The pathway includes ManA for the conversion of F6P to M6P ... Genetic organization of the O1 antigen biosynthetic locus and the proposed pathway for the synthesis of perosamine in V. ... A) Pictorial representation of the genes in the O1 antigen biosynthetic (wbe) locus. The annotated ORFs and their orientation ... Phase variable O antigen biosynthetic genes control expression of the major protective antigen and bacteriophage receptor in ...
... like-pteridine synthase biosynthetic pathway has been illuminated via genome mining. ... Crawford and coworkers report genes for a hybrid biosynthetic pathway involving parts of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase and ... 1) By heterologous expression and gene deletion the authors proved the function of the gene cluster. However, the biosynthetic ... Incorporation of the biosynthetic pathway encompassing genes plu2793-plu2799 was assessed by end sequencing using the T7 ...
The ECA polysaccharide biosynthetic pathway and thewec gene cluster. (a) The ECA polysaccharide biosynthetic pathway. Gene ... The wecF::cam,rmlA ECA::cam, andwecE::cam mutations activate the Cpx signal transduction pathway. The β-galactosidase ... The genes affected by the mutational analysis employed in this study are enclosed within rectangles. Abbreviations: C55-P, ... b) The wecgene cluster. The open reading frames of this cluster are shown in shaded boxes. All open reading frames are ...
Moreover, several metabolic and biosynthetic pathways in the pathogen were down-regulated during exposure to the plant-derived ... Both TC and EG stimulated the transcription of heat shock genes, such as dnaK, dnaJ, ibpB and ibpA in S. Enteritidis PT8 (P, ... To elucidate potential PT8 genes affected by TC and EG during colonization, a whole-genome microarray analysis of the bacterium ... The plant-derived compounds down-regulated (P,0.005) expression of S. Enteritidis PT8 genes involved in flagellar motility, ...
In this study, we established a biosynthetic pathway for rubrofusarin in S. cerevisiae. First, the Fusarium graminearum gene ... Rubrofusarin is an orange polyketide pigment that is a common intermediate in many different fungal biosynthetic pathways. ... The reconstructed pathway for rubrofusarin in S. cerevisiae allows the production of a core scaffold molecule with a branch- ... Furthermore, the reconstruction verifies the suggested pathway, and as such, it is the first example of utilizing a synthetic ...
B) Pathway relationships. (C) Gene content. (D) Neighborhood views of bidirectional best-hit searches. (E) Secondary metabolite ... Diversity of architectures of phenazine biosynthetic gene clusters. (A) Architecturally unique BCs containing all core genes of ... IMG-ABC: A Knowledge Base To Fuel Discovery of Biosynthetic Gene Clusters and Novel Secondary Metabolites. Michalis Hadjithomas ... Evidence for horizontal gene transfer of Rhizobium phenazine gene cluster. Table S1, PDF file, 0.1 MB. ...
20 translationally coupled genes that encode the enzymes involved in parts I and III of the cobalamin biosynthetic pathway. A ... Characterization of the cobalamin (vitamin B12) biosynthetic genes of Salmonella typhimurium.. J R Roth, J G Lawrence, M ... Characterization of the cobalamin (vitamin B12) biosynthetic genes of Salmonella typhimurium.. J R Roth, J G Lawrence, M ... Characterization of the cobalamin (vitamin B12) biosynthetic genes of Salmonella typhimurium.. J R Roth, J G Lawrence, M ...
Xref Database=Entrez Gene ID=6999 /,. +. ,Xref Database=Entrez Gene ID=6999/, ... NAD+ biosynthetic pathways. NAD+ levels are maintained by three independent pathways. First, the Preiss-Handler pathway uses ... NAD+ biosynthetic pathways. NAD+ levels are maintained by three independent pathways. First, the Preiss-Handler pathway uses ... the de novo synthesis pathway of NAD from tryptophan occurs through the kinurenine pathway (5). The first step in this pathway ...
Finally, we confirm that the mevalonate pathway is not always present in genomes that contain HI gene clusters and thus is not ... The numbers of genes in the pcc gene clusters vary, ranging from two to nine. Similar to the metal-reducing (Mtr) gene clusters ... 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; Biosynthetic gene clusters; Genome evolution; Streptomyces; ABBA prenyltransferases; Secondary ... Finally, we confirm that the mevalonate pathway is not always present in genomes that contain HI gene clusters and thus is not ...
EnzymeSynthaseEnzymesBiosynthesis pathwayCharacterizationMetabolic pathwaysGenomePutativeCatabolic pathwaysMetabolismPurine biosynthetic pathwayRegulationPolysaccharide biosynthetic pathwayPolyketide synthaseEncodeTranscriptionalExpression of geFungal biosyntheticNucleotideBacterialDifferentially expressedBacteriaProteinCoenzymeGeneticOperonNatural product pathwaysPeptidesPhenylpropanoid pathwayStrainReactionsFlavonoidsPhosphateCarotenoid pathwayCharacterisationOntologyPathogenAbstractRegulatorDistinctLocusOrganismsAminoPlantsGenomicRegulateInduceBacillusEnzymaticAntimicrobial
- The enzyme 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase (EC 22.214.171.124) catalyzes the first committed step in the shikimate pathway of tryptophan synthesis, an important precursor for the production of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs). (jmolecularsignaling.com)
- The first enzyme of the shikimate pathway catalyzes the condensation of phosphoenolpyruvate and erythrose-4-phosphate to yield DAHP. (jmolecularsignaling.com)
- These data further show that the essential components of the signaling pathway involved in accumulation DAHP synthase transcript in C. roseus cells include suramin-sensitive cell surface receptor, staurosporine-sensitive protein kinase and MAP kinase. (jmolecularsignaling.com)
- A homology-based PCR cloning strategy was used to clone DAHP synthase by amplifying a partial DAHP cDNA sequence using the UV-B induced C. roseus suspension cell λZAP cDNA library as template and two DAHP gene-specific oligonucleotide primers. (jmolecularsignaling.com)
- The remaining eight genes encode enzymes which metabolize the first sterol, lanosterol, to ultimately form ergosterol. (springer.com)
- The Propionibacterium freudenreichii hemYHBXRL gene cluster, which encodes enzymes and a regulator involved in the biosynthetic pathway from glutam. (nih.gov)
- The Propionibacterium freudenreichii hemYHBXRL gene cluster, which encodes enzymes and a regulator involved in the biosynthetic pathway from glutamate to protoheme. (nih.gov)
- FB biosynthetic enzymes and accessory proteins are encoded by a set of clustered and cotranscribed genes collectively named FUM, whose molecular regulation is beginning to be unraveled by researchers. (asm.org)
- From an evolutionary point of view, the genes coding for these three enzymes are particularly interesting, since at least two different molecular mechanisms, i.e. paralogous gene duplication and gene fusion, appeared to have played a key role in their origin and evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
- In vitro studies of ScyA, ScyB, and ScyC proved that these enzymes indeed catalyze initial pathway reactions. (frontiersin.org)
- Through extensive gene deletion, pathway-targeted molecular networking, quantitative proteomic analysis, and NMR, we show that the genetic locus affects the regulation of quorum sensing and secondary metabolic enzymes and encodes new pteridine metabolites functionalized with cis -amide acyl-side chains, termed pepteridine A ( 1 ) and B ( 2 ). (elifesciences.org)
- Figure 1 Proposed and generally accepted pathway for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 biosynthesis and the corresponding genes and their enzymes are presented. (progressivegardening.com)
- However, common for these examples is that the studies only aimed to produce the first stable intermediate in the respective biosynthetic pathway and have not included the heterologous expression of any tailoring enzymes responsible for modification of the synthase product. (biomedcentral.com)
- Of the 30 cobalamin synthetic genes, 25 are clustered in one operon, cob, and are arranged in three groups, each group encoding enzymes for a biochemically distinct portion of the biosynthetic pathway. (asm.org)
- This sequence includes 20 translationally coupled genes that encode the enzymes involved in parts I and III of the cobalamin biosynthetic pathway. (asm.org)
- Third, the NAD+ salvage pathway recycles the nicotinamide generated as a by-product of the enzymatic activities of NAD+-consuming enzymes: sirtuins, PARPs, and the cADPR synthases (CD38 and CD157). (wikipathways.org)
- A plus sign indicates that the genes for all of the enzymes of the biosynthetic pathway are present in the genome. (asm.org)
- Platelet activating factor (PAF) and activity of its biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes in blood and leukocytes of male patients with newly diagnosed heart failure. (wikipathways.org)
- The BGC encoding sodorifen consists of four genes, two of which ( sodA , sodB ) are homologs of genes encoding enzymes of the non-mevalonate pathway and are thought to enhance the amounts of available farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), the precursor of sodorifen. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our group has identified several genes coding for enzymes involved in secondary metabolism pathways in A. hypochondriacus, in addition to related regulatory transcription factors. (intechopen.com)
- Here, using metabolomic, proteomic, and phosphoproteomic approaches, we show that inhibition of the replication stress sensing kinase ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) reduces the output of both de novo and salvage pathways by regulating the activity of their respective rate-limiting enzymes, ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) and deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), via distinct molecular mechanisms. (osti.gov)
- Therefore, a suitable strategy to enhance these pathways is to introduce genes encoding key enzymes free from feedback control ( 5 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
- A biosynthetic pathway has been proposed based on the results of these experiments coupled with bioinformatic analysis of the enzymes encoded in the btm cluster. (rsc.org)
- There are three gene families encoding enzymes capable of synthesizing wax esters. (iastate.edu)
- By combining bioinformatics with in vitro biochemical characterization of biosynthetic enzymes, we predicted that this pathway likely generates an N-acylated dipeptide aldehyde (ruminopeptin). (deepdyve.com)
- Thus, there is a need to uncover the molecular basis for the metabolic activities of the gut microbiome by linking metabolism to genes and enzymes. (nap.edu)
- the genes and enzymes responsible for many gut microbial activities have not been identified. (nap.edu)
- A critical step in understanding human gut microbial metabolism is linking metabolic activities with specific microbial genes and enzymes. (nap.edu)
- Enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), caffeic acid O -methyltransferase (COMT) and their function in capsaicinoid biosynthesis were identified later by Fujiwake et al. (wikipedia.org)
- Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was planned in order to overexpress an enzyme involved in the plant triglycerides biosynthesis pathway, because it could be a potential application for the production of plant cell cultures accumulating triglycerides. (unipd.it)
- Gene functional analysis and deletion results provide overview of the biosynthesis pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Handelsman's group proposed a model for the ZmA biosynthesis pathway and clearly showed that this 16-kb fragment does not contain all the genes necessary for the biosynthesis of ZmA, as some important genes required for the proposed pathway were missing. (asm.org)
- The purL gene encodes FGAM synthetase, the fourth enzyme in the purine nucleotide biosynthesis pathway. (elsevier.com)
- It catalyzes two consecutive phosphorylation reactions in the thiamine phosphate biosynthesis pathway, first phosphorylating HMP to HMP-P, and then HMP-P to HMP-PP [ PMID: 10075431 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Alterations in the miRNA biosynthesis pathway can lead to global miRNA deregulation. (peerj.com)
- This gene encodes a component of the coenzyme Q biosynthesis pathway. (genecards.org)
- Characterization of the cobalamin (vitamin B12) biosynthetic genes of Salmonella typhimurium. (asm.org)
- Liu, Y. Functional Characterization of New Polyketide Synthase Genes Involved in Ochratoxin A Biosynthesis in Aspergillus Ochraceus fc-1. (mdpi.com)
- A description of the progress obtained so far regarding the characterization of phenylpropanoid genes in grain amaranth will close this chapter. (intechopen.com)
- Cloning and characterization of the thiD/J gene of Escherichia coli encoding a thiamin-synthesizing bifunctional enzyme, hydroxymethylpyrimidine kinase/phosphomethylpyrimidine kinase. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Nine candidate genes were chosen for experimental characterization in yeast and Arabidopsis seed. (iastate.edu)
- Characterization of biosynthetic and catabolic pathways of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. (uncg.edu)
- The CRISPRi library provides a valuable tool for characterization of pneumococcal genes and pathways and revealed several promising antibiotic targets. (rug.nl)
- Despite detailed characterization of MAMP recognition and various hormone-mediated signaling pathways in plant defense response, relatively little is known about the host mechanisms that connect the perception of a particular pathogen to the downstream signaling pathways that lead to activation of specific immune responses. (sciencemag.org)
- For the functional characterization of this cloned P450 gene, this gene was heterologously expressed in yeast Saccharomyces cereviae. (usda.gov)
- BA treated pigs exhibit a profound increase in expression of PHGDH and PEPCK-M in skeletal muscle, implicating a role for biosynthetic metabolic pathways in muscle growth. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- We created elite inbred South African transgenic corn plants in which the levels of 3 vitamins were increased specifically in the endosperm through the simultaneous modification of 3 separate metabolic pathways. (pnas.org)
- The absence of key vitamins in cereal grains reflects the fact that the corresponding metabolic pathways are absent, truncated, or inhibited in the endosperm. (pnas.org)
- These 3 vitamins represent 3 entirely different metabolic pathways, and the only way to achieve such a radical change in the nutritional properties of an elite breeding variety of corn so rapidly is to take advantage of multigene engineering via direct DNA transfer ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
- Several signaling and metabolic pathways were found to be associated with the developmental status of embryos, among which were previously known important steroid biosynthesis and cell communication pathways in early embryonic development. (biomedcentral.com)
- There continue to be large gaps in understanding which metabolic pathways are altered in cancer, whether these alterations benefit the tumor in a substantive way, and how this information could be used in clinical oncology. (jci.org)
- The instructions for the pathways that make these molecules are stored in the genome - the complete set of genetic material - of the bacteria. (elifesciences.org)
- Genome mining" is a strategy that involves searching these databases to identify unknown biochemical pathways and help to characterize them. (elifesciences.org)
- have now used genome mining to identify a biochemical pathway in P. luminescens that combines the pathways used to create two different types of small molecules produced by the bacteria. (elifesciences.org)
- While the hybrid pathway responsible for the production of the pepteridines serves as one example of the utility of genome mining, there is still much room for further discovery. (elifesciences.org)
- To elucidate potential PT8 genes affected by TC and EG during colonization, a whole-genome microarray analysis of the bacterium treated with TC and EG was conducted. (frontiersin.org)
- We report a general strategy that combines targeted genome-wide mutagenesis to generate pathway variants with evolution to enrich for rare high producers. (semanticscholar.org)
- Serratia plymuthica WS3236 was selected for whole genome sequencing based on preliminary genetic and chemical screening indicating the presence of multiple natural product pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
- Genome mining of all available genomes within the NCBI and JGI IMG databases led to the identification of a wealth of sod -like pathways which may be responsible for producing a range of structurally unknown sodorifen analogs. (biomedcentral.com)
- Using markers developed based on the reference genome '02-12', the BoPr gene was preliminarily mapped to a 280-kb interval of chromosome C09, with flanking markers M17 and BoID4714 at genetic distances of 4.3 cM and 1.5 cM, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
- To identify biochemical pathways associated with native resistance mechanisms, a genome-wide. (usda.gov)
- Computational Methods for Identification of Novel Secondary Metabolite Biosynthetic Pathways by Genome Analysis. (igi-global.com)
- In this chapter, the progress in development of various computational methods is discussed by different research groups, and specifically, the utility in identification of novel metabolites by genome mining and rational design of natural product analogs by biosynthetic engineering studies. (igi-global.com)
- 6 ] investigated the dynamics of gene expression and defined subsets of genes regulated during preimplantation development of bovine embryos, particularly those related to embryonic genome activation. (biomedcentral.com)
- This is strikingly consistent with the known composition of the genome of M. genitalium , which contains approximately 470 genes, not all of which are essential. (nap.edu)
- Genome-wide screens have discovered a large set of essential genes in the opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae However, the functions of many essential genes are still unknown, hampering vaccine development and drug discovery. (rug.nl)
- Sequence analysis identified 10 putative open reading frames (ORFs) flanking the previously characterized CTB1 and CTB3 genes that encode, respectively, the polyketide synthase and a dual methyltransferase/monooxygenase required for cercosporin production. (wiley.com)
- 1995b) when they found that the nor-1 and ver-1 genes were linked in a cosmid clone (NorA) with the regulatory gene aflR and a putative aflatoxin pathway gene, uvm8 (now named fas-1) in between. (progressivegardening.com)
- By providing a reliable, high-level production system, this study sets the stage for future investigations of the biological role and function of sodorifen and for functionally unlocking the bioinformatically identified putative sod -like pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
- High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of all available mutants revealed some putative intermediates in the thienamycin biosynthetic pathway. (asm.org)
- Metabolism of platelet activating factor and related ether lipids: enzymatic pathways, subcellular sites, regulation, and membrane processing. (wikipathways.org)
- The regulation of protein metabolism is another important aspect of insulin signaling, involving downregulation of proteolysis in skeletal muscles and promotion of protein synthesis through the mTOR pathway [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
- These results suggest that most predicted plant BGCs are not genuine SM pathways and argue that BGCs are not a hallmark of plant specialized metabolism. (plantcell.org)
- Hashimoto, T. and Yamada, Y. (2003) New genes in alkaloid metabolism and transport. (springer.com)
- As well as demonstrating the effectiveness of rol genes in inducing plant secondary metabolism, this study provides insight into the molecular dynamics of the flavonoid accumulation pattern, which correlated with the expression of biosynthetic genes. (biomedcentral.com)
- By comparison of rax1-1 with the GSH1 mutant cadmium hypersensitive 2 , the expression of 32 stress-responsive genes was shown to be responsive to changed glutathione metabolism. (plantcell.org)
- In wild-type plants, glutathione metabolism may play a key role in determining the degree of expression of defense genes controlled by several signaling pathways both before and during stress. (plantcell.org)
- This control may reflect the physiological state of the plant at the time of the onset of an environmental challenge and suggests that changes in glutathione metabolism may be one means of integrating the function of several signaling pathways. (plantcell.org)
- Here, by tt19 suppressor screening, the authors show that RDR6/SGS3/DCL4 siRNA pathway constituents synergistically interact with components of the flavonoid pathway to control carbon metabolism. (scoop.it)
- The two genes may thus be involved in hem transport and the regulation of hem gene expression respectively, and were tentatively named hemX and hemR. (nih.gov)
- in contrast, MC14 and MC7 showed low HYD3 / CYP97C , suggesting that they may be useful in biofortification efforts aimed at promoting the accumulation of provitamin A. The results of this study demonstrate the use of maize germplasm to provide insight into the regulation of genes involved in the carotenoid pathway, which would thus better enable us to select promising varieties for biofortification efforts. (mdpi.com)
- Our results indicate a clear and differential role for chromatin remodeling in the regulation of FUM genes. (asm.org)
- This epigenetic regulation can be attained through the modulation of histone acetylation at the level of the promoter regions of the key biosynthetic genes FUM1 and FUM21 , but less so for FUM8 . (asm.org)
- 0.005) expression of S . Enteritidis PT8 genes involved in flagellar motility, regulation of the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1, and invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. (frontiersin.org)
- Plants produce diverse specialized metabolites (SMs), but the genes responsible for their production and regulation remain largely unknown, hindering efforts to tap plant pharmacopeia. (plantcell.org)
- and regulation of apoptotic signaling pathway. (jax.org)
- Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is centrally facilitated by the addition of methyl groups (CH 3 ) to DNA cytosine nucleotides. (nature.com)
- First, the Fusarium graminearum gene encoding polyketide synthase 12 ( PKS12 ) was heterologously co-expressed with the Aspergillus fumigatus gene encoding phosphopantetheinyl transferase ( npgA ) resulting in production of YWA1. (biomedcentral.com)
- These results show that yeast heterologous expression can provide an avenue for production of industrially relevant polyketides and for characterizing orphan polyketide synthase genes from non-model organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
- Two new OTA-related polyketide synthase (PKS) ( AoOTApks ) genes were identified. (mdpi.com)
- Its biosynthetic pathway in B. cereus has been proposed through analysis of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) modules involved in ZmA biosynthesis. (asm.org)
- The presence of genes encoding nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) homologues in this fragment suggested that ZmA is synthesized by a mixed NRPS/PKS pathway ( 8 ). (asm.org)
- The other two open-reading frames, located between the hemYHB and hemL genes, were transcribed divergently, and their deduced amino acid sequences showed similarities to a membrane-bound transport protein and a transcriptional regulatory protein respectively. (nih.gov)
- Expression of eight of the genes was co-ordinately induced under cercosporin-producing conditions and was regulated by the Zn(II)Cys 6 transcriptional activator, CTB8. (wiley.com)
- Similar 'feedback' transcriptional inhibition was observed when the CTB1 , or CTB3 but not CTB4 gene was inactivated. (wiley.com)
- The transcriptional activity of the smaller group of genes is maximal at about dawn and minimal at about dusk. (elsevier.com)
- and (c) determining the ability of the nucleic acid molecules to post-transcriptionally silence expression of a gene in the cells, wherein post-transcriptional gene silencing at a discrete, defined location identifies the nucleic acid molecules affixed at that location as being capable of post-transcriptional gene silencing. (google.com)
- 1 Abundant methylation in gene promoters, particularly in CpG residues, recruits chromatin modifiers and transcriptional repressors in a manner that usually silences gene expression. (nature.com)
- However, only a few examples of successful heterologous expression of genes encoding fungal polyketide synthases in yeast have been reported in literature. (biomedcentral.com)
- Isolates from these cultures were subjected to antifungal susceptibility testing, DNA karyotyping, and evaluation of the expression of genes previously associated with C. glabrata resistance to fluconazole, CgCDR1 , CgCDR2 , and CgERG11 . (asm.org)
- We have previously reported the nucleotide sequence of the first six genes of the Streptococcus pneumoniae type 19F capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis locus (cps19f). (nih.gov)
- Thus the functional interplay between alternative nucleotide biosynthetic routes and ATR provides therapeutic opportunities in leukemia and potentially other cancers. (osti.gov)
- Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be present in miRNA-binding sites, and mature miRNAs negatively regulate the expression level of their target genes via two distinct mechanisms ( Bartel, 2004 ). (peerj.com)
- OtsA-OtsB is the dominant pathway, required for bacterial growth in laboratory culture and for virulence in a mouse model. (cam.ac.uk)
- When genetic material is exchanged between bacterial cells, it can occur between individuals of different species through the process of horizontal gene transfer , thereby confusing the limits of interbreeding. (britannica.com)
- Arrow Diagnostics has launched two library preparation kits for bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, called ArrowforNGS Microbiota Solution A/B. The kits come with dedicated analysis software. (genomeweb.com)
- Varigen has cloned 32 PKS, NRPS, and other pathways of interest with high fidelity from dozens of bacterial and fungal strains. (genomeweb.com)
- Genes were categorized by biological processes according to GO terms which led to the discovery of differentially expressed of genes involved in reproductive functions. (google.com)
- Understanding which genes are differentially expressed between sexes gives insights to physiological trade offs that males and females make, which influences overall fitness and is important for conservation strategies for vulnerable species, such as the Olympia oyster. (google.com)
- The objective of this study was to identify genes differentially expressed between blastocysts and degenerative embryos at early stages of development. (biomedcentral.com)
- 7 ] were able to identify 384 differentially-expressed genes that were believed to affect subsequent survival and pregnancy. (biomedcentral.com)
- Although remarkably similar gene expression profiles were found between blastocysts and degenerative embryos, a total of 67 differentially expressed transcripts were identified. (biomedcentral.com)
- We have screened for the differentially expressed P450 genes, and identified and cloned a 1.9 kb P450 gene. (usda.gov)
- These studies expand our view of the combinatorial biosynthetic potential available in bacteria. (elifesciences.org)
- This "hybrid" pathway produces a new set of molecules - called pepteridines - that are released by the disease-causing form of the bacteria. (elifesciences.org)
- New unstable variants of green fluorescent protein for studies of transient gene expression in bacteria. (semanticscholar.org)
- Although these genes are expressed as part of a larger operon in other bacteria, reporter gene fusions revealed that purF and purL are transcribed independently in Synechococcus and that they are expressed at different phases of the circadian cycle. (elsevier.com)
- Multiple biosynthetic pathways underline the critical role that trehalose plays in the bacteria. (cam.ac.uk)
- also identified a regulator protein that controls the hybrid pathway. (elifesciences.org)
- BlsE, a predicted radical S -adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) protein, was anaerobically purified and reconstituted in vitro to study its function in the blasticidin S biosynthetic pathway. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
- section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
- The protein is commonly observed within operons containing other thiamine biosynthesis genes. (ebi.ac.uk)
- COQ4 (Coenzyme Q4) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- MAMP recognition triggers the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and various hormone signaling pathways ( 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
- The gene coded for a 522 amino acid protein and is 48% identical to a soybean cytochrome P450 82 A3. (usda.gov)
- Genetic analysis indicated that the purple leaf trait is controlled by a single dominant gene, which we named BoPr . (biomedcentral.com)
- We submit that global gene coexpression is a rich, largely untapped resource for discovering the genetic basis and architecture of plant natural products. (plantcell.org)
- The carrier screen sequences 301 genes linked to serious genetic disorders, and now the same specimen collection kit will also enable NIPS. (genomeweb.com)
- A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling. (senescence.info)
- The identification of this gene means that doctors can order genetic analysis and confirm the condition allowing earlier treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors," explained Professor Hanns Lochmüller of the Institute of Human Genetics at Newcastle University. (healthcanal.com)
- The elucidation of the terpenoid biosynthetic pathway and cloning of the associated genes will provide a tool to manipulate the biosynthesis of these defense terpenoids through genetic engineering. (usda.gov)
- Indeed, scyD presents an interesting evolutionary paradox: it likely originated in a duplication event from scyE , and unlike other genes in the operon, it has not been subjected to purifying selection. (frontiersin.org)
- A group of genes named the mmg operon, able to catalyze fatty acid catabolism, are active only during B. subtilis sporulation. (uncg.edu)
- Experimental studies have shown that the biosynthetic machinery for polyketide and nonribosomal peptides involves multi-functional megasynthases like Polyketide Synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) which utilize a thiotemplate mechanism similar to that for fatty acid biosynthesis. (igi-global.com)
- No significant differences in ferric reduction activities were observed between the parental strain and the Δ sidA strain, indicating that blocking siderophore secretion did not result in upregulation of this pathway. (asm.org)
- A 16-kb DNA fragment ( zma16Bc ) from strain UW85, including nine genes and a partial gene (covering zmaR ), has been isolated. (asm.org)
- Subsequently, our research group identified three new genes ( zwa6 , zwa5A , and zwa5B ) from another ZmA-producing strain, B. thuringiensis subsp. (asm.org)
- Based on results from transposon sequencing (Tn-seq), we refined the list of essential genes in S. pneumoniae serotype 2 strain D39. (rug.nl)
- Strain A developed resistance over a 2-week period and showed no overexpression of these genes. (asm.org)
- In contrast, strain B first showed resistance 6 weeks after fluconazole therapy was discontinued but showed overexpression of all three genes. (asm.org)
- Gene names are listed in italics adjacent to the reactions that their products catalyze. (asm.org)
- Also used alone to indicate a sequence of reactions that convert one biological material to another (metabolic pathway). (thefreedictionary.com)
- amphibolic pathway a group of metabolic reactions with a dual function, providing small metabolites for further catabolism to end products or for use as precursors in synthetic, anabolic reactions. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Embden-Meyerhof pathway the series of enzymatic reactions in the anaerobic conversion of glucose to lactic acid, resulting in energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (thefreedictionary.com)
- extrinsic pathway of coagulation the mechanism that produces fibrin following tissue injury, beginning with formation of an activated complex between tissue factor and factor vii and leading to activation of factor x , which induces the reactions of the common pathway of coagulation . (thefreedictionary.com)
- Among the biosynthetic reactions, mechanism for the biochemical step catalyzed by BlsE/MilG remains obscure and most intriguing. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- a prediction of various reactions in these enzymatic domains and their substrate specificities and also precise identification of the order in which these domains would catalyze various biosynthetic steps. (igi-global.com)
- Glutamine catabolism begins with its conversion to glutamate in reactions that either donate the amide nitrogen to biosynthetic pathways or release it as ammonia. (jci.org)
- pentose phosphate pathway a pathway of hexose oxidation in which glucose-6-phosphate undergoes two successive oxidations by NADP, the final forming a pentose phosphate. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Plants have two cytoplasmic pathways of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis for the reversible interconversion of fructose 6-phosphate (F-6-P) and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6,-P2). (usda.gov)
- Moreover, several metabolic and biosynthetic pathways in the pathogen were down-regulated during exposure to the plant-derived compounds. (frontiersin.org)
- Two genes, PEN2 and PEN3 , are also necessary for resistance to pathogens and are required for both callose deposition and glucosinolate activation, suggesting that the pathogen-triggered callose response is required for resistance to microbial pathogens. (sciencemag.org)
- Finding from the new study, published recently in Cell Reports (" Leucine Zipper-Bearing Kinase Is a Critical Regulator of Astrocyte Reactivity in the Adult Mammalian CNS "), shows that turning on a gene inside astrocytes results in a smaller scar and, potentially, more effective recovery from injury. (genengnews.com)
- It has been long proposed that the aflatoxin pathway genes may be clustered with a common regulator (Cleveland and Bhatnagar 1991). (progressivegardening.com)
- Though further investigation is needed, Seyedsayamdost said, the regulator, which is widespread in Burkholderia, could be a promising target in human pathogens to abolish their ability to turn on virulence pathways. (phys.org)
- The biosynthetic machineries for construction of these distinct classes of small molecules operate independently in the cell. (elifesciences.org)
- Interestingly, both β -glucuronidase reporter gene expression and in situ hybridization indicate that FUS3 represses AtGA3ox2 expression mainly in epidermal cells of embryo axis, which is distinct from AtGA3ox2 pattern at germination. (plantphysiol.org)
- manA resides outside of the previously recognized O1 antigen biosynthetic locus, and encodes for a phosphomannose isomerase critical for the initial step in O1 antigen biosynthesis. (nih.gov)
- A) Pictorial representation of the genes in the O1 antigen biosynthetic ( wbe ) locus. (nih.gov)
- Elucidation of Piericidin A1 biosynthetic locus revealed a thioesterase-dependent mechanism of α-pyridone ring formation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- These findings are particularly important for biotechnological production of this sunscreen through heterologous expression of its genes in more tractable organisms. (frontiersin.org)
- Applying a similar strategy to different organisms has the potential to uncover other pathways of biomedical relevance. (elifesciences.org)
- These differences suggest that the cobalamin biosynthetic pathways differ between the two organisms. (asm.org)
- The number of genes for each pathway that are missing in the other organisms was determined from their complete genomes. (asm.org)
- A curated database of candidate human ageing-related genes and genes associated with longevity and/or ageing in model organisms. (senescence.info)
- In this chapter, the role played by this pathway in (a)biotic stress amelioration in plants will be briefly reviewed, followed by an examination of its involvement in the conferral of nutraceutic properties to amaranth plants. (intechopen.com)
- However, a global examination of genes controlled by the clock in plants, or in any eukaryote, has been lacking. (sciencemag.org)
- Seven annotated genes are located within the 44.8 kb genomic region, of which only Bo9g058630 shows high homology to AT5G42800 (dihydroflavonol reductase), which was identified as a candidate gene for BoPr . (biomedcentral.com)
- Genomic tools can provide insights to local adaptation, population structure, genes functions, responses to environmental conditions, immune responses, and many other processes important for conservation strategies (Allendorf et al. (google.com)
- To assess whether epigenetic factors regulate the FB pathway, we monitored FB production and FUM1 , FUM21 , and FUM8 expression in the presence of a histone deacetylase inhibitor and verified by chromatin immunoprecipitation the relative degree of histone acetylation in the promoter regions of FUM1 , FUM21 , and FUM8 under FB-inducing and noninducing conditions. (asm.org)
- Expression of the genes, affected by nitrogen and carbon sources and pH, was also controlled by another transcription activator, CRG1, previously shown to regulate cercosporin production and resistance. (wiley.com)
- In the second mechanism, miRNAs bind to their mRNA targets with perfect (or nearly perfect) complementarity to induce the RNA-mediated interference pathway ( Esquela-Kerscher & Slack, 2006 ) ( Fig. 1 ). (peerj.com)
- In contrast, nonessential yeast genes, the majority of which cause minimal growth defects when disrupted, can only be screened for complementation of visible phenotypes or in conditional assays that induce measurable growth phenotypes. (genetics.org)