A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.
Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.
INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.
A specific decapeptide obtained from the skin of Hila caerulea, an Australian amphibian. Caerulein is similar in action and composition to CHOLECYSTOKININ. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; and certain smooth muscle. It is used in paralytic ileus and as diagnostic aid in pancreatic malfunction.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.69) by its action on glycogen. With EC 3.2.1.69, it produces the activity called "debranching enzyme". EC 3.2.1.68.
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
An octapeptide hormone present in the intestine and brain. When secreted from the gastric mucosa, it stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder and digestive enzymes from the pancreas.
A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into SALIVA.
The inactive proenzyme of trypsin secreted by the pancreas, activated in the duodenum via cleavage by enteropeptidase. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A condition with abnormally elevated level of AMYLASES in the serum. Hyperamylasemia due to PANCREATITIS or other causes may be differentiated by identifying the amylase isoenzymes.
The major component (about 80%) of the PANCREAS composed of acinar functional units of tubular and spherical cells. The acinar cells synthesize and secrete several digestive enzymes such as TRYPSINOGEN; LIPASE; AMYLASE; and RIBONUCLEASE. Secretion from the exocrine pancreas drains into the pancreatic ductal system and empties into the DUODENUM.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.
Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.
A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into PANCREATIC JUICE.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.
Abnormal enlargement or overgrowth of the gingivae brought about by enlargement of existing cells.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
Extravasation of blood into the skin, resulting in a nonelevated, rounded or irregular, blue or purplish patch, larger than a petechia.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A genus of green nonsulfur bacteria in the family Chloroflexaceae. They are photosynthetic, thermophilic, filamentous gliding bacteria found in hot springs.
A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain konjac glucomannan (MANNANS) and SEROTONIN.
A family of marine, gram-negative PROTEOBACTERIA including the genera ALTEROMONAS; Colwellia; Idiomarina; MARINOBACTER; MORITELLA; PSEUDOALTEROMONAS; and SHEWANELLA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A family of gram-positive, saprophytic bacteria occurring in soil and aquatic environments.
A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family Thermoactinomycetaceae, that can cause FARMER'S LUNG.
A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.
A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled antigens associated with farm environment. Antigens in the farm dust are commonly from bacteria actinomycetes (SACCHAROPOLYSPORA and THERMOACTINOMYCES), fungi, and animal proteins in the soil, straw, crops, pelts, serum, and excreta.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
The human AMY1C gene encodes the protein Amylase, alpha 1C (salivary). Amylases are secreted proteins that hydrolyze 1,4-alpha- ... This gene encodes an amylase isoenzyme produced by the salivary gland. See also Amylase § Evolution. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... The human genome has a cluster of several amylase genes that are expressed at high levels in either the salivary gland or ... "Entrez Gene: Amylase, alpha 1C (salivary)". Retrieved 2013-02-14. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. ##RefSeq-Attributes-START## ...
One of the outcomes of this research was the use of alpha-amylase gene promoters to express human proteins in rice cells in ... Sequence-specific interactions of a nuclear protein factor with the promoter of a rice gene for alpha-amylase, RAamy3D.. Nucl. ... Metabolic regulation of rice alpha-amylase and sucrose synthase genes in planta. The Plant Journal, 2(4):517-523. Huang, N., ... Classification and evolution of alpha-amylase genes in plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 89:7526-7530. Mitsunaga, S., ...
Alpha-amylase 2B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AMY2B gene. Amylases are secreted proteins that hydrolyze 1,4- ... "Entrez Gene: AMY2B amylase, alpha 2B (pancreatic)". Human AMY2B genome location and AMY2B gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... "Cloning and characterization of a third type of human alpha-amylase gene, AMY2B". Gene. 90 (2): 281-6. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(90 ... "Expression of the human amylase genes: recent origin of a salivary amylase promoter from an actin pseudogene". Nucleic Acids ...
Individuals from populations with a high-starch diet tend to have more amylase genes than those with low-starch diets; Beta- ... Alpha-amylases are found in plants and in animals. Human saliva is rich in amylase, and the pancreas also secretes the enzyme. ... 2007). "Diet and the evolution of human amylase gene copy number variation". Nature Genetics. 39 (10): 1256-60. doi:10.1038/ ... This process is important in the digestion of starch and is also used in brewing, where amylase from the skin of seed grains is ...
1988). "Primary structure of human pancreatic alpha-amylase gene: its comparison with human salivary alpha-amylase gene". Gene ... Alpha-amylase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AMY1A gene. This gene is found in many organisms. Amylases are ... "Entrez Gene: AMY1A amylase, alpha 1A; salivary". Human AMY1A genome location and AMY1A gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... 1986). "Primary structure of human salivary alpha-amylase gene". Gene. 41 (2-3): 299-304. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(86)90110-1. ...
"Independent amylase gene copy number bursts correlate with dietary preferences in mammals". eLife. 8. doi:10.7554/eLife.44628. ... yet also have 10 genes that are responsible for starch and glucose digestion, as well as the ability to produce amylase, an ...
"Primary structure of human pancreatic alpha-amylase gene: its comparison with human salivary alpha-amylase gene" (PDF). Gene. ... Pancreatic alpha-amylase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AMY2A gene. Amylases are secreted proteins that ... "Entrez Gene: AMY2A amylase, alpha 2A; pancreatic". Human AMY2A genome location and AMY2A gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... 1986). "Primary structure of human salivary alpha-amylase gene". Gene. 41 (2-3): 299-304. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(86)90110-1. ...
They are bacterial enzymes belonging to the same family of the α-amylase specifically known as glycosyl-hydrolase family 13. ... Wild G.M.; Levine, Melvin L.; Norberg, Ethelda; Nordin, Philip; Pazur, John H.; Wild, Gene M. (1954). "Studies on the ... Co-substrate specificity in coupling reactions of Macerans amylase". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76 (9): 2387-2390. doi:10.1021/ ... DePinto JA, Campbell LL (1968). "Purification and properties of the amylase of Bacillus macerans". Biochemistry. 7 (1): 114-20 ...
A number of genes encoding glycoside hydrolases (GH) have been identified in Butyrivibrio species including endocellulase (GH ... family 5 and 9); β-Glucosidase (GH family 3); endoxylanase (GH family 10 and 11); β-Xylosidase (GH family 43); and α-Amylase ( ... However, phylogenetic analyses based on 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences has divided the genus Butyrivibrio into six ...
Diet and the evolution of human amylase gene copy number variation. Nature Genetics 39:1256-1260. Boyd, R. and P. J. Richerson ... Genes and culture continually interact in a feedback loop, changes in genes can lead to changes in culture which can then ... Genes constrain the brain's structure and, hence, the ability of the brain to acquire and store culture. Genes may also endow ... In other words, "memes" (ideas) are not like genes. Genes are copied faithfully as they are replicated, but ideas are not. It's ...
A study was conducted on ancestral diet and the evolution of the human amylase gene copy number. The consumption of starch ... Then they compared the starch consumption of different populations to their copy number of the amylase gene. They found that ... A study on the influence of the CCL3L1 gene on HIV-1/AIDS susceptibility tested if the copy number of the CCL3L1 gene had any ... "Diet and the evolution of human amylase gene copy number variation". Nature Genetics. 39 (10): 1256-60. doi:10.1038/ng2123. PMC ...
"Independent amylase gene copy number bursts correlate with dietary preferences in mammals". eLife. 8. doi:10.7554/eLife.44628. ... These genes have been shown to affect the catecholamine synthesis pathway, with the majority of the genes affecting the fight- ... The genes involved in canine obsessive-compulsive disorders led to the detection of four genes in humans' related pathways. The ... In 2016, a study found that only 11 fixed genes showed variation between wolves and dogs. These gene variations were unlikely ...
The AMY2B gene produces an enzyme that helps to digest amylase (starch). Similar to the wolf, the husky and the dingo possess ... The genomic study found that similarly, the basenji possesses only two copies of this gene. Originating on the continent of ... www.basenji.org/index.php/faq-fanconi-testing Basenjis sometimes carry a simple recessive gene that, when homozygous for the ... only two copies of this gene, which provides evidence that they arose before the expansion of agriculture. ...
"Endogenous retroviral sequences are required for tissue-specific expression of a human salivary amylase gene". Genes Dev. 6 (8 ... The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) approves gene symbols for transcribed human ERVs. Example: A porcine ERV (PERV) ... Cohen CJ, Lock WM, Mager DL (2009). "Endogenous retroviral LTRs as promoters for human genes: a critical assessment". Gene. 448 ... both human class I and class II MHC genes have a high density of HERV elements as compared to other multi-locus-gene families. ...
The AMY2B gene produces an enzyme that helps to digest amylase (starch). Similar to the wolf and the husky, the dingo possesses ... The Neolithic included gene flow and the expansion of agriculture, chickens, pigs and domestic dogs - none of which reached ... A haplotype is a group of genes in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent. Early DNA studies indicated ... The Fraser Island dingoes are unique because they cluster with the southeastern dingoes, but exhibit many alleles (gene ...
One such modifying genes is RYR1, which is responsible for calcium regulation in muscle cells. RYR1 mutation causes malignant ... This bond may be broken by amylase when the body wishes to break down glycogen into glucose for energy. Glycogen branching ... A combination of both of these genes can cause severe rhabdomyolysis should the horse become recumbent due to an HYPP attack. A ... This causes low levels of muscle glycogen that is very resistant to amylase. This disease is usually seen in Quarter Horse ...
This bond may be broken by amylase when the body wishes to break down glycogen into glucose for energy. Glycogen branching ... GBED is caused by an autosomal recessive mutation to the GBE1 gene, which leads glycogen branching enzyme activity that is ... This causes low levels of muscle glycogen that is very resistant to amylase. Lacking proper glycogen storage, the horse's brain ... which can then be broken down by amylase. This allows for glucose to be removed at a faster rate than if all glucose molecules ...
"Molecular cloning and expression in Streptomyces lividans of a proteiunous α-amylase inhibitor (HaimII) gene from Streptomyces ... "Nucleotide sequence and expression of a Streptomyces griseosporeus proteinaceous alpha-amylase inhibitor (HaimII) gene". ...
... is thought to be involved in the maintenance of exocrine pancreas-specific gene expression including elastase 1 and amylase. ... Pancreas transcription factor 1 subunit alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PTF1A gene. This gene encodes a ... Mutations in this gene cause cerebellar agenesis and loss of expression is seen in ductal type pancreas cancers. GRCh38: ... "Entrez Gene: PTF1A pancreas specific transcription factor, 1a". Sommer L, Hagenbüchle O, Wellauer PK, Strubin M (Nov 1991). " ...
... it can also lead to missed genes of interest due to differing sequence homology in genes of related function. Gibson assembly ... Some novel proteins that have been discovered from marine environments include enzymes such as proteases, amylases, lipases, ... In the case of assays that screen for the protein or for its function, an expression vector is used to ensure that the gene ... The vector choice will depend on the origin of the DNA or cDNA to ensure proper expression and to ensure that the encoded gene ...
... express a novel member of the amylase gene family". Insect Molecular Biology. 1 (4): 223-32. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2583.1993. ... Michael Le Page (Sep 29, 2018). "Gene tool could halt malaria spread". New Scientist. Syed Z, Leal WS (September 2008). " ... Sep 24, 2018). "A CRISPR-Cas9 gene drive targeting doublesex causes complete population suppression in caged Anopheles gambiae ... "Scientists have identified the gene that makes mosquitoes crave human blood". Richard Dawkins Foundation. November 21, 2014. ...
... sequence of Streptomyces coelicoflavus ZG0656 reveals the putative biosynthetic gene cluster of acarviostatin family α-amylase ... novel aminooligosaccharides isolated from the culture of Streptomyces coelicoflavus ZG0656 as potent inhibitors of α-amylase". ... acarviosin-containing oligosaccharides identified from Streptomyces coelicoflavus ZG0656 are potent inhibitors of α-amylase". ... acarviosin-containing oligosaccharides identified from Streptomyces coelicoflavus ZG0656 are potent inhibitors of α-amylase". ...
subscription required) Martienssen, Robert Anthony (1986). The molecular genetics of alpha-amylase gene families in wheat ( ... completing his BA in 1982 and continuing on to his PhD in 1986 on the molecular genetics of alpha-amylase gene families in ... Martienssen has made major discoveries relating to the way plants control the expression of their genes. Working with maize, ... Martienssen's work explains the effect on plants of 'jumping genes', or DNA transposable elements, reported in 1951 by Barbara ...
Martienssen, Robert A. (1986). The molecular genetics of alpha-amylase gene families in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). copac. ... Baulcombe's group demonstrated that while viruses can induce gene silencing, some viruses encode proteins that suppress gene ... "An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene in Arabidopsis is required for posttranscriptional gene silencing mediated by a transgene ... Lu, J.; Zhang, C.; Baulcombe, D. C.; Chen, Z. J. (2012). "Maternal siRNAs as regulators of parental genome imbalance and gene ...
"High-resolution chromosomal localization of human genes for amylase, proopiomelanocortin, somatostatin, and a DNA fragment ( ... Six somatostatin genes have been discovered in vertebrates. The current proposed history as to how these six genes arose is ... These two genes were duplicated during the second whole-genome duplication event (2R) to create four new somatostatin genes:SS1 ... Gene. 463 (1-2): 21-8. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2010.04.016. PMID 20472043. Gahete MD, Cordoba-Chacón J, Duran-Prado M, Malagón MM, ...
In wheat one of these proteins is ω-gliadin (Gli-B1 gene product). A study of mothers and infants on an allergen-free diet ... In addition, a gluten-extrinsic allergen has been identified as aspergillus amylase, added to flour to increase its baking ... The Gli-B1 gene in wheat, Triticum aestivum, comes from the progenitor species Aegilops speltoides. This indicates that nascent ... A recent study in Europe confirmed the increased presence of allergies to amylase/trypsin inhibitors (serpins) and lipid ...
Grzybowska, Beata; Szweda, Piotr; Synowiecki, Jozef (February 2004). "Cloning of the thermostable alpha-amylase gene from ...
2007). "Decreased shoot stature and grain alpha-amylase activity following ectopic expression of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene ... the mutant genes responsible for Arabidopsis thaliana genes (GA 20-oxidase, ga1, ga1-3), wheat reduced-height genes (Rht) and a ... These were identified as gibberellin biosynthesis genes or cellular signaling component genes. Stem growth in the mutant ... February 2002). "Positional cloning of rice semidwarfing gene, sd-1: rice "green revolution gene" encodes a mutant enzyme ...
2007). "Decreased shoot stature and grain alpha-amylase activity following ectopic expression of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene ... During the Green Revolution, research that identified wheat reduced-height genes (Rht) and a rice semidwarf gene (sd1) resulted ... February 2002). "Positional cloning of rice semidwarfing gene, sd-1: rice "green revolution gene" encodes a mutant enzyme ... This often takes the form of in-breeding to concentrate recessive genes, and can result in other genetic abnormalities being ...
"DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes. 15 (4): 173-183. doi:10.1093/ ... the kōji-kin spores germinate and release enzymes called amylases that convert the rice starches into glucose.[17] This process ...
The process leading to β-1,6 linkages is poorly understood: although genes important in the process have been identified, not ... the soluble fraction of alpha-amylase hydrolyzed oat bran or whole oat flour), whole grain barley and barley beta-fiber. An ... This fermentation impacts the expression of many genes within the large intestine,[15] which further affects digestive function ...
Asexual reproduction, horizontal gene transfer. Asexual reproduction, horizontal gene transfer. Sexual and asexual reproduction ... In industry, amylases, galactosidases and pullulanases in other species of Pyrococcus that function at over 100 °C (212 °F) ... since most archaeal genes lack introns, although there are many introns in their transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA genes,[146] and ... and the presence of archaea-like genes in certain bacteria, such as Thermotoga maritima, from horizontal gene transfer.[78] The ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 17 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... it is encoded by the GAA gene.[6] Errors in this gene cause glycogen storage disease type II (Pompe disease). ... This gene encodes lysosomal alpha-glucosidase, which is essential for the degradation of glycogen to glucose in lysosomes. ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds. • hydrolase activity, acting on ...
... genes with a mutation in the cr4 gene also cause a switch in the fate of aleurone cells. The cr4 gene codes for a receptor ... This release of amylase is considered to be the most important and sole function of the aleurone layer. This effect is ... The dek1 gene and crinkly4 (cr4) kinase both function as positive regulators of aleurone cell fate.[8] The normal dek1 gene is ... This mutation is caused by the insertion of a Mu transposon into the dek1 gene, causing it to function incorrectly. However, ...
Avenins toxicity in celiac people depends on the oat cultivar consumed because of prolamin genes, protein amino acid sequences ... a soluble fraction of alpha-amylase hydrolyzed oat bran or whole oat flour.[17] ...
Genes on human chromosome 4. *EC 3.2.1. *Enzymes of known structure ...
Myers, Eugene N.; Ferris, Robert L. (2007). Salivary Gland Disorders. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 191. ISBN ... α-amylase (EC3.2.1.1), or ptyalin, secreted by the acinar cells of the parotid and submandibular glands, starts the digestion ... Saliva contains the enzyme amylase, also called ptyalin, which is capable of breaking down starch into simpler sugars such as ... such as amylase and lipase), antimicrobial agents such as secretory IgA and lysozyme.[1] The enzymes found in saliva are ...
Watanabe H, Noda H, Tokuda G, Lo N (July 1998). "A cellulase gene of termite origin". Nature. 394 (6691): 330-1. Bibcode: ... McCleary BV (November 1980). "New chromogenic substrates for the assay of alpha-amylase and (1 leads to 4)-beta-D-glucanase". ...
Mauch F, Hertig C, Rebmann G, Bull J, Dudler R (June 1991). "A wheat glutathione-S-transferase gene with transposon-like ... alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor, and P21 and PWIR2 soybean and wheat leaf proteins. The proteins are involved in systematically ... The similarity between this PR protein and other PR proteins to the maize alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor has suggested PR ...
One example of an enzyme is amylase, found in saliva. It breaks down starch molecules into smaller glucose and maltose ... Enzyme production (transcription and translation of enzyme genes) can be increased or reduced in response to changes in the ... This form of gene regulation is called enzyme induction and inhibition. For example, in bacteria which are resistant to ...
Die Glucose wiederum kann in Gegenwart des Speichel-Enzyms Amyloglucosidase (γ-Amylase (EC 3.2.1.3)) aus Stärke entstehen. ... Gene. . 173, Nr. 2, September 1996, S. 261-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(96)00078-9. PMID 8964511. ... Amylase) und Glucose-Oxidase enthalten, das Lactoperoxidase-System aktivieren, sind aus jüngster Zeit Studien bekannt, die den ...
In 2014, a DNA study compared dogs and wolves for AMY2B (alpha amylase 2B), which is a gene and enzyme that assists with the ... An expansion of this gene in dogs would enable early dogs to exploit a starch-rich diet as they fed on refuse from agriculture ... Data indicated that the wolves and dingo had just two copies of the gene and the Siberian husky that is associated with hunter- ... Two coat types - smooth and "feathered" - are evident in the breed's gene pool. The latter variety has light fluffing on the ...
Gene → 유전자 (B). *Heredity → 유전 (C). *Life → 생명 (B+) *Death → 죽음 (B) ... alpha-amylase → 알파-아밀레이스 (E). *Biomolecule *Biological pigment *Carotenoid → 카로티노이드 (B). *Chlorophyll → 엽록소 (D) ...
Species within Avena can hybridize and genes introgressed from other "A" genome species has contributed with many valuable ... a soluble fraction of alpha-amylase hydrolyzed oat bran or whole oat flour.[15] ... Interestingly, these techniques which potentially transfers thousands of genes from a species that is very distantly related is ... been used to map genes involved in C4 photosynthesis. In order to obtain mendelian inheritance of these novel traits, radiation ...
"RNA interference-based silencing of the alpha-amylase (amy1) gene in Aspergillus flavus decreases fungal growth and aflatoxin ... Gene knockdownEdit. The RNA interference pathway is often exploited in experimental biology to study the function of genes in ... Gene expression in prokaryotes is influenced by an RNA-based system similar in some respects to RNAi. Here, RNA-encoding genes ... RNAi drugs treat cancer by silencing certain cancer promoting genes.[166] This is done by complementing the cancer genes with ...
D. melanogaster has been an essential part of studies into principles like genetic linkage, interactions between genes, ... As the salivary glands produce fluid and carbohydrate-digesting enzymes (mostly amylases), strong muscles in the pharynx pump ... Tracey, J; Wilson, RI; Laurent, G; Benzer, S (2003). "painless, a Drosophila gene essential for nociception". Cell. 113 (2): ... Whiting, M.F. (2002). "Mecoptera is paraphyletic: multiple genes and phylogeny of Mecoptera and Siphonaptera". Zoologica ...
Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1] ... The M and H subunits are encoded by two different genes:. *The M subunit is encoded by LDHA, located on chromosome 11p15.4 ( ... A third isoform, LDHC or LDHX, is expressed only in the testis (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 150150); its gene is ... LDHC is a testes-specific LDH protein, that is encoded by the LDHC gene. LDHBx is a peroxisome-specific LDH protein. LDHBx is ...
Diet and the evolution of human amylase gene copy number variation. Nature Genetics 39:1256-1260. ... Genes and culture continually interact in a feedback loop,[2] changes in genes can lead to changes in culture which can then ... Genes constrain the brain's structure and, hence, the ability of the brain to acquire and store culture. Genes may also endow ... Genes affect cultural evolution via psychological predispositions on cultural learning.[20] Genes encode much of the ...
Murphy, Denis J. (2007). People, Plants and Genes: The Story of Crops and Humanity. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 122- ... alpha amylase inhibitor, trypsin inhibitors, and prolamin storage proteins of cereals and grasses.[28] ... gene EPSP (5-enolpyruvyl shikimic acid-3-phosphate) synthase. The substituted version is not sensitive to glyphosate.[118] ... gene had been bred into so many different soybean cultivars, there had been little decline in genetic diversity, but "diversity ...
Genomic and functional gene annotation of the two major yeast models can be accessed via their respective model organism ... or fungal alpha amylase enzymes, to break down the starches into complex sugars. A glucoamylase is then added to break the ...
Cat's skin has the same color as the fur but the color of the nose leather is probably dictated by a dedicated gene. Cats with ... Cats naturally do not have a diet high in carbohydrates, and therefore, their saliva doesn't contain the enzyme amylase.[22] ...
10,000 protein coding genes (50% of all genes) are expressed in the normal human pancreas.[11][12] Less than 100 of these genes ... Enzymes that breakdown starch and other carbohydrates include amylase.[18]. These enzymes are secreted in a fluid rich in ... Gene and protein expressionEdit. Further information: Bioinformatics § Gene and protein expression ... The first line, under the direction of a Pax gene, forms α- and γ- cells, which produce glucagon and pancreatic polypeptides, ...
A gene concatenation study found similar results to Xu and Cote, but with a much more limited number of species in terms of ... Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is the source of a natural antibiotic protein barnase (a ribonuclease), alpha amylase used in starch ... "Nucleotide sequence of the sspE genes coding for γ-type small, acid-soluble spore proteins from the round-spore-forming ... gene/protein regulation, and cell cycle events in bacteria.[5] ...
"The salivary glands of the vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, express a novel member of the amylase gene family"។ Insect Molecular ... "Scientists have identified the gene that makes mosquitoes crave human blood"។ Richard Dawkins Foundation។ November 21, 2014។ ... based on nuclear genes and morphology"]។ BMC Evolutionary Biology 9 (1): 298។ អ.វ.ល.:10.1186/1471-2148-9-298។ PMC 2805638។ អ.ស. ... especially for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with the odor receptor gene Or4.[៤៣] A large part of the mosquito's sense of smell, or ...
As of 2008, the field of metagenomics was proposed to examine genes and their function in soil microbes, but most ... Examples of enzymes identified to date include amylases, pullulanases, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases, cellulases, xylanases ... Gene. 115 (1-2): 151-7. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(92)90553-2. PMID 1612430. Hunter P (September 2008). "Harnessing Nature's wisdom ...
Transferred genes enter the plant cell nucleus and effectively transform the plant cells into factories for the production of ... Salivary amylase is contained in saliva and starts the breakdown of carbohydrates into monosaccharides. Most digestive enzymes ... Saliva, a liquid secreted by the salivary glands, contains salivary amylase, an enzyme which starts the digestion of starch in ... Kuehn, M.J.; Kesty, N.C. (2005). "Bacterial outer membrane vesicles and the host-pathogen interaction". Genes & Development. 19 ...
Pfaff, T; Kahl, G (2003). "Mapping of gene-specific markers on the genetic map of chickpea ("Cicer atietinum"L)". Molecular ... Secondary components of legumes - such as lecithin, polyphenols, oligosaccharides, and amylase, protease, trypsin and ... Research started selecting favourable genes for pathogen resistance and other traits through marker-assisted selection. The use ... and identified more than 28,000 genes and several million genetic markers.[16] ...
IPR006048. A-amylase/branching_C. IPR031319. A-amylase_C. IPR006046. Alpha_amylase. IPR006047. Glyco_hydro_13_cat_dom. ... IPR006048. A-amylase/branching_C. IPR031319. A-amylase_C. IPR006046. Alpha_amylase. IPR006047. Glyco_hydro_13_cat_dom. ... help/gene_ontology target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>GO - Molecular functioni. *alpha-amylase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC ... Alpha-amylase (EC:3.2.1.11 Publication. ,p>Manually curated information for which there is published experimental evidence.,/p ...
"Nucleotide sequence of the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase gene.". Nakajima R., Imanaka T., Aiba S.. J. Bacteriol. ... IPR013776 A-amylase_thermo. IPR015237 Alpha-amylase_C_pro. IPR006047 Glyco_hydro_13_cat_dom. IPR013780 Glyco_hydro_b. IPR017853 ... IPR013776 A-amylase_thermo. IPR015237 Alpha-amylase_C_pro. IPR006047 Glyco_hydro_13_cat_dom. IPR013780 Glyco_hydro_b. IPR017853 ... of a thermophilic alpha-amylase by protein-producing Bacillus brevis 47 carrying the Bacillus stearothermophilus amylase gene." ...
Amylase Genes in HB101. Table 1. The -amylase activity of wild, error-prone gene and empty vector. ...
Amylase Genes in HB101. Figure 1. PCR amplification of -amylase gene of BS168. (a) amplification of α-amylase gene. Lanes 1: ... b) Error-prone PCR product of α-amylase gene. Lanes 1: DNA molecular size marker, 2 and 3: error-prone PCR products. 10 μL of ...
Here we investigated the influence of gene dosage effects on adiposity through a CNV association study of gene expression ... Low copy number of the salivary amylase gene predisposes to obesity Nat Genet. 2014 May;46(5):492-7. doi: 10.1038/ng.2939. Epub ... We identified significant association of a multi-allelic CNV encompassing the salivary amylase gene (AMY1) with body mass index ... Increased AMY1 copy number was positively associated with both amylase gene expression (P = 2.31 × 10(-14)) and serum enzyme ...
Low copy number of the salivary amylase gene predisposes to obesity. Nature Genet. (30 March 2014) doi:10.1038/ng.2939 ... A study links amylase gene to obesity. Published online 2 April 2014 ... studied the influence of a CNV affecting the number of copies of the salivary amylase gene AMY1 and obesity, publishing their ... Salivary amylase is an enzyme produced by the salivary glands that aids in the breakdown of starch. Using an integrative ...
The polymorphic patterns of human salivary amylase of a large number of individuals of Caucasian origin were determined by ... Expression of the human salivary α-amylase gene in yeast and characterization of the secreted protein. Gene 50:247-257Google ... Expression of the human amylase genes: recent origin of a salivary amylase promotor from an actin pseudogene. Nucleic Acids Res ... Variation in gene copy number and polymorphism of the human salivary amylase isoenzyme system in Caucasians. ...
The α-amylase gene of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was integrated into the genome of Bacillus subtilisby homologous recombination ... Enhancement of α-amylase production by integrating and amplifying the α-amylase gene of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in the ... Palva I (1982) Molecular cloning of α-amylase gene from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and its expression in B. subtilis. Gene 19: ... carrying the same α-amylase gene. With the plasmid system, however, the rate of the α-amylase synthesis was faster and the ...
The α-amylase B gene expression level increased significantly in the time interval from 6 to 48 h in the digestive gland of ... genes through semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed a significant decrease of the clearance rate of C. gigas fed with ... the profile of the PSP toxins and the variation of the expression of two α-amylase and triacylglecerol lipase precursor (TLP) ... oysters fed with A. tamarense, whereas the TLP gene transcript was significantly up-regulated in the digestive gland of oysters ...
The a-amylase gene from Bacillus licheniformis together with its signal peptide seguence was cloned into a yeast expression ... McMahon, Hugh (1995) Cloning and expression of the bacillus licheniformis a-amylase gene in saccharomyces cerevisiae. PhD ... Cloning and expression of the bacillus licheniformis a-amylase gene in saccharomyces cerevisiae ... the targeted integration of the a-amylase gene into single and reiterated regions of the yeast chromosomal DNA, and finally the ...
Cloning of the beta-amylase gene from Bacillus cereus and characteristics of the primary structure of the enzyme.. T Nanmori, M ... The gene encoding the beta-amylase of Bacillus cereus BQ10-S1 (SpoII) was cloned into Escherichia coli JM 109. A sequenced DNA ... Cloning of the beta-amylase gene from Bacillus cereus and characteristics of the primary structure of the enzyme. ... Cloning of the beta-amylase gene from Bacillus cereus and characteristics of the primary structure of the enzyme. ...
Mas7 Stimulates α-Amylase Gene Transcription. To examine whether Mas7 induces α-amylase gene transcription, we conducted RNA ... Taken together, these data demonstrate that Mas7 induces α-amylase gene expression and α-amylase secretion by aleurone ... and ABA-regulated α-amylase genes have been identified, and genes encoding proteins that bind to some of these have been cloned ... In (A), the filter was probed with a 1555-bp cDNA encoding a low-pI α-amylase gene, Afa2 (Hooley et al., 1991). In (B), the ...
Here we assess amylase copy numbers in a global sample of 480 high coverage genomes and find that regions flanking the amylase ... Humans have more copies of amylase genes than other primates. It is still poorly understood, however, when the copy number ... Humans have more copies of amylase genes than other primates. It is still poorly understood, however, when the copy number ... Beneficial effect of a high number of copies of salivary amylase AMY1 gene on obesity risk in Mexican children. ...
Free essay on Cloning and Expression of Α-Amylase Gene from Bacillus Subtilis in Pichia Pastoris and Escherichia Coli. Cloning ... Expression of α-amylase gene in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris. In order to meet the industrial demands for α-amylase ... Facebook and Gene One Essay. 888 words - 4 pages outcome from an IPO would be for Gene One to rival Pfizer, Abbot, GSK, and ... Cloning And Expression Of Α Amylase Gene From Bacillus Subtilis In Pichia Pastoris And Escherichia Coli. 1774 words - 8 pages ...
Effect of inulin supplementation in male mice fed with high fat diet on biochemical profile and α-amylase gene expression * ... 2.28 in E2, p , 0.001). A slight decrease in hepatic α-amylase gene expression was observed only in E1.. Conclusion: Besides ... and hepatic α-amylase gene expression were measured.. Results: Groups receiving high fat diet showed higher weight (30.71 ± ...
en] horizontal gene transfer ; alpha-amylase ; C-terminal domain ; Microbulbifer degradans. Abstract :. [en] alpha-Amylases are ... Horizontal gene transfer from Eukarya to Bacteria and domain shuffling: the alpha-amylase model. ... All the animal-like alpha-amylases in Bacteria probably result from repeated horizontal gene transfer from animals. The M. ... Animal alpha-amylases are characterized by several typical motifs and biochemical properties. A few cases of such alpha- ...
The complement of genes encoding alpha-amylase/protease inhibitors expressed in the US bread wheat Butte 86 was characterized ... Information on the spectrum of alpha-amylase/protease inhibitor genes and proteins expressed in a single wheat cultivar is ... The alpha-amylase/protease inhibitors also are of interest because they cause IgE-mediated occupational and food allergies and ... Within the WDAI group, two different genes encoded the same mature protein. Based on numbers of ESTs, transcripts for WTAI-CM3 ...
The human amylase gene cluster includes the human salivary (AMY1) and pancreatic amylase genes (AMY2A and AMY2B), and is a ... These findings demonstrate recurrent involvement of the amylase gene region in genomic instability, involving at least five ... Recurrent rearrangements of human amylase genes create multiple independent CNV series. Human Mutation, 38 (5). pp. 532-539. ... Recurrent Rearrangements of Human Amylase Genes Create Multiple Independent CNV Series. Human Mutation, which has been ...
Studies on the hydrolyzing mechanism for cyclodextrins of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47 alpha-amylase 2 (TVAII). X-ray ... Gene Product Annotation Gene Ontology Consortium Homepage. Chains. Polymer. Molecular Function. Biological Process. Cellular ... alpha-Amylases, C-terminal beta-sheet domain Maltogenic amylase Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, TVAII [TaxId: 2026] ... alpha-Amylases, C-terminal beta-sheet domain Maltogenic amylase Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, TVAII [TaxId: 2026] ...
... followed by the action of pancreatic amylase. Salivary α-amylase is encoded by the salivary amylase gene (AMY1), which shows ... AMY1 is located in a gene cluster (1p21.1) that also includes pancreatic amylase genes (AMY2A and AMY2B), and AMY1 and AMY2A ... Studies have shown that the AMY1 gene copy number is positively correlated with salivary amylase activity and serum amylase ... and AMY2B gene region, we could not distinguish between salivary and pancreatic gene effects or whether both genes account for ...
... followed by the action of pancreatic amylase. Salivary α-amylase is encoded by the salivary amylase gene (AMY1), which shows ... AMY1 is located in a gene cluster (1p21.1) that also includes pancreatic amylase genes (AMY2A and AMY2B), and AMY1 and AMY2A ... Studies have shown that the AMY1 gene copy number is positively correlated with salivary amylase activity and serum amylase ... and AMY2B gene region, we could not distinguish between salivary and pancreatic gene effects or whether both genes account for ...
keywords = "α-amylase enzyme activity, α-amylase mRNA levels, cold temperature, differential gene expression, Oryza sativa, ... α-amylase enzyme activity, and the accumulation of mRNA from one rice α-amylase gene (RAmy1A) at both temperature regimens. The ... α-amylase enzyme activity, and the accumulation of mRNA from one rice α-amylase gene (RAmy1A) at both temperature regimens. The ... α-amylase enzyme activity, and the accumulation of mRNA from one rice α-amylase gene (RAmy1A) at both temperature regimens. The ...
PROTEIN (BETA-AMYLASE). A. 516. Bacillus cereus. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: spoII. EC: 3.2.1.2. ... Structure of raw starch-digesting Bacillus cereus beta-amylase complexed with maltose.. Mikami, B., Adachi, M., Kage, T., ... The structures of free and maltose-bound beta-amylases were determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.1 and 2.5 A with R-factors ... The structure of the core domain is similar to that of soybean beta-amylase except for the L4 maltose-binding site, whereas the ...
A new approach for the discovery and subsequent structural elucidation of oligosaccharide-based inhibitors of alpha-amylases ... This was transformed from an inhibitor of human pancreatic alpha-amylase with a K(i) value of 18 mm to a trisaccharide analogue ... 1U33: In Situ Extension as an Approach for Identifying Novel Alpha-amylase Inhibitors. Citation: ... A new approach for the discovery and subsequent structural elucidation of oligosaccharide-based inhibitors of alpha-amylases ...
Amylases are secreted proteins that hydrolyze 1,4-alpha-glucoside bonds in oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, and thus ... This gene encodes an amylase isoenzyme produced by the pancreatic gland. AMY2A belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase 13 family. ... Alpha-amylase 2A / AMY2A antibody. Not available. Rabbit polyclonal antibody to alpha 2A amylase(pancreatic) (amylase, alpha 2A ... The human genome has a cluster of several amylase genes that are expressed at high levels in either salivary gland or pancreas ...
Anti-α-Amylase antibody produced in rabbit - Tested Applications: indirect ELISA 1:4,000-1:6,000,Ouchterlony double diffusion ... Keywords: Affinity chromatography, Centrifugation, Chromatography, Digestions, Direct immunofluorescence, Gene expression, High ... Anti-α-Amylase antibody produced in rabbit fractionated antiserum, lyophilized powder Synonym: Alpha Amylase Antibody - Anti-α- ... human salivary α-amylase. General description α amylase is an enzyme present in human saliva and pancreatic secretions which ...
Expression of the gene in E. coli showed that the protein product was a functional beta-amylase that could degrade both starch ... Downregulation of a chloroplast-targeted beta-amylase leads to a starch-excess phenotype in leaves.. Scheidig A1, Fröhlich A, ... Analysis of plants reduced in the presence of this beta-amylase isoform showed that their leaves had a starch-excess phenotype ... A functional screen in Escherichia coli was established to identify potato genes coding for proteins involved in transitory ...
GM Events with Modified alpha amylase. Event Name and Code. Trade Name. Gene(s) Introduced. ...
Gene Expression & Regulation. (6) * Gene Therapy. (1) * Genetic Code & Human Genome. (3) ...
The expression of the Amy-1 and Amy-2 genes in vivo... ... We propose to investigate the molecular aspects of amylase ... 1992) Endogenous retroviral sequences are required for tissue-specific expression of a human salivary amylase gene. Genes Dev 6 ... Meisler, M H; Ting, C N (1993) The remarkable evolutionary history of the human amylase genes. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 4:503-9 ... Hormonal Regulation of Amylase Gene Expression Meisler, Miriam H. University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, MI, United ...
  • The α-amylase gene of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was integrated into the genome of Bacillus subtilis by homologous recombination. (springer.com)
  • Bailey MJ, Markkanen PH (1975) Use of mutagenic agents in improvement of α-amylase production by Bacillus subtilis . (springer.com)
  • Fahnestock SR, Saunders CW, Guyer MS, Löfdahl S, Guss B, Uhlen M, Lindberg M (1986) Expression of the Staphylococcal protein A gene in Bacillus subtilis by integration of the intact gene into the B. subtilis chromosome. (springer.com)
  • Grandi G, Mottes M, Sgaramella V (1981) Specific pattern of instability of Escherichia coli his G gene cloned in Bacillus subtilis via the Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pCS194. (springer.com)
  • The a-amylase gene from Bacillus licheniformis together with its signal peptide seguence was cloned into a yeast expression vector under the control of the yeast ADH1 promoter and terminator. (dcu.ie)
  • Temperature sensitive yeast mutants defective in the specific steps in the secretory pathway were used to show that the native Bacillus signal peptide is capable of effeciently directing the a-amylase through the yeast secretory pathway. (dcu.ie)
  • The extracellular amylase produced by the yeast was found to have similar pH and temperature profiles to the native Bacillus enzyme. (dcu.ie)
  • These included the isolation of yeast mutants using ethyl methane sulphonic acid(EMS), the targeted integration of the a-amylase gene into single and reiterated regions of the yeast chromosomal DNA, and finally the removal of part of the 3' untranslated region of the DNA fragment carrying the Bacillus a-amylase gene. (dcu.ie)
  • Cloning of the beta-amylase gene from Bacillus cereus and characteristics of the primary structure of the enzyme. (asm.org)
  • The gene encoding the beta-amylase of Bacillus cereus BQ10-S1 (SpoII) was cloned into Escherichia coli JM 109. (asm.org)
  • The amino acid sequence homology with those of known beta-amylases was 52.7% for Bacillus polymyxa, 52.0% for Bacillus circulans, 43.4% for Clostridium thermosulfurogenes, 31.8% for Arabidopsis thaliana, 31.5% for barley, 29.9% for sweet potato, and 28.9% for soybean. (asm.org)
  • There are several materials that were used in the cloning process of α-amylase gene from Bacillus subtilis PY22 namely plasmid Blunt II-Topo and E. coli as described by Karakas et al. (avroarrow.org)
  • 2003), the Bacillus subtilis RSKK strains were used to clone the α-amylase gene in E. coli XLl-Blue MRF. (avroarrow.org)
  • This involves the isolation of α-amylase gene from Bacillus subtilis and expressed it into another microorganism. (avroarrow.org)
  • Besides, the purification of α-amylase produced from Bacillus subtilis was also difficult since the bacteria also produce other type of enzymes. (avroarrow.org)
  • The crystals of beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus belong to space group P21 with the following cell dimensions: a = 57.70 A, b = 92.87 A, c = 65.93 A, and beta =101.95 degrees. (rcsb.org)
  • Bacterial (Bacillus subtilis) alpha- amylase has been in common use to control the viscosity of chocolate syrup since 1929 and in the brewing industry since 1936. (inchem.org)
  • This alpha-amylase from Bacillus subtilis B1-109 (ATCC 39,701) containing plasmid pCPC 800 [amylase gene from B. megaterium (NCIB 11568)] and regulating sequences from alpha-amylase of B. stearothermophilus (see Appendix 2) has not been previously evaluated by the Committee. (inchem.org)
  • 2.2.2 Short term studies 2.2.2.1 Rat Groups of 5 male and 5 female rat (Fischer 344) were exposed to enzyme levels of either 0.0, 20.0, 60.0 or 100.0 U/g Bacillus megaterium for 14 days (equivalent to 0, 1, 3 or 5% liquid use product or approximately 0, 0.32, 0.99 or 1.57 g/kg b.w./day), in the diet (alpha-amylase 6000 U/g). (inchem.org)
  • 2.2.2.2 Dog Groups of 1 male and 1 female dog (Beagle dogs, 6-7 months of age) were exposed to enzyme levels of either 0.0, 20.0, 60.0 or 100.0 U/g Bacillus megaterium for 15 days (approximately 0, 0.12, 0.29 or 0.74 g/kg b.w./day) in the diet (alpha-amylase 6000 U/g). (inchem.org)
  • Groups of 4 male and 4 female dogs (Beagle dogs, 6-7 months of age) were exposed to enzyme at levels of 0, 20, 60 or 100 U/g Bacillus megaterium amylase based on 5100 units of amylase/g of test material for 13 weeks in the diet (approximately 0, 0.12, 0.32 or 0.57 g/kg b.w./day). (inchem.org)
  • α-Amylase purified from Bacillus sp. (bio-medicine.org)
  • 2.2.9 Genes and proteins from thermophilic strains of Bacillus. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Amylases from Bacillus spp. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • 2.2.12 Other genes and genetic systems in Bacillus stearothermophilus. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • The recombinant plasmid pC194Amy harbouring 5.25 kbp DNA fragment encoding the thermostable of-amylase gene of Bacillus stearothermophilus was introduced into Bacillus subtilis YB886 and B. subtilis BR151 strains by electroporation. (cu.edu.tr)
  • AmyTM is a truncated mutant of the α-amylase of Bacillus stearothermophilus US100. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This study investigated the coproduction of alkaline amylase and lipopeptides by Bacillus methylotrophicus DCS1 strain, as well as their biochemical characterisation. (springer.com)
  • Arikan B (2008) Highly thermostable, thermophilic, alkaline, SDS and chelator resistant amylase from a thermophilic Bacillus sp. (springer.com)
  • Aygan A, Arikan B, Korkmaz H, Dinçer S, Çolak Ö (2008) Highly thermostable and alkaline α-amylase from a halotolerant alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. (springer.com)
  • Behel A, Singh MK, Sharma MK, Puri P, Batra N (2006) Characterization of alkaline α-amylase from Bacillus sp. (springer.com)
  • Bhange K, Chaturvedi V, Bhatt R (2016) Simultaneous production of detergent stable keratinolytic protease, amylase and biosurfactant by Bacillus subtilis PF1 using agroindustrial waste. (springer.com)
  • Burhan A, Nisa U, Gokhan C, Omer C, Ashabil A, Osman G (2003) Enzymatic properties of a novel thermostable, thermophilic, alkaline and chelator resistant amylase from an alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. (springer.com)
  • Dahiya P, Rathi Amity RB (2015) Characterization and application of alkaline α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis MTCC1483 as a detergent additive. (springer.com)
  • De Carvalho RV, Côrrea TLR, da Silva JCM, de Oliveira Mansur LRC, Martins MLL (2008) Properties of an amylase from thermophilic Bacillus sp. (springer.com)
  • Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene for the 25 isolates followed by BLAST search revealed a majority of them (19) identified as Bacillus licheniformis . (bvsalud.org)
  • An attempt was made to amplify amyN gene which codes for α- amylase but successful amplification was achieved only from Bacillus licheniformis alone. (bvsalud.org)
  • Recombinant Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase (BHA) was studied in two different crystal forms. (dtu.dk)
  • The apuA gene was then expressed in Bacillus subtilis and secreted into the culture fluid. (asm.org)
  • Among the thermoactive archaeal enzymes, only the α-amylase from P. furiosus has been expressed in Bacillus subtilis , but no data concerning the expression level or the purification procedure for the enzyme are available ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • Cloning and sequencing of an alkaline protease gene from Bacillus lentus and amplification of the gene on the B. lentus chromosome by an improved technique. (novozymes.com)
  • Salivary amylase is an enzyme produced by the salivary glands that aids in the breakdown of starch. (natureasia.com)
  • These results suggest that B. cereus beta-amylase has an extra domain which has raw-starch-binding ability and that the domain has considerable sequence homology with those of other amylases or related enzymes from a wide variety of microorganisms. (asm.org)
  • Moreover, the similarities in the extra C-terminal domains (different from both the alpha-amylase domain C and the starch-binding domain), when present, also suggest interkingdom as well as intragenomic shuffling. (ac.be)
  • The digestion of polysaccharide carbohydrates begins in the mouth by action of salivary α-amylase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of the α-1,4-glycosidic bonds of starch, followed by the action of pancreatic amylase. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We hypothesized that starch digestion-related amylase genetic variants affect the regulation of body adiposity, particularly when the intake of polysaccharide, the substrate for amylase, is changed. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These results indicate that the ability of B. cereus beta-amylase to digest raw starch can be attributed to the additional two maltose-binding sites. (rcsb.org)
  • Amylases are secreted proteins that hydrolyze 1,4-alpha-glucoside bonds in oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, and thus catalyze the first step in digestion of dietary starch and glycogen. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Downregulation of a chloroplast-targeted beta-amylase leads to a starch-excess phenotype in leaves. (nih.gov)
  • A functional screen in Escherichia coli was established to identify potato genes coding for proteins involved in transitory starch degradation. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of the gene in E. coli showed that the protein product was a functional beta-amylase that could degrade both starch granules and solubilized amylopectin, while import experiments demonstrated that the beta-amylase was imported and processed into pea chloroplasts. (nih.gov)
  • Analysis of plants reduced in the presence of this beta-amylase isoform showed that their leaves had a starch-excess phenotype, indicating a defect in starch degradation. (nih.gov)
  • EXPLANATION Enzymes used for the hydrolysis of starch, generally called amylases, have a long history of use by the food industry. (inchem.org)
  • α-Amylase is a hydrolytic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of starch to a mixture of glucose, maltose, maltotriose and dextrins. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The DQ starch substrate is efficiently degraded by a-amylase to yield highly fluorescent fragments. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The regA gene inhibited the expression of a C. acetobutylicum gene that allows the starch to degrade into acetone, butanol and ethanol. (readabstracts.com)
  • The expressing of the alpha-amylase gene in recombinant strains were confirmed on starch plate, SDS-PAGE and zymogram analysis. (cu.edu.tr)
  • Recently, researchers found a correlation between obesity and a person's ability to make amylase, an enzyme that helps to break starch down in your mouth. (precisionnutrition.com)
  • They exhibit some of the greatest copy numbers of any human gene, an expansion possibly driven by increased dietary starch intake. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • In previous studies, residual starch of dry fermented substrate remained at a high level, and hypocrellin production was increased when external amylases were added (data was not showed in this study). (springeropen.com)
  • Therefore, α-amylase with high efficiency to directly hydrolyze high concentration raw starches at a relatively lower temperature will have a profound impact on the efficient application of starch. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A novel raw starch digesting α-amylase (named AmyZ1) was screened and cloned from a deep-sea bacterium Pontibacillus sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a novel raw starch-digesting α-amylase with high specific activity, AmyZ1 efficiently hydrolyzed raw starches derived from both terrestrial and marine environments at near ambient temperature, suggesting its application potential in starch-based industrial processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To solve this problem, α-amylases capable of directly liquefying raw starch to glucose would have significant industrial implications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • α-Amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) is one of the oldest and most important industrial enzymes used for starch processing [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Little is known about the structure of major gene families involved in banana starch metabolism and their evolution compared to other species. (frontiersin.org)
  • To identify genes involved in banana starch metabolism and investigate their evolutionary history, we analyzed six gene families playing a crucial role in plant starch biosynthesis and degradation: the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases (AGPases), starch synthases (SS), starch branching enzymes (SBE), debranching enzymes (DBE), α-amylases (AMY) and β-amylases (BAM). (frontiersin.org)
  • Gene expression analysis highlighted a complex transcriptional reprogramming of starch metabolism genes during ripening of banana fruits. (frontiersin.org)
  • A differential regulation of expression between banana gene duplicates was identified for SBE and BAM genes, suggesting that part of starch metabolism regulation in the fruit evolved in the banana lineage. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genes encoding starch metabolism enzymes have been studied mainly in Arabidopsis , potato and for monocots mostly in grass species. (frontiersin.org)
  • Little is known about these genes and their evolution in other monocots with starch-storing organs such as bananas. (frontiersin.org)
  • During the ripening of fruit, β-amylase breaks starch into maltose, resulting in the sweet flavor of ripe fruit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha-amylase, (α-amylase) is an enzyme EC 3.2.1.1 that hydrolyses alpha bonds of large, alpha-linked polysaccharides, such as starch and glycogen, yielding shorter chains thereof, dextrins, and maltose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amylase is found in saliva and breaks starch into maltose and dextrin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene copy number is associated with apparent evolutionary exposure to high-starch diets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The best production of both amylase and biosurfactant was obtained when potato starch (10 g/L) and glutamic acid (5 g/L) were used as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. (springer.com)
  • α-amylase is the key enzyme that degrades starch during malting. (edu.au)
  • The predicted protein structural alteration caused by substitution of Asp 233 Asn in the conserved starch binding surface site, and significantly expressional differentiation during seed germination and grain development provided evidence of functional divergence between Amy1θ and Amy1λ genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some of these bacteria have adapted to life in the oral cavity by binding salivary α-amylase, which hydrolyzes dietary starch, thus providing a source of nutrition. (springer.com)
  • Recent discoveries of starch degrading enzymes have led to increased application of amylases in various industrial processes (1). (scielo.br)
  • The c-amylase (1,4- a -D-glucan glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.1) hydrolyses a 1,4 glucosidic linkages in starch and related substrates (5,18,23). (scielo.br)
  • Byacting at random locations along the starch chain, human AMY1A breaks downlong-chain carbohydrates, ultimately yielding maltotriose and maltose fromamylose, or maltose, glucose and 'limit dextrin' from amylopectin.Because human salivary amylase can act anywhere on the substrate, human AMY1Atends to be faster acting than beta amylase enzyme. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Interestingly, your amylase genes can tell if you do better on a high- or low-starch diet. (selfhacked.com)
  • Studies have linked higher amylase levels to better glucose tolerance after eating starch-rich meals [ 4 , 5 ]. (selfhacked.com)
  • One study illustrates this nicely: 7 people with high amylase levels and 7 people with low amylase levels were given a starch-rich meal. (selfhacked.com)
  • This means that people with low amylase levels may be at a greater risk of insulin resistance and diabetes on starch-rich diets [ 8 ]. (selfhacked.com)
  • Because the (1→6)-α-glucosyl linkages in these oligoglucosides, which are also referred to as limit dextrins, are not hydrolyzed by α- or β-amylases, and because the action of α-glucosidase on branched oligoglucosides is relatively slow, debranching enzymes are considered to play a central role in the complete depolymerization of starch to Glc. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The first step in the conversion of starch to glucose is liquefaction, which runs at temperatures of 95 to 105°C in the presence of a thermostable α-amylase. (asm.org)
  • The resulting construct, pAAMY, when introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells which when subsequently grown under pH-controlled conditions, produced active a-amylase enzyme. (dcu.ie)
  • Mas7, a cationic amphiphilic tetradecapeptide that stimulates GDP/GTP exchange by heterotrimeric G proteins, specifically induced α-amylase gene expression and enzyme secretion in a very similar manner to GA 1 . (plantcell.org)
  • In order to meet the industrial demands for α-amylase enzyme, new alternative methods have been found, which can significantly improve the enzyme production with minimal cost. (avroarrow.org)
  • Hence by isolating and expressing the specific gene that responsible for the production of α-amylase enzyme into another microorganism that easier to grow such as E. coli and Pichia pastoris will not only reduce the cost but also ease the enzyme purification (Nimkar et al. (avroarrow.org)
  • Pichia pistoris is a type of yeast that feed on methanol and does not normally produce α-amylase enzyme. (avroarrow.org)
  • This report examines the relationship between seedling vigor, α-amylase enzyme activity and α-amylase mRNA accumulation in ten varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown at two temperatures (15°C and 30°C). A significant, positive correlation was observed between seedling vigor, α-amylase enzyme activity, and the accumulation of mRNA from one rice α-amylase gene (RAmy1A) at both temperature regimens. (elsevier.com)
  • The results of this study support previous experiments which have correlated α-amylase enzyme activity to seedling vigor. (elsevier.com)
  • 2.2 Toxicological studies 2.2.1 Acute toxicity studies 2.2.1.1 Rat Groups of 6 male and 6 female rats (Fischer 344) were dosed by gavage with the enzyme as an aqueous suspension at dose levels ranging from 0 to 12 g/kg b.w. (alpha-amylase activity 5130 U/g). (inchem.org)
  • AmyC, a glycoside hydrolase family 57 (GH57) enzyme of Thermotoga maritima MSB8, has previously been identified as an intracellular α-amylase playing a role in either maltodextrin utilization or storage polysaccharide metabolism. (rug.nl)
  • However, the α-amylase specificity of AmyC is questionable as extensive phylogenetic analysis of GH57 and tertiary structural comparison suggest that AmyC could actually be a glycogen-branching enzyme (GBE), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of glycogen. (rug.nl)
  • is provided with the EnzChek Amylase Assay Kit to serve as a control enzyme. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The AMY1 gene controls the secretion of amylase, an enzyme that helps break down and digest starches. (billsardiblog.com)
  • Exploitation of PM for α-amylase production with better downstream makes it the unique enzyme for various biotechnological applications. (frontiersin.org)
  • The α-amylase and all include a huge proportion of tyrosine and tryptophan in the enzyme protein and denature at around 60°C. The α-amylase is an extracellular endo-glycoprotein having single polypeptide chain of 475 residues, two -SH groups and 4 disulfide bridges with a compactly bound Ca 2+ . (frontiersin.org)
  • Inhibitory in vitro assays of the α-AI1 protein against H. hampei α-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Functional, biochemical analysis has documented that the alpha-amylase is cold-adapted with a temperature optimum at 10 °C to 20 °C and that the enzyme is active over a broad pH range. (google.com)
  • In this study, we found that there was no significant change of ratio of glycosylated molecules among isozymes produced by the same cultured cells, indicating that glycosylation of amylase is influenced by the type of cell producing the enzyme rather than being an inherent property of the amylase isozymes. (scirp.org)
  • Therefore, it is essential to explore novel α-amylases with higher specific activity toward raw starches to decrease the dosage and cost on the enzyme [ 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Beta-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2, β-amylase, saccharogen amylase, glycogenase) is an enzyme with the systematic name 4-alpha-D-glucan maltohydrolase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thermostable alpha-amylase from Pyrococcus furious is an important industrial enzyme in brewing and alcohol production . (bvsalud.org)
  • E. coli containing a recombinant plasmid pQR300 expressed the amylase gene and exported the enzyme into the periplasmic space and the culture medium. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The amylase protein expressed by E. coli had the same molecular mass (50 kDa) as that expressed by the Streptomyces parent strain, which suggests that the enzyme is processed similarly by both strains. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Human Salivary alpha Amylase enzyme Unit Definition: One unitwill catalyze the hydrolysis of one micromole of malto pentaose, whichthrough coupled reactions results in the formation of 5 micromoles ofglucose=6-phosphate per minute at 37°C. Measured at 340 nm as an equimolaramount of NADH produced by a coupled reaction. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Amylase is an enzyme that helped our ancestors adapt to digesting complex carbs. (selfhacked.com)
  • High amylase can be due to issues with the salivary glands or the pancreas, which produce this enzyme. (selfhacked.com)
  • The researchers, led by Mario Falchi from Imperial College London (ICL) and Philippe Froguel from ICL and Qatar Biomedical Research Institute, and including researchers from Qatar and Saudi Arabia, studied the influence of a CNV affecting the number of copies of the salivary amylase gene AMY1 and obesity, publishing their findings in Nature Genetics . (natureasia.com)
  • The human amylase gene cluster includes the human salivary (AMY1) and pancreatic amylase genes (AMY2A and AMY2B), and is a highly variable and dynamic region of the genome. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • In this work, we use high-resolution analysis of copy number, and analysis of segregation in trios, to define new, independent allelic series of amylase CNVs in sub-Saharan Africans, including a series of higher-order expansions of a unit consisting of one copy each of AMY1, AMY2A, and AMY2B. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Structural features shared by fundamentally distinct lineages strongly suggest that the common ancestral state for the human amylase cluster contained more than one, and probably three, copies of AMY1. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Salivary and pancreatic amylases (encoded by AMY1 and AMY2 genes, respectively) are responsible for digesting starchy foods. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • AMY1 and AMY2 show copy number variations that affect differences in amylase amount and activity, and AMY1 copies have been associated with adiposity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Overweight and obese individuals carrying the AMY1-AMY2 rs11185098 genotype associated with higher amylase activity may have greater loss of adiposity during low-calorie diet interventions. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Salivary α-amylase is encoded by the salivary amylase gene ( AMY1 ), which shows extensive copy number variations ( 4 - 7 ) that directly affect individual variability in salivary amylase amount and activity ( 8 - 10 ) as well as serum concentrations of total and pancreatic amylase ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • AMY1 is located in a gene cluster (1p21.1) that also includes pancreatic amylase genes ( AMY2A and AMY2B ), and AMY1 and AMY2A copy numbers are significantly correlated ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Increasing evidence suggests that low AMY1 gene copy numbers are associated with obesity ( 5 , 12 - 14 ), although the findings are not entirely consistent ( 7 , 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The Guardian March 30, 2014] Most people have 1-3 copies of the AMY1 gene but a significant number have 4-9 copies. (billsardiblog.com)
  • Humans have multiple genes encoding amylase that are broadly divided into salivary (AMY1) and pancreatic (AMY2) genes. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Within the population, amylase gene copy number is highly variable and there is evidence of an inverse association between AMY1 copy number and BMI. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • We examine the evidence for the link between AMY1 and BMI, its potential mechanisms, and the metabolic effects of salivary and pancreatic amylase, both in the gastrointestinal tract and the blood. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Three human α-amylases exist: Amy1 (salivary amylase), Amy2A (pancreatic amylase), and Amy2B (expressed in various tissues). (scirp.org)
  • The inconsistent link observed between salivary amylase gene copy number ( AMY1 CN) and weight management is likely modified by diet and microbiome. (ku.dk)
  • In wheat and barley, members of amy1 and amy2 genes are localized on chromosomes 6 and 7, respectively. (edu.au)
  • In rice, members of amy1 genes are found on chromosomes 1 and 2, and amy2 genes on chromosome 6. (edu.au)
  • Low Salivary Amylase Gene (AMY1) Copy Number Is Associated with Obesity and Gut Prevotella Abundance in Mexican Children and Adults. (cdc.gov)
  • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified copy number variants (CNVs) associated with obesity in chromosomal regions 1p31.1, 10q11.22, 11q11, 16p12.3, and recently 1p21.1, which contains the salivary amylase gene ( AMY1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • High isoelectric point α-amylase genes ( Amy1 ) play major roles during cereal seed germination, and are associated with unacceptable high residual α-amylase activities in ripe wheat grains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present work, we identified a total of 41 Amy1 genes among 13 investigated grasses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phylogenetic and syntenic analyses revealed tandem gene duplication and chromosomal rearrangement leading to separation of Amy1 into two distinct loci, Amy1θ and Amy1λ . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, we proposed an evolutionary model for expansion dynamics of Amy1 genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Meanwhile, some authors [ 16 , 17 ] named low-pI isoform as type A and high-pI as type B. In this work, we are prone to adopt high-pI α-amylase as Amy1 and low-pI as Amy2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • High-pI isoform (Amy1) was triggered by the commencement of seed germination and produced in higher concentration than that of low-pI α-amylase (Amy2), which was characterized by its synthesis both in kernel development and during seed germination [ 18 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2012). Among various enzymes available in market, α-amylase has received a special attention in commercial production due to its widely used applications. (avroarrow.org)
  • The gap gene, which was cloned and sequenced from C. acetobutylicum DSM 792, was observed to be clustering with other genes of enzymes from the glycolytic pathway. (readabstracts.com)
  • Fungal α-amylases have been achieved the pivotal place in "high-flying industrial enzymes" as they make enable the catalysis at wide range of both pH and temperature, possess higher degree of substrate specificity, may or may not demand cofactors and can catalyze an array of biochemical processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • All enzymes belonging to α-amylase cluster are classified into the GH 13 family and their arrangement contains a (β/α) barrel with Glu as a proton donor and Asp as a nucleophile on its catalytic sites. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sequence analysis has indicated that the alpha-amylase is related to Clostridia , and has revealed classical characteristics of cold-adapted enzymes. (google.com)
  • Among different types of microbial enzymes , amylases are the most widely used in industries as they are produced in large quantity and in an economic way as compared to plants and animals . (bvsalud.org)
  • Recent research with thermostable a -amylases has concentrated on the enzymes of thermophiles and extreme thermophiles (2,3,7,8,16,17,20) and little is known about the properties of the enzymes produced by these organisms. (scielo.br)
  • Apart from amylase, the pancreas also produces other enzymes that help digest food, such as lipase (to break down fats) and protease (to break down protein). (selfhacked.com)
  • Following germination, the glucosyl residues of amylose and amylopectin are released to support seedling growth by the concerted action of α-amylases, β-amylases, debranching enzymes, and α-glucosidases. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The debranching enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of (1→6)-α-glucosidic linkages in amylopectin or in (1→4,1→6)-α-oligoglucosides released by α-amylases. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Among these enzymes, only those from Pyrococcus woesei ( 39 ), Pyrococcus furiosus ( 7 , 14 ), Thermococcus hydrothermalis ( 15 , 18 ), and Thermococcus aggregans ( 33 ) have been studied at the genetic level, and their corresponding genes have been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli . (asm.org)
  • A number of other proteins share structural similarities to the alpha-amylase inhibitors but are active against specific proteases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using an integrative genomic approach, the researchers identified CNVs in the DNA that affect the expression of genes located within their boundaries and investigated the influence of these genes on body weight. (natureasia.com)
  • At fixed time intervals, from 0 to 48 h, we determined the clearance rate, the total filtered cells, the composition of the fecal ribbons, the profile of the PSP toxins and the variation of the expression of two α-amylase and triacylglecerol lipase precursor (TLP) genes through semi-quantitative RT-PCR. (mdpi.com)
  • Rolland J-L, Pelletier K, Masseret E, Rieuvilleneuve F, Savar V, Santini A, Amzil Z, Laabir M. Paralytic Toxins Accumulation and Tissue Expression of α-Amylase and Lipase Genes in the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas Fed with the Neurotoxic Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella . (mdpi.com)
  • The role of heterotrimeric G proteins in gibberellin (GA) induction of α-amylase gene expression was examined in wild oat aleurone protoplasts. (plantcell.org)
  • Heterotrimeric G proteins have been implicated in several events during plant growth and development, and these data suggest that they may be involved in GA regulation of α-amylase gene expression in aleurone. (plantcell.org)
  • Expression of α-amylase gene in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris. (avroarrow.org)
  • A slight decrease in hepatic α-amylase gene expression was observed only in E1. (ajol.info)
  • We have extended this correlation to the expression of one of ten genes that comprise the rice α-amylase multigene family. (elsevier.com)
  • These results suggest that the expression of α-amylase gene RAmy1A is an important, and possibly rate-limiting factor in determining seedling vigor in rice. (elsevier.com)
  • The expression of the Amy-1 and Amy-2 genes in vivo is limited to specific tissues: Amy-1, or salivary amylase, is a major product in the parotid gland and a minor product in the liver, and Amy-2, pancreatic amylase, is a major product in the pancreas. (grantome.com)
  • Additional hepatoma lines will be tested to determine the generality of amylase expression in hepatomas. (grantome.com)
  • These studies will contribute to our understanding of the molecular basis for tissue specific expression and hormonal regulation of mammalian genes. (grantome.com)
  • The structure and expression of the α-amylase-encoding gene, RAmy2A, are described. (elsevier.com)
  • Characterization and expression of the hydrogenase-encoding gene from Clostridium acetobutylicum P262. (readabstracts.com)
  • 2.2.4 Expression of other genes from Thermus genomic libraries. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Metabolic regulation of α-amylase gene expression in transgenic cell cultures of rice (Oryza sativa L. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Expression of thermostable alpha-amylase. (cu.edu.tr)
  • However, from 4 dpf onwards there was a significant increase on expression of all genes, suggesting that all analysed pathways were active. (biologists.org)
  • Acute effects of glucose injection on gene expression were assessed in larvae up to 10 dpf, and the programming concept was evaluated in juveniles (41 dpf) challenged with a hyperglucidic diet. (biologists.org)
  • However, these same fish showed altered expression of the genes for cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 1 and glycogen synthase, suggesting changes to the glucose storage capacity in muscle and glucose production and transport in viscera. (biologists.org)
  • A chloroplast expression vector, p64A, containing the thermostable alpha-amylase gene from Pyrococcus furious, was constructed with clpP-trnL-petB-chlL-rp123-rpl2 as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii plastid homologous recombinant fragments and spetinomycin-resistant aadA gene as select marker. (bvsalud.org)
  • Relative to the wild type, the GA 3 -treated aleurone layer of d1 had lower expression of Ramy1A , which encodes α-amylase, and OsGAMYB , which encodes a GA-inducible transcriptional factor, and no increase in expression of Ca 2 + -ATPase . (pnas.org)
  • Nevertheless, it has been proposed that the plant heterotrimeric G protein is involved in various signal transduction systems, including those of several plant hormones, blue and red light-mediated responses, pathogen resistance, and pathogen-related gene expression. (pnas.org)
  • 6 ) recently demonstrated that Gα proteins might be involved in gibberellin (GA) signal transduction pathway leading to α-amylase gene expression in oat aleurone protoplasts. (pnas.org)
  • Because these newly discovered variants exist in the genomes of healthy individuals, their presence could lead to subtle differences affecting physical or behavioural traits by influencing the expression of specific genes, but they could also predispose to future disease," said BWH's Dr. Charles Lee, co-principal investigator and assistant professor at HMS. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cloning and Secretive Expression of the Gene Encoding the Proteinaceous .ALPHA. (nii.ac.jp)
  • To learn what distinguishes their lifestyles, we compared their gene contents and expression patterns in media and a shared host, potato tuber. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genes related to pathogenesis varied in temporal expression pattern, mRNA level, and family size between the species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This first large-scale analysis of transcriptional divergence within oomycetes revealed major shifts in genome composition and expression, including subfunctionalization within gene families. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biotrophy and necrotrophy seem determined by species-specific genes and the varied expression of shared pathogenicity factors, which may be useful targets for crop protection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We identified candidate genes that showed highly dynamic changes in expression during the calyx abscission process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many natural isolates of budding yeast carry extra chromosome copies and show lower-than-expected expression at a subset of amplified genes, which show unique evolutionary signatures. (elifesciences.org)
  • this depletion is associated with changes in gene expression and with the incidence of critical somatic mutations and alterations. (elifesciences.org)
  • Dosage-compensated gene expression facilitates chromosomal aneuploidy, which presents a rapid route to phenotypic evolution in natural yeast isolates. (elifesciences.org)
  • The yeasts Kluyveromyces lactis GG799 (and protease deficient derivatives such as YCT390) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae YPH499 were transformed with the optimised genes and transformants were screened for expression by antibody dot blot. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is the first report describing the heterologous expression of the α-amylase inhibitor 1 (αAI) from P. vulgaris in yeasts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These latter factors complicate the interpretation of limit dextrinase activity measurements and therefore limited our ability to fully describe the regulation of limit dextrinase gene expression in barley grain. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Altering the expression of two chitin synthase genes differentially affects the growth and morphology of Aspergillus oryzae. (novozymes.com)
  • Northern analysis indicated no change in the transcription of the chitin synthase genes csmA and chsC when chsB expression was altered, and there was no change in the transcription of chsB and chsC when csmA was disrupted. (novozymes.com)
  • This only representative of the Amy2 subfamily in rice differs from other cereal α-amylase-encoding genes in several respects. (elsevier.com)
  • This is in marked contrast to the Amy2 genes of wheat and barley which are highly expressed in the aleurone layer of the germinated seeds. (elsevier.com)
  • In the first transformation step, several strains were obtained carrying the α-amylase gene as two randomly located copies. (springer.com)
  • These strains produced α-amylase in the quantities comparable with that of the multicopy plasmid pKTH10, carrying the same α-amylase gene. (springer.com)
  • Both methods resulted in integration strains carrying up to eight α-amylase gene copies per one genome and producing up to eightfold higher α-amylase activity than the parental strains. (springer.com)
  • Genetic stability of amylase activity after serial subcultivation experiments with amylolytic ruminalStreptococcus bovis strains was investigated. (naver.com)
  • Loss of amylase activity connected with the loss of plasmid DNA was not found in these strains. (naver.com)
  • The presence of the gene responible for the amylase activity in the chromosome of these strains was revealed by hybridization of the α-amylase gene on pJK108 against chromosomal DNA ofS. (naver.com)
  • ABPs were detected in culture supernatants of 27 of 59 strains representing 13 oral Streptococcus species screened using the amylase-ligand binding assay. (springer.com)
  • We have sequenced 11 H7 fliC genes from Escherichia coli strains that belong to seven O serotypes. (asm.org)
  • These sequences, together with those of nine other H7 fliC genes (from strains of three different O serotypes) sequenced recently (S. D. Reid, R. K. Selander, and T. S. Whittam, J. Bacteriol. (asm.org)
  • By comparison with other E. coli flagellin genes, we have identified primer length sequences specific for H7 genes in general and others specific for H7 genes of O157 and O55 strains: the specificity was confirmed by PCR testing the type strains for all 53 E. coli H types. (asm.org)
  • We have previously identified genes specific for the E. coli O157 antigen, and use of the combination of O157- and H7-specific primers allows the sensitive and rapid detection of O157:H7 E. coli strains, which cause the majority of hemorrhagic colitis cases. (asm.org)
  • PCR detection with probes based on the Stx and eaeA (encoding intimin) genes and an unspecified plasmid gene have been developed, but each probe gave a positive result with some other E. coli strains even when only a small number of strains were tested ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • Recently, we sequenced the gene cluster that encodes the O157 antigen, and by PCR testing against representatives of all 166 E. coli O serotypes and a range of gram-negative bacterial strains, including some that cross-react serologically with E. coli O157 antisera, we have found that certain O-antigen genes are highly specific for E. coli O157 ( 34 ). (asm.org)
  • The two strains had almost identical metabolic fluxes, which suggested that it was possible to disrupt the oah gene without pleiotropic consequences. (novozymes.com)
  • 2010). The cloning process started off with the isolation of DNA fragment that encodes α-amylase of about 2.5 kbp using the MasterPure™ kits, which was then amplified by the PCR method. (avroarrow.org)
  • 2.3.1 Cloning of genes involved in cellulose hydrolysis. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • A gene coding for a thermostable extracellular α -amylase, carried by a 5·7 kb Bam HI chromosomal DNA fragment isolated from Streptomyces thermoviolaceus strain CUB74, was cloned into Escherichia coli JM107 using, as a cloning vector, the high-copy-number plasmid pUC8. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Molecular cloning and characterization of the Streptomyces hygroscopicus α -amylase gene. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Cloning and Transcription Analysis of the Aspergillus aculeatus No. F-50 Endoglucanase 2 (cmc2) Gene. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Cloning and Sequencing of an Exoglucanase Gene from Streptomyces sp. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The amylase catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4 alpha-glucosidic linkages in common polysaccharide. (inchem.org)
  • Working from the non-reducing end, β-amylase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the second α-1,4 glycosidic bond, cleaving off two glucose units (maltose) at a time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The numbers of salivary amylase genes in some families showing quantitative variation at the protein level have been estimated by the polymerase chain reaction. (springer.com)
  • We present evidence that quantitative variations in amylase protein patterns do not always reflect variations in gene copy number but that other mechanisms are also involved. (springer.com)
  • A GA-regulated myb gene, GAmyb , encodes a protein that binds to the GA response element of high-pI α-amylase promoters. (plantcell.org)
  • Within the WDAI group, two different genes encoded the same mature protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The antibody detects the Rat Amylase at the expected molecular weight i.e. at ~54kDa in the pancreatic lysate and recombinant protein at ~ 60 kDa. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Mc1r gene and identify the effects of mutations on the MC1R protein pathway. (hhmi.org)
  • An advanced lesson that requires students to analyze partial DNA sequences of the Mc1r gene and identify the effects of mutations on the MC1R protein pathway. (hhmi.org)
  • DNA sequencing of the hydrogenase-encoding gene (hydA) isolated by colony hybridization from Clostridium acetobutylicum P262 reveals the presence of an open reading frame of 1722 bp that codes for a protein with 574 amino acids. (readabstracts.com)
  • A study of the nucleotide sequencing and database analysis of the protein sequence of the region affecting metronidazole sensitivity in E. coli F19 reveals that it contains a regulator gene, regA, which has 40 percent identity to the ccpA gene of B. subtilis. (readabstracts.com)
  • The number of gene copies correlates with the levels of salivary amylase, as measured by protein blot assays using antibodies to human amylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome sequencing and BLAST searches using N-terminal sequences, protein size, and key words identified the gene associated with each ABP. (springer.com)
  • Among the sequenced ABPs, 14 matched amylase-binding protein A (AbpA), 6 matched amylase-binding protein B (AbpB), and 11 unique ABPs were identified as peptidoglycan-binding, glutamine ABC-type transporter, hypothetical, or choline-binding proteins. (springer.com)
  • In mammals, a set of genes has been identified for each of the G protein subunits: more than 16 genes for the α subunits, 5 genes for the β subunit, and 6 genes for the γ subunit, most of which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. (pnas.org)
  • Studies with mutants in the G protein genes should be one of the most conclusive ways to determine the role of the G protein in GA signaling in higher plants. (pnas.org)
  • Recently, we ( 7 , 8 ) demonstrated that the rice d1 mutant is defective in the gene that encodes the Gα protein. (pnas.org)
  • Wheat grains accumulate a variety of low molecular weight proteins that are inhibitors of alpha-amylases and proteases and play an important protective role in the grain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The alpha-amylase/protease inhibitors also are of interest because they cause IgE-mediated occupational and food allergies and thereby impact human health. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The complement of genes encoding alpha-amylase/protease inhibitors expressed in the US bread wheat Butte 86 was characterized by analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • These included two monomeric (WMAI), four dimeric (WDAI), and six tetrameric (WTAI) inhibitors of exogenous alpha-amylases, two inhibitors of endogenous alpha-amylases (WASI), four putative trypsin inhibitors (CMx and WTI), and one putative chymotrypsin inhibitor (WCI). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The putative wheat trypsin inhibitors are referred to as CMx proteins and are encoded by genes on the group 4 chromosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A new approach for the discovery and subsequent structural elucidation of oligosaccharide-based inhibitors of alpha-amylases based upon autoglucosylation of known alpha-glucosidase inhibitors is presented. (nih.gov)
  • This approach to the discovery and structural analysis of amylase inhibitors should be generally applicable to other endoglucosidases and readily adaptable to a high throughput format. (nih.gov)
  • The EnzChek Amylase Assay Kit (E-11954) provides the speed, high sensitivity and convenience required for measuring a-amylase activity or for screening inhibitors in a high-throughput format. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Previously it was thought that amylase inhibitors can slow the absorption of carbohydrates and reduce weight gain. (billsardiblog.com)
  • With the plasmid system, however, the rate of the α-amylase synthesis was faster and the production phase shorter than those of the chromosomally encoded α-amylase. (springer.com)
  • Hydrolysis-resistant nucleotides were introduced into aleurone protoplasts during transfection with reporter gene constructs. (plantcell.org)
  • The number of the DNA and mRNA copies of the α-amylase gene was quantitavely determined by sandwich hybridization techniques, directly from culture medium. (springer.com)
  • Both Mas7 and GA 1 induction of α-amylase mRNA were insensitive to pertussis toxin. (plantcell.org)
  • The sequences of two cloned rat pancreatic amylase cDNAs comprising 95% of the mRNA sequence are reported. (elsevier.com)
  • Regulation of the accumulation of mRNA for alpha-amylase in barley aleurone. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The mature polypeptide encoded by the gene has 884 amino acid residues and a calculated molecular mass of 97,417 D. Limit dextrinase mRNA is abundant in gibberellic acid-treated aleurone layers and in germinated grain. (plantphysiol.org)
  • These findings demonstrate recurrent involvement of the amylase gene region in genomic instability, involving at least five independent rearrangements of the pancreatic amylase genes (AMY2A and AMY2B). (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • salivary - AMY1A, AMY1B, AMY1C pancreatic - AMY2A, AMY2B α-Amylase activity in grain is measured by, for instance, the Hagberg-Perten Falling Number, a test to assess sprout damages, or the Phadebas method. (wikipedia.org)
  • This antibody is specific for Homo sapiens amylase, alpha 2A (pancreatic) (AMY2A). (fishersci.com)
  • At least 95% of the recombinant amylase is located extracellurarly. (dcu.ie)
  • Pancreatic tissue lysate (lane 1) and recombinant Amylase (lane 2). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Bank RA, Hettema EH, Arwert F, Nieuw Amerongen AV, Pronk JC (1991) Electrophoretic characterization of posttranslational modifications of human parotid salivary α-amylase. (springer.com)
  • These genes are potential targets for future functional characterization and should be valuable for exploration of the mechanisms of calyx abscission, and eventually for developing methods based on small molecule application to induce calyx abscission in fruit production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The homology search revealed that this C-terminal region has homology with C-terminal regions of the beta-amylase from C. thermosulfurogenes, some bacterial alpha-amylases, cyclodextrin glucanotransferase, and glucoamylase. (asm.org)
  • We screened the bacterial genomes available in the sequence databases for new occurrences of animal-like alpha-amylases. (ac.be)
  • The M. degradans genome also contains bacterial-type and plant-type alpha-amylases in addition to the animal-type one. (ac.be)
  • but the mainstream applications of α-amylase in many modern biotechnological purposes are basically of bacterial and fungal origin. (frontiersin.org)
  • Studies on the a -amylase production were carried out with a bacterial strain isolated from a soil sample. (scielo.br)
  • Several amylase-producing bacterial colonies were selected after flooding the plates with iodine solution. (scielo.br)
  • Genetic studies on obesity have, to date, mainly identified genes expressed in our brain, likely involved in the modulation of appetite," says Falchi. (natureasia.com)
  • Eckersall PD, Beeley JA (1981) Genetic analysis of human salivary α-amylase isozymes by isoelectric focusing. (springer.com)
  • Pronk JC (1977) A genetic variant of amylase from human parotid saliva detected by isoelectric focusing. (springer.com)
  • Pronk JC, Frants RR (1979) New genetic variants of parotid salivary amylase. (springer.com)
  • Here we assess amylase copy numbers in a global sample of 480 high coverage genomes and find that regions flanking the amylase locus show notable depression of genetic diversity both in African and non-African populations. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We investigated whether genetic variants determining amylase gene copies are associated with 2-year changes in adiposity among 692 overweight and obese individuals who were randomly assigned to diets varying in macronutrient content. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Dual inheritance theory (DIT), also known as gene-culture coevolution or biocultural evolution, was developed in the 1960s through early 1980s to explain how human behavior is a product of two different and interacting evolutionary processes: genetic evolution and cultural evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes and culture continually interact in a feedback loop, changes in genes can lead to changes in culture which can then influence genetic selection, and vice versa. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these cells, the production and secretion of salivary amylases is induced more than 30-fold by dexamethasone. (grantome.com)
  • Of interest, gingerol, a substance found in ginger, increased amylase secretion and suppresses weight gain in obese mice. (billsardiblog.com)
  • We also confirmed that the C-terminal region of human amylase plays a critical role in secretion, although glycosylation does not play a part in this effect. (scirp.org)
  • In addition, we discuss the importance of the C-terminal region of human amylase in secretion. (scirp.org)
  • Polymorphisms are natural variations in a gene, DNA sequence, or chromosome that show up in behavior or physiology (phenotype). (precisionnutrition.com)
  • In humans, all amylase isoforms link to chromosome 1p21 (see AMY1A). (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparisons of the localizations of genes have allowed the establishment of homologies among chromosome arms over a wide range of species (see A shburner 1989 , p. 23, Table 5.2). (genetics.org)
  • An apparent exception in D. miranda to the principle of chromosomal homology, involving the transposition of a gene from the neo- X chromosome to the ancestral X chromosome, was suggested to provide a novel means of dosage compensation, evolved in response to the degeneration of its paralog on the neo- Y chromosome ( Y i and C harlesworth 2000b ). (genetics.org)
  • This led us to investigate the prevalence of the transposition or duplication of genes from the neo- X chromosome onto other chromosomes. (genetics.org)
  • Potential functional divergence between them is reflected by their sequence features and expressional patterns, and driven by gene duplication, chromosome rearrangement and natural selections during gene family evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The alpha-amylase (Amy)-encoding gene (amy) of Streptomyces thermoviolaceus CUB74, previously cloned in Escherichia coli and S. lividans and localised on a 1.7-kb BamHI-SphI genomic DNA fragment, has been sequenced. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The gene encoding a thermoactive pullulanase from the hyperthermophilic anaerobic archaeon Desulfurococcus mucosus ( apuA ) was cloned in Escherichia coli and sequenced. (asm.org)
  • Information on the spectrum of alpha-amylase/protease inhibitor genes and proteins expressed in a single wheat cultivar is central to understanding the importance of these proteins in both plant defense mechanisms and human allergies and facilitates both breeding and biotechnology approaches for manipulating the composition of these proteins in plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All of the mature alpha-amylase/protease inhibitor proteins contain 10 cysteine residues that form five disulfide bonds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This was transformed from an inhibitor of human pancreatic alpha-amylase with a K(i) value of 18 mm to a trisaccharide analogue with a K(i) value of 25 mum. (nih.gov)
  • To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an α-amylase inhibitor gene ( α-AI1 ), which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We transformed C. arabica with the α-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (α -AI1 ) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris , under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L). The presence of the α -AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We used a prototype alpha-amylase inhibitor pea created by CSIRO (Australia) and the authorised Bt-maize (Mon810) as GMOs. (europa.eu)
  • Amylase Inhibitor T-76 from Streptomyces nitrosporeus Is Important for Inhibition of Animal .ALPHA. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Amylase Inhibitor Paim from Streptomyces corchorusii. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Phaseolamin or α-amylase inhibitor 1 (αAI) is a glycoprotein from common beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that inhibits some insect and mammalian α-amylases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The two chromosomal gene copies were further multiplied either by amplification using increasing antibiotic concentration as the selective pressure or by performing a second transformation step, identical to the first integration procedure. (springer.com)
  • Comparisons of gene orders between species permit estimation of the rate of chromosomal evolution since their divergence from a common ancestor. (genetics.org)
  • Wheat kernels accumulate a variety of low molecular weight proteins that inhibit amylases and/or proteases from different sources. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first report of alpha-amylase inhibition by purified wheat proteins was by Silano et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anti-α-amylase antibody reacts specifically with α amylase present in human saliva and pancreatic extract but not with other proteins of saliva and pancreatic extract. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Oral streptococcal species bind α-amylase by expressing a variety of amylase-binding proteins (ABPs). (springer.com)
  • Here we determine the genotypic basis of amylase binding where proteins of diverse size and function share a common phenotype. (springer.com)
  • 20 1] Centre de Recherche en Epidémiologie et Santé des Populations, INSERM U1018, Epidemiology of Diabetes, Obesity and Chronic Kidney Disease over the Life Course, Villejuif, France. (nih.gov)
  • It has been known for some time now that individuals with a low number of amylase genes are predisposed to obesity. (billsardiblog.com)
  • Future research on the role of amylase as a determinant of metabolic health and BMI may lead to novel therapies to target obesity. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Low amylase and obesity can spiral down a vicious cycle. (selfhacked.com)
  • On one hand, studies have found that having low amylase levels is associated with an increased risk of obesity [ 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 ]. (selfhacked.com)
  • Using Western blotting and activity gels, this extracellular a-amylase fraction was found to be heterogeneous with respect to molecular weight, varying from approximately 55 to 71 kilodaltons. (dcu.ie)
  • The mature beta-amylase contains 514 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 57,885 Da. (asm.org)
  • We propose to investigate the molecular aspects of amylase regulation in a well-defined cultured cell line. (grantome.com)
  • These cells provide an excellent system for analysis of the molecular mechanisms involved in hormonal regulation of the amylase genes. (grantome.com)
  • Amylase was purified to homogeneity with molecular mass around 15.3 kDa. (frontiersin.org)
  • Isoflurane preconditioning involves upregulation of molecular chaperone genes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These large-scale copy variations, or LCVs, frequently overlap with genes and could explain why people are different," said Dr. Stephen Scherer, co-principal investigator of the study, a Sick Kids senior scientist, and an associate professor in the Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics at the University of Toronto. (eurekalert.org)
  • The human genome has a cluster of several amylase genes that are expressed at high levels in either salivary gland or pancreas. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Analysis of cloned rat genomic DNA fragments using cloned cDNA probes indicates that the rat genome contains multiple closely related amylase genes in which the cDNA sequences are distributed within a region 9 kilobases in length and are interrupted by at least seven intervening sequences. (elsevier.com)
  • We have compared gene orders on three chromosomes of Drosophila pseudoobscura with its close relative, D. miranda , and the distant outgroup species, D. melanogaster , by using the public genome sequences of D. pseudoobscura and D. melanogaster and ∼50 in situ hybridizations of gene probes in D. miranda . (genetics.org)
  • PCR amplification, Southern blot analysis of the transgene and cultivation in the dark all showed that the a- amylase gene had been integrated into chloroplast genome of C. reinhardtii. (bvsalud.org)
  • Many microbes also produce amylase to degrade extracellular starches. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antiserum is specific for human a-amylase found in human saliva and human pancreatic extract. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We studied the structures of N-glycans of human pancreatic amylase and found that they are different from those of salivary amylase (Oyama et al. (scirp.org)
  • In addition to the structural variety of N-glycans, there is a difference in the glycosylation pattern of human amylase isozymes [5,6]: both the N427 and N476 sites in human salivary amylase can be glycosylated to some extent, whereas those in human pancreatic amylase are either glycosylated to a lesser extent or not glycosylated. (scirp.org)
  • Human pancreatic amylase was purchased from Meridian Life Science, Inc. (Saco, ME). (scirp.org)
  • Chemocare.com ] Gallstones and stomach ulcers as well as diabetic ketoacidosis may cause abnormally high amylase levels. (billsardiblog.com)
  • Humans have more copies of amylase genes than other primates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • They generally are composed of one copy of either CM1 or CM2, encoded by genes on chromosomes 7D or 7B, plus one copy of either CM16 or CM17, encoded by genes on chromosomes 4B or 4D, plus two copies of CM3, also encoded on chromosomes 4B or 4D. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two copies of a pea gene coded for wrinkles resulted in - you guessed it - wrinkled peas. (precisionnutrition.com)
  • And two copies of a pea gene coded for smoothness resulted in smooth peas. (precisionnutrition.com)
  • Either way, there had to be two copies of the gene - no more, and no less. (precisionnutrition.com)
  • For a long time, scientists believed there were always two copies of a gene, and any differences between two members of the same species had to do with subtle differences in the gene itself. (precisionnutrition.com)
  • You can, in fact, have more than two copies of a gene. (precisionnutrition.com)
  • Instead of the standard two copies of each gene, you might have zero copies. (precisionnutrition.com)
  • For example, a Japanese individual had 14 copies of the amylase gene (one allele with 10 copies, and a second allele with four copies). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we compared the genomic properties, gene copies, and conserved promoter motifs of α-amylase genes in barley, rice, and wheat. (edu.au)
  • We screened out candidate copies ( TaAmy1-A1/A2 and TaAmy1-D1 ) associated with high residual α-amylase activities in ripe grains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, the discrimination of differentially effective copies during seed germination and/or grain development will provide guidance to manipulation of α-amylase activity in wheat and barley breeding for better yield and processing properties. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our study shows that some people may have 10 copies of this gene while others may have as much as 24 copies of this same gene. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this investigation, Aspergillus terreus NCFT4269.10 was employed in liquid static surface (LSSF) and solid state (SSF) fermentation to assess the optimal conditions for α-amylase biosynthesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mannosidase and Analysis of the Integrated Gene in Aspergillus oryzae. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The N-terminal sequences (AVNGKG MNPDYKAYLMAPLKKI), the C-terminal sequences (SHTSSW), and the amino acid sequences of the five regions in the beta-amylase molecules were determined. (asm.org)
  • Transfection of cloned genes and their modified derivatives will be employed to identify the sequences required for induction by dexamethasone. (grantome.com)
  • The effect of gibberellic acid and Ca(2+) on the accumulation of alpha-amylase mRNAs in aleurone layers of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Himalaya) was studied using cDNA clones containing sequences of mRNAs for the high and low isoelectric point (pI) alpha-amylases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Approximately 1.7 kbp fragment DNA, which encodes the α-amylase was isolated and inserted into the pUC18 vector before transformed into E. coli. (avroarrow.org)
  • This gene encodes an amylase isoenzyme produced by the pancreatic gland. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The maximum amylase production was achieved using pearl millet (PM) as substrate by SSF (19.19 ± 0.9 Ug −1 ) and also in presence of 1 mM magnesium sulfate, 0.025% (w/v) gibberellic acid, and 30 mg/100 ml (w/v) of vitamin E (~60-fold higher production of amylase) with the initial medium pH of 7.0 and incubation at 30 °C for 96 h. (frontiersin.org)
  • In order to improve the yield of hypocrellin and increase the use ratio of corn substrate, an α-amylase gene amy365 - 1 (GenBank accession no. (springeropen.com)
  • Structural organization and functional divergence of high isoelectric point α-amylase genes in bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) and barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are 53 H types in E. coli (note that H50 was deleted from the list [ 6 , 21 ]), and in most cases the flagellin structural genes are located at the fliC locus ( 17 , 18 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Amylase is secreted in saliva and also produced in the pancreas. (billsardiblog.com)
  • Excessively high levels of amylase may indicate inflammation of the pancreas. (billsardiblog.com)
  • When insufficient amylase is produced by the pancreas the body is unable to digest starches and they continue down the digestive tract to the intestines where they can abnormally alter gut bacteria and produce symptoms of bloating, gas, diarrhea, constipation and accompanying skin rashes, fatigue and joint pain. (billsardiblog.com)
  • Two distinct amylase genes active in pancreas of ybr mice. (jax.org)
  • Meisler, M and Strahler, J R., "Two distinct amylase genes active in pancreas of ybr mice. (jax.org)
  • Pancreatic amylase is produced by the pancreas and helps digest complex sugars in your gut [ 3 ]. (selfhacked.com)
  • People with diabetes whose insulin-secreting beta cells in the pancreas are working well have higher amylase levels (within the normal range). (selfhacked.com)
  • In this study, we evaluated the glycosylation state of human amylase isozymes and found that the different glycosylation patterns of human amylases were related to the types of amylase-producing cells rather than the types of amylase isozymes. (scirp.org)
  • There are two main types of amylase - salivary and pancreatic [ 1 , 2 ]. (selfhacked.com)
  • Muus J, Vnenchak JM (1964) Isozymes of salivary amylase. (springer.com)
  • Ogita S (1966) Genetico-biochemical studies on the salivary and pancreatic amylase isozymes in human. (springer.com)
  • In general, salivary amylase is more frequently glycosylated than pancreatic amylase, and it is still uncertain why differences in the glycosylation pattern among human amylase isozymes occur. (scirp.org)
  • It is still uncertain, however, why differences in the glycosylation pattern among human amylase isozymes occur. (scirp.org)
  • This communication presents phylogenetic and biochemical evidence that AmyC is a GBE with a relatively high hydrolytic (α-amylase) activity (up to 30% of the total activity), creating a branched α-glucan with 8.5% α-1,6-glycosidic bonds. (rug.nl)
  • The accompanying increase in fluorescence is proportional to amylase activity and can be monitored with a fluorescence microplate reader, minifluorometer or standard fluorometer. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Aleurones from a Barley with Low [alpha]-Amylase Activity Become Highly Responsive to Gibberellin When Detached from the Starchy Endosperm. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the condition of 100 degrees C and 15 min, Y13886Amy, BR151Amy and ATCC31786 alpha-amylases were maintained up to 80, 67 and 52% of their maximum activity respectively. (cu.edu.tr)
  • Similar to most α-amylases, AmyZ1 activity was enhanced (2.4-fold) by 1.0 mM Ca 2+ . (biomedcentral.com)
  • In gastric juice adjusted to pH 3.3, ptyalin was totally inactivated in 20 minutes at 37 °C. In contrast, 50% of amylase activity remained after 150 minutes of exposure to gastric juice at pH 4.3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salivary α-amylase has been used as a biomarker for stress and as a surrogate marker of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity that does not require a blood draw. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amylase activity was partially inhibited by EDTA (5 mM). (springer.com)
  • Considering its promising properties, B. methylotrophicus DCS1 crude extract containing both biosurfactants and amylase activity may be considered as a potential candidate for future use in detergent processing industries and environmental remediation processes. (springer.com)
  • The activity of amylase expressed in the chloroplast of C. reinhardtii was detected by amylase activity assay and found to be as high as 77.5 u/g fresh weight of cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • The present study deals with the isolation and identification of a bacterium and describes the effects of culture conditions on the activity of a -amylase. (scielo.br)
  • Compared with the wild type, GA induction of α-amylase activity in aleurone cells of d1 was greatly reduced. (pnas.org)
  • Comprehensive analyses of amylase duplications and salivary activity across mammals underscore the importance of recurrent copy number variation as a flexible and rapid evolutionary mechanism. (elifesciences.org)
  • This means that people with high amylase activity produce insulin better. (selfhacked.com)
  • Insulin can affect amylase activity. (selfhacked.com)
  • The availability of cDNA probes for northern- blot analyses would clearly be advantageous for the provision of more direct information on the transcriptional activity of the limit dextrinase gene. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Groot PC, Bleeker MJ, Pronk JC, Arwert F, Mager WH, Planta RJ, Eriksson AW, Frants RR (1989) The human α-amylase multigene family consists of haplotypes with variable numbers of genes. (springer.com)
  • A few cases of such alpha-amylases have been previously reported in some eubacterial species. (ac.be)
  • However, with the exception of soybean, which has two genes, only a single gene has been identified in each plant species. (pnas.org)
  • Species-specific genes were identified including new Pythium genes, perforins, which may disrupt plant membranes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Salivary amylase may influence postprandial 'cephalic phase' insulin release, which improves glucose tolerance, while serum amylase may have insulin-sensitizing properties. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Therefore, studies were undertaken with zebrafish to assess the effect of high glucose levels during the embryonic stage as a lifelong modulator of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. (biologists.org)
  • At 4 dpf, larvae from glucose-enriched eggs showed a downregulation of several genes related to glycolysis, glycogenolysis, lipogenesis and carbohydrate digestion in comparison with control (saline-injected) embryos. (biologists.org)
  • At the juvenile stage, and upon switching from a low to a high digestible carbohydrate diet, early glucose enrichment had no significant effect on most analysed genes. (biologists.org)
  • Overall, supplementation of egg yolk with high glucose levels had little effect on the long-term modulation of carbohydrate metabolic genes in zebrafish. (biologists.org)
  • The addition of glucose to the culture diminished greatly the synthesis of a -amylase, demonstrating that a classical glucose effect is operative in this organism. (scielo.br)
  • The addition of glucose to the culture diminished greatly the synthesis of a -amylase. (scielo.br)
  • In those with high amylase, insulin increased and blood glucose didn't spike. (selfhacked.com)
  • But in those with low amylase, insulin didn't increase and as a result blood glucose did [ 8 ]. (selfhacked.com)
  • Amylase doesn't affect blood glucose levels after eating simple sugars, like glucose or sucrose. (selfhacked.com)
  • Both people with high and low amylase will react the same to glucose [ 8 ]. (selfhacked.com)
  • There is no significant hybridization between the two alpha-amylase cDNA clones under the hybridization and washing conditions employed. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Optimum pH - 7.0 Human body temperature[citation needed] Presence of certain anions and activators: Chloride and bromide - most effective Iodide - less effective Sulfate and phosphate - least effective The salivary amylase gene has undergone duplication during evolution, and DNA hybridization studies indicate many individuals have multiple tandem repeats of the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ktihnl P, Tischberger H (1980) Amylase 1 polymorphism of human parotid saliva: detection of a new allele. (springer.com)
  • Some people have 50 times more amylase in their saliva and are far less likely to become obese from eating the same amount of carbohydrates (bread, rice, pasta, cereal). (billsardiblog.com)
  • Although found in many tissues, amylase is most prominent in pancreatic juice and saliva, each of which has its own isoform of human α-amylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes related to carbohydrate metabolism were expressed at low levels at 0.2 and 1 day post-fertilization (dpf). (biologists.org)
  • The differentially expressed genes correlated with calyx abscission were mainly involved in photosynthesis, plant hormone signal transduction, cell wall modification, transcriptional regulation, and carbohydrate metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Learn about the different ways scientists are able to detect when genes are being expressed in various tissues. (hhmi.org)
  • Amy2B also is a pancreatic amylase but it is expressed in various tissues. (scirp.org)
  • Animal tissues do not contain β-amylase, although it may be present in microorganisms contained within the digestive tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structures of free and maltose-bound beta-amylases were determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.1 and 2.5 A with R-factors of 0.170 and 0.164, respectively. (rcsb.org)
  • The structure of the core domain is similar to that of soybean beta-amylase except for the L4 maltose-binding site, whereas the C-terminal domain has the same secondary structure as domain E of cyclodextrin glucosyltransferase. (rcsb.org)
  • In addition, maltose, gelatin and isoleucine also influenced the α-amylase production. (frontiersin.org)
  • Pancreatic α-amylase randomly cleaves the α(1-4) glycosidic linkages of amylose to yield dextrin, maltose, or maltotriose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The optimum pH for β-amylase is 4.0-5.0 They belong to Glycoside hydrolase family 14. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ten well-conserved regions were found between the N terminus and the area around residue 430, but the C-terminal region of 90 residues has no similarity with those of the plant beta-amylases. (asm.org)
  • Increased plasma levels in humans are found in: Salivary trauma (including anaesthetic intubation) Mumps - due to inflammation of the salivary glands Pancreatitis - because of damage to the cells that produce amylase Kidney failure - due to reduced excretion Total amylase readings of over 10 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) are suggestive of pancreatitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence of the Streptomyces thermoviolaceus CUB74 alpha-amylase-encoding gene and its transcription analysis in Streptomyces lividans. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Another factor that hampers the application of α-amylases is the low hydrolyzation efficiency towards high concentration raw starches. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is not known how GA regulation of GAmyb and α-amylase gene transcription is linked to GA perception at the plasma membrane. (plantcell.org)
  • The optimum temperature and initial medium pH for amylase synthesis by the organism were 50°C and 7.0 respectively. (scielo.br)
  • Experiments to determine the effect of temperature and pH on the growth of the organism and a -amylase production were carried out at temperatures varying from 30°C to 60°C, and at various values of pH varying from 4.0 to 9.0 for 40 hours. (scielo.br)
  • 1 µg of coated antigen can be sensitively detected by anti-Rat Pancreatic Amylase antibody, clone B5 used at 30 pg/well concentration. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Mouse pancreatic sections were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and used for immunohistochemistry using rabbit anti-amylase antibody at a dilution of 1:100. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Pancreatic Amylase Alpha Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Pancreatic Amylase Alpha in Human samples. (fishersci.com)
  • Pancreatic Amylase Alpha Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Pancreatic Amylase Alpha in Rat samples. (fishersci.com)
  • All these results suggest that d1 affects a part of the GA-signaling pathway, namely the induction of α-amylase in the aleurone layer and internode elongation. (pnas.org)
  • Animal alpha-amylases are characterized by several typical motifs and biochemical properties. (ac.be)
  • Alignment and phylogenetic analyses performed to ascertain evolutionary relationships revealed that ABPs cluster into at least six distinct, unrelated families (AbpA, AbpB, and four novel ABPs) with no phylogenetic evidence that one group evolved from another, and no single ancestral gene found within each group. (springer.com)