An enzyme that, in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes ring closure by removal of water from N-carbamoylaspartate to yield dihydro-orotic acid. EC 3.5.2.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of carbamoyl phosphate and L-aspartate to yield orthophosphate and N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.3.2.
A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.
Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and glutamine. This enzyme is important in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. EC 6.3.5.5.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.
An enzyme that in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotic acid to orotic acid utilizing oxygen as the electron acceptor. This enzyme is a flavoprotein which contains both FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE as well as iron-sulfur centers. EC 1.3.3.1.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Orotidine-5'-phosphate carboxy-lyase. Catalyzes the decarboxylation of orotidylic acid to yield uridylic acid in the final step of the pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis pathway. EC 4.1.1.23.
5'-Uridylic acid. A uracil nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
A site on an enzyme which upon binding of a modulator, causes the enzyme to undergo a conformational change that may alter its catalytic or binding properties.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
The enzyme catalyzing the formation of orotidine-5'-phosphoric acid (orotidylic acid) from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate in the course of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. EC 2.4.2.10.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Hydroxylated benzoic acid derivatives that contain mercury. Some of these are used as sulfhydryl reagents in biochemical studies.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC 6.3.4.16.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A genus of anaerobic coccoid METHANOCOCCACEAE whose organisms are motile by means of polar tufts of flagella. These methanogens are found in salt marshes, marine and estuarine sediments, and the intestinal tract of animals.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An antimitotic agent with immunosuppressive properties.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
... aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase) protein in a GTP- and effector domain-dependent manner and influences its ... RHEB is expressed by the RHEB gene in humans. Three pseudogenes have been mapped, two on chromosome 10 and one on chromosome 22 ... aspartate transcarbamoylase, dihydroorotase (CAD) GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000106615 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ... Tee AR, Manning BD, Roux PP, Cantley LC, Blenis J (Aug 2003). "Tuberous sclerosis complex gene products, Tuberin and Hamartin, ...
Dihydroorotase (DHO) and aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATC). The protein assembles into ~1.5MDa hexamers. More specifically, the ... "CAD Gene - GeneCards , PYR1 Protein , PYR1 Antibody". genecards.weizmann.ac.il. Retrieved 2020-04-27. Ben-Sahra, I; Howell, JJ ... CAD protein (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase) is a trifunctional multi-domain ... The ATC then takes the newly made carbamoyl phosphate and forms carbamoyl aspartate by reacting with aspartate. DHO then takes ...
Molecular and Kinetic Characterization of the Aspartate Transcarbamoylase Dihydroorotase Complex in Pseudomonas putida ... The expected regulatory gene was not found. It is shown that the P. putida pyrB gene is overlapped by pyrC by 4 bp. The P. ... and that the gene encoding pyrB is overlapped by the pyrC gene which encodes DHOase. It is also shown that the pyrBC encoded ... Both of these genes complement E. coli mutants with their respective genotypes. Another finding borne out from the sequence is ...
Orotate is important because it interacts with PyrR in repressing the pyr genes. Chapter IV describes PyrR, the positive ... pyrC encodes an inactive dihydroorotase with pyrB and pyrC overlapping by 4 bp. Chapter III explores how catabolite ... Chapter II details the enzymology of Pseudomonas aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase), its allosteric regulation and how it is ... pyrE and pyrF genes. When pyrimidine nucleotides are in excess, the PyrR apoprotein binds to orotate, its co-repressor, to shut ...
... as it was accompanied by the tagging of the CPS gene with the genes for dihydroorotase and aspartate transcarbamoylase, and as ... encoding in addition dihydroorotase and aspartate transcarbamoylase. Evidence is presented to strengthen the hypothesis that ... Evolutionary relationships of the carbamoylphosphate synthetase genes J Mol Evol. 1995 Dec;41(6):813-32. doi: 10.1007/ ... A further duplication of the entire CPS gene occurred after the divergence of the plants and before the divergence of the fungi ...
... aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase) protein in a GTP- and effector domain-dependent manner and influences its ... RHEB is expressed by the RHEB gene in humans. Three pseudogenes have been mapped, two on chromosome 10 and one on chromosome 22 ... aspartate transcarbamoylase, dihydroorotase (CAD) GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000106615 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ... Tee AR, Manning BD, Roux PP, Cantley LC, Blenis J (Aug 2003). "Tuberous sclerosis complex gene products, Tuberin and Hamartin, ...
CPSase II occurs as part of a multi-enzyme complex along with aspartate transcarbamoylase and dihydroorotase; this complex is ... cyclicAMP and glucocorticoid responsiveness of the rat carbamoylphosphate synthetase gene requires the interplay of upstream ... and is composed of a single polypeptide that may have arisen from gene fusion of the glutaminase and synthetase domains [PMID: ...
Reversible dissociation of a carbamoyl phosphate synthase-aspartate transcarbamoylase-dihydroorotase complex from ovarian eggs ... wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary ... Reversible dissociation of a carbamoyl phosphate synthase-aspartate transcarbamoylase-dihydroorotase complex from ovarian eggs ... The Rana catesbeiana rcr gene encoding a cytotoxic ribonuclease. Tissue distribution, cloning, purification, cytotoxicity, and ...
OMIM: CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE SYNTHETASE/ASPARTATE TRANSCARBAMOYLASE/DIHYDROOROTASE. *OMIM: EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY, EARLY ... CAD gene. carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase. Enable Javascript to view the ... aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase. This protein is regulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) ... From NCBI Gene:. The de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides is required for mammalian cells to proliferate. This gene ...
... the protein-coding gene CAD (carbamoyl phosphate synthetase-aspartate transcarbamoylase-dihydroorotase) and 28S ribosomal DNA. ... analyses were completed with both genes and of each independent gene. In addition, we conducted a MP AND BI total evidence ... Each gene was treated as a separate partition; however when 3rd positions were included, each codon position of CAD was treated ... Modeltest for each gene independently [30]. Using Mr.Bayes [31] [32], analyses were conducted for 20,000,000 generations, trees ...
Consequently, a network of 18 metabolites, 28 metabolic genes and 1 signaling gene was obtained, which indicated expression ... KEGG, HMDB and HPA were used to reconstruct a network of relevant pathways, demonstrating the relationships between genes and ... dysregulation through the reconstruction of a network that integrates information from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and ... profiles and prognostic information of each gene in the network.Conclusion: Information from different databases was collated ...
... aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase. This protein is regulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) ... This gene encodes a trifunctional protein which is associated with the enzymatic activities of the first 3 enzymes in the 6- ... Protein Aliases: Aspartate carbamoyltransferase; CAD protein; CAD trifunctional protein; Dihydroorotase; Glutamine-dependent ... dihydroorotase activity protein kinase activity ATP binding zinc ion binding enzyme binding identical protein binding aspartate ...
CAD encodes the multifunctional enzyme carbamoylphosphate synthetase/aspartate transcarbamoylase/dihydroorotase which is ... 2005). HvJNK, a Hydra member of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase gene family, is expressed during nematocyte differentiation. Gene ... the myc2 gene is positioned directly downstream of the putative CAD gene (Hartl et al., 2010), encoding a multifunctional ... 1. Expression of the Hydra myc2, CAD, and myc1 genes. (A) Expression patterns of myc2, CAD, and myc1 visualized by in situ ...
Homotropic effects in aspartate transcarbamoylase. What happens when the enzyme binds a single molecule of the bisubstrate ... Dihydroorotase, the third enzymatic activity of the pyrimidine pathway, is encoded in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a single gene ... T-state inhibitors of E. coli aspartate transcarbamoylase that prevent the allosteric transition. Heng, S., Stieglitz, K.A., ... Dihydroorotase (DHOase) catalyzes the reversible cyclization of N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate (L-CA) to L-5,6-dihydroorotate (L-DHO ...
The genes and enzymes of pyrimidine biosynthesis have not been extensively investigated in other grampositive species. A brief ... General properties of each of the enzymes have also been determined in studies with crude extracts, but only aspartate ... General properties of the enzymes and genes encoding them are summarized. Further detail, with emphasis on the properties that ... The primary structures of all of the enzymes of de novo UMP biosynthesis from Bacillus subtilis are known because the genes ...
... dihydroorotase (DHO) and aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATC). In contrast, in bacteria, archaeans and plants, GLN, CPS, DHO and ... Gene 79 (1): 59-70.. Swyryd EA, Seaver SS and Stark GR (1974) N‐(phosphonacetyl)‐L‐aspartate, a potent transition state analog ... dihydroorotase (DHO) and aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATC)] that oligomerises into 1.5‐megaDa hexamers. ... aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATC); (3) dihydroorotase (DHO); (4) dihydroorotate dehydrogenase; (5) orotate ...
CAD dihydroorotase and aspartate transcarbamoylase domains self-assembles into dimers and trimers. ... This gene encodes a trifunctional protein which is associated with the enzymatic activities of the first 3 enzymes in the 6- ... aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase. This protein is regulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) ... and dihydroorotase (CAD) anticorps * carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase (Cad) ...
Aspartate transcarbamoylase genes of Pseudomonas putida: requirement for an inactive dihydroorotase for assembly into the ... aspartate transcarbamoylase. Evidence for Translation. Identified using nanoflow high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) in ...
... are metabolized by the enzyme thiopurine S-methyltransferase which into ammonia and aspartate. ... aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase. The major glycine biosynthetic enzyme is the cytosolic form of SHMT. The GLS2 ... The GLUD1 gene is located on chromosome 10q Mutations in the AHCY gene are one of the inherited causes of hypermethioninemia. ... In biosynthesis serotonins the sirtuin encoded by the SIRT3 gene has been shown to deacetylate the GLS2 gene resulting in ...
... and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase-aspartate transcarbamoylase-dihydroorotase (cad) (13) necessary for nucleotide/DNA synthesis ... and genes for extracellular matrix protein (9). A number of these genes are also found in a far more global display using ... Many of these genes are involved in regulation of cell metabolism and cell growth. Furthermore genes very important to ... Among the determined genes are cdk4 (8) p21 (9) and cyclin D2 (10) for cell routine activation dehydrofolate reductase (dhfr) ( ...
Aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase). Aspartate transcarbamoylases (ATCases) in the trypanosomatids display a variety of ... Although Trypanosoma brucei exhibited a loss of synteny at the dihydroorotase (DHOase) locus [8], a similar clustering of genes ... This fact is exemplified in the case of aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) enzymes from T. cruzi and L. donovani as PALA, a ... Nara T, Hirayama-Noguchi Y, Gao G, Murai E, Annoura T, Aoki T. Diversity of aspartate carbamoyltransferase genes of Trypanosoma ...
... aspartate transcarbamoylase (EC 2.1.3.2), and dihydroorotase (EC 3.5.2.3), and are common to all species.. In the first step, ... encoded by a gene derived from a gene fusion event occurred at least 100 million years ago. The multifunctional enzyme, known ... carbamoyl phosphate reacts with aspartate to form N-carbamoyl aspartate. Finally, dihydroorotase, catalyzing the removal of H2O ... In the second step, which is the committed step of the metabolic pathway and is catalyzed by aspartate transcarbamoylase, ...
Dihydroorotase (DHO) and aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATC). The protein assembles into ~1.5MDa hexamers. More specifically, the ... "CAD Gene - GeneCards , PYR1 Protein , PYR1 Antibody". genecards.weizmann.ac.il. Retrieved 2020-04-27. Ben-Sahra, I; Howell, JJ ... CAD protein (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase) is a trifunctional multi-domain ... The ATC then takes the newly made carbamoyl phosphate and forms carbamoyl aspartate by reacting with aspartate. DHO then takes ...
... aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATC), and dihydroorotase (DHO), respectively. In eukaryotes, these enzymes are structurally ... From an evolutionary viewpoint, the formation of a functional tri-enzyme complex may have preceded-and led to-gene fusion to ... n-(Phosphonacetyl)-l-aspartate, a rationally-designed transition-state analog of the reaction catalyzed by l-aspartate ... The synthesis of the pyrimidines CTP and UTP occurs in the cytoplasm and starts from the condensation of aspartate with ...
PRPS1/2, phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthase 1/2; CAD, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II/aspartate transcarbamoylase/dihydro- ... 2008) SLC28 genes and concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) proteins. Xenobiotica 38:972-994. ... In fact, splicing isoforms of the SLC29A1 gene could affect both protein immunodetection and/or subcellular localization in ... 2009) A splice variant of the SLC28A3 gene encodes a novel human concentrative nucleoside transporter-3 (hCNT3) protein ...
... and aspartate transcarbamoylase (carbamoyl-phosphate: L-aspartate carbamoyltransferase, EC 2.1.3.2) activities. We sequenced ... Although these families may have arisen by convergent evolution, we favor a model involving DHOase gene duplication and ... Thus, the order of domains within the polypeptide is NH2-carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase-DHO-aspartate transcarbamoylase-COOH. ... Escherichia coli transformed with a recombinant plasmid containing the cDNA segment 5 to the aspartate transcarbamoylase ...
Purcarea C, Ahuja A, Lu T, Kovari L, Guy HI, Evans DR (2003) Aquifex aeolicus aspartate transcarbamoylase, an enzyme ... Davis RH, Woodward VW (1962) The relationship between gene suppression and aspartate transcarbamylase activity in pyr-3 mutants ... aspartate transcarbamylase with pyrB encoded catalytic and pyrI encoded regulatory subunit), pyrC (dihydroorotase), pyrD ( ... Lipscomb WN, Kantrowitz ER (2012) Structure and mechanisms of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase. Acc Chem Res 45:444 ...
We have predicted a link between COG0523 and regulation by zinc in Archaea and show that two COG0523 genes are induced upon ... to play a predominant role in the response to zinc limitation based on the presence of the corresponding COG0523-encoding genes ... Even though the first COG0523-encoding gene, cobW, was identified almost 20 years ago, little is known concerning the function ... Aspartate transcarbamoylase genes of Pseudomonas putida: requirement for an inactive dihydroorotase for assembly into the ...
R Transition in Escherichia coli Aspartate Transcarbamoylase: EQUILIBRIUM EXCHANGES AND KINETIC ISOTOPE EFFECTS WITH A Vmax - ... Environmental factors, not genes constitute most disease risk. Myriad approaches are attempting to use the latest science and ... Activation of Latent Dihydroorotase from Aquifex aeolicus by Pressure. *. Transition state structure of arginine kinase: ... Three-dimensional structure of carbamoyl phosphate and succinate bound to aspartate carbamoyltransferase. J E Gouaux and W N ...
Gene families across yeast were constructed for each member of the pathway and the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous ... in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to relate pathway function to selective pressures on individual protein-encoding genes. ... and aspartate transcarbamylase (ATCase, URA2), dihydroorotase (DHOase, URA4), dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH, URA1), ... cerevisiae carbamoyl phosphate synthetase produces and channels carbamoyl phosphate to the fused aspartate transcarbamoylase ...
Characterization and assembly of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa aspartate transcarbamoylase-pseudo dihydroorotase complex. ... regulating enterobacterial genome organization and genes transcription. The molecular mechanism underlying the switching ... The aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) of this organism is a dodecamer comprised of six 37 kDa catalytic chains and six 45 ... whereas AatJ recognized aspartate and glutamate. The majority of experimentally identified ligands were found to be ...
Binding of bisubstrate analog promotes large structural changes in the unregulated catalytic trimer of aspartate ... transcarbamoylase: implications for allosteric regulation induced cell migration. ... The predicted protein binding site of aspartate transcarbamoylase (1ekx) is overlapped with the PAL ligand binding site, rather ... The mononuclear metal center of type-I dihydroorotase from Aquifex aeolicus. (2013) BMC Biochem 14 ...
  • Mammalian DHOase (S-dihydroorotate amidohydrolase, EC 3.5.2.3) is part of a large multifunctional protein called CAD, which also has a carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase [carbon-dioxide: L-glutamine amido-ligase (ADP-forming, carbamate-phosphorylating), EC 6.3.5.5] and aspartate transcarbamoylase (carbamoyl-phosphate: L-aspartate carbamoyltransferase, EC 2.1.3.2) activities. (pnas.org)
  • The three-dimensional structure of the ternary complex of carbamoyl phosphate, succinate, and aspartate carbamoyltransferase (EC 2.1.3.2) has been determined to 2.6-A resolution. (pnas.org)
  • The CPS dedicated to pyrimidine synthesis is part of a multifunctional enzyme (CPS II), encoding in addition dihydroorotase and aspartate transcarbamoylase. (nih.gov)
  • For example, RHEB is an activator for nucleotide synthesis by binding carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase (CAD), an enzyme required for de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reaction catalyzed by glutaminase Asparaginase see above is also 6-mercaptopurine, are metabolized by the enzyme thiopurine S-methyltransferase which into ammonia and aspartate. (smallsociety.me)
  • In many cancer cells expression of the IDH2 gene is enhanced and, like the cytosolic IDH1 encoded enzyme, can carry out the reverse TCA cycle reaction, converting 2-oxoglutarate to isocitrate. (smallsociety.me)
  • CAD protein (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase) is a trifunctional multi-domain enzyme involved in the first three steps of pyrimidine biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a polypeptide made up of four different domains which make for a multi enzyme unit: Glutaminase (GLN), carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS II), Dihydroorotase (DHO) and aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATC). (wikipedia.org)
  • From an evolutionary viewpoint, the formation of a functional tri-enzyme complex may have preceded-and led to-gene fusion to produce the CAD protein. (agilesolutionsgroup.com)
  • Gene families across yeast were constructed for each member of the pathway and the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rates (dN/dS) was estimated for each enzyme from S. cerevisiae and closely related species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • the reaction catalysed by the enzyme aspartate transcarbamoylase. (agentura-kusta.cz)
  • Mechanistically, rapamycin inactivates carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase (CAD), the essential enzyme for the first three steps of de novo pyrimidine synthesis, and deteriorates CHIR-124-induced replicative stress. (biomed.news)
  • Enzyme families are grouping all homologous gene products descending from a common ancestor by speciation and/or gene duplication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Contrary to the classical model proposed by Ohno [ 5 ], it is anticipated that innovation (enzyme promiscuity) preceded gene duplication and functional divergence of the paralogous copies by descent with modification [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chapter II details the enzymology of Pseudomonas aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase), its allosteric regulation and how it is assembled. (unt.edu)
  • In the first committed step of pyrimidine biosynthesis, CP and aspartate are condensed into carbamoylaspartate, a reaction catalyzed by aspartate transcarbamylase (ATCase) (Lipscomb and Kantrowitz 2012 ), a paralog of OTCase (Labedan et al. (springer.com)
  • CPSase III is closely related to CPSase I, and is composed of a single polypeptide that may have arisen from gene fusion of the glutaminase and synthetase domains [ PMID: 7932737 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This gene encodes a trifunctional protein which is associated with the enzymatic activities of the first 3 enzymes in the 6-step pathway of pyrimidine biosynthesis: carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CPS II), aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase. (nih.gov)
  • This study aimed to explore the potential metabolic impact of Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthase I ( CPS1 ) and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase/aspartate transcarbamoylase/dihydroorotase (CAD) dysregulation through the reconstruction of a network that integrates information from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) and Human Protein Atlas (HPA). (dovepress.com)
  • In animals, the de novo pathway is initiated and controlled by CAD, a ∼240‐kDa multifunctional protein with four different enzymatic domains: glutaminase (GLN), carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS), dihydroorotase (DHO) and aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATC). (els.net)
  • CAD is a 243‐kDa polypeptide with four enzymatic domains [glutaminase (GLN), carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS), dihydroorotase (DHO) and aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATC)] that oligomerises into 1.5‐megaDa hexamers. (els.net)
  • Chez www.anticorps-enligne.fr sont 119 Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthetase 2, Aspartate Transcarbamylase, and Dihydroorotase (CAD) Anticorps de 23 de différents fournisseurs disponibles. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • De plus, nous expédions Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthetase 2, Aspartate Transcarbamylase, and Dihydroorotase Kits (6) et beaucoup plus de produits pour cette protéine. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • Un total de 138 Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthetase 2, Aspartate Transcarbamylase, and Dihydroorotase produits sont actuellement listés. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • Among the determined genes are cdk4 (8) p21 (9) and cyclin D2 (10) for cell routine activation dehydrofolate reductase (dhfr) (11) ornithine decarboxylase (odc) (12) and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase-aspartate transcarbamoylase-dihydroorotase (cad) (13) necessary for nucleotide/DNA synthesis the inititaion element eIF4E for translational control (14 15 eIF5A for nuclear export (9) nucleolin for nucleolus function (16) and genes for extracellular matrix protein (9). (hr010.net)
  • N2 - The first 3 reaction steps of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway are catalyzed by carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase II (CPSII), aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATC), and dihydroorotase (DHO), respectively. (agilesolutionsgroup.com)
  • Thus, the order of domains within the polypeptide is NH2-carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase-DHO-aspartate transcarbamoylase-COOH. (pnas.org)
  • Although Trypanosoma brucei exhibited a loss of synteny at the dihydroorotase ( DHOase ) locus [ 8 ], a similar clustering of genes was not observed in the case of uracil phosphoribosyltransferase ( UPRT ) gene and other genes coding for the interconversion enzymes of the pyrimidine pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Escherichia coli transformed with a recombinant plasmid containing the cDNA segment 5' to the aspartate transcarbamoylase coding region expressed a polypeptide recognized by DHOase domain-specific antibodies. (pnas.org)
  • Although these families may have arisen by convergent evolution, we favor a model involving DHOase gene duplication and insertion into an ancestral bifunctional locus. (pnas.org)
  • General properties of each of the enzymes have also been determined in studies with crude extracts, but only aspartate transcarbamylase has been purified to homogeneity and characterized in detail. (asmscience.org)
  • The ATC then takes the newly made carbamoyl phosphate and forms carbamoyl aspartate by reacting with aspartate. (wikipedia.org)
  • DHO then takes carbamoyl aspartate and converts it to dihydroorotate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspartate transcarbamoylase genes of Pseudomonas putida: requirement for an inactive dihydroorotase for assembly into the dodecameric holoenzyme. (pseudomonas.com)
  • Aspartate transcarbamoylase is one of the first enzymes in which allosteric regulation was described. (agentura-kusta.cz)
  • We hypothesize that this duplication arose from a need for metabolic channeling for pyrimidine biosynthesis as it was accompanied by the tagging of the CPS gene with the genes for dihydroorotase and aspartate transcarbamoylase, and as the duplication occurred independently also in gram-positive bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • The primary structures of all of the enzymes of de novo UMP biosynthesis from Bacillus subtilis are known because the genes encoding them have been sequenced. (asmscience.org)
  • The genes and enzymes of pyrimidine biosynthesis have not been extensively investigated in other grampositive species. (asmscience.org)
  • In biosynthesis serotonins the sirtuin encoded by the SIRT3 gene has been shown to deacetylate the GLS2 gene resulting in increased expression acid conditions of caloric restriction. (smallsociety.me)
  • The clustering of genes encoding the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis enzymes in the trypanosomes was first noted by Aoki et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 7 ]. The genes coding for all the six enzymes of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway in the T. cruzi genome are arranged in the following order: pyr1-pyr3-pyr6/5-pyr2(ATC)-pyr4, thus reflecting the syntenic arrangement of de novo pyrimidine pathway genes in the trypanosomatids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • AB - The inhibitory activities of two oncolytic amino acid analogs, acivicin and n-(phosphonacetyl)-l-aspartate, on pyrimidine biosynthesis have been examined in a murine tumor line, the Lewis lung carcinoma. (agilesolutionsgroup.com)
  • Here, we built a kinetic model for de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to relate pathway function to selective pressures on individual protein-encoding genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many of these genes are involved in regulation of cell metabolism and cell growth. (hr010.net)
  • Multifunctional enzymes offer advantages with regard to the regulation of their synthesis, too: being encoded by a single gene, it is possible to coordinate the synthesis of all the enzymatic activities. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • We have predicted a link between COG0523 and regulation by zinc in Archaea and show that two COG0523 genes are induced upon zinc depletion in a eukaryotic reference organism, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The study of the mechanisms has revealed unexpected moonlighting gene regulatory activities of enzymes and functional links between mechanisms as diverse as gene regulation and site-specific DNA recombination. (springer.com)
  • pyrC' encodes an inactive dihydroorotase with pyrB and pyrC' overlapping by 4 bp. (unt.edu)
  • Myc/Max heterodimers bind DNA at the E-box sequence motif CACGTG and related sequences thereby modulating the transcriptional activity of genes (1 3 The detailed mechanisms of how Myc can activate or repress gene activity are not yet understood (4-6). (hr010.net)
  • This syntenic arrangement of the pathway genes represents an early evolution and common ancestry of trypanosomatids, as many genes of the same pathway are usually found to be clustered in the trypanosomatids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • General properties of the enzymes and genes encoding them are summarized. (asmscience.org)
  • Gene designations and commonly used abbreviations for the individual enzymes are shown. (asmscience.org)
  • Transcription initiation is modulated by an interplay of several allosteric DNA-binding transcription factors using effector molecules from three different pathways (arginine, pyrimidines, purines), nucleoid-associated factors (NAPs), trigger enzymes (enzymes with a second unlinked gene regulatory function), DNA remodeling (bending and wrapping), UTP-dependent reiterative transcription initiation, and stringent control by the alarmone ppGpp. (springer.com)
  • The Km of CAD for dihydroorotate is 28μM, and for N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate, it is 241μM. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous screens in mouse and human fibroblasts expressing a fusion protein of Myc and the hormone binding domain of the estrogen receptor have identified a number of Myc target genes (reviewed in 7). (hr010.net)
  • We have used two techniques to identify potential Myc target genes in P493-6 cells. (hr010.net)
  • KEGG, HMDB and HPA were used to reconstruct a network of relevant pathways, demonstrating the relationships between genes and metabolites using the MetaboSignal package in R. The network was filtered to exclude any duplicates, and those greater than three steps away from CPS1 or CAD . (dovepress.com)
  • Consequently, a network of 18 metabolites, 28 metabolic genes and 1 signaling gene was obtained, which indicated expression profiles and prognostic information of each gene in the network. (dovepress.com)
  • This study paves the way for further research by acting as a template to investigate the relationships between genes and metabolites, explore their potential roles in various diseases and aid the development of new screening and treatment methods through network reconstruction. (dovepress.com)
  • Evidence is presented to strengthen the hypothesis that the two "kinase" subdomains of all CPS isozymes arose from a duplication of an ancestral gene in the progenote. (nih.gov)
  • The first reaction is the conjugation of carbamoyl phosphate and aspartate to make N‐carbamoylaspartate. (angusmcfergus.com)
  • The identification of an additional myc gene in Cnidaria, a phylum that diverged prior to bilaterians, with characteristic expression patterns in tissue homeostasis and developmental processes suggests that principle functions of myc genes have arisen very early in metazoan evolution. (biologists.org)
  • It seems likely they have arisen by gene fusion events, and represent, like the multienzyme complexes , a product of evolution to maximize the catalytic efficiency , providing advantages that you wouldn't have if such enzymatic activities were present on distinct proteins dissolved in the cytosol. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • A further duplication of the entire CPS gene occurred after the divergence of the plants and before the divergence of the fungi from the eukaryotic root, generating the two isoenzymes involved in either the synthesis of arginine or that of pyrimidines. (nih.gov)
  • Based on the endosymbiotic theory, one of the key events that occurred during mitochondrial evolution was an extensive loss of nonessential genes from the protomitochondrial endosymbiont genome and transfer of some of the essential endosymbiont genes to the host nucleus. (usda.gov)
  • This molecule is a precursor of a pyrimidine ring, and this process shows the CAD protein's function in pyrimidine synthesis through carbamoyl-phosphate synthase and dihydroorotase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The synthesis of the pyrimidines CTP and UTP occurs in the cytoplasm and starts from the condensation of aspartate with carbamoyl-phosphate to form orotic acid. (agilesolutionsgroup.com)
  • Zinc (+2) is needed for dihydroorotase activity, and thus three Zn+2 molecules bind to each subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another, larger subgroup, is suggested to play a predominant role in the response to zinc limitation based on the presence of the corresponding COG0523-encoding genes downstream from putative Zur binding sites in many bacterial genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As with other positive activator proteins, when pyrimidine nucleotides are depleted, PyrR binds to DNA thereby enhancing expression of pyrD, pyrE and pyrF genes. (unt.edu)
  • Tuberous sclerosis is an autosomal dominant disease in which the genes required to express the tumor-suppressant proteins that form the TSC complex is mutated or missing, so the TSC complex is unable to function properly. (wikipedia.org)
  • In using this measure (or other measures of selection) to predict functional shifts, one is making the assumption that each protein-coding gene functions independently. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A novel mutation (del 1711 G) in the TBG gene as a cause of complete TBG deficiency. (termsreign.cf)
  • The GLUD1 gene is located on chromosome 10q Mutations in the AHCY gene are one of the inherited causes of hypermethioninemia. (smallsociety.me)
  • Congenital disorder of glycosylation, Type Iz is a rare disease caused by mutations in the CAD gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAD dihydroorotase and aspartate transcarbamoylase domains self-assembles into dimers and trimers. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • Even though the first COG0523-encoding gene, cobW , was identified almost 20 years ago, little is known concerning the function of other members belonging to this ubiquitous family. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A number of these genes are also found in a far more global display using oligonucleotide microarrays for human being fibroblasts (9). (hr010.net)
  • The solution was hybridized for 16 h at 40°C to the oligonucleotide array Hu6800 (Affymetrix) which contains oligonucleotides representing 6800 different human genes. (hr010.net)
  • Charge neutralization in the active site of the catalytic trimer of aspartate transcarbamoylase promotes diverse structural changes. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • Immunoprecipitation of Hydra chromatin revealed that both Myc1 and Myc2 bind to the enhancer region of CAD , a classical Myc target gene in mammals. (biologists.org)
  • Detection of the CAD-ALK gene fusion in urine tr-DNA anticipated radiological confirmation of disease progression. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • How are genetic conditions and genes named? (nih.gov)