A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.
An enzyme that, in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes ring closure by removal of water from N-carbamoylaspartate to yield dihydro-orotic acid. EC
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and glutamine. This enzyme is important in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. EC
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.
Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of carbamoyl phosphate and L-aspartate to yield orthophosphate and N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
The proto-oncogene c-erbB-1 codes for the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral homolog v-erbB which was isolated from an avian erythroblastosis virus (AEV) where it was contained as a fragment of the chicken c-ErbB-1 gene lacking the amino-terminal ligand-binding domain. Overexpression of erbB-1 genes occurs in a wide range of tumors, commonly squamous carcinomas of various sites and less commonly adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-1 gene is located in the chromosomal region 7p14 and 7p12.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A plant genus, in the family AMARANTHACEAE, best known as a source of high-protein grain crops and of Red Dye No. 2 (AMARANTH DYE). Tumbleweed sometimes refers to Amaranthus but more often refers to SALSOLA.
The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A fibroblast growth factor that is expressed primarily during development.
Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
An E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE that interacts with and inhibits TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53. Its ability to ubiquitinate p53 is regulated by TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
Cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptors for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. They consist of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and sites critical for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia.
Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A nonclassical folic acid inhibitor through its inhibition of the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase. It is being tested for efficacy as an antineoplastic agent and as an antiparasitic agent against PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS patients. Myelosuppression is its dose-limiting toxic effect.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A technique that labels specific sequences in whole chromosomes by in situ DNA chain elongation or PCR (polymerase chain reaction).
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES resulting in a gene with different or additional regulatory regions, or a new chimeric gene product. ONCOGENE FUSION includes an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners and such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS. ARTIFICIAL GENE FUSION is carried out in vitro by RECOMBINANT DNA technology.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A relatively slow-growing glioma that is derived from oligodendrocytes and tends to occur in the cerebral hemispheres, thalamus, or lateral ventricle. They may present at any age, but are most frequent in the third to fifth decades, with an earlier incidence peak in the first decade. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, relatively avascular, and tend to form cysts and microcalcifications. Neoplastic cells tend to have small round nuclei surrounded by unstained nuclei. The tumors may vary from well-differentiated to highly anaplastic forms. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2052; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p655)
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
An enzyme of the shikimate pathway of AROMATIC AMINO ACID biosynthesis, it generates 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate and ORTHOPHOSPHATE from PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE and shikimate-3-phosphate. The shikimate pathway is present in BACTERIA and PLANTS but not in MAMMALS.
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
A heat stable DNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE from the bacteria Thermus aquaticus. It is widely used for the amplification of genes through the process of POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION. EC 2.7.7.-.
Genes for MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that confer resistance to toxic compounds. Several superfamilies of these multidrug export proteins are known and found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Inorganic compounds that contain gold as an integral part of the molecule.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (erbB) originally isolated from, or related to, the avian erythroblastosis virus (AEV). These genes code for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptors which is important in the control of normal cell proliferation and in the pathogenesis of human cancer. The genes include erbB-1 (GENES, ERBB-1), erbB-2 (GENES, ERBB-2), and erbB-3, all of which show abnormalities of expression in various human neoplasms.
The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
Methods of preparing cells or tissues for examination and study of their origin, structure, function, or pathology. The methods include preservation, fixation, sectioning, staining, replica, or other technique to allow for viewing using a microscope.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
An isothermal in-vitro nucleotide amplification process. The process involves the concomitant action of a RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE, a ribonuclease (RIBONUCLEASES), and DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASES to synthesize large quantities of sequence-specific RNA and DNA molecules.
A microfilament protein that interacts with F-ACTIN and regulates cortical actin assembly and organization. It is also an SH3 DOMAIN containing phosphoprotein, and it mediates tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION based SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC).
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
An essential ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that adds telomeric DNA to the ends of eukaryotic CHROMOSOMES.
Methods for detecting or typing the DNA of an ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS in biological tissues and fluids.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An antiviral antibiotic produced by Cephalosporium aphidicola and other fungi. It inhibits the growth of eukaryotic cells and certain animal viruses by selectively inhibiting the cellular replication of DNA polymerase II or the viral-induced DNA polymerases. The drug may be useful for controlling excessive cell proliferation in patients with cancer, psoriasis or other dermatitis with little or no adverse effect upon non-multiplying cells.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.

The role of gene splicing, gene amplification and regulation in mosquito insecticide resistance. (1/4702)

The primary routes of insecticide resistance in all insects are alterations in the insecticide target sites or changes in the rate at which the insecticide is detoxified. Three enzyme systems, glutathione S-transferases, esterases and monooxygenases, are involved in the detoxification of the four major insecticide classes. These enzymes act by rapidly metabolizing the insecticide to non-toxic products, or by rapidly binding and very slowly turning over the insecticide (sequestration). In Culex mosquitoes, the most common organophosphate insecticide resistance mechanism is caused by co-amplification of two esterases. The amplified esterases are differentially regulated, with three times more Est beta 2(1) being produced than Est alpha 2(1). Cis-acting regulatory sequences associated with these esterases are under investigation. All the amplified esterases in different Culex species act through sequestration. The rates at which they bind with insecticides are more rapid than those for their non-amplified counterparts in the insecticide-susceptible insects. In contrast, esterase-based organophosphate resistance in Anopheles is invariably based on changes in substrate specificities and increased turnover rates of a small subset of insecticides. The up-regulation of both glutathione S-transferases and monooxygenases in resistant mosquitoes is due to the effects of a single major gene in each case. The products of these major genes up-regulate a broad range of enzymes. The diversity of glutathione S-transferases produced by Anopheles mosquitoes is increased by the splicing of different 5' ends of genes, with a single 3' end, within one class of this enzyme family. The trans-acting regulatory factors responsible for the up-regulation of both the monooxygenase and glutathione S-transferases still need to be identified, but the recent development of molecular tools for positional cloning in Anopheles gambiae now makes this possible.  (+info)

An overview of the evolution of overproduced esterases in the mosquito Culex pipiens. (2/4702)

Insecticide resistance genes have developed in a wide variety of insects in response to heavy chemical application. Few of these examples of adaptation in response to rapid environmental change have been studied both at the population level and at the gene level. One of these is the evolution of the overproduced esterases that are involved in resistance to organophosphate insecticides in the mosquito Culex pipiens. At the gene level, two genetic mechanisms are involved in esterase overproduction, namely gene amplification and gene regulation. At the population level, the co-occurrence of the same amplified allele in distinct geographic areas is best explained by the importance of passive transportation at the worldwide scale. The long-term monitoring of a population of mosquitoes in southern France has enabled a detailed study to be made of the evolution of resistance genes on a local scale, and has shown that a resistance gene with a lower cost has replaced a former resistance allele with a higher cost.  (+info)

p73 at chromosome 1p36.3 is lost in advanced stage neuroblastoma but its mutation is infrequent. (3/4702)

p73, a novel p53 family member, is a recently identified candidate neuroblastoma (NBL) suppressor gene mapped at chromosome 1p36.33 and was found to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in cell lines. To test the hypothesis that p73 is a NBL suppressor gene, we analysed the p73 gene in primary human NBLs. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for p73 was observed in 19% (28/151) of informative cases which included 92 mass-screening (MS) tumors. The high frequency of p73 LOH was significantly associated with sporadic NBLs (9% vs 34%, P<0.001), N-myc amplification (10% vs 71%, P<0.001), and advanced stage (14% vs 28%, P<0.05). Both p73alpha and p73beta transcripts were detectable in only 46 of 134 (34%) NBLs at low levels by RT-PCR methods, while they were easily detectable in most breast cancers and colorectal cancers under the same conditions. They found no correlation between p73 LOH and its expression levels (P>0.1). We found two mutations out of 140 NBLs, one somatic and one germline, which result in amino acid substitutions in the C-terminal region of p73 which may affect transactivation functions, though, in the same tumor samples, no mutation of the p53 gene was observed as reported previously. These results suggest that allelic loss of the p73 gene may be a later event in NBL tumorigenesis. However, p73 is infrequently mutated in primary NBLs and may hardly function as a tumor suppressor in a classic Knudson's manner.  (+info)

Overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) in human heavy metal-selected tumor cells. (4/4702)

Cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the resistance to cytotoxic heavy metals remain largely to be characterized in mammalian cells. To this end, we have analyzed a metal-resistant variant of the human lung cancer GLC4 cell line that we have selected by a step-wise procedure in potassium antimony tartrate. Antimony-selected cells, termed GLC4/Sb30 cells, poorly accumulated antimony through an enhanced cellular efflux of metal, thus suggesting up-regulation of a membrane export system in these cells. Indeed, GLC4/Sb30 cells were found to display a functional overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1, a drug export pump, as demonstrated by Western blotting, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and calcein accumulation assays. Moreover, MK571, a potent inhibitor of MRP1 activity, was found to markedly down-modulate resistance of GLC4/Sb30 cells to antimony and to decrease cellular export of the metal. Taken together, our data support the conclusion that overexpression of functional MRP1 likely represents one major mechanism by which human cells can escape the cytotoxic effects of heavy metals.  (+info)

Specific chromosomal aberrations and amplification of the AIB1 nuclear receptor coactivator gene in pancreatic carcinomas. (5/4702)

To screen pancreatic carcinomas for chromosomal aberrations we have applied molecular cytogenetic techniques, including fluorescent in situ hybridization, comparative genomic hybridization, and spectral karyotyping to a series of nine established cell lines. Comparative genomic hybridization revealed recurring chromosomal gains on chromosome arms 3q, 5p, 7p, 8q, 12p, and 20q. Chromosome losses were mapped to chromosome arms 8p, 9p, 17p, 18q, 19p, and chromosome 21. The comparison with comparative genomic hybridization data from primary pancreatic tumors indicates that a specific pattern of chromosomal copy number changes is maintained in cell culture. Metaphase chromosomes from six cell lines were analyzed by spectral karyotyping, a technique that allows one to visualize all chromosomes simultaneously in different colors. Spectral karyotyping identified multiple chromosomal rearrangements, the majority of which were unbalanced. No recurring reciprocal translocation was detected. Cytogenetic aberrations were confirmed using fluorescent in situ hybridization with probes for the MDR gene and the tumor suppressor genes p16 and DCC. Copy number increases on chromosome 20q were validated with a probe specific for the nuclear receptor coactivator AIB1 that maps to chromosome 20q12. Amplification of this gene was identified in six of nine pancreatic cancer cell lines and correlated with increased expression.  (+info)

Evolutionary dynamics of Ty1-copia group retrotransposons in grass shown by reverse transcriptase domain analysis. (6/4702)

The evolutionary dynamics of Ty1-copia group retrotransposons in grass were examined by reverse transcriptase (RT) domain analysis. Twenty-three rice RT sequences were newly determined for this report. Phylogenetic analysis of 177 RT sequences, mostly derived from wheat, rice, and, maize, showed four distinct families, which were designated G1, G2, G3, and G4. Three of these families have elements obtained from distantly related species, indicative of origins prior to the radiation of grass species. Results of Southern hybridization and detailed comparisons between the wheat and rice sequences indicated that each of the families had undergone a distinct pattern of evolution. Multiple families appear to have evolved in parallel in a host species. Analyses of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions suggested that there is a low percentage of elements carrying functional RT domains in the G4 family, indicating that the production of new G4 elements has been controlled by a small number of elements carrying functional RT domains.  (+info)

Survey of gene amplifications during prostate cancer progression by high-throughout fluorescence in situ hybridization on tissue microarrays. (7/4702)

Prostate cancer development and progression is driven by the accumulation of genetic changes, the nature of which remains incompletely understood To facilitate high-throughput analysis of molecular events taking place in primary, recurrent, and metastat prostate cancer, we constructed a tissue microarray containing small 0.6-mm cylindrical samples acquired from 371 formalin-fixed blocks, including benign prostatic hyperplasia (n = 32) and primary tumors (n = 223), as well as both locally recurrent tumors (n = 54) and metastases (n = 62) from patients with hormone-refractory disease. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to the analysis of consecutive tissue microarray sections with probes for five different genes. High-level (> or =3X) amplifications were very rare (<2%) in primary prostate cancers However, in metastases from patients with hormone-refractory disease, amplification of the androgen receptor gene was seen in 22%, MYC in 11%, and Cyclin-D1 in 5% of the cases. In specimens from locally recurrent tumors, the corresponding percentages were 23, 4, and 8%. ERBB2 and NMYC amplifications were never detected at any stage of prostate cancer progression. In conclusion, FISH to tissue microarray sections enables high-throughput analysis of genetic alterations contributing to cancer development and progression. Our results implicate a role for amplification of androgen receptor in hormonal therapy failure and that of MYC in the metastatic progression of human prostate cancer.  (+info)

Molecular determination of species boundaries in corals: genetic analysis of the Montastraea annularis complex using amplified fragment length polymorphisms and a microsatellite marker. (8/4702)

Analyses of DNA have not been widely used to distinguish coral sibling species. The three members of the Montastraea annularis complex represent an important test case: they are widely studied and dominate Caribbean reefs, yet their taxonomic status remains unclear. Analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and a microsatellite locus, using DNA from sperm, showed that Montastraea faveolata is genetically distinct. One AFLP primer yielded a diagnostic product (880 bp in M. faveolata 920 bp in M. franksi and M. annularis) whose homology was established by DNA sequencing. A second primer revealed a 630 bp band that was fixed in M. faveolata, and rare in M. franksi and M. annularis; in this case homologies were confirmed by Southern hybridizations. A tetranucleotide microsatellite locus with several alleles exhibited strong frequency differences between M. faveolata and the other two taxa. We did not detect comparable differences between M. annularis and M. franksi with either AFLPs (12 primers screened) or the microsatellite locus. Comparisons of AFLP patterns obtained from DNA from sperm, somatic tissues, and zooxanthellae suggest that the technique routinely amplifies coral (animal) DNA. Thus analyses based on somatic tissues may be feasible, particularly after diagnostic differences have been established using sperm DNA.  (+info)

The total number of genetic changes combining losses and gains together, total gains alone, total losses alone, and individual gains and losses showing in ,15% cases, and chromosomal amplifications were subjected to univariate analysis examining the associations. No correlation was found with any of the parameters examined, except HPV18 (Table 1). The patients that had HPV18 infection showed higher frequency of chromosomal amplifications (75% in HPV18 vs. 16.9% in other HPV types), total losses (10.00 ± 5.48 in HPV18 vs. 4.62 ± 3.49 in HPV 16) and gains (8.75 ± 6.06 in HPV18 vs. 3.33 ± 2.85 in HPV 16) and total changes (18.75 ± 11.53 in HPV18 vs. 7.96 ± 5.68 in HPV 16) (Table 1). The association of genomic instability represented by chromosomal amplification and copy number changes with HPV18 infection is interesting in the light of the oncogenic potential of this HPV type. HPV18 is known to cause rapid transition to malignancy and HPV18-infected tumors are generally more aggressive [40]. ...
FISH analysis on EGFR gene amplification in MBC.Representative images of amplification of EGFR (a) and high aneusomy of EGFR (b). EGFR gene amplification was de
Silver-enhanced in-situ hybridization (SISH) is an emerging tool for the determination of the Her-2/neu amplification status in breast cancer. SISH is technically comparable to fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) but does not require a fluorescence microscope for its interpretation. Although recent studies on histologic evaluations of SISH are promising, we aimed to evaluate its performance on 71 cytologic breast cancer specimens with the new combined Her-2/Chr17 probe. Her-2/neu status as routinely determined by FISH was available for all patients. We found SISH signals in cytologic cell blocks and smear specimens easy to evaluate in most cases. Small numbers of tumor cells and difficulties in identifying tumor cells in lymphocyte-rich backgrounds were limiting factors. Her-2/neu status, as determined by Her-2/Chr17 SISH, was basically identical to the results of the corresponding FISH. The discrepancies were mainly owing to the heterogeneity of Her-2/neu amplification in the tumor ...
Gene amplification is defined as an increase in the copy number of a restricted region of a chromosome arm [20,21]. Gene amplification is an influential factor in the expression of both protein-coding and non-coding genes, affecting the activity of various signaling pathways in cancer. Gene amplification, similar to gene mutation, plays a significant role in tumorigenesis in many types of cancer, such as gastric cancer, ovarian cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, colon cancer, and others [22,23]. Thus, targeting the driver genes that are amplified may provide novel opportunities for precision medicine [20].. One of the most studied gene amplifications is erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2), an important driver oncogene for breast cancer [24]. In breast cancer, gene amplification of ERBB2 is strongly correlated with its protein expression. Moreover, ERBB2 amplification is also observed in gastric cancer [25,26]. Mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) is a proto-oncogene that encodes ...
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DNA amplification is frequent in breast cancer and has been associated with specific clinicopathological parameters and/or worsened course of the disease. In the present work, we were interested in further defining the association linking the occurrence of DNA amplification to the emergence of specific breast tumor phenotype. To this aim, we studied by Southern blotting a total of 1875 breast tumor DNAs with 26 probes mapping at 15 distinct chromosomal localizations. Of the 26 loci tested, 11 loci showed elevated levels of amplification, 9 loci showed occasional and/or low level of DNA copy number increase, and 6 loci showed very rare or no variation. This allowed us to define six amplified domains mapping at 8p12, 8q24, 11q13, 12q13, 17q12, and 20q13.2, respectively. Over 60% of the tumors analyzed presented at least one amplification at one of these localizations. Amplifications often covered large regions of DNA and bore complex patterns involving coamplification of several colocalized ...
Synonyms for gene amplification in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for gene amplification. 46 synonyms for amplification: increase, boosting, stretching, strengthening, expansion, extension, widening, raising, heightening, deepening, lengthening.... What are synonyms for gene amplification?
Targeted therapy for cancer is based upon the notion that tumors have characteristics that are quantitatively or qualitatively different from normal tissues, or that tumor cells are uniquely dependent, or addicted , to certain of these characteristic differences. Genetic changes including somatic mutation, gene amplification, and chromosomal translocation often serve as irreversible drivers of tumor growth and survival making them attractive targets for therapy. The amplification of ERBB2Her-2 on chromosome 17q12 in 15 of breast cancers led to the identification of Her-2 as a driver oncogene and successful target for therapy. Other chromosomal regions are recurrently amplified in breast cancer almost as frequently as 17q12 these include 8p11-12 and 11q13. Amplification of 8p11-12 has been shown to confer a high risk of metastasis after primary breast cancer surgery and adjuvant therapy, and it is therefore critical to identify the oncogenes driving this aggressive behavior.
C-myc and HER2 amplification were analyzed on 214 consecutive breast cancers by fluorescence in situ hybridization using tissue microarray technology. The frequencies of amplification were 15.4% (33/214) and 23.3% (49/210), respectively. c- myc amplification was significantly associated with HER2 amplification ( P , .001) and closely linked with cell proliferative activity, measured by Ki67 labeling index ( P = .010). In univariate survival analysis, lymph node status, tumor size, and histological grade were significant prognostic factors, but in multivariate analysis, lymph node status was the only significant factor. Patient survival did not differ according to c- myc amplification status, and c- myc amplification showed no significant correlation with clinicopathologic features of the tumors. A strong correlation between c- myc and HER2 amplification and proliferative activity indicates a biological link between these genes in breast cancer cell.. ...
Background: Pediatric neuroblastoma is divided into MYCN amplified and MYCN non-amplified sub-groups. However, the extent of heterogeneity within MYCN amplified or non-amplified pediatric neuroblastoma is unclear.Methods: The prognostic significance of ...
2934 DNA copy number amplifications induce increased expression of oncogenes and are associated with tumor progression in several tissues. Amplified genes are important in prognostics of several cancers and may serve as targets of therapy. A bibliomics survey was executed that covered 838 published chromosomal comparative genomic hybridization studies. DNA copy number amplification data was collected from more than 4500 cases and reported at chromosome band resolution. Amplification frequency profiles were determined for 82 distinct cancers. Label matrix for cancers was collected using World Health Organization classification. Label collection included information about cell-lineage (system, organ, tissue, cell type, embryonic origin, and differentiation), risk factors (aids, alcohol, asbestos, bacteria, diet, EBV, HIV, HPV, hormonal, implant, inflammation, obesity, parasites, polyoma viruses, radiation, tobacco, toxins, and UV), patient specificity (gender and age), and molecular ...
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway plays a fundamental role in cell proliferation and survival in human tumorigenesis, including gastric cancer. PIK3CA mutations and amplification are two major causes of overactivation of this pathway in human cancers. However, until this work, there was no sound investigation on the association of PIK3CA mutations and amplification with clinical outcome in gastric cancer, particularly the latter. Using direct sequencing and real-time quantitative PCR, we examined PIK3CA mutations and amplification, and their association with clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcome of gastric cancer patients. PIK3CA mutations and amplification were found in 8/113 (7.1%) and 88/131 (67%) gastric cancer patients, respectively. PIK3CA amplification was closely associated with increased phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) level. No relationship was found between PIK3CA mutations and clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcome in gastric cancer. PIK3CA
The present findings argue that intratumoral selection pressures influence the emergence of tumor cell populations with EGFR gene amplification. In addition to our findings, which are discussed below, evidence for such selection pressure in glioblastomas is provided by the long-standing observation that EGFR gene amplification is rapidly lost when these tumors are passaged in vitro (10) ; clearly, the growth advantage provided by EGFR overexpression in vivo is not present in vitro. We suggest that both the genetic and environmental milieu act in vivo to effect such selection.. Contrary to the results of prior studies of glioblastoma using approaches such as Southern blotting and PCR of tumor lysates, which suggested the near exclusivity of EGFR amplification and TP53 mutation (4 , 7) , the present FISH studies demonstrate that EGFR amplification occurs in the majority of glioblastomas with TP53 mutation. However, the cells with EGFR amplification remain isolated and few in number and, therefore, ...
Gene amplification is a cellular process in which multiple copies of a gene are produced. Most instances of gene amplification...
Gene amplification is a cellular process characterized by a selective increase of a particular genomic region without a proportional increase of the entire genome [1-4]. The selective increase accompanies the overexpression of a particular gene within the genomic region that confers a growth advantage to the cell. The growth advantage derived from gene amplification has long been recognized as an important problem for cancer patients. Increased copy numbers of proto-oncogenes, such as MYC, MYCN, and ERBB2, leads to the overexpression of oncogene products that drives abnormal cell proliferation [5-9]. Abnormal cell proliferation results in cancer progression and poor patient survival [10, 11]. In addition, gene amplification is an underlying mechanism for acquired therapy resistance, as cancer cells counteract therapeutic agents by overactivating either therapy-target genes (for example, BCR-ABL amplification) or alternative survival pathways (for example, MET amplification) [12-17]. Despite ...
History Gene amplification is a frequent manifestation of genomic instability that plays a role in tumour progression and development of drug resistance. formation of micronuclei or nuclear buds which correlated with the removal of and increased sensitivity to MTX. These Indoximod findings indicate for the first time that NHEJ plays a specific role in DM formation and that increased MTX sensitivity of DM-containing cells depleted of DNA-PKcs results from removal. Conversely in HSR-containing cells we found no significant switch in the expression of NHEJ proteins. Depletion of DNA-PKcs experienced no effect on amplification and resulted in only a modest increase in sensitivity to MTX. Interestingly both DM-containing and HSR-containing cells exhibited decreased proliferation upon DNA-PKcs depletion. Conclusions We demonstrate a novel specific role for NHEJ in the formation of DMs but not HSRs in MTX-resistant cells and that NHEJ may be Indoximod targeted for the treatment of MTX-resistant colon ...
Interleukin 1 (IL-1) plays an important role in host defense mechanisms by increasing body temperature, inducing the synthesis of a variety of lymphokines and hepatic acute phase proteins and acting as a chemoattractant for lymphocytes. However, in some microenvironments such as injured tissue or joint spaces, elevated IL-1 levels may contribute to pathologic processes, for example, proliferation and fibrosis of tissue involved in pannus formation as well as degradation of matrix and abnormal tissue architecture. To investigate potential mechanisms that may lead to excessive production of IL-1, we have examined the ability of IL-1 to participate in an amplification event by inducing its own gene expression leading to synthesis of biologically active IL-1. When injected into rabbits, recombinant human IL-1-alpha induced biphasic fevers, and during the second temperature elevation 3 hr later, a circulating pyrogenic material was detected by passive transfer of plasma to other rabbits. Induction of ...
The term gene amplification refers to the selective increase of the gene copy number and is better designated as DNA amplification. It should not be confused with elevated gene expression, although amplification generally does result in enhanced levels of the products encoded by the amplified gene. …
To date there has not been a good prognostic model for stratifying glioma patients, probably because of the heterogeneity and genomic instability inherent in malignant astrocytic gliomas. By using the quantitative values of PTEN, VEGF, EGFR and PAX6 gene expression, we were able to greatly improve a prognostic model based on conventional clinical variables. Importantly, we identified a new prognostic marker, the expression value of the PAX6 gene, of which the role in gliomas has not yet been delineated.. Although EGFR gene amplification and overexpression were seen in some gliomas, its expression has no prognostic value according to our analysis. In the case of EGFR gene amplification, there are frequent and various mutations of different regions of the gene that could lead to the increased or decreased oncogenic activity of EGFR (25) . In some cases, however, the total number of EGFR transcripts cannot account for the functional level of EGFR. Quantifying the levels of alternatively spliced ...
By means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, DNA sequences were amplified that flank the crossover sites of a characteristic chromosomal translocation for follicular lymphomas, t(14;18)(q32;q21). This technique permitted the detection of cells carrying the t(14;18) hybrid DNA sequences at a dilution of 1:100,000. The remission marrow and blood samples of a patient with follicular lymphoma and the t(14;18) failed to show any abnormality by morphological examination and conventional Southern blot analysis. However, the t(14;18) hybrid DNA sequences were detected by the PCR technique. Thus, this technique is a highly sensitive tool to detect minimal residual cells carrying the t(14;18) and has the potential to identify a subpopulation of patients with subclinical disease. ...
Map of the amplicon at 3q26 in the JHH-1 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line. (a) Recurrent copy number gains on the chromosomal region 3q26 in HCC cell li
It is well documented that among subgroups of B-ALL, the genetic profile of the leukemic blasts has significant impact on prognosis and stratification for therapy. Recent studies have documented the power of microarrays to screen genome-wide for copy number aberrations (CNAs) and regions of copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity (CNLOH) that are not detectable by G-banding or FISH. Findings identified by array include the co-occurrence of low and high risk abnormalities not previously reported to coexist within a clone, novel regions of chromosomal amplification, clones characterized by numerous whole chromosome LOH that do not meet criteria for doubling of a near-haploid, and characterization of array profiles associated with IKZF1 deletion. This group uses MSI resources that allow them to visualize the array findings using Cirocs, which they have installed on MSI computer space. A bibliography of this groups publications is attached.. Return to this PIs main page.. ...
A total of 2694 patients received NGS tests, 3.27 % (82/2507) of patients had primary MET amplification, and acquired MET amplification accounted for 16.04 % (30/187) of re-biopsy patients. Only 19 patients received monotherapy with crizotinib. In survival analysis, ten patients with copy number greater than 4 (CN , 4) had longer median PFS (mPFS) (4.76 months; 95 %CI: 1.67-7.85 months) compared with other nine patients (CN ≤ 4) (2.10 months; 95 %CI: 1.53-2.68 months; P = 0.063), but failed to get a statistical significance. No significant differences were observed between median PFS (mPFS) of the patients with primary and acquired MET amplification (4.04 months vs 2.76 months; P = 0.310 ...
PART EIGHT [Conclusion]: TRUE SPIRITUALITY AND PURE MITZVOS. In the first seven installments, we spoke of how amplified music at simchas has become widespread and gotten so loud in recent years that more and more people are being caused suffering and damage to their ears and hearing, being caused incurable and often permanent injury (e.g. tinnitus - loud ringing in the ears, dizziness or pain in the inner ears, etc.). We spoke of how it is a mitzva to protect health, how it is forbidden by halacha [Torah law] to cause hurt or damage and how it is an obligation in halacha to guard against causing hurt or damage. Caring for health is a Torah obligation that requires unusually extreme stringency and diligence, and taking no chances. We spoke of how causing damage to ears and hearing are strongly and specifically prohibited by halacha. We spoke of how the so-called music and loud amplification are of non-Jewish derivation and are physical in their essence with a false mask of spirituality, ...
Many breast cancers occur in conjunction with overexpression of the ERBB2 oncogene (also known as HER-2 or Neu). Although gene amplification can lead to ERBB2 overexpression, some human cancers overexpress ERBB2 even without gene amplification. Zuo et al. noticed that a large percentage of older female mice heterozygous for a mutation in the Foxp3 gene (Foxp3sf/+) developed spontaneous cancers; about 60% of these were mammary carcinomas. Further, these mice showed increased susceptibility to developing mammary cancer in response to treatment with the carcinogen DMBA together with progesterone. Analysis of normal mammary epithelial tissue and mammary cancer cells microdissected from heterozygous mice revealed that the wild-type allele of Foxp3 was expressed in the former and silenced in the latter, which also showed increased ErbB2 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that a Foxp3 fusion protein, which decreased ErbB2 expression when transfected into a mouse mammary tumor ...
Results: Between 10/2006 and 6/2007, all 29 patients enrolled (median age: 58 years; M/F 8/21; ECOG PS 0/1/2 2/24/3; stage IIIB/IV 26/3, never/former/current smoker 19/6/4) were evaluable for response. There were 14 PRs (48.3%) while there were 5 SDs (17.2%) and 10 PD (34.5%), giving overall response rate of 48.3% and disease control rate of 65.5%. The response rate in female patients was 57.1% (12/21) while that in never-smokers was 57.9% (11/19). Before the start of treatment, 5 patients were known to have EGFR gene mutation. Among them, interestingly, 2 patients whose tumor also had EGFR gene amplification showed a PR while 2 of 3 patients without gene amplification showed PDs. After a median follow-up of 4.5 months, 12 progressive diseases and 4 deaths were observed. The most common toxicity was skin rash, which was manageable. Retrospective biological study for patients enrolled is still being analyzed and will be presented at the meeting.Conclusions: Erlotinib showed promising response ...
HER2 overexpression/amplification is associated with trastuzumab response in breasts/gastric cancers. success (Operating-system) data were attained for FOCUS/PICCOLO and recurrence and mortality for QUASAR; 29/1342 (2.2%) stage IV and 25/1914 (1.3%) stage II-III tumours showed HER2 proteins overexpression. From the HER2‐overexpressing situations 27 (96.4%) stage IV tumours and 20/24 (83.3%) stage II-III tumours demonstrated HER2 amplification by FISH; 41/47 (87.2%) also showed duplicate number increases. HER2‐overexpression was connected with KRAS/BRAF outrageous‐type (WT) position at all levels: in 5.2% WT versus 1.0% mutated tumours (p < 0.0001) in stage IV and 2.1% versus 0.2% in stage II-III tumours (p = 0.01) respectively. HER2 had not been connected with PFS or Operating-system. At stage II-III there is no significant relationship between HER2 overexpression and 5FU/FA response. An increased percentage of HER2‐overexpressing situations experienced recurrence however the difference ...
Dear molbio.methds-reagnts readers, Our lab has successfully amplified the ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA region in the group of algae we are studying using DNA from a quick and dirty CTAB prep as the template. I am now attempting to modify our protocol to amplify the region using a single colony of algae dropped into the reaction mix as our template. In my first attempt I had no amplification at all. I extended the number of cycles and the extension time and got a very weak, fuzzy band from one of my tubes. (My control was negative). Im going to continue to play with this, but I thought Id throw it out onto the net to see if anyone had any suggestions. Basically I need to get stronger amplification and a sharper band. Have any of you had success in optimizing a PCR protocol like this? Anyone have any tips for amplifying from a single colony (about 10-70 eukaryotic cells)? Even though our target DNA is present in multiple copies in the genome, Im concerned that there might be too little DNA there to ...
PCR Amplification Issues and Primer dimer - posted in PCR, RT-PCR and Real-Time PCR: Hi all, I have been working on getting my PCR done correctly for months with no progress. Most of the time I just get a primer dimer of about 100 bp when run next to a ladder, as my sample is about 360 bp. Every now and then I will get a really nice amplification but these results are not consistent (actually Ive only got 3 good amplifications in the past 5 months). I will start fr...
Purpose The short arm of chromosome 8 (8p) is a frequent target of lack of heterozygosity (LOH) in cancer, and 8p LOH is often associated with a far more aggressive tumor phenotype. and (20% reduction, 26% gain/amplification) and (39% reduction, 9% gain/amplification) at 8p12. Subsequently, we display in a big series of breasts cancer individuals that allelic reduction and amplification in the 8p11-12 breakpoint area predict poor success and chemoradiotherapy response. No matter why malignancy cells go for for amplifications in a few settings and duplicate number reduction in others, these outcomes should increase concern from the prognostic and predictive potential of duplicate number aberrations in this area. Outcomes METABRIC breakpoint id Supplementary Body 1 depicts a heatmap of putative duplicate number phone calls on chromosome 8p seen in METABRIC (n=2173 beneficial situations). In 94% of situations, the duplicate number position of and was equivalent. However, an extremely solid putative ...
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Dr. Thomas Lynch: Dr. Davies, I will start off by asking you what you think copy number is telling us. Why does having a couple of extra copies of the chromosome matter, as opposed to gene amplification? How does that mechanistically explain what is going on?. Dr. Angela Davies: I think we are still learning what that means. It highlights the fact that mutations dont tell the whole story. The patients with mutations are the ones who are going to have dramatic and durable responses to these agents. There is another population of patients who do not benefit and that may partly be predicted by the presence of KRAS mutations. It is that large middle group of patients who would benefit from EGFR inhibitors that we are struggling to identify and select. That may be where the gene copy number fits in terms of predicting when to utilize these agents.. Dr. Charles Butts: There are very few predictors to say you shouldnt treat a particular population with erlotinib. As Dr. Bonomi has shown, the hazard ...
Through a comprehensive molecular analysis, researchers have divided cervical cancer into three main categories and identified a new subtype more similar to endometrial cancer. They also pinpointed five mutant genes not previously linked to this disease, and gene amplifications suggesting a role for immunotherapy. ...
def: A multisubunit complex consisting of Myb and other proteins that regulates site specific DNA replication, gene amplification and transcriptional repression. [PMID:12490953, PMID:15545624 ...
Cheeseman, I; Gomez-Escobar, N; Carret, C; Ivens, A; Tetteh, K; Stewart, L; Conway, D; (2008) A genome-wide survey of gene amplifications and deletions in laboratory and field isolates of Plasmodium falciparam. [Conference or Workshop Item] https://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/7910 Full text not available from this repository ...
Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment.
Hotchkiss, T.; Kramer, H.B.; Doores, K.J.; Gamblin, D.P.; Oldham, N.J.; Davis, B.G., 2005: Ligand amplification in a dynamic combinatorial glycopeptide library
Krzczanowicz, L. (Creator), Al-Khateeb, M. A. Z. (Creator), Iqbal, M. A. (Creator), Phillips, I. (Creator), Harper, P. (Creator), Forysiak, W. (Creator) (3 May 2019). Performance Estimation of Discrete Raman Amplification within Broadband Optical Networks. Aston Data Explorer. 10.17036/researchdata.aston.ac.uk.00000424 ...
Bring the power of real time qPCR to your lab with the open qPCR system. With up to 16 samples per run, enjoy seamless data generation for your DNA amplification needs.
|i|Background|/i|: Assessment of HER-2/|i|neu|/i| status in invasive breast cancer is crucial to establish eligibility for trastuzumab and taxane based chemotherapy. Next to immunohistochemistry (IHC) to evaluate protein overexpression, a second line gene amplification test is required for cases with equivocal protein expression. This study aimed to validate a new PCR based test, called Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA), as a simple and quick method to assess HER-2/|i|neu|/i| gene amplification status in invasive breast cancer.|i|Methods|/i|: MPLA results were compared with gene amplification status assessed by fluorescence |i|in situ|/i| hybridization (FISH) and chromogenic |i|in situ|/i| hybridization (CISH) as gold standard, and with protein overexpression by IHC in 518 breast carcinoma patients.|i|Results|/i|: About 10% of cases overexpressed HER-2/|i|neu|/i| at the protein level (IHC), and 11% of cases showed gene-amplification by MLPA. A high concordance was found
Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men in developed countries and the second most common malignancy of the urinary tract [1]. The majority of bladder cancer cases arise from the urothelium, the epithelium lining the inside of the bladder and these cases are thus called urothelial carcinomas. Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rarer malignant neoplasm and it accounts for 3-5% of bladder cancer in Western populations [2].. Several studies have investigated the chromosomal alterations associated with development and progression of bladder cancer. Different methods to detect copy number changes, such as classical cytogenetics, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), Southern blot analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) have been used [3].. Several CGH studies providing information about typical losses, gains and amplifications in bladder cancer have been published [4-8]. However, ...
Osteosarcomas are characterized by a high incidence of chromosomal amplifications and rearrangements (2-8, 10). Our previous study using 1-Mb arrays in osteosarcoma refined amplification boundaries for several recurrent chromosomal amplifications identified by CGH, including a 6p amplicon (10). This previous study did not define the exact amplicon boundaries or identify possible target gene(s) from the 6p12-p21 amplicon due to low-density clone coverage on 6p. Therefore, we carried out a systematic evaluation to identify putative oncogene(s) from the 6p12-p21 amplicon. Based on our region-specific array CGH analysis on primary osteosarcoma tumors, we refined the amplicon to 7.9 Mb on 6p and identified 10 highly amplified clones. Subsequently, we identified 11 candidate genes within the amplified clones.. A comprehensive expression analysis of these genes was carried out on primary osteosarcoma tumors and cell lines based on the concept that the amplification leads to the overexpression of genes. ...
001). Our results present synergic performance for erlotinib-cyclopamine association and offer a ideal in vitro model to explore medication combos on GBM cells. gene amplifications are often connected with GBM, producing this tyrosine kinase receptor a putative focus on for therapy.3,4 Malignant gliomas are heterogeneous in their cell structure.5 Lately, a array of tumors, including GBM, possess been found to consist of cancer stem-like cells (CSC).6,7 It has lately been suggested that GBM derive from neural originate or progenitor cells, and CSCs might perform a central part in the distribution of several malignancy types.7 Thus, signaling paths taking part in a key part in old fashioned sensory cells might also be needed in tumorigenesis of glial tumors. 8C11 CSCs possess also been demonstrated to become accountable for a common radioresistance and chemoresistance.12 The hedgehog path is of crucial importance during embryonic advancement13 and is also activated in sensory stem cells14 and GBM ...
The amplification status of human epidermal growth factor receptors 2 (HER2) genes is strongly associated with clinical outcome in patients with breast cancer. The American Society of Clinical Oncology Tumor Marker Guidelines Panel has recommended routine testing of HER2 status on all newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancers since 2001. Although fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technology provides superior accuracy as compared with other approaches, current manual FISH analysis methods are somewhat subjective, tedious, and may introduce interreader variability. The goal of this preliminary study is to develop and test a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to assess HER2 status using FISH images. Forty FISH images were selected for this study from our genetic laboratory. The CAD scheme first applies an adaptive, iterative threshold method followed by a labeling algorithm to segment cells of possible interest. A set of classification rules is then used to identify analyzable interphase ...
RNA amplification is necessary for profiling gene expression from small tissue samples. Previous studies have shown that the T7 based amplification techniques are reproducible but may distort the true abundance of targets. However, the consequences of such distortions on the ability to detect biological variation in expression have not been explored sufficiently to define the true extent of usability and limitations of such amplification techniques. We show that expression ratios are occasionally distorted by amplification using the Affymetrix small sample protocol version 2 due to a disproportional shift in intensity across biological samples. This occurs when a shift in one sample cannot be reflected in the other sample because the intensity would lie outside the dynamic range of the scanner. Interestingly, such distortions most commonly result in smaller ratios with the consequence of reducing the statistical significance of the ratios. This becomes more critical for less pronounced ratios where the
... Gene Amplification technology is one of the rapidly growing markets...San Jose CA (PRWEB) November 4 2008 -- Molecular diagnostics and the...World a href http://www.strategyr.com/Gene_Amplification_Technologi...a href http://www.strategyr.com/Gene_Amplification_Technologies_Mar...,World,Gene,Amplification,Technologies,Market,to,Reach,$2.2,Billion,by,2015,,According,to,New,Report,by,Global,Industry,Analysts,,Inc.,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
It would be expected that N. tabacum would have an IGS signal distribution that reflected the sum of that found in the diploid progenitors N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis. However, there was reduced A1/A2 satellite signal in all three tobacco lines [synthetic tobacco Th37 (Figure 3, D and E), a feral tobacco (Figure 3, F and G) and cv. 095-55 (Figure 3H)]. The reduction in A1/A2 satellite sequence was least apparent in the synthetic tobacco (Figure 3, D and E) and the sequence distribution on a subset of chromosomes most closely reflected, albeit in reduced abundance, that found in N. tomentosiformis (compare labeled chromosomes in Figure 3E with those in Figure 2). But there are differences; e.g., there is a satellite locus on the long arm of the T3 chromosome of Th37 plants that did not occur on chromosome 3 of any N. tomentosiformis varieties studied. The novel locus could have arisen by an allopolyploidy-induced translocation or amplification event.. Distribution of A1/A2 satellite in ...
Gene Amplification and Expression in Thyroid Cancer. We study genomic instability in thyroid cancer. Gain, loss and rearrangement of genomic DNA are major characteristics of cancer, often providing a basis for the altered pattern of gene expression that drives oncogenesis. The least studied aspect of genomic instability in thyroid cancer is the gain of gene copy-number called gene amplification. Since double-stranded DNA breakage by ionizing radiation might enhance gene amplification, we investigated whether the post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cohort exhibits specific patterns of gene amplification that can be distinguished from patterns seen in PTC and other thyroid tumors not associated with radiation exposure.. Using a genome-wide, cDNA microarray-based technique, we analyzed genomic DNA from a pilot series of ten post-Chernobyl PTC cases and from several spontaneous thyroid tumors of various types. For reference we analyzed gDNA from normal individuals and from the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Validated primer set that prevents nuclear DNA sequences of mitochondrial origin co-amplification: A revision based on the New Human Genome Reference Sequence (GRCh37). AU - Ramos, Amanda. AU - Santos, Cristina. AU - Barbena, Elena. AU - Mateiu, Ligia. AU - Alvarez, Luis. AU - Nogués, Ramon. AU - Aluja, Maria Pilar. PY - 2011/3/1. Y1 - 2011/3/1. N2 - A new human genome reference sequence - GRCh37 - was recently generated and made available by the Genome Reference Consortium. Since the prior disposable human reference sequence - hg18 - was previously used for the mitochondrial DNA primer BLAST validation, a revision of those previously published primer pairs is required. Thus, the aim of this Short Communication is to perform an in silico BLAST test of the published disposable nine primer pairs using the new human reference sequence and to report the pertinent modifications. The new analysis showed that one of the tested primer pairs requires a revision. Therefore, a new ...
Cytogenetic studies have identified two types of gene amplification, intrachromosomal HSRs and extrachromosomal DMs. Although these two genetic structures have been suggested to be associated with increased DSBs and subsequent NHEJ repair process, the precise mechanism underlying the formation of HSRs and DMs remains to be investigated. Using a method that has been described previously,20-22 we have generated two HT-29 colon cancer cell lines that are resistant to different concentrations of MTX: (i) a 10−5 mol/L resistant line that harbours amplified DHFR primarily in HSRs and (ii) a 10−4 mol/L resistant line that harbours amplified DHFR primarily in DMs. These two cell lines serve as model systems that provided us a unique opportunity to study the molecular mechanism by which HSRs and DMs are formed and how they relate to the development of dose-dependent MTX resistance.. Initially, we examined whether MTX causes DSBs and whether the two MTX-resistant cell lines exhibit altered levels of ...
Although human papillomavirus was identified as an aetiological factor in cervical cancer, the key human gene drivers of this disease remain unknown. Here we apply an unbiased approach integrating gene expression and chromosomal aberration data. In an independent group of patients, we reconstruct and validate a gene regulatory meta-network, and identify cell cycle and antiviral genes that constitute two major subnetworks upregulated in tumour samples. These genes are located within the same regions as chromosomal amplifications, most frequently on 3q. We propose a model in which selected chromosomal gains drive activation of antiviral genes contributing to episomal virus elimination, which synergizes with cell cycle dysregulation. These findings may help to explain the paradox of episomal human papillomavirus decline in women with invasive cancer who were previously unable to clear the virus.. ...
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All primary neuroblastomas examined in this study were found to express MRP4 and its overexpression was significantly associated with MYCN amplification. In addition, MRP4 and MRP1 expressions were found significantly correlated. We have previously provided evidence that MYCN regulates expression of the MRP1 gene (8), and given that drugs routinely used to treat neuroblastoma do not seem to be MRP4 substrates, it is interesting to speculate that the prognostic significance provided by MRP4 also reflects regulation of its expression by MYCN. We are currently investigating this possibility as several potential MYCN-binding sites (E-boxes) are present in the MRP4 promoter. Alternatively, MRP4 may be transporting some other nondrug substrate important for the maintenance of neuroblastoma malignancy. Given these results, we are currently analyzing the independent prognostic significance of MRP4 and MRP1 gene expression, as well as MYCN gene amplification, in a large cohort of prospectively accrued ...
The purpose of this trial is to determine the efficacy and safety profile of TKI258 in 4 groups of patients with metastatic HER2 negative breast cancer
Aberrant regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays important roles in colorectal carcinogenesis, with over 90% of cases of sporadic colon cancer featuring β-catenin accumulation. While ubiquitination-mediated degradation is widely accepted as a major route for β-catenin protein turnover, little is known about the regulation of β-catenin in transcriptional level. …Elf3, a member of the E-twenty-six family of transcription factors, drives β-catenin transactivation and associates with poor survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. … first found recurrent amplification and upregulation of Elf3 in CRC tissues, and further Gene Set Enrichment Analysis identified significant association between Elf3 expression and activity of WNT/β-catenin pathway. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay consistently revealed that Elf3 binds to and transactivates β-catenin promoter. Ectopic expression of Elf3 induces accumulation of β-catenin in both nucleus and ...
Functional enhancers can accompany oncogenes on the circularized extrachromosomal amplicons found in glioma and other tumors, enhancing cancer growth.
Forward and backward stepwise selection is not guaranteed to give us the best model containing a particular subset of the p predictors but thats the price to pay in order to avoid overfitting. Even if p is less than 40, looking at all possible models may not be the best thing to do. The point is that is not always best to do a full search, even when you can do it because we will pay a price in variance (and thus in test error). Just because best subset has a better model on the training data doesnt mean that its really going to be a better model overall in the context of test data, which is what we really care about. ...
A previous report described the isolation of a directly transforming retrovirus, AKT8, from a spontaneous thymoma of an AKR mouse. The AKT8 provirus has now been molecularly cloned from a transformed, nonproducer cell line. The virus genome contains both viral and nonviral, cell-related sequences; the nonviral sequence has been designated v-akt, the presumed viral oncogene of the AKT8 virus. This gene lacks homology to the 16 other oncogenes tested. The cloned provirus has undergone a partial deletion, during cell passage in vitro, that prevents direct demonstration of the transforming ability of this molecular clone. Two human homologues of the v-akt oncogene, AKT1 and AKT2, were cloned. A survey of 225 human tumors for changes involving AKT1 led to the discovery of a 20-fold amplification of this gene in one of the five gastric adenocarcinomas tested. The results demonstrate that AKT8 has the characteristic structure of a directly transforming retrovirus and that it contains a gene derived ...
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication ...
The group used CNVkit to call genome-wide copy number form the off-target reads in their data. Only 71% of patient samples were amenable to this analysis. They detected chromosome arm loss (e.g. 17P in 19/20 patients) and gene amplification (e.g. ERBB2 in a single patient). I was a little disappointed on reading the description of CNV calling in the report. Whilst the results are good, they are limited to chromosome arm and/or major gene amplification detection. For many cancers we need better CNV analysis than this and I suspect the reason the results were so limited was the size of the panel. You simply dont get enough of-target across the genome to do a robust genome-wide CNV analysis. Id suggest pooling the pre-capture libraries for shallow whole genome sequencing. […]. ...
Whole Genome Amplification (WGA) provides the means to immortalize genomic DNA from fresh, frozen, archived and chemically treated samples. GenomePlex® WGA, produces 500-1000 fold unbiased amplification of genomic DNA via a PCR-based sequence independent approach.
Real-time reverse-transcriptase Staurosporine purchase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed, as described previously,23 in a 96-well plate using a Bio-Rad iCycler iQ. The sequences of forward and reverse primers used for amplification are represented in Table 1. For each gene, a standard curve was established from four cDNA dilutions (1/10 to 1/10,000) and was used to determine relative gene-expression variation after normalization, with a geometric average of 18S and TATA box-binding protein expression. Results are expressed as means ± standard error of the mean (SEM). Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance,. followed by the Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test. Differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. Concordant arguments from in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that hepatic expression of CB1R is submitted to an autoregulation process. HM781-36B cell line Activation of ECS by high-fat diets or by agonists is associated with an increase in the expression of CB1R, ...
Devices and methods for carrying out an assay for the determination of nucleic acids are disclosed. The devices comprise (a) a sample receiving chamber, (b) a plurality of additional chambers, at least one of the additional chambers containing reagents for carrying out an assay for the determination of a nucleic acid, (c) means for detecting a signal generated by the reagents, (d) means for permitting fluid communication between the additional chambers, (e) means for introducing a sample into the device, and (f) means for separating the analyte from the remainder of the sample and introducing the analyte into one of the additional chambers, which means comprises suspendible particles. The methods involve introducing a sample suspected of containing a nucleic acid analyte into a device in accordance with the invention. The analyte, if present, and particles in a medium are transported through the chambers of the device. Reagents for conducting an amplification are combined with the transported medium,
Angele, P; Faltermeier, H; Kujat, R; Maghsudi, M; Möller, H D; Nerlich, M; (1998) [Improvement of the amplification rate of human chondrocytes with IGF-I and RGD]. Langenbecks Archiv für Chirurgie. Supplement. Kongressband. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Chirurgie. Kongress, 115 (Suppl). pp. 205-8. ISSN 0942-2854 https://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/19907 Full text not available from this repository ...
The PI3K signaling pathway is crucial for survival and for progression of ovarian carcinoma cells through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The p110α catalytic subunit of PI3K (PIK3CA) is one of the most frequently altered oncogenes in cancer. Approximately 40% of ovarian tumors reveal amplification, whereas only 7% reveal mutation of PIK3CA. Conversely, the majority of breast cancers harbor mutations in PIK3CA (40%), whereas only a few reveal PIK3CA amplifications (9%; refs. 1, 24, 25). We and others have recently shown that the PI3K signaling cascade interacts with lipogenic pathways in cancer cells. In fact, FASN, the crucial enzyme in de novo generation of long-chain fatty acids, is overexpressed in approximately 80% of ovarian carcinomas and is linked with the PI3K system in these tumors (13, 15). Unfortunately, the mechanisms of FASN-mediated regulation of PI3K signaling are still not fully characterized. Experimental evidence suggests that multiple pathways are involved (15). For instance, ...
Extracts features from amplification curve data of quantitative Polymerase Chain Reactions (qPCR) (Pabinger, Stephan, Stefan Roediger, Albert Kriegner, Klemens Vierlinger, and Andreas Weinhauusel (2014) ,doi:10.1016/j.bdq.2014.08.002,) for machine learning purposes. Helper functions prepare the amplification curve data for processing as functional data (e.g., Hausdorff distance) or enable the plotting of amplification curve classes (negative, ambiguous, positive). The hookreg() and hookregNL() functions can be used to predict amplification curves with an hook effect-like curvature. The pcrfit_single() function can be used to extract features from an amplification curve.. ...
Amplification at 20q13 occurs in a variety of tumor types and is associated with aggressive tumor behavior. Kallioniemi et al. (1994) found increased copy number involving 20q13 in 40% of breast cancer cell lines and 18% of primary breast tumors ...
Lucigen strives to provide life scientists with the highest quality products and services for RNA/DNA amplification, cloning, next gen sequencing, and protein expression. Experience outstanding performance with time-saving convenience at an exceptional price.
I added also general information (mostly from the Qiagen site) about the REPLI-g method of amplification and about other similar Qiagen kits available ...
Er cycle respectively) allowed efficient amplification, resulting in a final yield of about 500 ng. The resulting construct was then characterized by agarose
Like anything else, you will only become good at chemistry through experience. These collectively trigger amplification processes that reinforce the initial senescence signal Cheapest manforce by p53.
Discuss the need for rights amplification in Hydra. How does thispractice compare with the cross-ring calls in a ring-protection scheme?
PANP/PILR alpha associated neural protein Overexpression Lysate (Native). Tested Reactivity: Hu. Validated: WB. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
An amplicon is any piece of DNA that has been produced using amplification techniques -- especially one produced artificially. Sometimes the term is also applied to DNA sequences that scientists...
THE DNA amplification technique that underpins much of modern biology and medicine has been made even easier to perform by eliminating the need to heat sam
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
Abstract: The proof of Todas celebrated theorem that the polynomial hierarchy is contained in $¶^{# P}$ relies on the fact that, under mild technical conditions on the complexity class $C$, we have $\exists C \subset BP \cdot \oplus C$. More concretely, there is a randomized reduction which transforms nonempty sets and the empty set, respectively, into sets of odd or even size. The customary method is to invoke Valiants and Vaziranis randomized reduction from NP to UP, followed by amplification of the resulting success probability from $1/\poly(n)$ to a constant by combining the parities of $\poly(n)$ trials. Here we give a direct algebraic reduction which achieves constant success probability without the need for amplification. Our reduction is very simple, and its analysis relies on well-known properties of the Legendre symbol in finite fields ...
I bought a used dual rectifier a couple of years ago and I have nothing bad to say about it, and wouldnt recommend purchasing one either. Never gave me any problems and the used price kept it in my ballpark financially. I Got meh sound out of it for a couple of years, and sold it for more than it should have gone for ...
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... refers to a number of natural and artificial processes by which the number of copies of a gene is increased ... "Gene amplification - Latest research and news - Nature". www.nature.com. "PCR". Genetic Science Learning Center, University of ... However, the amount of DNA or the number of genes can also increase within an organism through gene duplication, a major ... Transcription-mediated amplification, an isothermal, single-tube nucleic acid amplification system utilizing two enzymes, RNA ...
... is an example of gene amplification that has occurred in the unicellular organism ... and genes in cancer cells respectively). Gene duplication often leads to amplification of their gene products due to ... Beverley SM (1991). "Gene amplification in Leishmania". Annual Review of Microbiology. 45: 417-44. doi:10.1146/annurev.mi. ... This duplication leads to amplification of the gene that suppresses the expression of any non-mutant pawn-B loci. Duplication ...
Gene amplification Wiedmann, M; Wilson, WJ; Czajka, J; Luo, J; Barany, F; Batt, CA (Feb 1994). "Ligase chain reaction (LCR)-- ... The ligase chain reaction (LCR) is a method of DNA amplification. The ligase chain reaction (LCR) is an amplification process ... Barany, F (Jan 1991). "Genetic disease detection and DNA amplification using cloned thermostable ligase". Proc Natl Acad Sci U ...
Another gene that is a target of gene amplification is SKP2. SKP2 is an F-box protein that roles in substrate recognition for ... Gene amplification often occur in various tumor cases, including of MDM2, a gene encodes for a RING E3 Ubiquitin ligase ... The BRCA1 gene is another tumor suppressor gene in humans which encodes the BRCA1 protein that is involved in response to DNA ... Momand J, Jung D, Wilczynski S, Niland J (August 1998). "The MDM2 gene amplification database". Nucleic Acids Research. 26 (15 ...
"Protein Turnover and Gene Amplification". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (e1 2). 27 April 2007. (Articles with hCards, ... In 1977, he (and doctoral student Fred Alt) discovered the phenomenon of gene amplification in mammalian cells. This discovery ...
Chromosomal rearrangement due to genome instability can cause gene amplification and deletion. Gene amplification is the ... Gene deletion is the opposite of gene amplification, where a region of a chromosome is lost and drug resistance occurs by ... and BCR-ABL amplification occurs in response to imatinib mesylate. Determining areas of gene amplification in cells from cancer ... "Sister chromatid fusion initiates amplification of the dihydrofolate reductase gene in Chinese hamster cells". Genes & ...
Trent JM, Buick RN, Olson S, Horns RC, Schimke RT (January 1984). "Cytologic evidence for gene amplification in methotrexate- ... Likewise, extra copies of the AR gene (amplification) have been observed in anti-androgen resistant prostate cancer. These ... Horns RC, Dower WJ, Schimke RT (January 1984). "Gene amplification in a leukemic patient treated with methotrexate". Journal of ... April 1995). "In vivo amplification of the androgen receptor gene and progression of human prostate cancer". Nature Genetics. 9 ...
Frank NY, Frank MH (October 2009). "ABCB5 gene amplification in human leukemia cells". Leukemia Research. 33 (10): 1303-5. doi: ... ABCB5 human gene details in the UCSC Genome Browser. (Articles with short description, Short description is different from ... ABCB5+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ABCB5 human gene location in the ... of the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene ABCB 5 in melanoma cells and melanocytes". Pigment Cell Research. 18 (2): 102-12. ...
1996). "Somatic recombination, gene amplification and cancer". Mutat Res. 353 (1-2): 85-107. doi:10.1016/0027-5107(95)00243-x. ... Somatic recombination occurs physiologically in the assembly of the B cell receptor and T-cell receptor genes (V(D)J ... In neurons of the human brain, somatic recombination occurs in the gene that encodes the amyloid precursor protein APP. Neurons ... "Somatic APP gene recombination in Alzheimer's disease and normal neurons". Nature. 563 (7733): 639-645. Bibcode:2018Natur.563.. ...
Powles SB (January 2010). "Gene amplification delivers glyphosate-resistant weed evolution". Proceedings of the National ... Monsanto scientists have found that some resistant weeds have as many as 160 extra copies of a gene called EPSPS, the enzyme ... Genes, Fitness, and Agronomic Management". Weed Science. 57 (4): 435-41. doi:10.1614/WS-08-181.1. S2CID 85725624. Peerzada, ... 56 This CP4 EPSPS gene was cloned and transfected into soybeans. In 1996, genetically modified soybeans were made commercially ...
DM formation is particularly important for its role in gene amplification. In addition to their ability to harbor genes, DMs ... Shimizu, N (28 September 2021). "Gene Amplification and the Extrachromosomal Circular DNA". Genes. 12 (10): 1533. doi:10.3390/ ... The amplification of specific genes that support the growth of tumor cells, such as oncogenes or drug-resistant genes, is ... and extra-chromosomal sites of gene amplification by modulation of gene expression and DNA methylation". Journal of Cellular ...
Calvi BR, Lilly MA, Spradling AC (March 1998). "Cell cycle control of chorion gene amplification". Genes & Development. 12 (5 ... This region undergoes DNA-replication-dependent gene amplification at a defined stage during oogenesis and relies on the timely ... "DNA sequence templates adjacent nucleosome and ORC sites at gene amplification origins in Drosophila". Nucleic Acids Research. ... Gene. 511 (2): 300-5. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2012.09.058. PMID 23026211. Ryan VT, Grimwade JE, Camara JE, Crooke E, Leonard AC ( ...
Chrostek, Ewa; Teixeira, Luis (2015-02-10). "Mutualism Breakdown by Amplification of Wolbachia Genes". PLOS Biology. 13 (2): ... For many years biologists have wondered why plants have so many genes coding for proteins that are known to be essential for ... "Fate of new genes cannot be predicted". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2018-08-24. Teresa Avelar, Ana; Perfeito, Lília; Gordo, Isabel ... These findings were published in the journal PLoS Biology in February 2015, in the first study linking genes and their ...
Goldsbrough, Peter (1990). "Gene amplification in glyphosate tolerant tobacco cells". Plant Science. 72 (1): 53-62. doi:10.1016 ... EPSP synthase is produced only by plants and micro-organisms; the gene coding for it is not in the mammalian genome. Gut flora ... A glyphosate-resistant version of this gene has been used in genetically modified crops. The enzyme belongs to the family of ...
Tomita N, Mori Y, Kanda H, Notomi T (2008). "Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of gene sequences and simple visual ... Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a single-tube technique for the amplification of DNA and a low-cost ... A consequence of having such a cocktail of primers can be non-specific amplification in the late amplification. Multiplexing ... However, in the late amplification, primer-dimer amplification may contribute to a false positive signal. The use of inorganic ...
"Natural genomic amplification of cholinesterase genes in animals". Journal of Neurochemistry. International Society for ...
Suzuki, SO; Iwaki, T (2000). "Amplification and overexpression of mdm2 gene in ependymomas". Modern Pathology. 13 (5): 548-53. ... and gene expression differences. Amplification of chromosome 1q and loss of 6q, 17p and 22q are the most common numerical ... However, gene mutations linked to the familial syndromes are rarely found in sporadic cases of ependymoma. For example, NF2 ... A gene expression profiling experiment has shown that three members of the SOX family of transcription factors also possessed ...
"Natural genomic amplification of cholinesterase genes in animals". Journal of Neurochemistry. International Society for ... Are used as insecticides (e.g. malathion): Resistance: The hunt for resistance genes in Rhipicephalus microplus has been ...
Williams R, Peisajovich SG, Miller OJ, Magdassi S, Tawfik DS, Griffiths AD (2006). "Amplification of complex gene libraries by ... DNA sequencing may be used to determine the sequence of individual genes, larger genetic regions (i.e. clusters of genes or ... Min Jou W, Haegeman G, Ysebaert M, Fiers W (May 1972). "Nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for the bacteriophage MS2 coat ... The major landmark of RNA sequencing is the sequence of the first complete gene and the complete genome of Bacteriophage MS2, ...
"Dosage analysis of cancer predisposition genes by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification". Br. J. Cancer. 91 (6): ... detection of gene copy number, detection of duplications and deletions in human cancer predisposition genes such as BRCA1, ... With MLPA, amplification of probes can be achieved. Thus, many sequences (up to 40) can be amplified and quantified using just ... MLPA facilitates the amplification and detection of multiple targets with a single primer pair. In a standard multiplex PCR ...
She was awarded a PhD from Imperial College London for research investigating gene amplification in rat cells in 1990 while ... Heard, Edith (1990). Analysis of a gene amplification event in rat cells. imperial.ac.uk (PhD). Imperial College London. hdl: ... Heard, Edith (2013). "We can't undo what our parents have given us in terms of our genes'". The Guardian. Archived from the ... "Rb-Mediated Heterochromatin Formation and Silencing of E2F Target Genes during Cellular Senescence". Cell. 113 (6): 703-16. doi ...
Mekalanos JJ (1983). "Duplication and amplification of toxin genes in Vibrio cholerae". Cell. 35 (1): 253-63. doi:10.1016/0092- ... His early work as an independent researcher led to the identification of toxR, a gene that affects the expression of the ...
... provide a location for the adaptive amplification of genes; and be involved in secondary mechanism of telomere maintenance via ... and there are even some cases of small genes residing completely within the intron of a large gene. For some genes (such as the ... Repeated sequence (DNA) Gene family Genetic marker G banding Genome Regulator gene Satellite DNA Pryde FE, Gorham HC, Louis EJ ... When discussing gene with alternate splicing, an exon is a portion of the transcript that could be translated, given the ...
Nishikawa N, Toyota M (2007). "Gene amplification and overexpression of PRDM14 in breast cancer". Cancer Res. 67 (20): 9649- ... Adachi M, Miyachi T, Sekiya M, Hinoda Y, Yachi A, Imai K (1994). "Structure of the human LC-PTP (HePTP) gene: similarity in ... Further, he developed the diagnostic method of a digestive tract cancer utilizing a methylation of genes expressed in cancer ... Imai discovered three kinds of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) genes having the function of controlling the signal ...
Li JT, Liu W, Kuang ZH, Zhang RH, Chen HK, Feng QS (February 2004). "[Mutation and amplification of RIT1 gene in hepatocellular ... "Entrez Gene: RIT1 Ras-like without CAAX 1". Gos M, Fahiminiya S, Poznański J, Klapecki J, Obersztyn E, Piotrowicz M, Wierzba J ... GTP-binding protein Rit1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RIT1 gene. RIT belongs to the RAS (HRAS; MIM 190020) ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 1, All stub articles, ...
PCR to circumvent spurious priming during gene amplification". Nucleic Acids Res. 19 (14): 4008. doi:10.1093/nar/19.14.4008. ... as the nonspecific sequences to which primers anneal in early steps of amplification will "swamp out" any specific sequences ... because of the exponential nature of polymerase amplification. The earliest steps of a touchdown polymerase chain reaction ...
A method of isothermal gene amplification]" [An Isothermal Amplification Method]. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, ... This method permits amplification of genes for which only a partial sequence information is available, and allows ... The 5' end of a gene (corresponding to the transcription start site) is typically identified by RACE-PCR (Rapid Amplification ... If the genomic DNA sequence of a gene is known, RT-PCR can be used to map the location of exons and introns in the gene. ...
Whittock NV, Eady RA, McGrath JA (Oct 2000). "Genomic organization and amplification of the human plakoglobin gene (JUP)". ... The JUP gene contains 13 exons spanning 17 kb on chromosome 17q21. Plakoglobin is a member of the catenin family, since it ... "Entrez Gene: JUP junction plakoglobin". "Protein sequence of human JUP (Uniprot ID: P14923)". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas ... Plakoglobin, also known as junction plakoglobin or gamma-catenin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JUP gene. ...
Palese built "the first genetic maps for influenza A, B and C viruses, identified the function of several viral genes, ... ... Luytjes, W.; Krystal, M.; Enami, M.; Parvin, J. D.; Palese, P. (1989). "Amplification, expression, and packaging of foreign ... "The genes of influenza virus". Cell. 10 (1): 1-10. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(77)90133-7. PMID 837439. S2CID 6562438. Buonagurio, D ... uniform rate of change in NS gene". Science. 232 (4753): 980-982. Bibcode:1986Sci...232..980B. doi:10.1126/science.2939560. ...
He demonstrated a rolling circle mechanism for ribosomal gene amplification. He showed that DNA methylation sites can be mapped ... This discovery has allowed new strategies for mapping and identifying genes and it has allowed Bird to propose that the ... This was accomplished by reintroducing a functional MeCP2 gene and proved successful even when the condition was at an advanced ... Bird, Adrian (1972). The cytology and biochemistry of DNA amplification in the ovary of Xenopus laevis (Thesis). University of ...
"NAD metabolic dependency in cancer is shaped by gene amplification and enhancer remodelling". Nature. 569 (7757): 570-575. ... "Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations and Gene Fusions in Cancer". cgap.nci.nih.gov. Retrieved 2018-11-27. Nathanson, ... Verhaak, Roel G. W.; Bafna, Vineet; Mischel, Paul S. (May 2019). "Extrachromosomal oncogene amplification in tumour ... They demonstrated widespread extrachromosomal oncogene amplification across many cancer types, showed that it potently drives ...
In this technique, a gene encoding a protein of interest is inserted into a phage coat protein gene, causing the phage to " ... Following further bacterial-based amplification, the DNA within in the interacting phage is sequenced to identify the ... A versatile screening system for selective isolation of genes by specific gene-product/ligand interaction". Eur. J. Biochem. ... Parmley SF, Smith GP (1988). "Antibody-selectable filamentous fd phage vectors: affinity purification of target genes". Gene. ...
... a viral gene) to one where a gene that is normally present in the cell can cause cancer. It is believed that at one point an ... correlation of relapse and survival with amplification of the HER-2/neu oncogene". Science. 235 (4785): 177-82. Bibcode:1987Sci ... a novel human intracellular SRC-like tyrosine kinase-encoding gene". Gene. 138 (1-2): 247-51. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90817-6 ... Src (gene) has been shown to interact with the following signaling pathways: PI3K Akt IKK NFkB Caspase 9 STAT3 p38 MAPK VEGF IL ...
Tomko, Gene (2020). Encyclopedia of Louisiana Musicians: Jazz, Blues, Cajun, Creole, Zydeco, Swamp Pop, and Gospel. Baton Rouge ... using the amplification to explore and develop radical new timbres and sonic effects previously unheard from a harmonica or any ...
The region in question includes the SHC2 gene which, in mice and rats, appears to have some function in the nervous system. The ... researchers at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston concluded that protein misfolding cyclic amplification ... The authors of the U.S. study concluded that "Our results indicate that SHC2 gene deletions underlie few, if any, cases of well ... February 2014). "SHC2 gene copy number in multiple system atrophy (MSA)". Clinical Autonomic Research. 24 (1): 25-30. doi: ...
"Circular rapid amplification of cDNA ends for high-throughput extension cloning of partial genes". Genomics. 84 (1): 205-10. ... v t e v t e (Genes on human chromosome 12, Solute carrier family, All stub articles, Human chromosome 12 gene stubs, Membrane ... "Identification of genes associated with non-small-cell lung cancer promotion and progression". Lung Cancer. 67 (2): 151-9. doi: ... also known as solute carrier family 2 member 13 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC2A13 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ...
v t e (Genes on human chromosome 11, All stub articles, Human chromosome 11 gene stubs). ... 1999). "Amplification of the inflammatory cellular redox state by human immunodeficiency virus type 1-immunosuppressive tat and ... "Entrez Gene: NOX4 NADPH oxidase 4". Schröder K, Zhang M, Benkhoff S, Mieth A, Pliquett R, Kosowski J, Kruse C, Luedike P, ... NADPH oxidase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NOX4 gene, and is a member of the NOX family of NADPH oxidases. ...
Gene Porter (Stephen Collins) (season 2), one of the civic leaders of the town of Willoughby, the town doctor and the father of ... about the existence of the pendants and provided other information to the militia concerning them and a need for amplification ... Martin Shaw (Waleed Zuaiter), the member of the Patriots, who recruited Gene Porter to become the member of the Patriots. He ...
Dogs are commonly used as security to guard the chickens, which presents a convenient group of amplification hosts for the ... as well as assessments of other mitochondrial genes are all part of mounting evidence supporting the species complex hypothesis ... Instead, domestic dogs are the primary amplification host for the parasite. The direct bite of an infected sandfly during blood ...
Endosymbiotic gene transfer, the process by which genes that were coded in the mitochondrial genome are transferred to the ... "Further observation of paternal transmission of Drosophila mitochondrial DNA by PCR selective amplification method". Genetical ... Adams KL, Palmer JD (December 2003). "Evolution of mitochondrial gene content: gene loss and transfer to the nucleus". ... Moreover, nuclear DNA genes involved in aerobic respiration and in mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription were either ...
1996). "Gene amplification as a cause of inherited thyroxine-binding globulin excess in two Japanese families". J. Clin. ... Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) is a globulin protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINA7 gene. TBG binds thyroid ... 1991). "Complete thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) deficiency caused by a single nucleotide deletion in the TBG gene". Metab. ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome X, Blood proteins, Thyroid). ...
"Entrez Gene: CACNA1E calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit". Soong TW, Stea A, Hodson CD, Dubel SJ, ... "Amplification and overexpression of CACNA1E correlates with relapse in favorable histology Wilms' tumors". Clinical Cancer ... "Polymorphisms in the gene encoding the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel Ca (V)2.3 (CACNA1E) are associated with type 2 diabetes ... or Cav2.3 which in humans is encoded by the CACNA1E gene. They are strongly expressed in cortex, hippocampus, striatum, ...
... transcription-mediated amplification, and reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT‑LAMP) from a ... It is unknown whether different persons use similar antibody genes in response to COVID‑19. The severity of the inflammation ...
McBride, KE, Svab, Z, Schaaf, DJ, Hogan, PS, Stalker, DM, Maliga, P (1995). "Amplification of a Chimeric Bacillus Gene in ... Svab, Z, Maliga, P (February 1993). "High-frequency plastid transformation in tobacco by selection for a chimeric aadA gene". ... The toolkit for chloroplast genome engineering was completed by post-transformation excision of marker genes using phage site- ... In arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) efficient chloroplast transformation required knocking out a nuclear gene. ...
This means that usually a child inherits a copy of the mutated gene from both parents, resulting in a homozygous defect. CHAPLE ... by regulating the amplification phase. When CD55 is absent, the complement system attacks red blood cells and causes them to be ... CHAPLE syndrome is caused by mutations of the complement regulator CD55 gene leading to a loss of protein expression. CHAPLE ...
"V-region and class specific RT-PCR amplification of human immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes from B-cell lines". ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome, Genes, Human proteins, ... "Entrez Gene: Immunoglobulin lambda joining 3". Paul E, Iliev AA, Livneh A, Diamond B (December 1992). "The anti-DNA-associated ... Combriato G, Klobeck HG (June 1991). "V lambda and J lambda-C lambda gene segments of the human immunoglobulin lambda light ...
Raph blood group system in the BGMUT blood group antigen gene mutation database Human CD151 genome location and CD151 gene ... Whittock NV, McLean WH (2001). "Genomic organization, amplification, fine mapping, and intragenic polymorphisms of the human ... "Entrez Gene: CD151 CD151 molecule (Raph blood group)". Bardhan, Ajoy; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Chapple, Iain L. C.; Fine, Jo- ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of ...
"Sparkling nostalgia in Gene Krupa concert". Evening Standard. Retrieved 27 February 2009. The Jazz Journal on The Newport Jazz ... a band dedicated to playing soul funk and pop with minimal amplification and London Omnibus - a trio performing jazz and ... For the 100th Anniversary of Gene Krupa's birth in 2009, Pite staged the only UK concert celebrating the life and work of the ... Gene Krupa Centenary Concert (2009) Chamber Jazz (2009) The Blagger's Guide To Jazz Live (2010) 100 Years of Jazz in 99 Minutes ...
Amplification of this gene is frequently observed in numerous human cancers. Translocations involving this gene are associated ... This gene is a proto-oncogene and encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a role in cell cycle progression, apoptosis and ... MYC proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYC gene which is a member of the ... Myc/Max dimers activate gene transcription, while Mad/Max and Mnt/Max dimers inhibit the activity of Myc. c-MYC is over ...
"High levels of p19/nm23 protein in neuroblastoma are associated with advanced stage disease and with N-myc gene amplification ... Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Co-transcription of this gene and the ... Nucleoside diphosphate kinase A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NME1 gene. It is thought to be a metastasis ... "Entrez Gene: NME1 non-metastatic cells 1, protein (NM23A) expressed in". Du J, Hannon GJ (December 2002). "The centrosomal ...
"Genomic amplification of the human plakophilin 1 gene and detection of a new mutation in ectodermal dysplasia/skin fragility ... Plakophilin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PKP1 gene. This gene encodes a member of the arm-repeat (armadillo ... Mutations in this gene have been associated with the ectodermal dysplasia/skin fragility syndrome. PKP1 has been shown to ... "Entrez Gene: PKP1 plakophilin 1 (ectodermal dysplasia/skin fragility syndrome)". Hofmann I, Mertens C, Brettel M, Nimmrich V, ...
Eugene Chadbourne, Big Miller at Allmusic. Vladimir, Bogdanov. All Music Guide to the Blues: The Definitive Guide to the Blues ... He won fame as a "blues shouter", a singer whose voice was powerful enough, without microphone amplification, for an auditorium ...
In spirotrich ciliates (such as Oxytricha), the process is even more complex due to "gene scrambling": the MDSs in the ... Macronuclear DNA is derived from micronuclear DNA by amazingly extensive DNA rearrangement and amplification. The macronucleus ... The micronucleus passes its genetic material to offspring, but does not express its genes. The macronucleus provides the small ... The following scheme is based on a molecular phylogenetic analysis of up to four genes from 152 species representing 110 ...
Although Gene Simmons of Kiss claims to have been the first to make the gesture on the 1977 Love Gun album cover, there is ... The electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has historically been the key element in heavy ... Gene Santoro, quoted in Carson (2001), p. 86 "Led Zeppelin Teen-Clubs, Box 45, Egegaard Skole - September 7, 1968". Led ... Vocalists similarly modified their technique and increased their reliance on amplification, often becoming more stylized and ...
In large theaters, amplification must be used. Cathedral (and church) have an area called a choir, usually located near the ... "Sound System Engineering" 4th edition, Don Davis, Eugene Patronis, Pat Brown, June 2013, page 215 "Handbook of Noise and ...
RNA probes can be designed for any gene or any sequence within a gene for visualization of mRNA, lncRNA and miRNA in tissues ... If the fluorescent signal is weak, amplification of the signal may be necessary in order to exceed the detection threshold of ... In this context, it can help define the spatial-temporal patterns of gene expression within cells and tissues. In biology, a ... This homology can be detected by gene or genome sequencing but also by FISH. For instance, human and chimpanzee chromosomes are ...
The amelogenin gene has been most widely studied in humans, where it is a single copy gene, located on the X and Y chromosomes ... Mutation in regions of AMELY intron 1 commonly used as primer annealing sites may disable PCR amplification. A 6bp insertion to ... Two bands of DNA, at 555 bps and 371 bps, are resolved if both the AMELX and AMELY versions of the gene are present (i.e. the ... Amelogenins are a group of protein isoforms produced by alternative splicing or proteolysis from the AMELX gene, on the X ...
The principal genes responsible for producing penicillin, pcbAB, pcbC, and penDE are closely linked, forming a cluster on ... of the strains had been determined using PCR amplification. The airborne asexual spores of P. chrysogenum are important human ... Fierro F, Barredo JL, Díez B, Gutierrez S, Fernández FJ, Martín JF (June 1995). "The penicillin gene cluster is amplified in ... "Expression of genes and processing of enzymes for the biosynthesis of penicillins and cephalosporins". Antonie van Leeuwenhoek ...
Ford OH, Gregory CW, Kim D, Smitherman AB, Mohler JL (November 2003). "Androgen receptor gene amplification and protein ... Many genes are involved in inherited risk for prostate cancer. The first gene linked to inherited prostate cancer in families ... The absence of zinc is thought to occur via silencing the gene that produces ZIP1. It is called a tumor suppressor gene product ... This region encompasses regulatory elements, non-coding genes, and the stem cell related POU5F1B gene. Roughly 4% of families ...
Target Genes, Primer Sets, and Thermocycler Settings for Fungal DNA Amplification. *Anamorph and Teleomorph Names for Candida ... Target Genes, Primer Sets, and Thermocycler Settings for Fungal DNA Amplification. ... Development of primer sets designed for use with the PCR to amplify conserved genes from filamentous ascomycetes. Appl Environ ... Table of fungal amplification targets for sequence-based identification. All fungi. ITS. ...
Amplification, cloning, and sequence comparison of the growth hormone gene for carp (Cyprinus carpio) by the polymerase chain ... Nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence of our carp growth hormone gene are the same as Korens carp GH cDNA in the coded ... After PCR amplification, the products were cloned into an E. coli expression vector (PBluescript II KS+/-). The result of the ... the homology of nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence for our carp growth hormone gene is 95.6% and 96.7%, respectively, ...
The global gene amplification technologies market size was valued at USD 26.28 billion in 2020 and is expected to expand at a ... Gene Amplification Technologies Market Report, 2028. Gene Amplification Technologies Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis ...
... Vartika Sinha, Ritesh Mishra, Abhinav Kumar, ... Amplification of arsH Gene in Lactobacillus acidophilus Resistant to Arsenite. Biotechnology, 10: 101-107. DOI: 10.3923/biotech ... PCR using specific primers of arsH gene showed the presence of 606 bp arsH gene on a 23 kb (kilo base) plasmid of Lactobacillus ... was developed in Lactobacillus acidophilus and the gene responsible for high level of arsenite resistance (arsH gene) was ...
Gene amplification. Definition noun, plural: gene amplifications The process of duplicating a particular gene, causing the gene ... Gene. A gene is the fundamental, physical, and functional unit of heredity. The genes make up the sequences of DNA (genotypes ... Amplification. Definition noun (1) The act or result of increasing in size or effect. (2) An increase in the frequency of a ... Definition noun A branch of genetics that deal with the structure and function of genes at a molecular... Read More ...
... a technical comparison of three methods for the detection of CDK4 gene amplification in glioblastomas. ... We report on a technical comparison of three different methods to detect gene amplification by differential PCR: ethidium ... Differential polymerase chain reaction: a technical comparison of three methods for the detection of CDK4 gene amplification in ... Differential polymerase chain reaction: a technical comparison of three methods for the detection of CDK4 gene amplification in ...
... analysing tumour suppressor gene promoter hypermethylation by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification ... analysing tumour suppressor gene promoter hypermethylation by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification ... of 22 common tumour suppressor genes in 108 NPCs using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. ... promoter hypermethylation is a common phenomenon in early carcinogenesis to inactivate tumour suppressor genes. Since ...
... gene amplification is frequent in lung squamous cell carcinoma and high gene copy number indicates a better prognosis in early ... gene amplification is frequent in lung squamous cell carcinoma and high gene copy number indicates a better prognosis in early ... FGFR1 gene copy number (GCN) and the ratio of FGFR1:CH8 was compared to clinical and pathological characteristics and related ... FGFR1 GCN alone appears better at showing gene gain compared to the FGFR1:CH8 ratio. FGFR1 SISH may be a feasible assay to ...
An increasingly important therapeutic target: Part 2 Distribution of HER2/neu Overexpression and Gene Amplification by Organ, ... wastewater representing 16 million people from August 2020-21 reveals widespread transcription of antibiotic resistance genes ...
Search for HER2 gene amplification is necessary to adapt the immunohistochemical technique quality and also in the cases of ...
Amplification of chromosomal DNA is thought to be one of the mechanisms activating cancer-related genes in tumors. To identify ... N2 - Amplification of chromosomal DNA is thought to be one of the mechanisms activating cancer-related genes in tumors. To ... AB - Amplification of chromosomal DNA is thought to be one of the mechanisms activating cancer-related genes in tumors. To ... abstract = "Amplification of chromosomal DNA is thought to be one of the mechanisms activating cancer-related genes in tumors. ...
It combines models that have been studied separately so far, taking into account both the phenomenon of gene amplification and ... Different models of chemotherapy taking into account drug resistance stemming from gene amplification. Śmieja, Jarosław; ... Different models of chemotherapy taking into account drug resistance stemming from gene amplification ...
... and PDGFRA gene amplification has been reported in glioblastomas. In order to address the incidence of PDGFRA gene ... and PDGFRA gene amplification has been reported in glioblastomas. In order to address the incidence of PDGFRA gene ... and PDGFRA gene amplification has been reported in glioblastomas. In order to address the incidence of PDGFRA gene ... and PDGFRA gene amplification has been reported in glioblastomas. In order to address the incidence of PDGFRA gene ...
Analysis of fish ZP1/ZPB homologous genes - evidence for both genome duplication and species-specific amplification models of ... Analysis of fish ZP1/ZPB homologous genes - evidence for both genome duplication and species-specific amplification models of ...
Two of the tumors with EGFR gene amplification also revealed amplification of the MDM2 gene, while one additional glioblastoma ... Two of the tumors with EGFR gene amplification also revealed amplification of the MDM2 gene, while one additional glioblastoma ... Two of the tumors with EGFR gene amplification also revealed amplification of the MDM2 gene, while one additional glioblastoma ... Two of the tumors with EGFR gene amplification also revealed amplification of the MDM2 gene, while one additional glioblastoma ...
Alternatively, if the E. coli MG1655 strain has been plated, cells from the colony can be added directly into the pre-prepared PCR mix. To break cells open, add a 10 minute boiling step at 100 degrees Celsius at the start of the PCR protocol.) ...
Gene Amplification Kits and Reagents, Gene Amplification Instruments, Gene Amplification Services, Gene Amplification ... Gene Amplification Technologies Market Report 2023-2033. Gene Amplification Technologies Market Report 2023-2033: Forecasts by ... Ancillaries), by Application (Hybridization Application, Whole Genome Amplification, Exome Sequencing Amplification, SNP Ge ...
... a greater number of Deltaproteobacteria and anaerobic functional genes were found in sediments closest to the DWH blowout site ... a greater number of Deltaproteobacteria and anaerobic functional genes were found in sediments closest to the DWH blowout site ... The presence of aerobic microbial communities and associated functional genes was consistent among all samples, whereas, ... The presence of aerobic microbial communities and associated functional genes was consistent among all samples, whereas, ...
... gene, but a few studies have been investigated them. We profiled MDM2 gene amplification in a series of urothelial carcinomas ( ... gene, but a few studies have been investigated them. We profiled MDM2 gene amplification in a series of urothelial carcinomas ( ... MDM2 gene amplification as selection tool for innovative targeted approaches in PD-L1 positive or negative muscle-invasive ... True (ratio 12q/CEP12 >2) MDM2 gene amplification was distinguished from polyploidy/gains (ratio <2, absolute copy number ...
APOBEC3 genes are highly amplified and diversified in mammals, suggesting that their evolution and diversification have been ... between mammalian APOBEC3 proteins and viral infections and introduce a scenario of the coevolution of mammalian APOBEC3 genes ... Amplification of APOBEC3 Genes by Retrotransposition. Most mammalian APOBEC3 genes are encoded in the canonical locus (reviewed ... 4. Evolution of APOBEC3 Genes in Mammals. 4.1. Duplication and Diversification of APOBEC3 Genes. Human APOBEC3 genes are ...
Recently established guidelines from the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP), College of American Pathologists (CAP), Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP), and/or the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCP) recommend HER2 FISH testing as a reflex to further clarify equivocal (2+) immunohistochemistry (IHC) results and as routine testing in colorectal, gastroesophageal (GEJ), and gastric cancers.. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/colon. ...
KIT gene mutation and amplification in dysgerminoma of the ovary. Liang Cheng, Lawrence M. Roth, Shaobo Zhang, Mingsheng Wang, ... KIT gene mutation and amplification in dysgerminoma of the ovary. Cancer. 2011 May 15;117(10):2096-2103. doi: 10.1002/cncr. ... KIT gene mutation and amplification in dysgerminoma of the ovary. / Cheng, Liang; Roth, Lawrence M.; Zhang, Shaobo et al. ... KIT gene mutation and amplification in dysgerminoma of the ovary. In: Cancer. 2011 ; Vol. 117, No. 10. pp. 2096-2103. ...
Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of mpt64 gene fragment were carried out on both mononuclear cells and plasma samples ... In this study, we modified the nucleic acid extraction and amplification methods to see if diagnostic sensitivity could improve ... Conclusion: Peripheral blood mpt64 PCR amplification can diagnose some TB patients, especially those with extra-pulmonary and ...
Gene amplifications characterize acral melanoma and permit the detection of occult tumor cells in the surrounding skin. Cancer ... However, molecular analysis has demonstrated different patterns of cell death; oncogene expression; gene amplification; and ... Association of CTLA-4 Gene Variants with Response to Therapy and Long-term Survival in Metastatic Melanoma Patients Treated ... Forschner A, Forchhammer S, Bonzheim I. NTRK gene fusions in melanoma: detection, prevalence and potential therapeutic ...
CHD1 gene amplification through PCR has been commonly used for such purpose, however, it is essential to evaluate the primer ... Amplification of the CHD1 Gene for Molecular Sexing of Birds using Touchdown-PCR. ... Amplification of the CHD1 Gene for Molecular Sexing of Birds using Touchdown-PCR. International Journal of Applied Biology and ... The CHD1F/CHD1R primer set, with the use of a touchdown PCR, allowed the differentiation between two highly homologous genes ...
... Joyce, Susan A.; Burnell ... Characterization of Heterorhabditis isolates by PCR amplification of segments of mtDNA and rDNA genes. ... Characterization of Heterorhabditis Isolates by PCR Amplification of Segments of mtDNA and rDNA Genes, Journal of Nematology, ... Digestion patterns of both amplification products provided strong evidence for the recognition of species groups, which include ...
... ... typically including known resistance genes. Using mathematical modelling, we show how heteroresistance in the parameter range ... with an increased resistance of the subpopulations resulting from spontaneous tandem amplifications, ...
Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... The MYCN gene provides instructions for making a protein that ... Amplification of the MYCN gene is associated with a severe form of neuroblastoma. It is unknown how amplification of this gene ... known as gene amplification, can underlie the formation and growth of tumor cells. For example, amplification of the MYCN gene ... Gene amplification in cancer. Trends Genet. 2006 Aug;22(8):447-55. doi: 10.1016/j.tig.2006.06.007. Epub 2006 Jun 19. Citation ...
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  • Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of mpt64 gene fragment were carried out on both mononuclear cells and plasma samples of each patient. (ijbls.org)
  • The aim of the present work was to develop polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) based on the conserved nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene for detection of bacteria of the Helicobacter genus in human antral biopsy samples. (pasteur.fr)
  • Molecular characterization of the virus was done by using polymerase chain reaction amplification, cloning, and DNA sequencing of conserved orthopoxvirus genes such as the vaccinia growth factor (VGF), thymidine kinase (TK), and hemagglutinin. (cdc.gov)
  • Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) technology being used in conjunction with Agdia's AmpliFire® isothermal fluorometer. (agdia.com)
  • AmplifyRP ® employs recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), an isothermal amplification technology first introduced in 2006, that provides target sensitivity and specificity comparable to that achieved with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (agdia.com)
  • The gold standard for the laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19 is the reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay, which searches for SARS-CoV-2 target genes in nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) samples, and its performance depends on the quantity and quality of the RNA input. (bvsalud.org)
  • The least sensitive target gene and the gene most affected by RNA extraction procedures was the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (Charité-Berlin protocol). (bvsalud.org)
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and sequencing was used to determine the presence of β-lactamase encoding genes (bla) including bla NDM-1 and plasmid-mediated quinolone and aminoglycoside resistance determinants. (who.int)
  • The B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 variant results in spike gene target failure (SGTF) in reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. (who.int)
  • Lebanese hospital, adding evidence to the natural history polymerase (RdRP) genes ( 5 ). (who.int)
  • The ACE genotype was assessed by amplification of the ACE gene polymorphism in the presence of RsaI (plasma renin activity) and NlaIII restriction sites, by using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. (royalmarloiesport.com)
  • FIND) has partnered with Cepheid, Inc. (Sunnyvale, CA) and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ, Newark, NY) to develop a TB-specific automated, cartridge-based nucleic amplification assay (Xpert MTB/RIF) based on the GeneXpert multi-disease platform, currently unique in its simplification of molecular testing with fully integrated and automated sample preparation, amplification and detection required for real-time polymerase chain reaction. (who.int)
  • Amplification was carried out using the following program: incubation step at 50 ºC for 2 min, followed by Taq DNA polymerase activation at 90 ºC for 10 min and 40 cycles of 95 ºC for 15 sec and 60 ºC for 1 min. (docsbay.net)
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification has been developed for identification of most Borrelia species. (medscape.com)
  • Recherche de l'amplification du gène HER2: la CISH est-elle une alternative à la technique FISH [HER2 gene amplification assay: is CISH an alternative to FISH? (unil.ch)
  • Objective: The overall purpose of the study was to demonstrate applicability of the DAKO dual-color chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) assay (DAKO Denmark, Glostrup) with respect to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes MYC-C. Methods: MYC gene amplification by FISH and DAKO dual-color CISH Results: The study showed that the dual-color CISH assay can convert Texas red and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) signals into chromogenic signals. (ucc.edu.ar)
  • Conclusions: We conclude that dual-color DAKO CISH assay is an accurate method for determining MYC gene amplification with added advantages that make it a more practically useful method. (ucc.edu.ar)
  • The assay for Helicobacter spp was developed by amplifying a 399-bp 16S rRNA gene sequence specific to the genus Helicobacter. (pasteur.fr)
  • The 16S rRNA gene PCR assay was able to detect down to 680 bacterial cells, as assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis, and down to 4 bacterial cells by hybridization of amplicon with the internal probe. (pasteur.fr)
  • A clinical evaluation was conducted in northeast Thailand to compare LAMP to an established real-time PCR assay targeting the same TTS1 gene cluster. (ukhsa.gov.uk)
  • HER2 overexpression or HER2 gene amplification as determined by an accurate and validated assay (see sections 4.4 and 5.1). (who.int)
  • This test, using Hybrid Capture 2 technology, is a nucleic acid hybridization microplate assay with signal amplification. (cdc.gov)
  • We then identified risk factors associated detect several genes offer greater assay sensitivity ( 6 ). (who.int)
  • [4] Overexpression/amplification of HER2 [5] is seen in breast and gastric cancers where it is associated with increased risk of disease recurrence and worse prognosis. (jmgims.co.in)
  • In conclusion, fluorescent differential PCR is more sensitive than standard differential PCR for detection oncogene amplification in tumor DNAs. (cun.es)
  • We conclude that quantitative measurements of intratumor heterogeneity by multiplex FISH, detection of MYC amplification and TP53 mutation could augment prognostication in breast cancer patients . (bvsalud.org)
  • Specific detection of Fusarium langsethiae and related species by DGGE and ARMS-PCR of a beta-tubulin (tub1) gene fragment. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A total of 65 dyspeptic patients from France and New Caledonia were screened for Helicobacter spp infection through the use of the following diagnostic assays on biopsy specimens collected through endoscopy: direct detection of bacteria in histological sections by Giemsa and Warthin Starry staining, urease test and bacterial isolation, PCR for Helicobacter pylori ureC/glmM gene, and PCR targeted to 16S rRNA genes. (pasteur.fr)
  • Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeting the TTS1 gene cluster was developed for the detection of B. pseudomallei. (ukhsa.gov.uk)
  • For both specimen types, the Rotor-Gene Q (RGQ) MDx (US) instrument is used for automated amplification and detection. (fda.gov)
  • After amplification the samples are typed by hybridization to the typing strips followed by colorimetric detection. (cdc.gov)
  • Agdia, Inc. (Elkhart, IN) has announced an expanded field of use for their AmplifyRP ® isothermal amplification technology that now allows detection of genetically modified traits and native plant genes. (agdia.com)
  • We believe our experiences and successes in development of isothermal plant pathogen assays will provide a seamless path for detection of plant genes. (agdia.com)
  • Using hybrid capture, the genes of interest are enriched and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2500 or MiSeq sequencers followed by variant detection and functional and clinical annotation for the generation of a clinical report. (jax.org)
  • The JAX-CTP™ is also validated for the detection of clinically actionable gene amplifications. (jax.org)
  • CoV-2 depends on the quality of the specimen, the date of methods for SARS-CoV-2 RNA target gene detection. (bvsalud.org)
  • 1 The ease of β-lactamase encoding genes ( bla NDM-1 ) dissemination has become apparent with the worldwide detection of NDM-1 producers. (who.int)
  • Policy statement: automated real-time nucleic acid amplification technology for rapid and simultaneous detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance: Xpert MTB/RIF system. (who.int)
  • The real-time PCR reactions were performed in a MicroAmp optical 96-well plate using the ABI PRISM 7000 sequence detection system (Applied Biosystems) with a 1X TaqMan Universal PCR Master mix, 2.5 µL of total cDNA from the RT reaction sample, and the primers and probe sets for either the test genes (CUP1-1, YHR138C, and BOP2)or ACT1 (endogenous gene) in a total reaction volume of 30 µL. (docsbay.net)
  • Nucleic acid assays have shown to be the favourable method, as their mechanism allows detection of other genes and biomarkers aside from the targeted pathogens. (europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com)
  • 4 Aside from the detection of pathogenic microbes, 16S rRNA-gene sequencing may also enable the identification of other microorganisms that potentially affect the gut health of patients. (europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com)
  • Amplification of chromosomal DNA is thought to be one of the mechanisms activating cancer-related genes in tumors. (elsevier.com)
  • Overexpression of PDGF system components, particularly the alpha subtype receptor (PDGFRA), is common in glial tumors, and PDGFRA gene amplification has been reported in glioblastomas. (elsevier.com)
  • Each of the 5 tumors with PDGFRA amplification displayed features generally associated with grade IV malignancy in astrocytic tumors. (elsevier.com)
  • Consequently, off, data indicate that this gene alteration is restricted to tumors having oligoclendroglial differentiation and highly anaplastic features. (elsevier.com)
  • Twelve glioblastomas (40%) showed amplification of the EGFR gene, and overexpression of EGFR was evident in each of these tumors as indicated by the immunoperoxidase technique. (northwestern.edu)
  • Two of the tumors with EGFR gene amplification also revealed amplification of the MDM2 gene, while one additional glioblastoma revealed MDM2 amplification only. (northwestern.edu)
  • consequently, these results indicate that differential PCR using DNA extracted from archival tissue sections is a reliable method or demonstrating gene amplifications in glial tumors. (northwestern.edu)
  • The number of copies of the MYCN gene varies widely among these tumors but is typically between 50 and 100. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Amplification was identified in 12 of 40 (30%) tumors. (ucc.edu.ar)
  • No amplification was seen in 28 of 40 (70%) tumors. (ucc.edu.ar)
  • Chromosomal amplifications of 19p and 19q and losses of 4q and 5q were among the most frequent changes found in both low-grade and high-grade carcinomas, distinguishing them from borderline tumors, which had very few recurrent alterations. (elsevier.com)
  • The genes make up the sequences of DNA (genotypes). (biologyonline.com)
  • 3. Birtles RJ, Raoult D. Comparison of partial citrate synthase gene (gltA) sequences for phylogenetic analysis of Bartonella species. (cdc.gov)
  • The full HA and NA genes of 16 H1N1-positive samples obtained in our study and 21 published HA sequences and 20 published NA sequences from Jordanian viruses that were available on online gene databases were analysed. (who.int)
  • Partial nucleotide sequence of DMV and PMV morbillivirus P gene compared with published DMV and PMV sequences (12) . (cdc.gov)
  • All sequences were obtained from the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, which was amplified from microbial DNA extracted from a human fecal sample. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that the microbiota composition of 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained using Sanger, 454 and SOLiD sequencing provide results comparable to the result based on shotgun sequencing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phylogenetic analyses based on combined sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region, LSU rDNA and partial sequences ofThe elongation factor 1-alpha and beta-tubulin genes identified a clade of several species producing predominately 2-septate macroconidia as the reciprocally monophyletic sister of F. dimerum. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Phylogeny and toxigenic potential is correlated in Fusarium species as revealed by partial translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene sequences. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of EF-1 alpha gene sequences from isolates of Microdochium nivale leads to elevation of varieties majus and nivale to species status. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Bioinformatic analysis of marker gene sequences also requires considerable expertise. (osti.gov)
  • Newly developed gene amplification tests can also detect noninfectious SV40 sequences. (who.int)
  • Although there is no evidence of SV40 sequences in OPV, the Expert Committee agreed to the introduction of a gene amplification test for SV40 in poliovirus seed stocks to provide an additional level of security. (who.int)
  • The protein E gene sequences of isolated viruses were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We used VGF-homologous and TK gene nucleotide sequences to construct a phylogenetic tree for comparison with other poxviruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Gene sequences showed 99% homology with vaccinia virus genes and were clustered together with the isolated virus in the phylogenetic tree. (cdc.gov)
  • Current diagnostic PCR assays target a variety of SARS CoV-2 genes and the vast majority target sequences in regions of the SARS CoV-2 genome that are highly conserved. (who.int)
  • Qualitative RT-PCR for HCV RNA Test to detect HCV RNA by amplification of viral genetic sequences. (cdc.gov)
  • Quantitative assays for HCV RNA Tests to detect HCV RNA concentration (viral load) by amplification of viral genetic sequences or by signal amplification. (cdc.gov)
  • In this study, we show that for a given collection of HIV sequences from different hosts, the HIV sequences are not selected randomly but with a certain bias.Association of genetic polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene with hypertension. (royalmarloiesport.com)
  • Haplotypes of a MIC-3 gene family member were discovered by comparative analysis among consensus sequences across genotypes within an individual clade in the phylogram to overcome the problem of duplicated loci in the tetraploid cotton. (tamu.edu)
  • Now that we have the complete genome sequences of both (and other monkeys) it is possible to look for the protein coding genes which separate us. (wordpress.com)
  • Definition noun, plural: large-scale mutations (genetics) A type of mutation several nucleotides of a gene within a large. (biologyonline.com)
  • At least 36 mutations involving the MYCN gene have been found to cause Feingold syndrome type 1. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some gene mutations are acquired during a person's lifetime and are present only in certain cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Peu de renseignements sont disponibles sur les mutations des virus saisonniers de la grippe A(H1N1)pdm09 et H3N2 en Jordanie. (who.int)
  • Les mutations individuelles sont décrites en détail. (who.int)
  • Inherited causes account for approximately 50% of individuals seen for childhood (prelingual) hearing loss, of which 70% are due to mutations in numerous single genes that impair auditory function alone (nonsyndromic). (medscape.com)
  • Waardenburg syndrome type IV is autosomal recessive with variable penetrance and is due to SOX10 or endothelin-B receptor ( EDNRB ) gene mutations, which appear to correlate with the intestinal and/or neurological symptoms manifested in patients. (medscape.com)
  • Some mutations in the S gene may lead to changes in the spike protein which result in inhibition of contact and entry of the virus into human cells, however in the case of the VOC, they contain mutations in the S gene that enhance the process of contact and entry into human cells, increasing transmissibility of the virus. (who.int)
  • Currently, manufacturers are focusing on and targeting assays to mutations in the S gene. (who.int)
  • The structural chromosome alterations may arise at the chromosome level (e.g., translocations and gains or losses of large portions of chromosomes) or at the nucleotide level, which influence gene structure or expression such as mutations, insertions, deletions, gene amplifications, and gene silencing by epigenetic effects ( Jefford and Irminger-Finger, 2006 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The unique synonymous mutations detected in the E and Non-structural 2a genes of Usutu-BONN strains may suggest an adaptive evolution. (cdc.gov)
  • The putative product of this gene is 202 amino acid s long, having calculated molecular weight of 23 kDa (kilo Dalton) and isoelectric point of 6.0. (scialert.net)
  • Definition noun A branch of genetics that deal with the structure and function of genes at a molecular. (biologyonline.com)
  • Hernández-Olicón Aura Patricia, Palma-Irizarry M, Santiago-Hernández Juan Carlos, Lozano-García Carlos, Carreño-Durán Luis R. Amplification of the CHD1 Gene for Molecular Sexing of Birds using Touchdown-PCR. (who.int)
  • We profiled MDM2 gene amplification in a series of urothelial carcinomas (UC) considering the molecular subtypes and expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1).METHODS: 117 patients with muscle-invasive UC (pT2-3) without (N0) or with (N+) lymph-node metastases were revised. (univr.it)
  • MDM2 amplification was independent to all documented profiles (k test=0.3) and was prevalent in recurrent UC.CONCLUSION: MDM2 amplification has been seen in both PD-L1 positive and negative muscle-invasive bladder UC independently from the TCGA molecular phenotypes. (univr.it)
  • The dinitrogenase reductase gene ( nifH ) is the most widely established molecular marker for the study of nitrogen-fixing prokaryotes in nature. (osti.gov)
  • The nifH gene, which codes for the iron protein of the nitrogenase enzyme, is the most widely established molecular marker for the study of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (diazotrophs) in nature. (osti.gov)
  • Here, we cloned and sequenced MIC-3 genes from selected diploid and tetraploid cotton species to reveal sequence differences at the molecular level and identify chromosomal locations of MIC-3 genes in Gossypium species. (tamu.edu)
  • 1 The 16S rRNA-gene sequencing molecular technique has proven to be one of the most essential developments of the 21st century. (europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com)
  • The 16S rRNA gene is conserved in most bacteria and is the target gene in most molecular-based DNA metagenomics. (europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com)
  • 12 Furthermore, these molecular-based DNA techniques have gone the extra mile by identifying antimicrobial resistance genes within microbiomes. (europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com)
  • The most common molecular feature of Group 3 medulloblastoma is amplification of MYC. (phoenixbiosciencecore.com)
  • These genetic changes prevent one copy of the gene in each cell from producing any functional MYCN protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Genetic analysis demonstrated that a majority of heteroresistance cases were unstable, with an increased resistance of the subpopulations resulting from spontaneous tandem amplifications, typically including known resistance genes. (scilifelab.se)
  • There is little information on their evolution in Jordan so this study investigated the genetic and antigenic variability of A(H1N1)pdm09 and H3N2 viruses in Jordan by performing phylogenetic and genetic analyses of the HA and NA genes of A(H1N1)pdm09 and H3N2 viruses between 2011 and 2013. (who.int)
  • Genome-wide approaches to epidermal function include short interfering RNA-based genetic screens in cultured human epidermal cells 8 and RNA interference-mediated gene knockdown via in utero microinjection of lentiviral vectors 9 . (nature.com)
  • We previously reported that KRG induces gross deletions in the nef gene [ 14 ] and frequent genetic defects in the 5′ LTR/ gag gene [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Their clinical characteristics, including changes in CD4+ T-cell count and RNA copy number, KRG therapy, and frequent genetic defects in the nef and 5′ LTR/ gag genes, have been previously described [ 14 , 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These results suggest that genetic variations in TNF, TGFB1, PTGS1 and PTGS2 genes contribute to DA susceptibility. (cdc.gov)
  • A. baumannii strains with similar genetic cluster (ERIC-Type) had the same prevalence of antibiotic resistance, antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Over 400 genetic syndromes that include hearing loss have been described, including two of the most common: Pendred syndrome (associated with pathogenic variants in SLC26A4 ) and Usher syndrome (associated with pathogenic variants in multiple genes). (concertgenetics.com)
  • Given the genetic heterogeneity of hearing loss, selecting a comprehensive testing approach such as a hearing loss gene panel may be the optimal test once obvious conditions have been excluded. (concertgenetics.com)
  • We report on a technical comparison of three different methods to detect gene amplification by differential PCR: ethidium bromide staining, silver staining (both after standard differential PCR), and fluorescent differential PCR. (cun.es)
  • Methods We evaluated promoter hypermethylation profiles of 22 common tumour suppressor genes in 108 NPCs using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. (bmj.com)
  • In this study, we modified the nucleic acid extraction and amplification methods to see if diagnostic sensitivity could improve. (ijbls.org)
  • This general principle is implemented through a number of basic translation methods in dealing with cultural factors: literal translation, footnoting, contextual amplification , generalization, paraphrase, substitution and omission and so on. (youdao.com)
  • 3 Targeted sequencing like 16S rRNA-gene sequencing is becoming popular in disease diagnosis as these methods can assist in identifying complex infections and in tracing the origins of an infection, which may pave the way for appropriate treatment regimens for patients. (europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com)
  • Sanger sequencing or DNA-enrichment methods and massively parallel nucleotide sequencing) and quantitative deletion/duplication (e.g., multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), quantitative PCR, or array comparative genomic hybridization) methodologies to identify disease-associated, protein-coding variants in genes associated with this clinical spectrum. (concertgenetics.com)
  • In the present study in vitro resistance against arsenite (up to 32 ppm) was developed in Lactobacillus acidophilus and the gene responsible for high level of arsenite resistance ( arsH gene) was cloned and sequenced. (scialert.net)
  • Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reactions with the 18S rRNA primer set for amplification of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA. (ajtmh.org)
  • paratuberculosis (MAP) through isothermal amplification. (gob.ar)
  • In order to address the incidence of PDGFRA gene amplification in a broad set of diffuse gliomas, we used Southern and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses to examine 167 astrocytic gliomas (20 grade III and 147 grade IV), 41 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, and 29 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas. (elsevier.com)
  • KIT amplification and chromosome 12p anomalies were investigated by way of dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization. (arizona.edu)
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine FGFR1 gene amplification and protein overexpression in 209 surgically resected cases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this thesis, I used a cohort of 421 lung cancer primary patient samples to screen prevalence of FGFR1 gene amplification among SQCLC and SCLC groups using fluorescence in situ hybridization technique (FISH). (uni-goettingen.de)
  • The CHD1F/CHD1R primer set, with the use of a touchdown PCR, allowed the differentiation between two highly homologous genes and was efficient in sexing 11 selected species from the Galliformes order belonging to "El Nido" aviary. (who.int)
  • In mice and men, sperm differentiation requires a high proportion of genes located on the sex chromosomes (i.e. the X and the Y). Expression of these genes is tightly controlled by epigenetic processes which remain to be studied. (europa.eu)
  • There, the MC fellow has developed her own research project, 'the study of the epigenetic regulation of XY genes during sperm differentiation' (see below for results) and has progressively become independent: she has now been recruited by Inserm, and leads her own team in the host group. (europa.eu)
  • The gene encoding FGFR1 is located on chromosome 8p11.23 and encodes tyrosine kinase family, which plays crucial roles in cancer development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A chromosome consists of a long strand of DNA containing many genes. (genome101.com)
  • A human chromosome can have up to 500 million base pairs of DNA with thousands of genes. (genome101.com)
  • gene, unit of hereditary information that occupies a fixed position (locus) on a chromosome. (genome101.com)
  • About 20 percent of the lines contained an amplification of a short region on chromosome 20, which appears to confer a growth advantage to the cells. (drkeithsown.com)
  • A number of commonly amplified and deleted regions were identified, but only one-an amplification on the long arm of chromosome 20-occurred with sufficient frequency and was of a small enough size to identify a single candidate gene. (drkeithsown.com)
  • For phylogenetic characterization of the louse, a portion of cytochrome b gene (Cytb) was amplified and sequenced with primers Cytb-f and Cytb-r (Appendix Table 1). (cdc.gov)
  • The CYP51C gene, a reliable marker to resolve interspecific phylogenetic relationships within the Fusarium species complex and a novel target for species-specific PCR. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Use of genes encoding cellobiohydrolase-C and topoisomerase II as targets for phylogenetic analysis and identification of Fusarium. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Detailed sequence analysis and phylogenetic clustering of MIC-3 genes indicated the presence of multiple MIC-3 gene members in Gossypium species. (tamu.edu)
  • Among the different techniques used to detect oncogene amplification in tumor DNA, Southern blot and differential PCR have been the most frequently used. (cun.es)
  • The presence of extra copies of certain genes, known as gene amplification, can underlie the formation and growth of tumor cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Likewise, hypoxic breast cancer cells showed higher propensity to increase expression of oncogenes and to decrease expression of tumor suppressor genes ( Jefford and Irminger-Finger, 2006 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Genomic analysis revealed several unique amino acid substitutions among the polyprotein gene. (cdc.gov)
  • Our case demonstrates that genomic instability occasions related to gene amplification could also be concerned in the carcinogenesis of malignant adenomyoepitheliomas. (celltagen.com)
  • A series of 43 human gliomas, consisting of 30 glioblastomas, 7 anaplastic astrocytomas, 3 low grade astrocytomas, 2 ependymomas, and I oligodendroglioma, was studied for amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) genes. (northwestern.edu)
  • 10% frequency) is the second most commonly observed gene after EGFR (15% frequency). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Abstract B31: Fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) gene amplification is frequent in lung squamous cell carcinoma and high gene copy number indicates a better prognosis in early stage NSCLC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The gene encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 ( FGFR1 ) is emerging as a therapeutic and prognostic biomarker in various cancer types, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Reported information about the function and/or expression of each gene, remarkable overexpression in SKN-3 cells and relatively frequent overexpression in additional OSCC lines compared with an immortalized normal oral epithelial cell line, and expression level-dependent proliferation-promoting activity led us to conclude that the p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) gene was the most likely target. (elsevier.com)
  • However, even if prenatal test determines the presence of gene pathology, it still cannot predict the severity of its clinical expression. (medscape.com)
  • Similarly, transformed cells grown on plastic have modified their gene expression to adapt to tissue culture conditions. (corning.com)
  • Altered gene expression patterns in MCF-7 cells induced by the urban dust complex mixture SRM 1649 monitored using DNA microarrays. (cdc.gov)
  • Gene structure, tissue expression, and linkage mapping of the mouse DLC-1 gene (Arhgap7). (cdc.gov)
  • For this we studied mouse models which present male infertility associated with an epigenetic deregulation of XY gene expression in germ cells. (europa.eu)
  • We have demonstrated that Slx and Sly are both involved in the epigenetic regulation of XY gene expression during spermiogenesis, but with overall opposite effects: Slx is an activator while Sly is a repressor of XY gene expression. (europa.eu)
  • We have shown that this perturbation of XY gene expression is caused by changes in some of the epigenetic marks associated with the XY chromatin. (europa.eu)
  • All these observations are in favour of a role of SSTY, together with SLY and SLX, in the epigenetic regulation of XY gene expression. (europa.eu)
  • Although the composition of oral biofilms is well established, the active portion of the bacterial community and the patterns of gene expression in vivo have not been studied. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We could identify some gene expression patterns characteristic for early and mature oral biofilms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The transcriptomic profile of several adhesion genes was confirmed through qPCR by measuring expression of fimbriae-associated genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • FGFR1 gene amplification prevalence was compared to protein expression in the same set of patients. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • Statistical analysis showed no correlation between FGFR1 gene amplification and protein expression in lung cancer patients. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • To conclude, the current thesis confirmed previously published prevalence of FGFR1 gene amplification (23% in SQCLC and 8% in SCLC) and protein expression (9% in SQCLC, 4% in SCLC and 35% in AC) in lung cancer patients. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • TotalSeq™-A antibodies are compatible with 10x Genomics Single Cell Gene Expression Solutions . (biolegend.com)
  • MIC-3 is a recently identified gene family shown to exhibit increased root-specific expression following nematode infection of cotton plants that are resistant to root-knot nematode. (tamu.edu)
  • Nevertheless, following treatment with BBR, liver tissue pathology, biochemical data, and Angptl2 pathway-related genes expression were significantly ameliorated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is the first report that an anti-cancer agent can inhibit mmp-9 gene expression by inducing microsatellite DNA shortening. (elsevier.com)
  • These amplified and reselected cells retained the expression of primitive hematopoietic cell surface markers (CD34 and CD133), displayed high levels of hematopoietic colony forming cell function in vitro, and expressed a gene expression profile associated with matrix reorganization and proangiogenic processes. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • Gene publishes papers that focus on the regulation, expression, function, and evolution of genes in all biological contexts, including all prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, as well as viruses. (genome101.com)
  • TetA (81.81%), tetB (72.72%), dfrA1 (63.63%), aac(3)-IV (63.63%), sul1 (63.63%) and aadA1 (45.45%) were the most commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In total agreement with previous studies carried out by Southern blot and differential PCR by other authors, we were able to detect CDK4 amplification in 3 of the 21 glioblastomas (14%), but only by the fluorescent differential PCR method. (cun.es)
  • Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification can be used to detect changes in targeted genes. (medscape.com)
  • This document describes some of the target genes and primers that can be used for DNA sequence-based identification of fungi and the PCR conditions with which to use those primers. (cdc.gov)
  • These primers amplify approximately 717 bp of the coding region of the EF-1α gene. (cdc.gov)
  • These primers amplify approximately 495 bp of exons and introns at the 5' end of the β-tubulin gene. (cdc.gov)
  • There is a special set of ITS primers specifically for amplification of the ITS region of dermatophytes, especially Trichophyton (Gräser, 2000). (cdc.gov)
  • PCR using specific primers of arsH gene showed the presence of 606 bp arsH gene on a 23 kb (kilo base) plasmid of Lactobacillus acidophilus . (scialert.net)
  • It also includes biotinylated β-globin primers as an internal control for sample amplification. (cdc.gov)
  • To validate the purity of the DNA, PCR amplification is done with primers homologous to an endogenous gene. (usda.gov)
  • FGFR1 is a druggable receptor tyrosine kinase purported to be an oncogenic driver in lung cancer and the gene has been shown to be amplified in SCC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • FGFR1 gene copy number (GCN) and the ratio of FGFR1:CH8 was compared to clinical and pathological characteristics and related to survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The mean and median GCN for FGFR1 were 2.81 (SD±1.17) and 2.36 (range 1.18-6.64) genes/nucleus, respectively, and 1.34 (±0.73) and 1.14 (0.52-5.19) for the FGFR1:CH8 ratio. (aacrjournals.org)
  • FGFR1 GCN alone appears better at showing gene gain compared to the FGFR1:CH8 ratio. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we investigated the clinicopathologic implication of FGFR1 gene amplification and protein overexpression in hypopharyngeal and laryngeal SCC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • FGFR1 amplification was also associated with worse disease-free survival in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio = 4.527, P = 0.032). (biomedcentral.com)
  • FGFR1 amplification may serve as an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival in hypopharyngeal and laryngeal SCC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aberrant FGFR signaling caused by FGFR1 gene amplification or protein overexpression may play a crucial role in the malignant evolution and progression of hypopharyngeal and laryngeal SCC, and offer novel therapeutic opportunities in patients with hypopharyngeal and laryngeal SCC that usually lack specific therapeutic targets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clinical trials proved the principle of targeting FGFR1 in SQCLC patients harboring FGFR1 amplification. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • FISH analysis revealed 23% and 8% prevalence of FGFR1 gene amplification among SQCLC and SCLC patients. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • The thesis revealed that FGFR1 gene amplification seems not to be the most accurate selection criteria of patients who will benefit from FGFR1 inhibition therapy. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes to characterize microbial communities. (mdm2signaling.com)
  • Genes Chromosomes Cancer;57(4): 165-175, 2018 04. (bvsalud.org)
  • Autosomal" means that the gene in question is located on one of the numbered, or non-sex, chromosomes. (genome.gov)
  • The copy number variation (CNV) of genes and chromosomes is a common feature of the plastic genome of Leishmania major, which is normally associated with resistance of the parasite to the chemotherapy of leishmaniasis. (usp.br)
  • Slx and Sly are multicopy genes present on the X and Y chromosomes, respectively. (europa.eu)
  • Genes Chromosomes and Cancer , 45 (10), 905-917. (elsevier.com)
  • ECG monitor has the function of ECG signal amplification . (youdao.com)
  • Nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence of our carp growth hormone gene are the same as Koren's carp GH cDNA in the coded region. (nih.gov)
  • Compared with Chao's carp GH cDNA, the homology of nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence for our carp growth hormone gene is 95.6% and 96.7%, respectively, in the coded region. (nih.gov)
  • Of these mediators, cytokines play a single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and asthma phenotypes (Che et al. (cdc.gov)
  • The role of KIT mutation and amplification in the development of dysgerminoma is not currently established. (arizona.edu)
  • Aneuploidy, TP53 mutation, and amplification of MYC correlate with increased intratumor heterogeneity and poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • The result of the sequence analysis and the restriction map shows that an open reading frame of the carp growth hormone gene contains 630 base pairs which code for a polypeptide of 210 amino acids including 22 amino acids of the signal peptide and 188 amino acids of the nature growth hormone. (nih.gov)
  • A protein consists of one or more chains of amino acids (called polypeptides) whose sequence is encoded in a gene. (genome.gov)
  • Identity analyses of the protein E gene sequence of 56 viruses isolated showed the circulation of DENV-1 (n = 45) and DENV-2 (n = 11) in the Asuncion metropolitan area in 2011. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The belt-associated variant was a copy number variant (CNV) involving the quadruplication of a 6 kb non-coding sequence located approximately 16 kb upstream of the TWIST2 gene. (plos.org)
  • Belted mice have sequence variants in the Adamts20 gene encoding a secreted metalloprotease [ 16 ], which was shown to be required for melanoblast survival [ 17 ]. (plos.org)
  • CHD1 gene amplification through PCR has been commonly used for such purpose, however, it is essential to evaluate the primer set CHD1F/CHD1R applicability in a great diversity of species. (who.int)
  • Individuals from 11 different species of the Galliformes order were sexed, with the use of a touchdown PCR, the amplification products were observed in a 3% agarose gel, male specimens presented a single band corresponding to the CHD1-Z gene, while female specimens presented two bands corresponding to CHD1-Z and CHD1-W genes. (who.int)
  • Digestion patterns of both amplification products provided strong evidence for the recognition of species groups, which include Irish, NW European, tropical, and a H. bacteriophora complex. (ucc.ie)
  • In addition, we employed an empirical model to derive optimal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) cutoffs for the nifH gene at the species, genus, and family levels. (osti.gov)
  • Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. (genome101.com)
  • Other primer sets have been used for other genes, but those described below are the most consistently available in databases for the identification of yeasts and molds that are most likely to be identified in a clinical microbiology laboratory. (cdc.gov)
  • Development of primer sets designed for use with the PCR to amplify conserved genes from filamentous ascomycetes. (cdc.gov)
  • A large number of PCR primer sets have been developed for nifH amplification, and the effective deployment of these approaches should be guided by a rapid, easy-to-use analysis protocol. (osti.gov)
  • The primer mix amplifies essentially all HPV types found in the genital tract along with the human β-globin gene. (cdc.gov)
  • Este es el primer estudio de hemoparásitos en esta región y proporciona información fundamental para investigaciones futuras. (inecol.mx)
  • Clustering was confirmed by long-PCR amplification of the intergenic regions using A(t)-genome-specific MIC-3 primer pairs. (tamu.edu)
  • Humans have approximately 20,000 protein-coding genes. (genome101.com)
  • The OmpA protein forms four extracellular loops that exhibit residue patterns encoded by allelic variants in the ompA gene across the protein's loops [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many of the XY deregulated genes are good candidates (such as histone variants) to explain these anomalies. (europa.eu)
  • The clustered distribution may have been favored by selection for responsiveness to evolving disease and/or pest pressures, because large variants of the MIC-3 gene family may have been recovered from small physical areas by recombination. (tamu.edu)
  • Available hearing loss gene panels include analysis by next-generation sequencing (NGS), deletion and duplication testing, and targeted sequencing of common variants of many genes associated with both non-syndromic and syndromic hearing loss. (concertgenetics.com)
  • ABSTRACT Objectives: The present study was done to cure the antibiotic resistance gene by using medicinal plant extracts. (researchgate.net)
  • The high prevalence of antibiotic heteroresistance in pathogenic bacteria is mainly caused by gene amplification. (scilifelab.se)
  • Joyce, S. A., Burnell, A. M. and Powers, T. O. (1994) 'Characterization of Heterorhabditis Isolates by PCR Amplification of Segments of mtDNA and rDNA Genes', Journal of Nematology, 26 (3):260-270. (ucc.ie)
  • Some isolates were further confirmed by PCR with amplification of. (researchgate.net)
  • In addition to being important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance genes, the microbiome, according to various studies, has been shown as essential to human health. (europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com)
  • 2 SARS-CoV-2 genes are targeted by the majority of the of B.1.1.7/SGTF with clinical characteristics and outcomes currently available RT-PCR assays. (who.int)
  • AIMS: According to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), around 9% of bladder carcinomas usually show abnormalities of the murine double minute 2 (MDM2) gene, but a few studies have been investigated them. (univr.it)
  • To study the functions of large numbers of genes in vivo 2 requires a shift from gene-specific to genome-wide approaches. (nature.com)
  • Interestingly, our findings have also an impact in term of genome evolution: the conflict in which Slx and Sly are involved is probably responsible for the amplification of many X and Y genes and may have played an important role in speciation. (europa.eu)
  • To our knowledge, these are the first results on the evolution of clustering and genome-specific haplotype members of a unique cotton gene family associated with resistant response against a major pathogen. (tamu.edu)
  • True (ratio 12q/CEP12 >2) MDM2 gene amplification was distinguished from polyploidy/gains (ratio <2, absolute copy number of MDM-2 >2). (univr.it)
  • They were used for the ( RdRP ) viral genes 1-4 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Additionally, weighted gene correlation network analysis confirmed the positively or negatively correlated pairs of bacterial taxa (family Veillonellaceae ) and metabolomic features (i.e., amino acids and short-chain fatty acids) responsible for FMT success. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By performing FISH with a multiplexed panel of 10 probes to enumerate copy numbers in individual cells , and by sequencing 563 cancer -related genes , we analyzed how aneuploidy is linked to intratumor heterogeneity. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this study, the underlying factors of successful and unsuccessful FMT treatment cases are elucidated, and the potential markers for predicting successful FMT are identified using fecal metagenomics via 16S rRNA gene sequencing, fecal metabolomics via capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and machine learning approaches. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The parasitic diseases laboratories at CDC are developing a new type of diagnostic test based on the targeted amplification and next-generation sequencing of eukaryotic housekeeping genes. (cdc.gov)
  • Instead, DNA is obtained directly from samples with subsequent amplification and sequencing processes. (europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com)
  • and consequently 16S rRNA-gene sequencing is gaining popularity in clinical microbiology labs. (europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com)
  • Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allows studies in diverse metagenomic samples. (europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com)
  • The long-term goal is to determine if abnormal epigenetic regulation of XY genes is at the basis of unexplained cases of human infertility. (europa.eu)
  • A recent paper [ Neuron vol. 111 pp. 65 - 80 '23 ] discusses CROCCP2 (you don't want to know what the acronym stands for) which is one of several genes in this family with at least 6 copies in various hominid genomes. (wordpress.com)
  • As a result, only half the normal amount of this protein is available to control the activity of specific genes during development. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hominid Specific genes (HS genes) result which result from recent gene duplications in hominid/human genomes. (wordpress.com)
  • However, there are only a few studies that have reported the gross deletion of the vif gene because it is the second most highly conserved gene after pol [ 17 - 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Araçatuba virus is very similar to Cantagalo virus, showing the same signature deletion in the gene. (cdc.gov)
  • The presence of aerobic microbial communities and associated functional genes was consistent among all samples, whereas, a greater number of Deltaproteobacteria and anaerobic functional genes were found in sediments closest to the DWH blowout site. (frontiersin.org)
  • A gene is the fundamental, physical, and functional unit of heredity. (biologyonline.com)
  • Owing to technical limitations, a large-scale high-throughput systematic functional screen for genes involved in skin homeostasis was not feasible until recently. (nature.com)
  • By PCR amplification and gel electrophoresis, we found that GL331 caused shortening of the -216 to -13 region of the mmp-9 promoter. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusion: Peripheral blood mpt64 PCR amplification can diagnose some TB patients, especially those with extra-pulmonary and disseminated TB. (ijbls.org)
  • Hence, to determine if KRG affects the vif gene, as shown for the nef and gag genes [ 14 - 16 ], we amplified vif gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained over 20 years from 10 long-term slowly progressing (LTSP) patients. (hindawi.com)
  • The S gene is one of the structural genes of the virus which encodes for a protein that sits on the surface of the SARS CoV-2 virus. (who.int)
  • A gene is a region of DNA that encodes function. (genome101.com)
  • The gene, BCL2L1, encodes a protein that inhibits cell death. (drkeithsown.com)
  • These anomalies are likely caused by the deregulation of XY genes in germ cells induced by the absence of Sly. (europa.eu)