Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Integrons: DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Chloramphenicol Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Kanamycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Acinetobacter baumannii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Spectinomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces spectabilis. It is active against gram-negative bacteria and used for the treatment of gonorrhea.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Kanamycin Kinase: A class of enzymes that inactivate aminocyclitol-aminoglycoside antibiotics (AMINOGLYCOSIDES) by regiospecific PHOSPHORYLATION of the 3' and/or 5' hydroxyl.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Oxytetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog isolated from the actinomycete STREPTOMYCES rimosus and used in a wide variety of clinical conditions.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Chlortetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE with a 7-chloro substitution.Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Neomycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Interspersed Repetitive Sequences: Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Trimethoprim: A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Acinetobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.DNA Gyrase: A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Nitrofurantoin: A urinary anti-infective agent effective against most gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Although sulfonamides and antibiotics are usually the agents of choice for urinary tract infections, nitrofurantoin is widely used for prophylaxis and long-term suppression.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Tetracyclines: Closely congeneric derivatives of the polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide. (Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1117)Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Clarithromycin: A semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic derived from ERYTHROMYCIN that is active against a variety of microorganisms. It can inhibit PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in BACTERIA by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits. This inhibits the translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and prevents peptide chain elongation.Carbapenems: A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Trimethoprim Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TRIMETHOPRIM.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Multilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Cephalosporin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.Salmonella enterica: A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary: Substances capable of killing agents causing urinary tract infections or of preventing them from spreading.Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Enterococcus faecium: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lincomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Genes, MDR: Genes for MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that confer resistance to toxic compounds. Several superfamilies of these multidrug export proteins are known and found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests: A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Nalidixic Acid: A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination: This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Azithromycin: A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Tobramycin: An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.Genomic Islands: Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Thienamycins: Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Ceftazidime: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.Carbenicillin: Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.Fosfomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fradiae.Virginiamycin: A cyclic polypeptide antibiotic complex from Streptomyces virginiae, S. loidensis, S. mitakaensis, S. pristina-spiralis, S. ostreogriseus, and others. It consists of 2 major components, VIRGINIAMYCIN FACTOR M1 and virginiamycin Factor S1. It is used to treat infections with gram-positive organisms and as a growth promoter in cattle, swine, and poultry.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Amikacin: A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.Polymyxins: Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: A species of STENOTROPHOMONAS, formerly called Xanthomonas maltophilia, which reduces nitrate. It is a cause of hospital-acquired ocular and lung infections, especially in those patients with cystic fibrosis and those who are immunosuppressed.Shigella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Salicylates: The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.Dysentery, Bacillary: DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).Fusidic Acid: An antibiotic isolated from the fermentation broth of Fusidium coccineum. (From Merck Index, 11th ed). It acts by inhibiting translocation during protein synthesis.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Methicillin: One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE but susceptible to a penicillin-binding protein. It is inactivated by gastric acid so administered by injection.Imipenem: Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.Norfloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone (FLUOROQUINOLONES) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA GYRASE.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Coagulase: Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.
This complete set of antibiotic resistance genes is composed of four different types of genes: Resistance genes found on ... Precursor genes. These genes do not confer antibiotic resistance. However they encode proteins that confer to some kind of ... The genes which code for these resistances are a strong source for the pathogenic bacteria. Cryptic resistance genes. These ... Resistance genes found on antibiotic producers. The microorganisms such as soil-dwelling bacteria and fungi that naturally ...
Bacterial artificial chromosome
A selectable marker for antibiotic resistance; some BACs also have lacZ at the cloning site for blue/white selection. T7 & Sp6 ... BACs can also be utilized to detect genes or large sequences of interest and then used to map them onto the human chromosome ... BACs have been useful in this field as complex genes may have several regulatory sequences upstream of the encoding sequence, ... F-plasmids play a crucial role because they contain partition genes that promote the even distribution of plasmids after ...
Normally the genes encoding resistance to antibiotics such as ampicillin, chloroamphenicol, tetracycline or kanamycin, etc., ... Selectable markers are often antibiotic resistance genes; bacteria that have been subjected to a procedure to introduce foreign ... Neo gene from Tn5, which confers resistance to kanamycin in bacteria and geneticin in eukaryotic cells Mutant FabI gene (mFabI ... An example would be antibiotic resistance, which allows the host organism to survive antibiotic selection. Negative or ...
Barry G. Hall (July 2004). "Predicting the evolution of antibiotic resistance genes". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2 (5): 430- ... tra-region (transfer genes): Genes coding the F-Pilus and DNA transfer process. IS (Insertion Elements): so-called "selfish ... "A Toolkit and Robust Pipeline for the Generation of Fosmid-Based Reporter Genes in C. elegans". PLoS ONE. 4 (3): e4625. doi: ... genes" (sequence fragments which can integrate copies of themselves at different locations). An example of a mapped fosmid can ...
... antibiotic resistance as an example of evolution; and gene families as examples of duplication, mutation and selection. a ... Rather than saying the bacterium gained resistance to the antibiotic, it is more correct to say that is lost sensitivity to it ... "Natural selection versus gene uniqueness". Nature. 226: 948. 1970. "The Evolution Revolution". Judaica Press. Missing or empty ... A Continuation of Spetner v. Max - discusses the B-cell hypermutation model; role of gene duplication; interpretations of the ...
Resistance to antibiotic drugs. Gene therapy: Correcting genetic diseases by direct modification of genetic ... The genes that get transferred (donor genes) depend on where the phage genome is located on the chromosome. Specialized ... Transduction with viral vectors can be used to insert or modify genes in mammalian cells. It is often used as a tool in basic ... In these cases, a plasmid is constructed in which the genes to be transferred are flanked by viral sequences that are used by ...
Pathogenic Escherichia coli
Antibiotic-resistant E. coli may also pass on the genes responsible for antibiotic resistance to other species of bacteria, ... In 2009, a gene called New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (shortened NDM-1) that even gives resistance to intravenous antibiotic ... Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem. Some of this is due to overuse of antibiotics in humans, but some of it is probably ... Salyers AA, Gupta A, Wang Y (2004). "Human intestinal bacteria as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes". Trends Microbiol ...
Beaber JW, Hochhut B, Waldor MK (2004). "SOS response promotes horizontal dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes". Nature ... 2005). "Inhibition of mutation and combating the evolution of antibiotic resistance". PLoS Biol. 3 (6): e176. doi:10.1371/ ... ciprofloxacin has also been shown to induce via the SOS response dissemination of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance ... potentially increasing the likelihood of acquisition and dissemination of antibiotic resistance by bacteria. Impaired LexA ...
One Health Model
These environmental resistomes function as an antibiotic resistance gene. There are many questions and research that needs to ... "About Antibiotic Resistance and One Health Antibiotic Stewardship". Minnesota Department of Health. 30 March 2017. Retrieved 3 ... Antibiotic resistance is becoming a serious problem in today's agriculture industry and for humans. One reason for this ... "Prevention of antibiotic resistance - Canada.ca". www.canada.ca. Retrieved 2017-04-04. "Zoonotic Diseases: Disease Transmitted ...
"Human intestinal bacteria as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes". Trends Microbiol. 12 (9): 412-416. doi:10.1016/j.tim. ... This high level of antibiotic resistance has prompted concerns that Bacteroides species may become a reservoir for resistance ... and resistance genes". The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 58 (6): 1160-1167. doi:10.1093/jac/dkl420. PMID 17046967. " ... A PCR assay To discriminate human and ruminant feces on the basis of host differences in Bacteroides-Prevotella genes encoding ...
Plasmids encode additional genes, such as antibiotic resistance genes. On the outside, flagella and pili project from the ... Cells are able to be of the same genotype but of different cell type due to the differential expression of the genes they ... the hereditary material of genes, and RNA, containing the information necessary to build various proteins such as enzymes, the ...
NAT can thus act as an antibiotic resistance gene. NTC is highly soluble in water (~ 1 g/mL) and stable in solution for 2 years ... Nourseothricin (NTC) is a member of the streptothricin-class of aminoglycoside antibiotics produced by Streptomyces species. ... Gene. 127 (1): 127-31. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(93)90627-f. PMID 8486278. NTC properties, Jena Bioscience. ... "Sequence and transcriptional analysis of the nourseothricin acetyltransferase-encoding gene nat1 from Streptomyces noursei". ...
... which are preceded by a putative regulator gene lugR. Gallagher, James (2016-07-27). "Antibiotic resistance: 'Snot wars' study ... The lugdunin genes are located on a 30-kbp operon. The genes lugA, lugB, lugC, and lugD encode four non-ribosomal peptide ... "Extended Data Figure 1: Gene cluster of lugdunin and generation of S. lugdunensis IVK28-Xyl". Nature. 535 (7613): 511-516. doi: ... Lugdunin is an investigational antibiotic, classified as a thiazolidine-containing cyclic peptide. It was isolated in 2016 ...
These genes are called Markers. A common marker is antibiotic resistance to a certain antibiotic. The cells can then be ... have not taken up the viral vector genes do not have antibiotic resistance and so cannot grow in a culture with antibiotics ... Gene therapy is a technique for correcting defective genes responsible for disease development. In the future, gene therapy may ... Gene insertion is cheaper to carry out than gene knockout. But as the silencing is sometimes non-specific and has off-target ...
Typical marker genes are for antibiotic resistance or nutrient biosynthesis. So, for example, the "marker gene" could be for ... Therefore, successfully transformed bacteria would be "selected." In this example, a gene from mammalian gene library will be ... resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin. If the bacteria that were supposed to pick up the desired plasmid had picked up the ... Restriction enzymes are used to excise the gene of interest (the insert) from the parent. The insert is purified in order to ...
"Pediatric fecal microbiota harbor diverse and novel antibiotic resistance genes". PLoS ONE. 8 (11): e78822. Bibcode:2013PLoSO ... High-level resistance is conferred by the cat-gene; this gene codes for an enzyme called chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, ... Chloramphenicol resistance may be carried on a plasmid that also codes for resistance to other drugs. One example is the ACCoT ... Some strains of E. coli, for example, show spontaneous emergence of chloramphenicol resistance. Three mechanisms of resistance ...
In prokaryotes, TE's can facilitate the horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance or other genes associated with virulence. ... Transposition facilitates the transfer and accumulation of antibiotic resistance genes. In bacteria, transposable elements can ... Evidence pointed to the transfer of a plasmid in to the bacterium, where the resistance genes were transposed in to the ... Gene. 2009 Dec 1;448(1):57-63. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2009.08.012. Epub 2009 Aug 29. PMID 19720121 Draft genome sequence of the ...
Benefits may include antibiotic resistance, xenobiotic tolerance or the ability to use new metabolites. Such beneficial ... which together are about 33 kb long and consist of about 40 genes. The tra locus includes the pilin gene and regulatory genes, ... Lujan SA, Guogas LM, Ragonese H, Matson SW, Redinbo MR (2007). "Disrupting antibiotic resistance propagation by inhibiting the ... rhizogenes contain genes that are capable of transferring to plant cells. The expression of these genes effectively transforms ...
"Spread of antibiotic-resistance gene does not spell bacterial apocalypse - yet". Trend Watch. Nature. doi:10.1038/nature. ... The plasmid-borne mcr-1 gene has been found to confer resistance to colistin. The first colistin-resistance gene in a plasmid ... Resistance to colistin in human pathogens is rare. The first colistin-resistance gene in a plasmid which can be transferred ... "New worry: Resistance to 'last antibiotic' surfaces in India". 28 December 2014. Bialvaei AZ, Samadi Kafil H (19 March 2015). " ...
link) "Newly Reported Gene, mcr-1, Threatens Last-Resort Antibiotics". Antibiotic/Antimicrobial Resistance: AR Solutions in ... The mobilized colistin resistance (mcr-1) gene confers plasmid-mediated resistance to colistin, one of a number of last-resort ... link) Reardon, Sara (21 December 2015). "Spread of antibiotic-resistance gene does not spell bacterial apocalypse - yet". ... The "mobilized colistin resistance"(mcr-1) gene confers plasmid-mediated resistance to colistin, a polymyxin and one of a ...
In addition to the modified Cry3Bb1 toxin gene MON863 contains an antibiotic resistance marker gene. Doull, J.; Gaylor, D.; ... MON863 contains an GM antibiotic resistance gene (nptII) against kanamycin and neomycin. Staff (8 August 2005) concerning the ... a marker gene for antibiotic resistance. In 2004, Monsanto sought approval in Europe to introduce MON 863. Approval was granted ... genetically modified for resistance to corn rootworm and in 2006 in food Commission of the European Communities, Official ...
It has one ampR gene (ampicillin resistance gene), and an N-terminal fragment of β-galactosidase (lacZ) gene of E. coli. The ... Vector (molecular biology) Blue white screen Antibiotic resistance pBLU Yanisch-Perron, C.; Vieira, J.; Messing, J. (1985). " ... Only the cells with the plasmid containing the ampicillin resistance (ampR) gene will survive. Furthermore, the transformed ... Insertion of foreign DNA into the MCS located within the lac Z gene causes insertional inactivation of this gene at the N- ...
Often, R-factors code for more than one antibiotic resistance factor: genes that encode resistance to unrelated antibiotics may ... although conjugation is the most common means of antibiotic resistance spread. They contain the gene called RTF (Resistance ... Resistance transfer factor (shortened as R-factor or RTF) is an old name for a plasmid that codes for antibiotic resistance. R- ... Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Microbial Threats (2010). "Workshop Overview: AMR Genes". Antibiotic Resistance: ...
Antibiotic resistance to this drug has been increasing, especially in southern China. Recently the gene mcr-1, which confers ... "Antibiotic resistance threatens the efficacy of prophylaxis". The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 15: 1368-1369. doi:10.1016/S1473- ... "Potential of old-generation antibiotics to address current need for new antibiotics". Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 6 (5): 593- ... Polymyxins are antibiotics. Polymyxins B and E (also known as colistin) are used in the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial ...
History of genetic engineering
Bevan, M. W.; Flavell, R. B.; Chilton, M. D. (1983). "A chimaeric antibiotic resistance gene as a selectable marker for plant ... Flavell and Mary-Dell Chilton by creating a chimeric gene that joined an antibiotic resistant gene to the T1 plasmid from ... plasmid at a single point and were able to insert and ligate a gene that conferred resistance to the kanamycin antibiotic into ... In 1983 an antibiotic resistant gene was inserted into tobacco, leading to the first genetically engineered plant. Advances ...
... s will also often carry one or more genes conferring antibiotic resistance. Two SINEs may act in concert to ... This was reported for a 710 bp DNA sequence upstream of the bovine beta globin gene. The DNA arrangement forms a composite ... Tn10 Zelnick CR, Burks DJ, Duncan CH (December 1987). "A composite transposon 3' to the cow fetal globin gene binds a sequence ...
"Critical decline in pneumococcal disease and antibiotic resistance in South Africa". NICD. Retrieved 20 July 2015.. ... It has a core set of 1553 genes, plus 154 genes in its virulome, which contribute to virulence and 176 genes that maintain a ... Resistance. Main article: Pneumococcal infection § Treatment. Resistant Pneumococci strains are called penicillin- ... Competence in S. pneumoniae is induced by DNA-damaging agents such as mitomycin C, fluoroquinolone antibiotics (norfloxacin, ...
... encoded by the L gene, partially uncoats the nucleocapsid and transcribes the genes into positive-strand mRNAs, which are then ... with more than 1,000 cases and insecurity continuing to being the major resistance to providing an adequate response. ... Antimalarial medications and antibiotics are often used before the diagnosis is confirmed, though there is no evidence to ... Ebolaviruses contain single-stranded, non-infectious RNA genomes. Ebolavirus genomes contain seven genes including 3'-UTR- ...
... resistance to antibiotics may develop as a result of antibiotic therapy. Several types of birth control pills help against ... These gene candidates include certain variations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1 alpha, and CYP1A1 genes, ... over oral antibiotics, in certain women due to similar efficacy at six months and a lack of associated antibiotic resistance.[ ... acnes developing antibiotic resistance. The antibiotic dapsone is effective against inflammatory acne when applied to the ...
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
The HLA genes fall in two categories (Type I and Type II). In general, mismatches of the Type-I genes (i.e. HLA-A, HLA-B, or ... This puts a patient at high risk of infections, sepsis and septic shock, despite prophylactic antibiotics. However, antiviral ... This genetic trait confers resistance to HIV infection by blocking attachment of HIV to the cell. Roughly one in 1000 people of ... as members of the same ethnic group are more likely to have matching genes, including the genes for HLA. ...
Dipicolinic acid could be responsible for the heat resistance of the spore, and calcium may aid in resistance to heat and ... These studies have contributed much to our understanding of the regulation of gene expression, transcription factors, and the ... Had it not been for antibiotic therapy many more might have been stricken. ... The heat resistance of endospores is due to a variety of factors: *Calcium dipicolinate, abundant within the endospore, may ...
Leptin resistance is described as a condition in which overweight individuals are unable to respond to the hormone's signals ... The Infectious Disease Society of America states that Lyme disease is easily treated with a few weeks of antibiotics and that ... Wormser, Gary P.; Dattwyler, Raymond J.; Shapiro, Eugene D.; Halperin, John J.; Steere, Allen C.; Klempner, Mark S.; Krause, ... Holtorf treats leptin resistance in patients with a class of medications that are typically reserved for controlling blood ...
Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome
The proposal is that the selective pressure towards resistance generated by the gram-positive antibiotics was eventually ... Asexual reproduction, horizontal gene transfer. Asexual reproduction, horizontal gene transfer. Sexual and asexual reproduction ... since most archaeal genes lack introns, although there are many introns in their transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA genes, and ... and the presence of archaea-like genes in certain bacteria, such as Thermotoga maritima, from horizontal gene transfer. The ...
He used strains of E. Coli with mutated B-lactamase, an antibiotic resistance enzyme, and assayed their activity in the ... Further DNA testing showed that the transforming sequences in the two cancer cell lines were the same, and the gene was later ... Marshall, CJ; Hall, Allan; Weiss, RA (1982). "A transforming gene present in human sarcoma cell lines". Nature. 299 (5879): 171 ... characterised as N-ras, a member of the Ras gene family. ...
Bacteria - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is how they share resistance to antibiotics from one strain to another. The complete DNA sequence is known for many ... Reproduction and gene transfer[change , change source]. A bacterium reproduces (creates more bacteria) by dividing in half and ... Bacteria do not have sexes, but they do transmit DNA by several kinds of horizontal gene transfer. ...
Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles
... regulatory genes - regulatory T cells - remission - renal - rescue therapy - resistance - retina - retinal detachment - ... antibiotic - antibodies - antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) - antibody-mediated immunity - antifungal ... GAG - gamma globulin - gamma interferon - ganglion - GART - gastrointestinal (GI) - gene - gene therapy - genetic engineering ... drug resistance - drug-drug interaction - DSMB - Duffy antigen system - dysplasia - dyspnea ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Concerns include the potential for antibiotic resistance and side effects including hearing loss, tinnitus, and changes to the ... "Genes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". The Medical Clinics of North America. 96 (4): 699-711. doi:10.1016/j.mcna. ... antibiotics improve outcomes. A number of different antibiotics may be used including amoxicillin, doxycycline and ... Long-term antibiotics, specifically those from the macrolide class such as erythromycin, reduce the frequency of exacerbations ...
ವಂಶವಾಹಿ - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
"Plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance: acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria.". British Journal ... "Further understanding human disease genes by comparing with housekeeping genes and other genes". BMC Genomics 7: 31. doi: ... "About the HGNC". HGNC Database of Human Gene Names. HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee. Retrieved 14 May 2015. ... "Proto-genes and de novo gene birth.". Nature 487 (7407): 370-4. Bibcode:2012Natur.487..370C. doi:10.1038/nature11184. PMID ...
효소 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전
Fisher JF, Meroueh SO, Mobashery S (February 2005). "Bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics: compelling opportunism, ... Genes and Disease [Internet]》. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US). 1998-2015.. ... Smith S (December 1994). "The animal fatty acid synthase: one gene, one polypeptide, seven enzymes". 》FASEB Journal》 8 (15): ...
Erinevus lehekülje "Transformatsioon (geneetika)" redaktsioonide vahel - Vikipeedia
"Nonchromosomal Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria: Genetic Transformation of Escherichia coli by R-Factor DNA". Proceedings of ... "DEVELOPMENT OF THE "GENE GUN" AT CORNELL". Retrieved 28th january 2010.].,/ref, ... rakkudes on põhjuseks, miks antud bakter taimedele kasvajaid tekitab.,ref,[Nester, Eugene. "Agrobacterium: The Natural Genetic ... growth hormone fusion genes". Nature 300 (5893): 611-5. doi:10.1038/300611a0. PMID 6958982].,/ref, Varajastel 1970. aastatel ...
Common cold - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The use of antibiotic prescriptions has implications for antibiotic resistance. An estimated 22 million to 189 million ... "Gene studies shed light on rhinovirus diversity". Lancet Infect Dis 9 (5): 278. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(09)70123-9. http://www. ... Antibiotics are often prescribed even though antibiotic side effects cause overall harm. Antibiotics are commonly ... Antibiotics and antivirals[change , change source]. Antibiotics have no effect against viral infections and thus have no effect ...
... such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to synthesize a certain metabolite. Normally, the presence of a specific gene or ... For example, if a microorganism is resistant to a certain antibiotic, such as ampicillin or tetracycline, then that antibiotic ... In such cases, the gene is termed a marker. Selective growth media for eukaryotic cells commonly contain neomycin to select ... cells that have been successfully transfected with a plasmid carrying the neomycin resistance gene as a marker. Gancyclovir is ...
A clp gene homologue belonging to the crp gene family globally regulates lytic enzyme production, antimicrobial activity, and ... Catacandins, novel anticandidal antibiotics of bacterial origin. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 38:1642-8. Nakayama, T., Y. Homma, Y. ... Induced resistance as a mechanism of biological control by Lysobacter enzymogenes strain C3. Phytopathology 93:1103-1110. ... making mutation effects of non-related genes difficult or nearly impossible to evaluate. However, strains harboring clp gene ...
Antibiotic resistance tests: bacteria in the culture on the left are sensitive to the antibiotics contained in the white, paper ... Replication between viruses is greatly varied and depends on the type of genes involved in them. Most DNA viruses assemble in ... Stewart PS; Costerton JW (July 2001). "Antibiotic resistance of bacteria in biofilms". Lancet. 358 (9276): 135-8. doi:10.1016/ ... present a serious public health concern of growing importance to the medical industry as the spread of antibiotic resistance ...
Resistance to puromycin is conferred by the pac gene encoding a puromycin N-acetyl-transferase (PAC) that was found in a ... Puromycin is an aminonucleoside antibiotic, derived from the Streptomyces alboniger bacterium, that causes premature chain ... Puromycin resistance in yeast can also be conferred through expression of the puromycin N-acetyl-transferase (pac) gene. ... Deletion of the gene encoding the multidrug efflux pump Pdr5 sensitizes cells to puromycin. ...
... each piece of RNA containing either one or two genes, which code for a gene product (protein). For example, the influenza A ... Hurt AC, Ho HT, Barr I (October 2006). "Resistance to anti-influenza drugs: adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors". Expert ... In later pandemics antibiotics were available to control secondary infections and this may have helped reduce mortality ... Lamb RA, Choppin PW (1983). "The gene structure and replication of influenza virus". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 52: 467-506. doi: ...
"Critical decline in pneumococcal disease and antibiotic resistance in South Africa". NICD. Retrieved 20 July 2015.. ... It has a core set of 1553 genes, plus 154 genes in its virulome, which contribute to virulence and 176 genes that maintain a ... Competence in S. pneumoniae is induced by DNA-damaging agents such as mitomycin C, fluoroquinolone antibiotics (norfloxacin, ... For instance, the Xisco gene was recently described as a biomarker for PCR-based detection of S. pneumoniae and differentiation ...
Chang, Gene Hsin; Wen, Guanzhong James (October 1997). "Communal Dining and the Chinese Famine of 1958-1961". Economic ... It was termed the Holodomor, suggesting that it was a deliberate campaign of repression designed to eliminate resistance to ... in addition to antibiotics, and zinc supplements. There is a special oral rehydration solution called ReSoMal ...
A 51-year career as one of the great microbe hunters of all time-he discovered the molecular nature of antibiotic resistance, ... Discoveries that revealed an unanticipated world of tiny RNAs that regulate gene function in plants and animals. ... For bold, imaginative, and diverse contributions to medical science and human rights - she discovered the BRCA1 gene locus that ... For discoveries elucidating how gene expression is influenced by chemical modification of histones-the proteins that package ...
Tuberkulóza - Wikipedie
Dalton, J. Antibiotic Resistance of Tuberculosis. The Dartmouth Undergraduate Journal of Science [online]. 2009-02-22 [cit. ... Gene Therapy. 2005, roč. 12, čís. 7, s. 634-8. DOI:10.1038/sj.gt.3302465. PMID 15690060.. ... Johnson, R., Streicher, E. M., Louw, G. E., Warren, R. M., van Helden, P. D., Victo, T. C. Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with extensive resistance to second- ...
Antibiotics are recommended if wounds are deep or individuals prolong seeking medical attention. Antibiotics that contain beta- ... only to determine its presence with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. PCR assays of species specific genes may also be beneficial. For ... It has shown resistance to gentamicin. Treatment is recommended for a minimum of three weeks. Hospitalization is required in ... Treatment with antibiotics is effective in most cases, but the most important yet basic diagnostic tool available to clinicians ...
سرطان پروستات - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
No single gene is responsible for prostate cancer; many different genes have been implicated. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, ... Antibiotics should be used to prevent complications like fever, urinary tract infections, and sepsis. Fifty-five percent of ... Seruga B, Ocana A, Tannock IF (January 2011). "Drug resistance in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer". Nature ... Other tumor suppressor genes that are thought to play a role in prostate cancer include PTEN (gene) and KAI1. "Up to 70 percent ...
... resistance gene and can explicit approximately 30% of average efficiency having successful T-DNA inserts induced gene fusions ... gene can be linked to the right end of the T-DNA to be transformed along with a plasmid replicon and a selectable antibiotic ( ... For example, this gene disruption strategy used for assigning functions to genes defined only by sequence helped to demonstrate ... In genetic engineering, the tumor-promoting and opine-synthesis genes are removed from the T-DNA and replaced with a gene of ...
"Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and erythromycin resistance mechanisms in beta-hemolytic group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae ... "Superantigen-like gene(s) in human pathogenic Streptococcus dysgalactiae, subsp equisimilis: genomic localisation of the gene ... The emm-gene encodes the M-protein, a major virulence factor in both S.pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. It is ... In a study of 216 S.pyogenes virulence genes, S.dysgalactiae was found to harbour approximately half of them. Indeed, whole- ...
Gene Sequencing Pinpoints Antibiotic Resistance Moving From Livestock to Humans | WIRED
A new study of Danish farmers and their livestock uses genetic sequencing to show that antibiotic-resistant bacterial ... Gene Sequencing Pinpoints Antibiotic Resistance Moving From Livestock to Humans. The antibiotic era was barely 20 years old ... It confers resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, including methicillin, which supplies the M in MRSA.) This was troubling, ... and had the same resistance pattern, susceptible to antibiotics that were not beta-lactams (penicillins and cephalosporins). ...
Newly Reported Gene, mcr-1, Threatens Last-Resort Antibiotics | Antibiotic/Antimicrobial Resistance | CDC
homeAntibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance (AR / AMR). *About Antibiotic Resistanceplus icon *How Antibiotic Resistance Happens ... Tracking Antibiotic Resistance in Kenya and Senegal. *CDC Core Elements to Help Resource-limited Settings Improve Antibiotic ... In November 2015, mcr -1-a gene that can make bacteria resistant to colistin, an old antibiotic that is the last-resort drug ... If colistin resistance spreads to bacteria that are already resistant to all other antibiotics, those bacteria could cause ...
DVU0921 5-nitroimidazole antibiotic resistance protein [Desulfovibrio vulgaris str. Hildenborough] - Gene - NCBI
Gene symbol DVU0921. Gene description 5-nitroimidazole antibiotic resistance protein. Locus tag. DVU0921. Gene type. protein ... DVU0921 5-nitroimidazole antibiotic resistance protein [ Desulfovibrio vulgaris str. Hildenborough ] Gene ID: 2794257, updated ... Gene neighbors Overlapping genes and two nearest non-overlapping genes on either side ... 5-nitroimidazole antibiotic resistance protein. YP_010142.1. *identified by similarity to GP:435265 ...
Soil Microbes Harbor Nasty Antibiotic Resistance Genes | Live Science
... say researchers who found antibiotic resistance genes among soil microbes. ... The microbes that dwell in soil are swapping genes for antibiotic resistance with nasty, disease-causing microbes; ... The antibiotic was cycloserine.. "The fact we are finding resistance genes that we havent seen before means there is more ... Bacteria that live in the soil seem to be swapping antibiotic-resistance genes with other, more dangerous bacteria ? the ones ...
Antibiotic-Resistance Genes Found in Cow Manure
Recent research has found antibiotic-resistant genes in five cow manure samples, which may have disturbing effects on human ... Recent research has found antibiotic-resistant genes in five cow manure samples, which may have disturbing effects on human ... Triclosan, like antibiotics, helps promote antibiotic resistance.. *Purchasing organic, antibiotic-free meats and other foods. ... Genes That Confer Antibiotic-Resistance Found in Cow Manure. Contaminated meat is not the only culprit in the food supply, ...
Researchers characterize S. aureus gene involved in virulence and antibiotic resistance
An Institut Pasteur-CNRS research team has characterized a Staphylococcus aureus gene involved in virulence, biofilm formation ... Tags: Antibiotic, Antibiotic Resistance, Electron, Electron Microscopy, Endocarditis, Gene, Hospital, Impetigo, Microscopy, ... Researchers characterize S. aureus gene involved in virulence and antibiotic resistance. *Download PDF Copy ... Antibiotic use patterns and patient transfers in hospitals may drive the emergence of drug resistance ...
Flipboard: Investigators figure out how to block new antibiotic resistance gene
... ß-lactamase gene, has been discovered in benign close relatives of … ... Investigators figure out how to block new antibiotic resistance gene. eurekalert.org ... Washington, DC - February 19, 2019 - A new antimicrobial-resistance gene, VCC-1, a ß-lactamase gene, has been discovered in ... A new antimicrobial-resistance gene, VCC-1, a ...
Researchers identify new antibiotic resistance gene in bacteria from dairy cows
This gene confers resistance to all beta-lactam antibiotics including the last generation of cephalosporins used against ... Researchers of the University of Bern have identified a new antibiotic resistance gene in bacteria from dairy cows. ... Researchers of the University of Bern have identified a new antibiotic resistance gene in bacteria from dairy cows. This gene ... caseolyticus isolates acquired a novel antibiotic resistance island which contains a new methicillin resistance gene designated ...
Diverse and abundant antibiotic resistance genes in Chinese swine farms | PNAS
... of the entire community would carry one of the other 148 resistance genes detected. Considering all antibiotic resistance genes ... The resistance genes detected in all samples were classified based on (B) the mechanism of resistance, and (C) the antibiotic ... where CT is the threshold cycle, ARG is one of the 313 antibiotic resistance gene assays, 16S is the 16S rRNA gene assay, ... 1B)-and potentially confer resistance to most major classes of antibiotics (Fig. 1C). Resistance gene profiles indicate the ...
Antibiotic resistance genes found in bacteria of remote South American tribe
Antibiotic resistance genes have been found in bacteria sampled from members of a previously uncontacted tribe of Amerindians ... to find genes resistant to synthetic antibiotics. The team was surprised to find that many of the resistance genes they found ... Antibiotic resistance genes found in bacteria of remote South American tribe. Written by Catharine Paddock, Ph.D. on April 20, ... Scientists have discovered antibiotic resistance genes in the bacteria of remote tribespeople who have had no contact with the ...
Antibiotics Resistance Gene Found in Animals, Meats, and Humans
Researchers recently discovered a new gene mutation called mcr-1 in pigs and people in China that makes bacteria resistant to ... Researchers recently discovered a new gene mutation called mcr-1 in pigs and people in China that makes bacteria resistant to ... After exposure to antibiotics, the antibiotic resistance gene load increased across the board. According to the authors:. " ... If MCR-1 becomes global, which is a case of when not if, and the gene aligns itself with other antibiotic resistance genes, ...
Introduction of antibiotic resistance gene to a bacteria | Physics Forums
Why would anyone like to intoduce a antibiotic gene in a bacteria if it will make it resistant to antibiotics which is not of ... Is it easy to combine our gene of interest to antibiotic resistance gene?How can we be so sure that our gene of interest is ... Is it easy to combine our gene of interest to antibiotic resistance gene?How can we be so sure that our gene of interest is ... resistance gene and in the next generation of host bacteria both of our gene of interest and antibiotic resistance gene is ...
Call of the wild: antibiotic resistance genes in natural environments. - PubMed - NCBI
Call of the wild: antibiotic resistance genes in natural environments.. Allen HK1, Donato J, Wang HH, Cloud-Hansen KA, Davies J ... Search: Call[Title] AND wild[Title] AND antibiotic[Title] AND resistance[Title] AND genes[Title] AND natural[Title] AND ... Call[Title] AND wild[Title] AND antibiotic[Title] AND resistance[Title] AND genes[Title] AND natural[Title] AND environments[ ... Search: Call of the wild: antibiotic resistance genes in natural envir.... *. Number of items displayed:. 5. 10. 15. 20. 50. ...
Frontiers | Acquired Antibiotic Resistance Genes: An Overview | Microbiology
... which are associated with antibiotic resistance genes, and involved in the dispersal of antimicrobial determinants between ... which are associated with antibiotic resistance genes, and involved in the dispersal of antimicrobial determinants between ... As this review is only dealing with acquired resistance, attention is paid to mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, ... As this review is only dealing with acquired resistance, attention is paid to mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, ...
Consolidating and Exploring Antibiotic Resistance Gene Data Resources | Journal of Clinical Microbiology
ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE GENE DATABASES. *ASSESSMENT OF THE PERFORMANCE OF AR GENE DATABASES USING GENE SEQUENCES, WHOLE-GENOME ... ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE GENE DATABASES. AR gene data resources are online platforms that offer AR-related reference data in ... As of the latest update, CARD includes 3,008 genes tagged specifically for antibiotic resistance and 4,120 genes with AR- ... and redundant genes and then removal of incomplete sequences, yielding 4,545 antibiotic resistance gene sequences (22). The ...
Machine Learning Identifies Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Tuberculosis-Causing Bacteria
... that cause antibiotic resistance. 33 were validated with known antibiotic resistance genes, the remaining 24 were new ... Machine Learning Identifies Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Tuberculosis-Causing Bacteria. Photo by iStock toeytoey2530 ... "Knowing which genes are conferring antibiotic resistance could change the way infectious diseases are treated in the future," ... It identified 33 known and 24 new antibiotic resistance genes in these bacteria. ...
EFSA evaluates antibiotic resistance marker genes in GM plants | European Food Safety Authority
"Use of Antibiotic Resistance Genes as Marker Genes in Genetically Modified Plants" and the Scientific Opinion of the GMO Panel ... Use of Antibiotic Resistance Genes as Marker Genes in Genetically Modified Plants" and the Scientific Opinion of the GMO Panel ... EFSA evaluates antibiotic resistance marker genes in GM plants. An EFSA statement has been published today that provides a ... "Consequences of the Opinion on the Use of Antibiotic Resistance Genes as Marker Genes in Genetically Modified Plants on ...
Supermarket produce harbors antibiotic-resistance genes
Germany have found that produce is a reservoir for transferable antibiotic resistance genes that often escape traditional ... These antibiotic resistance genes might escape cultivation-independent detection, but could still be transferred to human ... Supermarket produce harbors antibiotic-resistance genes. November 06, 2018. Washington, DC - November 6, 2018 - Researchers ... The results, which highlight the importance of the rare microbiome of produce as a source of antibiotic resistance genes, are ...
New Antibiotic Resistance Genes Found in Soil Microbes | The Scientist Magazine®
... and other gene products that confer antibiotic resistance could give clues to how it develops. ... New Antibiotic Resistance Genes Found in Soil Microbes. The discovery of peptides, enzymes, and other gene products that confer ... they identified 34 new antibiotic resistance genes.. "The particularly surprising result is the discovery of a gene that ... though its not clear if pathogens can recruit antibiotic resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer from the ...
Researchers find antibiotic resistance genes on leafy greens | Food Safety News
Researchers from a German institute have expanded knowledge about produce harboring antibiotic resistance genes that often ... Researchers find antibiotic resistance genes on leafy greens. By News Desk on November 9, 2018. ... These antibiotic resistance genes might evade cultivation-independent detection, but could still be transferred to human ... Researchers from a German institute have expanded knowledge about produce harboring antibiotic resistance genes that often ...
Gut Microbes in Healthy Kids Carry Antibiotic Resistance Genes
Friendly microbes in the intestinal tracts of healthy American children have numerous antibiotic resistance genes, according to ... the analysis identified 2,500 new antibiotic resistance genes, expanding the list of known antibiotic resistance genes by more ... regularly inventing new antibiotic synthesis genes to kill off rivals and new antibiotic resistance genes to defend themselves ... such as antibiotic resistance.. Dantas primary research interest is the ecology and evolution of antibiotic resistance. ...
Antibiotics | Free Full-Text | Bacteria from Animals as a Pool of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes
... agents in animal health and explores the role of bacteria from animals as a pool of antimicrobial resistance genes for human ... which may be zoonotic or capable to transfer these genes to human-adapted pathogens or to human gut microbiota via direct ... The intensive use of antimicrobials in animals may promote the fixation of antimicrobial resistance genes in bacteria, ... Antibiotics 2017, 6(2), 12; doi:10.3390/antibiotics6020012. Bacteria from Animals as a Pool of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes. ...
Frontiers | Sponge Microbiota Are a Reservoir of Functional Antibiotic Resistance Genes | Microbiology
... whereas on 13 inserts no resistance gene could be identified with high confidence, in which case we predicted resistance to be ... Fifteen of 37 inserts harboured resistance genes that shared ,90% amino acid identity with known gene products, ... Taken together, our results show that sponge microbiota host diverse and novel resistance genes that may be harnessed by ... Here, we applied functional metagenomics to study the presence and diversity of functional resistance genes in the sponges ...
Rank the Risk of Antibiotic Resistance Genes | Infection Control Today
The genes that are able to equip bacteria with resistance to clinically used antibiotics have been found in many different ... Scientists Make It Possible to Rank the Risk of Antibiotic Resistance Genes. The genes that are able to equip bacteria with ... The genes that are able to equip bacteria with resistance to clinically used antibiotics have been found in many different ... The exchange of genes contributes to an emerging crisis of antibiotic resistance because of many harmful pathogens, including ...
Chicken Viruses Can Spread Antibiotic Resistance Genes | The Poultry Site
The results suggest that the number of phages that can transduce antibiotic resistance genes must be far higher, since the ... transduction of antibiotic resistance via phage was assumed to be a very minor source of the spread of resistance, said ... "Our work suggests that such transfer could spread antibiotic resistance in environments such as food production units and ... purchased by researchers from retailers in Austria contained animal viruses capable of transferring antibiotic resistance genes ...
Inactivation of antibiotics and the dissemination of resistance genes | Science
Inactivation of antibiotics and the dissemination of resistance genes Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Such resistance determinants most probably were acquired by pathogenic bacteria from a pool of resistance genes in other ... microbial genera, including antibiotic-producing organisms. The resistance gene sequences were subsequently integrated by site- ... The most common mechanism of resistance in pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics of the aminoglycoside, beta-lactam (penicillins ...
These bacteria swap resistance genes, even with no antibiotics around
... we could reduce the resistance thats been naturally selected for over time. But new research finds that isnt always the case. ... We looked at if we totally remove antibiotics, will the resistance gene on these plasmids disappear? If theres an antibiotic ... We looked at something called horizontal gene transfer, the primary way that new bacteria acquire antibiotic resistance genes. ... he growing threat of antibiotic resistance has sparked calls to use antibiotics more responsibly to curb the spread of drug- ...
Precise insertion of antibiotic resistance determinants into Tn21-like transposons: nucleotide sequence of the OXA-1 beta...
The 5 flanking regions of two other genes, the trimethoprim-resistance gene from R388 and the gentamicin resistance (aadB) ... Precise insertion of antibiotic resistance determinants into Tn21-like transposons: nucleotide sequence of the OXA-1 beta- ... Precise insertion of antibiotic resistance determinants into Tn21-like transposons: nucleotide sequence of the OXA-1 beta- ... Precise insertion of antibiotic resistance determinants into Tn21-like transposons: nucleotide sequence of the OXA-1 beta- ...
Functional Screening of Antibiotic Resistance Genes from a Representative Metagenomic Library of Food Fermenting Microbiota
... ... "Antibiotic resistance determinants in the interplay between food and gut microbiota," Genes and Nutrition, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. ... K. Poole, "Resistance to β-lactam antibiotics," Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 61, no. 17, pp. 2200-2223, 2004. ... I. Moric, M. Savić, T. Ilić-Tomić et al., "rRNA Methyltransferases and their role in resistance to antibiotics," Journal of ...
313a) How Conjugation Contributes to Antibiotic Resistance of Biofilm - from an Aspect of Population Balance Model with...
Accordingly, the gene expression pattern is altered. Our. model predicts that biofilm has a pronounced effect on the induction ... drug resistance. The transfer of conjugative plasmid helps bacteria spread. antibiotic resistance. Specifically, we focus on ... 313a) How Conjugation Contributes to Antibiotic Resistance of Biofilm - from an Aspect of Population Balance Model with ... These results offer a plausible explanation of biofilm antibiotic. resistance caused by conjugation. ...
EnterococcusConclusionsVancomycinSpread of antibiotic resistanceBacterialARGsPlasmidsTetracycline resistanceHorizontal gene traResearchersConfer antibiotic resistanceInfectionsEvolution of antibiotic resistanceKnown antibiotic resistance genesBacteria resistantResistant genesMultidrug-resistantCenters for DiseasHumansKanamycinSoil bacteriaMicrobesOveruseColiConfers resistanceAbundanceMarker GenesTypes of antibioticManureFound in bacteriaClinicalMicrobial communityRRNAClasses of antibioticsStrainsAntimicrobial resistance genesPenicillinMethicillin-resistScientistsMicrobiotaTransferable antibiotic resistance genesResiduesDisease-causingSource of antibiotic resistance genesPrevalence of Antibiotic Resistance GenesAcquisition of antibiotic resistance genesWastewaterAnthropogenic antibioticGentamicin
Spread of antibiotic resistance12
- This Review explores the presence and spread of antibiotic resistance in non-agricultural, non-clinical environments and demonstrates the need for more intensive investigation on this subject. (nih.gov)
- Frequent exposure to antibiotics accelerates the spread of antibiotic resistance. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- How did you study the spread of antibiotic resistance between bacteria? (statnews.com)
- Airborne transmission of ARGs might contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance. (siasat.com)
- The spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) is critically important to human health. (asm.org)
- Persistence of viable pathogenic bacteria on touch surfaces may not only increase the risk of infection transmission but may also contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance by HGT. (asm.org)
- However, the main mechanism for the spread of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is horizontal gene transfer. (iflscience.com)
- The spread of antibiotic resistance from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) to soil, crops, and waterways is of international concern and little research has been done with regards to the genetic mobility and persistence of resistant genes. (iastate.edu)
- Jin, Min 2018-06-01 00:00:00 The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance has posed a major threat to both human health and environmental ecosystem. (deepdyve.com)
- In this work, we estimated the spread of antibiotic-resistance genes in the soil when it was fertilized with composts containing oxytetracycline (OTC) and tetracycline-resistance genes. (kpfu.ru)
- Plasmids are widely known to be involved in the spread of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. (academicsreview.org)
- Although antibiotic resistance represents a significant and growing threat to human and environmental health worldwide, the contribution of bacteriophages (phages) to the acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment has not been extensively explored. (usda.gov)
- But having that lack of definition in the middle of the animal-to-human bacterial flow permits uncertainty - which proponents of continued ag antibiotic use exploit. (wired.com)
- Using bacterial samples from human, retail meat, and food animal sources, the CDC, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) retrospectively screened nearly 55,000 bacterial isolates through the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) and collections of healthcare-associated bacteria. (cdc.gov)
- This component interacts with the WalKR system to control its activity and its absence leads to a strong decrease in virulence, biofilm formation (bacterial aggregates), and resistance to certain antibiotics. (news-medical.net)
- Our results bolster a growing body of data suggesting a link between, on one hand, decreased bacterial diversity, industrialized diets and modern antibiotics, and on the other, immunological and metabolic diseases - such as obesity , asthma , allergies and diabetes , which have dramatically increased since the 1970s. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The unrestricted use of antibiotics has resulted in rapid acquisition of antibiotic resistance (AR) and spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens. (asm.org)
- Over the years, antibiotics have vastly benefitted human and animal health in combatting bacterial infections. (asm.org)
- Through this machine learning analysis of the pan-genome-the complete set of all the genes in all the strains of a bacterial species-we can better understand the properties that make these strains different. (ucsd.edu)
- The Panels concluded that the antibiotic resistance genes nptII and aadA occur at different frequencies in different bacterial species and strains, and environments. (europa.eu)
- Recent analyses of total bacterial populations using the most advanced technologies have demonstrated that resistance genes to the antibiotics kanamycin, neomycin and streptomycin are present in all environments investigated. (europa.eu)
- A bacterial species that hunts other bacteria has attracted interest as a potential antibiotic, but exactly how this predator tracks down its prey has not been clear. (brightsurf.com)
- Researchers identified novel gene products, including peptides and enzymes, that can provide resistance to classes of antibiotics used to combat a range of bacterial infections, including those that cause strep throat and chlamydia. (the-scientist.com)
- With advanced genomic techniques, studies such as Topp's are helping researchers understand the diversity of resistance compounds in the environment, says bacterial epidemiologist Kimberly Cook of the United States Department of Agriculture. (the-scientist.com)
- Nevertheless, a functional overview of the resistance genes found in common human bacterial pathogens has been missing so far. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The researchers exploited synthetic biology to sample a large mechanistic diversity of resistance genes to investigate the impact of gene transfer on a new bacterial host. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Characterization of bacterial operons consisting of two tubulins and a kinesin-like gene by the novel Two-Step Gene Walking method," Nucleic Acids Research , vol. 35, no. 20, article e135, 2007. (hindawi.com)
- Bacterial communities of the gut retain a reservoir of antibiotic resistance (AR) genes, and antibiotic therapy thus positively selects for those microorganisms that harbor such genetic features, causing microbiota modulation. (asm.org)
- IMPORTANCE The spread of resistance to antibiotics among bacterial communities has represented a major concern since their discovery in the last century. (asm.org)
- The microbiota may regularly be exposed to a variety of antimicrobial agents, such as antibiotics, which are used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infection in human and veterinary medicine ( 3 ). (asm.org)
- In this case, we expect to find AR genes in bacterial taxa nonnative to marine environments. (asm.org)
- The researchers found that within these estuary regions around one antibiotic resistance gene existed per bacterial cell - meaning that the great majority of bacteria had at least one gene that helped them become resistant to antibiotics. (edu.au)
- The accumulation of heavy metal resistance genes and a multidrug-resistance region in an environmental bacterial isolate could indicate a reservoir of heavy metal resistance genes which may aid in the persistence of multidrug-resistance bacteria in the environment. (confex.com)
- Meanwhile, the bacterial community was complex and diverse in each sample by 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing, in addition, Morganella and Enterococcus presented a significant difference between two groups. (springer.com)
- Most of the resistant bacterial strains possessed from 4 to 7 different ARGs, conferring multidrug resistance capacity. (epfl.ch)
- Can bacterial virulence factors predict antibiotic resistant Helicobacter pylori infection? (semanticscholar.org)
- In recent decades, mounting antibiotic resistance has driven pharmaceutical companies to spend hundreds of millions of dollars developing a new generation of tetracyclines that is impervious to the two most common resistance strategies: expelling drugs from the bacterial cell before they can do harm, and fortifying vulnerable parts of the bacterial cell. (technologynetworks.com)
- Or did some combination of luck and a new technique for studying genes across entire bacterial communities lead the scientists to discover the shared resistance genes? (esciencenews.com)
- When a bacterial strain develops a new way to beat antibiotics, it can share the strategy not only with its descendants but also with other bacteria. (esciencenews.com)
- However, unlike the seven genes described in this report, the earlier genes were dissimilar to their analogs in disease-causing bacteria, implying that they had crossed between the bacterial communities a long time ago. (esciencenews.com)
- Broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotics are central in modern health care and are used to treat and prevent a wide range of bacterial infections. (biomedcentral.com)
- The predicted novel putative qnr genes in the metagenomic data support the hypothesis of a large and uncharacterized diversity within this family of resistance genes in environmental bacterial communities. (biomedcentral.com)
- Antibiotics are one of our most powerful tools for treating and preventing bacterial infections and have since their introduction vastly improved human health and drastically reduced mortality rates. (biomedcentral.com)
- The genes were found by searching large volumes of bacterial DNA and are published in the scientific journal Microbiome . (nordiclifescience.org)
- Development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a growing problem in the world. (miljodirektoratet.no)
- Associate Professor Peter Fineran , Microbiology and Immunology, is investigating the regulation of the CRISPR-Cas bacterial immune systems, which could have far-reaching implications for bacterial evolution and antibiotic resistance. (otago.ac.nz)
- The approach, developed by Udi Qimron of Tel Aviv University and his colleagues, is a modified version of phage therapy that does not require the delivery of phages to infected tissues and could help offset the pressure on bacterial populations to evolve drug resistance, according to the team. (blogspot.com)
- Unlike classic phage therapy, which uses one or more types of phages to infect and lyse specific bacterial strains, the crux of this new approach is using these specialized viruses to supply CRISPR/Cas to rid bacteria of antibiotic-resistance plasmids in the environment before the microbes are able to infect a host. (blogspot.com)
- The idea of CRISPR-based approaches is to enact sequence-specific antimicrobial activity, placing selective pressure against genes that are bad rather than conserved bacterial targets. (blogspot.com)
- Qimron's team will next try to apply this CRISPR/phage system on Pseudomonas aeruginosa - one of the world's most prevalent antibiotic-resistant pathogens that cause hospital-acquired infections-and test whether bacterial sensitization works in a more complex microbial environment-the mouse cage. (blogspot.com)
- Plasmids are genetic elements that play a role in bacterial evolution by providing new genes that promote adaptation to diverse conditions. (usda.gov)
- Bacterial resistance, however, is a serious threat we have always known about yet little action has been taken. (thenakedscientists.com)
- The genes that code for the β-lactamase can even be transferred to neighbouring bacterial cells, as the code exists on plasmids, small pieces of DNA molecule that can be exchanged with other bacteria 6 . (thenakedscientists.com)
- When your child has a bacterial infection, you take her to the doctor, get a prescription for an antibiotic, and, in most cases, all is soon well. (drugs.com)
- But while antibiotics work for most patients with a bacterial infection, they may not for all infections. (drugs.com)
- Public health agencies around the world are dealing with the growing challenge of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, which can make these medications ineffective. (drugs.com)
- Gentamicin is an antibiotic used to treat certain serious bacterial infections. (drugs.com)
- These genes are embedded in the bacterial chromosome but do not obviously confer resistance, because their level of expression is usually low or they are not expressed. (wikipedia.org)
- F-plasmids play a crucial role because they contain partition genes that promote the even distribution of plasmids after bacterial cell division. (wikipedia.org)
- Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging contaminants posing a potential worldwide human health risk. (pnas.org)
- Despite the volume of antibiotics used in China, little information is available regarding the corresponding ARGs associated with animal farms. (pnas.org)
- High-capacity quantitative PCR arrays detected 149 unique resistance genes among all of the farm samples, the top 63 ARGs being enriched 192-fold (median) up to 28,000-fold (maximum) compared with their respective antibiotic-free manure or soil controls. (pnas.org)
- In addition, abundance of ARGs correlated directly with antibiotic and metal concentrations, indicating their importance in selection of resistance genes. (pnas.org)
- Diverse, abundant, and potentially mobile ARGs in farm samples suggest that unmonitored use of antibiotics and metals is causing the emergence and release of ARGs to the environment. (pnas.org)
- Beijing: Urban air is being polluted by antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) whose exposure is posing threat to human health, researchers have warned. (siasat.com)
- The analysis revealed 30 different types of ARGs that make bacteria resistant to seven types of antibiotics. (siasat.com)
- ARGs resistant to vancomycin, one of the most effective antibiotics, were found in the air of six cities. (siasat.com)
- ARGs can also adhere to airborne particles and spread to other regions, including places that use fewer antibiotics, which increases the chance of breeding new drug-resistant bacteria. (siasat.com)
- This study aimed to reveal how amoxicillin (AMX) affected the microbial community and the spread mechanism of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the AMX manufacture wastewater treatment system. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Furthermore the vertical gene transfer was the main driver for the spread of ARGs rather than horizontal transfer pathways in the system. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Fifty-one different types of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) belonging to 15 antimicrobial resistance (AMR) gene families and conferring resistance against 24 antibiotic types were detected in fish gut. (springer.com)
- Some of the ARGs for multi-drug resistance were also found to be located on sequences of plasmid origin. (springer.com)
- The presence of pathogenic bacteria and ARGs on plasmid sequences suggested the potential risk due to horizontal gene transfer in the confined gut environment. (springer.com)
- This practice can introduce antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) into the environment. (unl.edu)
- Field testing is critical in identifying manure management practices effective in minimizing the environmental impacts of manure-borne antibiotic and ARGs. (unl.edu)
- The objective of this study was to determine how the timing of swine manure application relative to rainfall events impacts the fate and transport of antibiotics and ARGs in surface runoff and manure-amended soil. (unl.edu)
- Results showed that an interval longer than 2 weeks between application and rainfall often significantly reduced the levels of antibiotics and ARGs tested in runoff with the exception of tet(X). For soil samples from broadcast plots, concentrations of two of the three antibiotics tested (lincomycin and tiamulin) decreased substantially in the first two weeks after manure application. (unl.edu)
- Information obtained from the study can be beneficial in designing manure management practices and estimating the environmental loading of antibiotics and ARGs resulting from manure application. (unl.edu)
- Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have become emerging contaminants through the overuse and misuse of antibiotics in animal agriculture. (rice.edu)
- In this study, we determined the frequency of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the Upper Mississippi River using a high-throughput, functional, metagenomic screening procedure. (iwaponline.com)
- Only the candidate division OD1, among 35 phyla identified, was correlated with ampicillin resistance ( r = 0.456, P = 0.033), suggesting that minority members of the community may be responsible for dissemination of ARGs in this ecosystem. (iwaponline.com)
- Although the disinfection has been proved to be efficient to control the occurrence of pathogens, little effort is dedicated to revealing potential impacts of disinfection on transmission of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), particularly for free-living ARGs in final disinfected effluent of urban wastewater treatment plants (UWWTP). (deepdyve.com)
- Cell culture liquid waste containing antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and microbial community were still not received enough recognition, which pose potential risks to human health. (springer.com)
- Chen B, Yang Y, Liang X, Yu K, Zhang T, Li X (2013) Metagenomic profiles of Antibiotic Resistance Genes (ARGs) between human impacted estuary and deep ocean sediments. (springer.com)
- Emergence of antibiotic resistant (AR) bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the aquaculture industry is a growing issue for human health. (epfl.ch)
- Massive sequencing of plasmids isolated from antibiotic-resistant bacteria revealed the presence of a wide diversity of ARGs, conferring resistance, for instance, to trimethoprim, rifampicin, beta-lactams as well as carbapenems. (epfl.ch)
- These multi-resistant bacteria could potentially cause direct harmful effects, or serve as ARGs reservoir, spreading resistance genes to human and animal pathogens. (epfl.ch)
- The total ARGs concentration showed significant correlation with 16S rRNA gene. (hep.com.cn)
- Sewage sludge in the wastewater treatment plants contains considerable amount of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). (hep.com.cn)
- Furthermore, it was found that the total ARGs concentration significantly correlated with the amount of 16S rRNA gene during the pretreatment and AD processes, and the bacteria carrying ARGs could be mainly affiliated with Proteobacteria . (hep.com.cn)
- Fig.1 Variation of (a) absolute abundance and (b) relative abundance of total ARGs and the amount of 16S rRNA gene in RS and sludge samples in pretreatment and subsequent AD processes. (hep.com.cn)
- This review was focused on the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, as well as the presence, dissemination and removal of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the urban drinking water system. (hep.com.cn)
- However, biological activated carbon (BAC) process and drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) could be incubators which promote the antibiotic resistance, due to the enrichment of ARGs and ARB in the biofilms attached to the active carbon and pipe wall. (hep.com.cn)
- Tropical Asian environments receive various origin effluents, which contain antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). (nii.ac.jp)
- This study could reveal specific characters of ARGs and antibiotic contamination in Thailand aquatic environments. (nii.ac.jp)
- After administration part of antibiotics is excreted as original compounds or metabolites through urine and faeces in environment, hence creating selection pressure which can lead to development of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). (imedpub.com)
- Mafisa wastewater treatment plant was contaminated with corresponding antibiotic resistance genes sul1, sul2 and tetM, but there was no correlations between antibiotic concentrations and corresponding antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), suggesting that targeted ARGs are spread in a wide area without connection to the selection pressure. (imedpub.com)
- These released residues generate selective pressure to the bacteria in the environment, thus contributing to the proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. (imedpub.com)
- The occurrence and spread of ARGs is closely associated with diverse resistance mechanisms and dissemination mechanisms. (imedpub.com)
- The pollution of various environments with antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is an urgent problem that needs to be addressed, especially in heavy metal-polluted environments. (usda.gov)
- found the gene, called mcr-1, on plasmids - mobile DNA that can be easily copied and transferred between different bacteria. (mercola.com)
- As this review is only dealing with acquired resistance, attention is also paid to mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, and integrons, which are associated with AR genes, and involved in the dispersal of antimicrobial determinants between different bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
- A fitting example is the recently reported mcr-1 gene that has been linked to colistin resistance in humans and animals ( 7 - 10 ) and has been found to be associated with at least three different plasmids to date ( 7 , 8 , 10 ). (asm.org)
- Before and after a nonselective enrichment step, tetracycline (TET)-resistant E. coli were isolated and plasmids conferring TET resistance were captured by exogenous plasmid isolation. (foodsafetynews.com)
- According to the researchers, their findings suggest produce might be a hot spot for contamination with E. coli carrying multi-drug resistance plasmids that occur at low abundance. (foodsafetynews.com)
- The study demonstrated that multi-drug resistance plasmids present in produce-associated bacteria were transferable to sensitive E. coli recipients, a process that could occur in the human gut. (foodsafetynews.com)
- Resistance- and virulence-associated traits of E. coli isolates are almost exclusively found on IncF group plasmids. (foodsafetynews.com)
- In conclusion, this study showed that produce that we eat might contain bacteria such as E. coli carrying transferable multidrug resistance plasmids. (foodsafetynews.com)
- We looked at if we totally remove antibiotics, will the resistance gene on these plasmids disappear? (statnews.com)
- What we saw is the plasmids are transferable through this process of conjugation and even though those cells are growing slower, the resistance doesn't go anywhere. (statnews.com)
- The plasmid can be transferred so fast that even for really, really costly plasmids, we can remove antibiotics entirely and the resistance will still exist. (statnews.com)
- We were able to reverse resistance four out of the nine plasmids we studied, and we could prevent the spread resistance in the remaining five. (statnews.com)
- While restriction maps and sequence data for the regions flanking the tetR - tet (H) gene region were available for these plasmids, the corresponding data are still missing for pVM111. (asm.org)
- Since plasmid pVM111 has been found to be larger than the other tet (H)-carrying plasmids known so far and has also been found to mediate sulfonamide and streptomycin resistance by genes that have not been further specified ( 4 ), we analyzed plasmid pVM111 for its resistance genes and their organization with regard to cotransfer of the resistance genes and its impact on the development and spread of multiresistance. (asm.org)
- A large part of the resistome is contained within chromosomal DNA, although it may also be present on extrachromosomal replicons like plasmids and phages, which are transmissible to other members of the gut microbiota through horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events ( 5 ). (asm.org)
- Within the environment the presence of heavy metals and antibiotics may apply an additional selective pressure on bacteria resulting in the accumulation of heavy metal resistance genes in plasmids which can be transmitted to other bacteria. (confex.com)
- The objective of this study was to describe the genes present on the plasmids of an environmentally isolated aminoglycoside-resistant bacteria. (confex.com)
- This arrangement of the chromate resistance ( chrA ) gene and arsenic resistance operon has been described in the plasmids of three other isolates, one of which was isolated clinically in Virginia, U.S.A. while the other two samples were isolated environmentally in a Citrobacter amalonaticus in South Korea and in a Pluralibacter gergoviae in Malaysia. (confex.com)
- This is the first report of an isolate that contains this arrangement of the arsenic resistance operon, chrA gene, and multiple antibiotic resistance genes encoded on plasmids. (confex.com)
- One of the ways antibiotic resistance genes spread in hospitals and in the environment is that the genes are coded on plasmids that transfer between bacteria. (technologynetworks.com)
- Having precise information on the binding site enabled the researchers to design more potent binding molecules that, in the end, reduced the transfer of antibiotic-resistant, gene-carrying plasmids. (technologynetworks.com)
- Ultimately, reducing the transfer of antibiotic-resistance plasmids could help preserve the potency of antibiotics, contributing to an overall strategy to help improve human health, he added. (technologynetworks.com)
- Bacteria will frequently contain small chromosomes called plasmids that commonly carry genes for antibiotic resistance. (academicsreview.org)
- Most antibiotic resistance probably comes from soil bacteria, and the genes they carry genes can readily be disseminated from one species of bacteria to another on plasmids. (academicsreview.org)
- Recent IncM plasmids related to R1215 have a variant resistance island containing a bla SHV gene in the same location. (asm.org)
- For example, the results suggest that genes causing resistance to penicillin may incorporate themselves more easily into new hosts compared to those involved in tetracycline resistance" according to Porse. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Flanked by these two integron structures are the floR gene ( 8 ), also called floSt ( 11 ) or cmlA -like (9), which confers cross-resistance to Cm and Ff, and the tetracycline-resistance genes tetR and tet (G). (cdc.gov)
- The tetracycline resistance gene tetM was found to be present in 100.0% of the tetracycline-resistant strains of enterococci. (springer.com)
- Moreover, there are currently over 40 different acquired tetracycline resistance genes recognized. (springer.com)
- The first tetracycline resistance ( tet ) gene of hybridization class H was detected in 1993 on plasmid pVM111 ( 4 ) from a Pasteurella multocida isolate obtained in 1975 from the tissues of a turkey in California that had died of avian cholera ( 5 ). (asm.org)
- They were 4.4 to 6.8 kb in size and mediated only tetracycline resistance. (asm.org)
- Data from this study point to possible relationships between selected soil properties and individual tetracycline resistance genes, including tet (O) which is a common target for environmental samples. (unl.edu)
- Of interest, when tetracycline ARG results were sorted by gene mechanism, the efflux genes were generally present in higher frequency in the prairie soils, while the ribosomal protection and enzymatic genes were more frequently detected in organic farm soils, suggesting a possible ecological role for specific tetracycline resistance mechanisms. (unl.edu)
- 9. Zhang T., Zhang M., Zhang X., Fang H.H. Tetracycline resistance genes and tetracycline resistant lactose-fermenting enterobacteriaceae in activated sludge of sewage treatment plants. (kpfu.ru)
- Currently more than 40 different tetracycline resistance genes have been observed in various environment systems [ 5 ]. (imedpub.com)
- Tetracycline resistance genes are divided as efflux pump genes (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD, tetE and tetL, ribosomal protection protein genes (tetO, tetW, tetM and tetQ) and modification enzyme gene (tetX). (imedpub.com)
- Researchers from Yale University identified eight different tetracycline resistance genes among U.S. honeybees that were exposed to the antibiotic, but the genes were largely absent in bees from countries where such antibiotic use is banned. (biologged.com)
- Using sensitive molecular techniques, Moran and her colleagues screened honeybees from several locations in the United States and from Switzerland, the Czech Republic, and New Zealand as well as several wild bumblebees from the Czech Republic, for the presence and abundance of tetracycline resistance genes. (biologged.com)
- They found that U.S. honeybees have greater numbers and a more diverse set of tetracycline resistance genes than honeybees from the other countries. (biologged.com)
Horizontal gene tra10
- Antibiotic use has increased the frequency of horizontal gene transfer and resistance gene fixation in genomes, leading to the development of diverse resistance genes in genomic islands ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
- Moreover, their ability of interchanging genes, which is now well known as horizontal gene transfer (HGT) was especially unexpected. (frontiersin.org)
- We looked at something called horizontal gene transfer, the primary way that new bacteria acquire antibiotic resistance genes. (statnews.com)
- Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is largely responsible for increasing the incidence of antibiotic-resistant infections worldwide. (asm.org)
- IMPORTANCE Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) conferring resistance to many classes of antimicrobials has resulted in a worldwide epidemic of nosocomial and community infections caused by multidrug-resistant microorganisms, leading to suggestions that we are in effect returning to the preantibiotic era. (asm.org)
- As opposed to "vertical" transmission, when DNA is passed from parent to offspring via reproduction, horizontal gene transfer allows genetic material to be passed on to a neighbor. (iflscience.com)
- A nonpathogen can use horizontal gene transfer to give antibiotic resistance genes to a pathogen. (iflscience.com)
- Overall, they found the bacteria had at least 183 antibiotic resistance genes, of which 52 were potentially mobile and able to be passed over via horizontal gene transfer. (iflscience.com)
- b) Major aspects of horizontal gene transfer by means of conjugation, transduction, and natural transformation (Adapted from Dodd (2012 ) with permission from The Royal Society of Chemistry). (hep.com.cn)
- The recently discovered qnr genes provide a mechanism of resistance with the potential to rapidly spread between bacteria using horizontal gene transfer. (biomedcentral.com)
- When a team of researchers analyzed bacteria they had grown from soil samples, they found the microbes were harboring seven genes identical to those that enabled harmful bacteria to resist antibiotics . (livescience.com)
- Researchers still do not know the impact such genes might have for human health, but there are disturbing implications. (mercola.com)
- When the researchers added these genes to a laboratory strain of the E.coli bacteria, it became resistant to four different antibiotics normally used to treat the infection . (mercola.com)
- Researchers of the University of Bern have identified a new antibiotic resistance gene in bacteria from dairy cows. (news-medical.net)
- A transfer to S. aureus which is likely according to the researchers would jeopardize the use of reserve antibiotics to treat human infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria in hospitals. (news-medical.net)
- Researchers of the Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology of the University of Bern have identified a new methicillin resistance gene in strains of M. caseolyticus isolated from milk. (news-medical.net)
- In the journal Science Advances , researchers from the US and Venezuela describe how they analyzed bacteria from the skin, mouth and intestines of the Yanomami tribe members and found they contained antibiotic resistance genes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- With the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies and their application in understanding MDR pathogen dynamics, it has become imperative to unify AR gene data resources for easy accessibility for researchers. (asm.org)
- Researchers at the University of California San Diego have developed an approach that uses machine learning to identify and predict which genes make infectious bacteria resistant to antibiotics. (ucsd.edu)
- The researchers further analyzed the algorithm's predictions and identified combinations of alleles that could be interacting together and causing a strain to be antibiotic resistant. (ucsd.edu)
- The results of this study are all computational, so the team is looking to work with experimental researchers to test whether the 24 new genes predicted by the algorithm indeed confer antibiotic resistance in M. tuberculosis . (ucsd.edu)
- Washington, DC - November 6, 2018 - Researchers from the Julius Kühn Institut, Germany have found that produce is a reservoir for transferable antibiotic resistance genes that often escape traditional molecular detection methods. (brightsurf.com)
- Soil samples from Canadian farmland reveal previously unknown antibiotic resistance genes, a finding that might help researchers better understand how to combat antibiotic resistance. (the-scientist.com)
- The researchers extracted DNA from the samples, then cloned fragments of specific sequences into a strain of E. coli sensitive to antibiotics. (the-scientist.com)
- When the researchers put the altered E. coli in petri dishes with various antibiotics, they saw some colonies were able to grow, indicating the transfected DNA fragments conferred resistance. (the-scientist.com)
- Researchers from a German institute have expanded knowledge about produce harboring antibiotic resistance genes that often escape traditional molecular detection methods. (foodsafetynews.com)
- Researchers said produce-associated bacteria should be considered an important route of disseminating transferable antibiotic resistances, which might be relevant for patients under antibiotic treatment. (foodsafetynews.com)
- Instead of focusing either only on individual cultured organisms or computationally predicting functions from DNA sequences, researchers experimentally screen the DNA for specific functions, such as antibiotic resistance. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Researchers discovered hundreds of genes that could be connected with autism spectrum disorder. (medicaldaily.com)
- AUSTRIA - Half the chicken meat samples purchased by researchers from retailers in Austria contained animal viruses capable of transferring antibiotic resistance genes between bacteria, from the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna. (thepoultrysite.com)
- Today, Danish researchers announced that this same resistance gene has been found in bacteria infecting one person in Denmark and on five imported meat products tested between 2012 and 2014 suggesting that the gene is already spreading globally. (healthcanal.com)
- A team of researchers, led by the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA)in France, in collaboration with Professor Willem van Schaik at the University of Birmingham, developed a new method to identify resistance genes in gut bacteria by comparing the three-dimensional structures of known antibiotic resistance enzymes to the proteins that are produced by gut bacteria. (phys.org)
- The researchers, in collaboration with other European teams, then applied this method to a catalogue of several million genes of the gut. (phys.org)
- An international group of researchers, including Professor Michael Gillings from Macquarie University, have reported that pollution with antibiotics and resistance genes is causing potentially dangerous changes to local bacteria in estuaries. (edu.au)
- Researchers have shown that bacteria can hitch a ride on a fleck of house dust and pass on their antibiotic resistance genes to others. (iflscience.com)
- Researchers from Dalian University of Technology in China knew from previous studies that fish food, which generally incorporates fishmeal, can contain antibiotics. (hatcheryinternational.com)
- Thus the researchers, led by Jing Wang, set out to measure the abundance of antibiotic-resistance genes in the fishmeal. (hatcheryinternational.com)
- In an industry first, the researchers analyzed commercially available fishmeal and found 132 antibiotic resistance genes, some of which could potentially confer resistance to common antibiotics. (hatcheryinternational.com)
- The researchers say more work is needed to determine if these resistance traits can find their way into the human food chain. (hatcheryinternational.com)
- September 22, 2010 (Boston, Massachusetts) - The gene that encodes for New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1), which confers resistance to most currently available antibiotics, appears to be spreading from the Indian subcontinent (India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh), researchers reported here at a media press conference during the 50th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC). (biofortified.org)
- The emergence of this gene poses the threat of a pandemic with few treatment choices, said researchers. (biofortified.org)
- But a new study from researchers at Washington University in St. Louis and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has found that genes representing yet another method of resistance are widespread in bacteria that live in the soil and on people. (technologynetworks.com)
- These genes code for proteins the researchers dubbed tetracycline destructases. (technologynetworks.com)
- In the first screen, the researchers had found tetracycline-destructase genes only in bacteria not known to cause disease in people. (technologynetworks.com)
- Soil bacteria and bacteria that cause human diseases have recently swapped at least seven antibiotic-resistance genes, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis report Aug. 31 in Science . (esciencenews.com)
- Genes that make bacteria resistant to antibiotics can be transferred between humans and other animals, say researchers in this month's issue of the Journal of Medical Microbiology. (poultryworld.net)
- Both these factors, combined with the identical gene sequences, led the researchers to suggest that aacC2 can transfer between separate populations of bacteria that colonise different species. (poultryworld.net)
- Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg have found several new genes that make bacteria resistant to last-resort antibiotics. (nordiclifescience.org)
- The researchers found 76 new types of resistance genes. (nordiclifescience.org)
- The researchers found further evidence of a link between autism-associated genes and intelligence when they carried out the same tests on 921 adolescents who were part of the Brisbane Adolescent Twin Study (BATS). (genengnews.com)
- Researchers develop a CRISPR-based, two-phage system that sensitizes resistant bacteria to antibiotics and selectively kills any remaining drug-resistant bugs. (blogspot.com)
- With the ultimate aim of combating antibiotic resistance acquired by bacteria during evolution, researchers from the Institut Pasteur and CNRS have managed to shed light on one of the mechanisms of DNA recombination in bacteria. (pasteur.fr)
Confer antibiotic resistance2
- A new gene known as mcr -1-which can make bacteria resistant to colistin, a last-resort drug for some multidrug-resistant infections-was first reported in China in November 2015 and in the United States in May 2016. (cdc.gov)
- In November 2015, mcr -1-a gene that can make bacteria resistant to colistin, an old antibiotic that is the last-resort drug for some multidrug-resistant infections-was reported in China. (cdc.gov)
- If colistin resistance spreads to bacteria that are already resistant to all other antibiotics, those bacteria could cause truly untreatable infections. (cdc.gov)
- Expand state programs to better respond to outbreaks, improve antibiotic prescribing, and prevent antibiotic-resistant infections across all healthcare settings. (cdc.gov)
- This methicillin resistance gene would turn this bacteria into a hazardous methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), which is known to cause difficult-to-treat infections in hospitals. (news-medical.net)
- The team was surprised to find that many of the resistance genes they found in the bacteria from the tribespeople deactivated not only natural antibiotics but also synthetic and semi-synthetic antibiotics, including third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, which are normally reserved for fighting off the worse infections. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Thus, a single conjugation event involving such MGEs is enough to transform an antibiotic-sensitive pathogen into a MDR organism that can potentially cause infections that are nontreatable by the current antibiotic arsenal ( 13 ). (asm.org)
- According to a recent report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, antibiotic-resistant infections cause at least 2 million illnesses and 23,000 deaths annually, adding $20 billion in health-care costs. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- This is leading to antibiotic resistance in the animals that form the foundation of our food chain, which can promote infections in people that won't be susceptible to standard antibiotics. (medicaldaily.com)
- Therefore, action should be taken to monitor drug resistance and antimicrobial resistance genes to manage multi-drug-resistant enterococcal infections. (springer.com)
- The difficulty in treating enterococcal infections is associated with antimicrobial resistance. (springer.com)
- Antibiotic resistance is caused by the incorrect use of antibiotics, and it has allowed many bacteria to be resistant to the commonly used antibiotics, which means that many antibiotics are no longer effective in treating common infections, Xinhua news agency reported. (siasat.com)
- Past research has focused on resistance in clinical environments (e.g., hospitals), but the rise of community-acquired infections of resistant bacteria has fueled interest in AR genes in natural environments ( 1 - 3 ). (asm.org)
- However, the continuing use of antibiotics may lead to these resistance genes being transferred to pathogenic bacteria , thereby further reducing the effectiveness of antibiotics in treating infections. (phys.org)
- Within recent decades, a growing number of infections - such as pneumonia, gonorrhea , tuberculosis, and salmonella - are becoming harder to treat as the antibiotics used to treat them become less effective. (iflscience.com)
- Pathogenic Klebsiella pneumoniae can cause respiratory and urinary tract infections and the presence of resistance genes may make treatment of such infections more difficult. (confex.com)
- Pallin DJ, Egan DJ, Pelletier AJ, Espinola JA, Hooper DC, Camargo CA. Increased US emergency department visits for skin and soft tissue infections, and changes in antibiotic choices, during the emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (springermedizin.de)
- In the past few decades, the medical community has faced a rising problem in the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and the difficulty of treating related infections. (iwaponline.com)
- The presence of these bacteria in high-traffic bodies of water, as well as the presence of the antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) floating freely in the water, pose the threat of antibiotic-resistant related infections in individuals living and recreating in these areas of southeast Louisiana. (iwaponline.com)
- We first found tetracycline-destroying genes five years ago in harmless environmental bacteria, and we said at the time that there was a risk the genes could get into bacteria that cause disease, leading to infections that would be very difficult to treat," said co-senior author Gautam Dantas, PhD, a professor of pathology and immunology and of molecular microbiology at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. (technologynetworks.com)
- They are one of the most widely used classes of antibiotics, used for diseases ranging from pneumonia, to skin or urinary tract infections, to stomach ulcers, as well as in agriculture and aquaculture. (technologynetworks.com)
- They say that by 2050, 50 million people will die from antibiotic resistant infections," said the Toronto-born, German-raised researcher. (technologynetworks.com)
- The day when we can't treat infections with antibiotics is coming. (technologynetworks.com)
- The findings will help health experts to assess how using antibiotics in food-producing animals can affect the treatment of common human infections. (poultryworld.net)
- When the resistance genes end up in bacteria that cause infections in humans, the diseases will be more difficult to treat,' he said. (poultryworld.net)
- There is a risk that we could be faced with a post-apocalyptic like, post-antibiotic world, where minor infections and common injuries which have been easily treatable for generations are now life threatening. (thenakedscientists.com)
- In recent years we have made huge advances from HIV medication to transplantation, however none of this would be possible without antibiotics to prevent infections. (thenakedscientists.com)
- Surveillance data can be combined with other public health data to reveal useful information about how resistant infections differ from susceptible infections (infections antibiotics effectively combat). (drugs.com)
Evolution of antibiotic resistance4
- Upon the introduction of antibiotics it was assumed that the evolution of antibiotic resistance (AR) was unlikely. (frontiersin.org)
- As a next step, the team is integrating genome-scale models of metabolic networks with their machine learning approach to understand mechanisms underlying the evolution of antibiotic resistance. (ucsd.edu)
- Indeed, natural environments may serve as hotspots for the evolution of antibiotic resistance, Topp and colleagues write in their study. (the-scientist.com)
- Dantas' primary research interest is the ecology and evolution of antibiotic resistance. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
Known antibiotic resistance genes4
- 33 were validated with known antibiotic resistance genes, the remaining 24 were new predictions that have not yet been experimentally tested. (ucsd.edu)
- Despite the small sample size, the analysis identified 2,500 new antibiotic resistance genes, expanding the list of known antibiotic resistance genes by more than 30 percent. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- This study shows that the diversity and abundance of known antibiotic resistance genes can generally predict the diversity and abundance of undescribed resistance genes. (biomedcentral.com)
- For the first time, we can rapidly determine the entire collection of known antibiotic resistance genes in an individual bacterium. (drugs.com)
- It carries genes useful for bacteria, especially when these genes encode proteins that can make bacteria resistant to antibiotics.Now a team of scientists at UdeM's Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine has come up with a novel approach to block the transfer of resistance genes. (technologynetworks.com)
- In some soil bacteria, the genes are present in clusters that make the bacteria resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics, including forms of penicillin, sulfonamide and tetracycline. (esciencenews.com)
- Recent research has found antibiotic-resistant genes in the bacteria of dairy cows' guts. (mercola.com)
- 80 different antibiotic-resistant genes were found in five manure samples. (mercola.com)
- The study in question, published in mBio, 4 , 5 , 6 found 80 different antibiotic-resistant genes in five manure samples. (mercola.com)
- Working with a local swine farmer, the researcher will build on previous work, studying E.coli levels in soil fertilized with swine manure, quantifying the amounts of seven antibiotic-resistant genes in manure and soil samples, pre- and post-manure application. (iastate.edu)
- The timely identification of this hospital acquired pathogen and detection of the various antibiotic resistant genes harbored is one of the most important function of the microbiology laboratory. (scialert.net)
- This system was designed to identify S. aureus at species level and to detect methicillin, gentamycin, erythromycin, vancomycin and mupirocin resistant genes, respectively from a single colony in a single tube reaction. (scialert.net)
- Baron hopes the strategy can be used to discover more inhibitors of the transfer of resistant genes. (technologynetworks.com)
- In this study the correlations of sulfonamides and tetracycline concentrations with their corresponding selected antibiotic resistant genes sul1, sul2 and tetM respectively was investigated at Mafisa wastewater treatment plant in Morogoro municipality. (imedpub.com)
- Extensive mutation and selection pressure create the perfect breeding ground to develop resistant genes, which enable to bacteria to find a way of surviving the attack by antibiotics, ensuring any of the bacteria containing the protective gene survive and pass on the gene to future generations. (thenakedscientists.com)
- Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) contains an antibiotic resistance gene cluster and has been previously identified in multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium DT104, Agona, and Paratyphi B. We identified a variant SGI1 antibiotic-resistance gene cluster in a multidrug-resistant strain of S. enterica serovar Albany isolated from food fish from Thailand and imported to France. (cdc.gov)
- Cheng C, Sun J, Zheng F, Lu W, Yang Q, Rui Y (2016) New structures simultaneously harboring class 1 integron and ISCR1-linked resistance genes in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. (springer.com)
Centers for Diseas2
- According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2 (CDC), two million American adults and children become infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria each year, and at least 23,000 of them die as a direct result. (mercola.com)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that every year at least 2 million illnesses and 23,000 deaths in the United States are caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. (drugs.com)
- bacteria will inevitably find ways of resisting the antibiotics developed by humans. (cdc.gov)
- The gene sharing means humans' treatment of one group is likely to affect the other, he said. (livescience.com)
- Bacteria developed resistance well before humans existed, and they have been trading genes for even longer," Forsberg said. (livescience.com)
- The CDC has previously concluded that as much as 22 percent of antibiotic-resistant illness in humans is in fact linked to food, and research has shown that nearly half of all meats sold in the US harbor drug-resistant bacteria ! (mercola.com)
- Transfer of the gene to Staphylococcus aureus, a bacteria found on the skin and mucosa of animals and humans, would have dramatic consequences for public health. (news-medical.net)
- Selection of this gene should be avoided limiting the inadequate use of antibiotics in animals and humans. (news-medical.net)
- Determining the antibiotic resistance potential of the indigenous oral microbiota of humans using ametagenomic approach," FEMS Microbiology Letters , vol. 258, no. 2, pp. 257-262, 2006. (hindawi.com)
- About the Antibiotic Resistance Action Center: The Antibiotic Resistance Action Center (ARAC) was created to reduce antibiotic resistance worldwide by promoting good stewardship practices in humans and animals. (healthcanal.com)
- These results show that these high-traffic recreational bodies of water may be putting wildlife and humans at risk for antibiotic-resistant-related illnesses. (iwaponline.com)
- Findings: We identified 1220 occurrences of ESBL-EC and pAmpC-EC genes in humans, of which 478 were in clinical patients, 454 were from asymptomatic carriers in the open community, 103 were in poultry and pig farmers, and 185 were in people who had travelled out of the region. (dtu.dk)
- Humans only mix their genes when they produce offspring, but bacteria regularly exchange genes throughout their lifecycles. (esciencenews.com)
- Health authorities need to closely monitor the transmission of resistance between food-producing animals and humans and assess how such transfers are affecting the effectiveness of human use of antibiotics,' he said. (poultryworld.net)
- Various antibiotics have been used for treating infectious diseases in humans, animals and aquaculture. (imedpub.com)
- Antibiotics have been overused in preventing and treating infectious diseases in humans and animals. (imedpub.com)
- Scientists collected bacteria from locations that had never been exposed to humans or modern antibiotics to determine if antibiotic resistance is newly evolved since the introduction of antibiotics or has evolved independently. (hhmi.org)
- Overuse of antibiotics in both humans and animals helps drive the evolution of resistant bacteria. (drugs.com)
- The ultimate goal is to preserve the effectiveness of antibiotics for use in both humans and animals," says McDermott. (drugs.com)
- In the U.S., beekeepers have kept the disease at bay with regular preventive applications of the antibiotic oxytetracycline, a compound that closely resembles tetracycline, which is commonly used in humans. (biologged.com)
- Moran says while the study is interesting from the perspective of honeybee health and could have implications for how honeybee diseases are managed, the presence of resistance genes in the honeybee gut doesn't pose a direct risk to humans. (biologged.com)
- NptII confers resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin and neomycin. (europa.eu)
- However, the Panels noted that nptII has not been implicated in resistance to kanamycin in the treatment of MTB. (europa.eu)
- C. reinhardtii transformants were capable of inactivating the antibiotics paromomycin, kanamycin, and neomycin, to which wild-type cells are sensitive. (nih.gov)
- Ammonium and total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations were correlated with kanamycin and cephalothin resistances ( r = 0.617 and −0.449, P = 0.002 and 0.036, respectively). (iwaponline.com)
- Forsberg and his colleagues grew the soil bacteria in media containing antibiotics to select for those with antibiotic-resistance genes. (livescience.com)
- While the swapping of resistance genes between soil bacteria and those that cause disease has serious implications for health, there's no way to prevent it. (livescience.com)
- Microbiologist Rafael Cantón of the Ramón y Cajal Institute for Health Research in Madrid notes that antibiotic resistance genes are naturally present in soil bacteria, and some may work in ways not yet identified in clinical bacteria. (the-scientist.com)
- E. coli that had received supposed destructase genes from soil bacteria inactivated some of the tetracyclines. (technologynetworks.com)
- 4. Huge numbers of diverse antibiotic resistance genes are present in soil bacteria. (academicsreview.org)
- These genes are frequently found in soil bacteria. (academicsreview.org)
- Our results suggest that this may enhance drug resistance in soil bacteria in ways that could one day be shared with bacteria that cause human disease. (esciencenews.com)
- Earlier studies by other scientists have identified numerous resistance genes in strains of soil bacteria. (esciencenews.com)
- We knew that any E. coli that continued to grow after these treatments had picked up a gene from the soil bacteria that was helping it fight the antibiotics,' Forsberg says. (esciencenews.com)
- When the scientists compared antibiotic-resistance genes found in the soil bacteria to disease-causing bacteria, they were surprised to find some genes were identical not only in the sections of the genes that code for proteins but also in nearby non-coding sections that help regulate the genes' activities. (esciencenews.com)
- It is highly unlikely these genes evolved independently in the soil microbes and the disease-causing ones, they concluded. (livescience.com)
- One explanation for the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is that random mutations in the microbes coupled with their ability to swap genes is spurring the evolution of resistant strains. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Friendly microbes in the intestinal tracts of healthy American children have numerous antibiotic resistance genes, according to results of a pilot study by scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The genes are cause for concern because they can be shared with harmful microbes, interfering with the effectiveness of antibiotics in ways that can contribute to serious illness and, in some cases, death. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Microbes have been battling each other for millennia, regularly inventing new antibiotic synthesis genes to kill off rivals and new antibiotic resistance genes to defend themselves," Dantas says. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- There were quite a few resistance genes in microbes from every child we looked at," Dantas says. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- This poses a public health threat because not only is the livestock affected, but their manure is often used as fertilizer for crops and the runoff from the animal farms may reach water sources, contaminating them with antibiotic resistant microbes. (medicaldaily.com)
- Earlier studies had shown that certain genes conferring resistance to antibiotics can be picked up by microbes in your gut when you are abroad. (georgetown.edu)
- People thought this might be the case, but no one had actually shown that microbes in dust contain these transferable genes. (iflscience.com)
- Antibiotics are naturally occurring in microbial communities [ 2 ], and some resistance genes could have evolved as a defense system to antimicrobial molecules secreted by other microbes [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- WIKIMEDIA, DR GRAHAM BEARDS Using bacteriophages to deliver a specific CRISPR/Cas system into antibiotic-resistant bacteria can sensitize the microbes to the drugs, according to a study published this week (May 18) in PNAS . (blogspot.com)
- The overuse of antibiotics as medication can give rise to resistance among disease-causing bacteria, and so can the flood of antibiotics into the environment. (livescience.com)
- Inappropriate and overuse of antibiotics in medicine and agriculture is fueling a growing global health problem of drug resistance where once powerful drugs are losing their ability to kill emerging 'superbug' strains of disease-causing bacteria. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Antibiotic resistance is most often associated with the overuse and abuse of antibiotics. (iflscience.com)
- Their spread is promoted by the use of antibiotics and it is massive overuse of antibiotics that is the main factor promoting the spread of diseases that cannot be treated by antibiotics (Bennett and others 2004, Saylers 1996, Salyers, Whitt 2005). (academicsreview.org)
- E. coli bacteria carrying the mcr -1 gene was found in a urine sample from a patient in Pennsylvania in May 2016. (cdc.gov)
- The research, Hilbert concludes, demonstrates that transduction is an efficient way to transfer antimicrobial resistance to E. coli in different environments. (thepoultrysite.com)
- Scientists studied how antibiotic resistance spreads among specific types of bacteria, including E. coli. (statnews.com)
- Then they cloned some of the genes into E. coli bacteria that had no resistance to tetracyclines and tested whether the genetically modified bacteria survived exposure to the drugs. (technologynetworks.com)
- E. coli that had received genes from bacteria associated with people destroyed all 11 tetracyclines. (technologynetworks.com)
- Scientists treated the altered E. coli with multiple antibiotics. (esciencenews.com)
- Qimron and his colleagues first created an E. coli -targeting lambda phage that encodes the CRISPR genes plus spacers that target two conserved β lactamases, enzymes that confer resistance to β-lactam antibiotics . (blogspot.com)
- When the lytic phage enters an E. coli cell encoding the CRISPR-phage, its DNA is cleaved, conferring a survival advantage for the antibiotic-sensitive bacteria. (blogspot.com)
- The introduction of chromosomal mutations into the E. coli genome using λRed-mediated recombineering includes two consecutive steps-the insertion of an antibiotic resistance gene and the subsequent excision of the marker. (usda.gov)
- This gene confers resistance to all beta-lactam antibiotics including the last generation of cephalosporins used against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (news-medical.net)
- The particularly surprising result is the discovery of a gene that encodes for an unusual small proline-rich polypeptide that confers resistance to the macrolide antibiotics, very important in human and animal medicine," Topp says. (the-scientist.com)
- The mechanism by which the newly identified gene confers resistance to macrolide antibiotics is not yet known. (the-scientist.com)
- The first integron carries the aadA2 gene, which confers resistance to Sm and Sp, and a truncated sul1 ( sul1delta ) gene. (cdc.gov)
- It also increased the abundance and diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in the test sediments. (hatcheryinternational.com)
- Chen Q, An X, Li H, Su J, Ma Y, Zhu Y-G (2016) Long-term field application of sewage sludge increases the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in soil. (springer.com)
- It is often assumed that the abundance and diversity of known resistance genes are representative also for the non-characterized fraction of the resistome in a given environment, but this assumption has not been verified. (biomedcentral.com)
- This is important for current and proposed monitoring efforts for environmental antibiotic resistance and has implications for the design of risk ranking strategies and the choices of measures and methods for describing resistance gene abundance and diversity in the environment. (biomedcentral.com)
- An EFSA statement has been published today that provides a consolidated overview of the use of antibiotic resistance marker genes (ARMG) in GM plants, including a joint scientific opinion of the GMO and BIOHAZ Panels. (europa.eu)
- The Panels concluded that, according to information currently available, adverse effects on human health and the environment resulting from the transfer of the two antibiotic resistance marker genes, nptII and aadA, from GM plants to bacteria, associated with use of GM plants, are unlikely. (europa.eu)
- Two members of the BIOHAZ Panel expressed minority opinions concerning the possibility of adverse effects of antibiotic resistance marker genes on human health and the environment. (europa.eu)
- The key barrier to stable uptake of antibiotic resistance marker genes from GM plants to bacteria is the lack of DNA sequence identity between plants and bacteria. (europa.eu)
- The EU directive 2001/18/EF demands that antibiotic resistance marker genes (ARMG) in genetically modified plants (GMP) that can have unfavorable effects on the environment or on human health must be phased out. (vkm.no)
- Based on this, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority requested the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety to perform an assessment of the risk to human health and the environment on the use of antibiotic (antimicrobial) resistance (AR) genes as marker genes for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). (vkm.no)
- In this report, the need to assess the risk of a possible deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) with antibiotic resistance marker genes (ARMG) is identified as one of the areas where more information is necessary. (miljodirektoratet.no)
Types of antibiotic2
- The CCA was performed using the clustered features, and it revealed relationships between the features of chemical substructures and the expression level of genes related to several types of antibiotic resistance. (go.jp)
- Two types of antibiotic, Penicillin and Cephalosporin, have a structure made up of a ring known as a β-lactam ring. (thenakedscientists.com)
- Farmland, for instance, is exposed to antibiotics by the spread of manure from chicken, pigs, and other livestock, which are often given antibiotics to maintain their health. (the-scientist.com)
- He suggests a push for continued reduction of antibiotic use in food animal production through regulatory and economic measures, which would reduce the amount of antibiotics that enter into the agricultural system through the spread of manure. (the-scientist.com)
- Due to the active usage of antibacterial drugs in animal husbandry, antibiotic residues and antibiotic-resistance genes enter the soil when it is fertilized with manure and compost. (kpfu.ru)
- 5. Fang H., Han Y., Yin Y., Pan X., Yu Y. Variations in dissipation rate, microbial function and antibiotic resistance due to repeated introductions of manure containing sulfadiazine and chlortetracycline to soil. (kpfu.ru)
- 7. Hammesfahr U., Heuer H., Manzke B., Smalla K., Thiele-Bruhn S. Impact of the antibiotic sulfadiazine and pig manure on the microbial community structure in agricultural soils. (kpfu.ru)
Found in bacteria2
- Antibiotic resistance genes found in bacteria that live in livestock are at thousands of times the baseline because of widespread antibiotic use. (medicaldaily.com)
- A study carried out in collaboration with the University of Birmingham has used an innovative approach to identify thousands of antibiotic resistance genes found in bacteria that inhabit the human gut. (phys.org)
- In this article, we explore existing AR gene data resources in order to make them more visible to the clinical microbiology community, to identify their limitations, and to propose potential solutions. (asm.org)
- Apart from being widely used in clinical practice, antibiotics are also employed in agriculture, aquaculture, and intensive animal farming either as prophylactic agents or for therapeutic purposes ( 1 - 3 ). (asm.org)
- In collaboration with the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), the Panels also considered the clinical importance for human and veterinary medicine of the antibiotics to which the ARMG confer resistance. (europa.eu)
- This study investigated the distribution of acquired antibiotic resistance genes in Enterococcus species isolated from clinical patients in Baotou, China. (springer.com)
- This suggests that classical antibiotic sensitivity test is not accurate, but need to be supplemented with other methods to be applied in a clinical laboratory. (scialert.net)
- Once we started looking for these genes in clinical samples, we found them immediately. (technologynetworks.com)
- The presence of resistant bacteria in different natural environments, such as soil, fresh water, sea sediments and wild animals, has only been sporadically studied, although they may contribute to the development of resistance of clinical importance. (miljodirektoratet.no)
- Scientists use the term resistome to refer to the collective antibiotic resistance genes of a microbial community. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The occurrence of antibiotic resistance changes the composition and structure of microbial community and increases the potential risks to human health and the environment [ 3 , 4 ]. (imedpub.com)
- rRNA Methyltransferases and their role in resistance to antibiotics," Journal of Medical Biochemistry , vol. 29, pp. 165-174, 2010. (hindawi.com)
- The antibiotic genes OXA-1, OXA-2, OXA-10, TEM-1, CTX-M-1, class I integrons (intI1) and 16S rRNA genes were also examined in sludge samples. (unboundmedicine.com)
- We analyzed the composition of the fecal microbiota during the first 3 months of life by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantified fecal short chain fatty acids by gas chromatography. (biomedcentral.com)
- Among the 49 open reading frames (ORFs) identified, genes for rRNA, tRNA, antibiotic resistance, and virulence factors were not found in the phage genome. (usda.gov)
Classes of antibiotics2
- In-feed or therapeutic antibiotics used on these farms include all major classes of antibiotics except vancomycins. (pnas.org)
- The findings indicate an emerging threat to one of the most widely used classes of antibiotics - but also a promising way to protect against that threat. (technologynetworks.com)
- The most dangerous strains are those that display resistance to multiple antibiotics. (news-medical.net)
- The team trained a machine learning algorithm using the genome sequences and phenotypes-the physical traits or characteristics that can be observed, such as antibiotic resistance-of more than 1,500 strains of M. tuberculosis . (ucsd.edu)
- TA: Different Salmonella strains can swap genes. (medicalxpress.com)
- Eighteen strains were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested, and nearly 20% (14 of 72) were resistant to two or more. (asm.org)
- The four strains found to carry a class 1 integron also had Tn 21 -encoded mercury resistance. (asm.org)
Antimicrobial resistance genes1
- Penicillin first entered use in 1943, streptomycin in 1944, tetracycline in 1948 - and by 1965, the United Kingdom's Agricultural Research Council was hearing testimony that organisms common in food animals, especially Salmonella , were becoming resistant to the antibiotics being used on the animals while they were alive. (wired.com)
- The first discovered antimicrobial compound was penicillin ( Flemming, 1929 ) a β-lactam antibiotic. (frontiersin.org)
- Later on it was discovered that the emergence of resistance actually began before the first antibiotic, penicillin, was characterized. (frontiersin.org)
- Antibiotics have played an important role in treatment and preventing diseases in medical industries since penicillin was introduced by Fleming. (imedpub.com)
- Flemming was already aware of the risks of antibiotic resistance and emphasised this in many of his speeches, cautioning that Penicillin should not be used unless the disease has been diagnosed correctly 4 . (thenakedscientists.com)
- Some examples of the link between antibiotic dosage and resistance development are the rise of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). (frontiersin.org)
- Dantas noted that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, one of the most dangerous antibiotic-resistant bacteria, now causes more deaths in the United States than HIV. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Scientists have discovered antibiotic resistance genes in the bacteria of remote tribespeople who have had no contact with the industrialized world or exposure to antibiotic drugs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- And when they tested bacteria that are hard to culture, the scientists found even more resistance genes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Scientists have been warning about this for a number of years already, but now it seems the "antibiotic apocalypse" is really close at hand. (mercola.com)
- The scientists identified the new resistance genes by testing intestinal microbial DNA from the children against 18 antibiotics. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Scientists found the presence of antibiotic resistance genes at hundreds to tens of thousands of times higher in bacteria that were isolated from animals from Chinese farms. (medicaldaily.com)
- Scientists have long acknowledged that gives environmental bacteria an evolutionary incentive to find ways to beat antibiotics. (esciencenews.com)
- In this video, scientists knock out two different genes in planaria to start to understand how the process works-and they generate animals with two heads and two tails! (hhmi.org)
- Scientists at the University of Edinburgh and the Queensland Institute for Medical Research report that genes linked with a greater risk of developing autism may also be associated with higher intelligence. (genengnews.com)
- And, because the database of resistance genes is growing, due to work by scientists around the globe, we can see what others are finding and quickly ascertain if resistance threats emerging in other countries also are present in the United States. (drugs.com)
- This gene was first discovered by scientists in China in November 2015, and was later detected in Europe, Canada and elsewhere. (drugs.com)
- The microbiota of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) may regularly be exposed to antibiotics, which are used to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi. (asm.org)
- During the first months following birth, bifidobacteria represent some of the most dominant components of the human gut microbiota, although little is known about their AR gene complement (or resistome). (asm.org)
- Our findings reinforce the concept that the early infant gut microbiota is more susceptible to disturbances by antibiotic treatment than the gut microbiota developed at a later life stage. (asm.org)
- It is not really known what effect antibiotics are having on the non-cultured faction of the microbiota. (youris.com)
- By disrupting the honeybee microbiota and reducing its diversity, long-term antibiotic use could weaken honeybee resistance to other diseases. (biologged.com)
Transferable antibiotic resistance genes1
- Surface-water and sediment samples will be collected from seven locations at regular intervals for 3 years during religious mass-bathing and in absence of it to monitor water-quality, antibiotic residues, resistant bacteria, antibiotic resistance genes and metals. (mdpi.com)
- Results: The results will address the issue of antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistance with a focus on a river environment in India within a typical socio-behavioural context of religious mass-bathing. (mdpi.com)
Source of antibiotic resistance genes1
Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes1
Acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes2
- The mechanism underlying the acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes has been recognized for several decades. (springer.com)
- By understanding CRISPR-Cas regulation, CRISPR-Cas systems could be modulated for improved outcomes, such as limiting the spread and acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes and developing CRISPR-based antimicrobials. (otago.ac.nz)
- Aydin S, Ince O, Ince B (2015) Development of antibiotic resistance genes in microbial communities during long-term operation of anaerobic reactors in the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater. (springer.com)
- 1. Bouki C., Venieri D., Diamadopoulos E. Detection and fate of antibiotic resistant bacteria in wastewater treatment plants : A review. (kpfu.ru)
- Mohameda HSA, Uswege M, Robinson HM (2018) Correlation between Antibiotic Concentrations and Antibiotic Resistance Genes Contamination at Mafisa Wastewater Treatment Plant in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania. (imedpub.com)
- The second mechanism is through selection for AR due to anthropogenic antibiotic runoff, which challenges native bacteria to become resistant. (asm.org)
- Yet other genes may not at all have had a resistance function in natural settings, but only confer resistance when overexpressed or in the face of anthropogenic antibiotic selection. (biomedcentral.com)
- The 5' flanking regions of two other genes, the trimethoprim-resistance gene from R388 and the gentamicin resistance (aadB) gene from pDGO100, are greater than 98% homologous to the 5' flanking sequences of the OXA-1, OXA-2, and aadA genes until they diverge at the target sequence. (pnas.org)
- The gene, called aacC2, encodes resistance to a commonly-used antibiotic gentamicin and was found in approx. (poultryworld.net)
- For example, NARMS data showed a rapid rise in gentamicin resistance in the foodborne bacteria, Campylobacter . (drugs.com)