A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.
An enzyme that, in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes ring closure by removal of water from N-carbamoylaspartate to yield dihydro-orotic acid. EC 3.5.2.3.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.5.1.3.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and glutamine. This enzyme is important in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. EC 6.3.5.5.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.
Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of carbamoyl phosphate and L-aspartate to yield orthophosphate and N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.3.2.
The proto-oncogene c-erbB-1 codes for the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral homolog v-erbB which was isolated from an avian erythroblastosis virus (AEV) where it was contained as a fragment of the chicken c-ErbB-1 gene lacking the amino-terminal ligand-binding domain. Overexpression of erbB-1 genes occurs in a wide range of tumors, commonly squamous carcinomas of various sites and less commonly adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-1 gene is located in the chromosomal region 7p14 and 7p12.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A plant genus, in the family AMARANTHACEAE, best known as a source of high-protein grain crops and of Red Dye No. 2 (AMARANTH DYE). Tumbleweed sometimes refers to Amaranthus but more often refers to SALSOLA.
The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A fibroblast growth factor that is expressed primarily during development.
Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
An E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE that interacts with and inhibits TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53. Its ability to ubiquitinate p53 is regulated by TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
Cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptors for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. They consist of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and sites critical for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia.
Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A nonclassical folic acid inhibitor through its inhibition of the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase. It is being tested for efficacy as an antineoplastic agent and as an antiparasitic agent against PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS patients. Myelosuppression is its dose-limiting toxic effect.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A technique that labels specific sequences in whole chromosomes by in situ DNA chain elongation or PCR (polymerase chain reaction).
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES resulting in a gene with different or additional regulatory regions, or a new chimeric gene product. ONCOGENE FUSION includes an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners and such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS. ARTIFICIAL GENE FUSION is carried out in vitro by RECOMBINANT DNA technology.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A relatively slow-growing glioma that is derived from oligodendrocytes and tends to occur in the cerebral hemispheres, thalamus, or lateral ventricle. They may present at any age, but are most frequent in the third to fifth decades, with an earlier incidence peak in the first decade. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, relatively avascular, and tend to form cysts and microcalcifications. Neoplastic cells tend to have small round nuclei surrounded by unstained nuclei. The tumors may vary from well-differentiated to highly anaplastic forms. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2052; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p655)
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
An enzyme of the shikimate pathway of AROMATIC AMINO ACID biosynthesis, it generates 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate and ORTHOPHOSPHATE from PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE and shikimate-3-phosphate. The shikimate pathway is present in BACTERIA and PLANTS but not in MAMMALS.
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
A heat stable DNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE from the bacteria Thermus aquaticus. It is widely used for the amplification of genes through the process of POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION. EC 2.7.7.-.
Genes for MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that confer resistance to toxic compounds. Several superfamilies of these multidrug export proteins are known and found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Inorganic compounds that contain gold as an integral part of the molecule.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (erbB) originally isolated from, or related to, the avian erythroblastosis virus (AEV). These genes code for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptors which is important in the control of normal cell proliferation and in the pathogenesis of human cancer. The genes include erbB-1 (GENES, ERBB-1), erbB-2 (GENES, ERBB-2), and erbB-3, all of which show abnormalities of expression in various human neoplasms.
The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
Methods of preparing cells or tissues for examination and study of their origin, structure, function, or pathology. The methods include preservation, fixation, sectioning, staining, replica, or other technique to allow for viewing using a microscope.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
An isothermal in-vitro nucleotide amplification process. The process involves the concomitant action of a RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE, a ribonuclease (RIBONUCLEASES), and DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASES to synthesize large quantities of sequence-specific RNA and DNA molecules.
A microfilament protein that interacts with F-ACTIN and regulates cortical actin assembly and organization. It is also an SH3 DOMAIN containing phosphoprotein, and it mediates tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION based SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC).
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
An essential ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that adds telomeric DNA to the ends of eukaryotic CHROMOSOMES.
Methods for detecting or typing the DNA of an ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS in biological tissues and fluids.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.4.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An antiviral antibiotic produced by Cephalosporium aphidicola and other fungi. It inhibits the growth of eukaryotic cells and certain animal viruses by selectively inhibiting the cellular replication of DNA polymerase II or the viral-induced DNA polymerases. The drug may be useful for controlling excessive cell proliferation in patients with cancer, psoriasis or other dermatitis with little or no adverse effect upon non-multiplying cells.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.

The role of gene splicing, gene amplification and regulation in mosquito insecticide resistance. (1/4702)

The primary routes of insecticide resistance in all insects are alterations in the insecticide target sites or changes in the rate at which the insecticide is detoxified. Three enzyme systems, glutathione S-transferases, esterases and monooxygenases, are involved in the detoxification of the four major insecticide classes. These enzymes act by rapidly metabolizing the insecticide to non-toxic products, or by rapidly binding and very slowly turning over the insecticide (sequestration). In Culex mosquitoes, the most common organophosphate insecticide resistance mechanism is caused by co-amplification of two esterases. The amplified esterases are differentially regulated, with three times more Est beta 2(1) being produced than Est alpha 2(1). Cis-acting regulatory sequences associated with these esterases are under investigation. All the amplified esterases in different Culex species act through sequestration. The rates at which they bind with insecticides are more rapid than those for their non-amplified counterparts in the insecticide-susceptible insects. In contrast, esterase-based organophosphate resistance in Anopheles is invariably based on changes in substrate specificities and increased turnover rates of a small subset of insecticides. The up-regulation of both glutathione S-transferases and monooxygenases in resistant mosquitoes is due to the effects of a single major gene in each case. The products of these major genes up-regulate a broad range of enzymes. The diversity of glutathione S-transferases produced by Anopheles mosquitoes is increased by the splicing of different 5' ends of genes, with a single 3' end, within one class of this enzyme family. The trans-acting regulatory factors responsible for the up-regulation of both the monooxygenase and glutathione S-transferases still need to be identified, but the recent development of molecular tools for positional cloning in Anopheles gambiae now makes this possible.  (+info)

An overview of the evolution of overproduced esterases in the mosquito Culex pipiens. (2/4702)

Insecticide resistance genes have developed in a wide variety of insects in response to heavy chemical application. Few of these examples of adaptation in response to rapid environmental change have been studied both at the population level and at the gene level. One of these is the evolution of the overproduced esterases that are involved in resistance to organophosphate insecticides in the mosquito Culex pipiens. At the gene level, two genetic mechanisms are involved in esterase overproduction, namely gene amplification and gene regulation. At the population level, the co-occurrence of the same amplified allele in distinct geographic areas is best explained by the importance of passive transportation at the worldwide scale. The long-term monitoring of a population of mosquitoes in southern France has enabled a detailed study to be made of the evolution of resistance genes on a local scale, and has shown that a resistance gene with a lower cost has replaced a former resistance allele with a higher cost.  (+info)

p73 at chromosome 1p36.3 is lost in advanced stage neuroblastoma but its mutation is infrequent. (3/4702)

p73, a novel p53 family member, is a recently identified candidate neuroblastoma (NBL) suppressor gene mapped at chromosome 1p36.33 and was found to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in cell lines. To test the hypothesis that p73 is a NBL suppressor gene, we analysed the p73 gene in primary human NBLs. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for p73 was observed in 19% (28/151) of informative cases which included 92 mass-screening (MS) tumors. The high frequency of p73 LOH was significantly associated with sporadic NBLs (9% vs 34%, P<0.001), N-myc amplification (10% vs 71%, P<0.001), and advanced stage (14% vs 28%, P<0.05). Both p73alpha and p73beta transcripts were detectable in only 46 of 134 (34%) NBLs at low levels by RT-PCR methods, while they were easily detectable in most breast cancers and colorectal cancers under the same conditions. They found no correlation between p73 LOH and its expression levels (P>0.1). We found two mutations out of 140 NBLs, one somatic and one germline, which result in amino acid substitutions in the C-terminal region of p73 which may affect transactivation functions, though, in the same tumor samples, no mutation of the p53 gene was observed as reported previously. These results suggest that allelic loss of the p73 gene may be a later event in NBL tumorigenesis. However, p73 is infrequently mutated in primary NBLs and may hardly function as a tumor suppressor in a classic Knudson's manner.  (+info)

Overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) in human heavy metal-selected tumor cells. (4/4702)

Cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the resistance to cytotoxic heavy metals remain largely to be characterized in mammalian cells. To this end, we have analyzed a metal-resistant variant of the human lung cancer GLC4 cell line that we have selected by a step-wise procedure in potassium antimony tartrate. Antimony-selected cells, termed GLC4/Sb30 cells, poorly accumulated antimony through an enhanced cellular efflux of metal, thus suggesting up-regulation of a membrane export system in these cells. Indeed, GLC4/Sb30 cells were found to display a functional overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1, a drug export pump, as demonstrated by Western blotting, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and calcein accumulation assays. Moreover, MK571, a potent inhibitor of MRP1 activity, was found to markedly down-modulate resistance of GLC4/Sb30 cells to antimony and to decrease cellular export of the metal. Taken together, our data support the conclusion that overexpression of functional MRP1 likely represents one major mechanism by which human cells can escape the cytotoxic effects of heavy metals.  (+info)

Specific chromosomal aberrations and amplification of the AIB1 nuclear receptor coactivator gene in pancreatic carcinomas. (5/4702)

To screen pancreatic carcinomas for chromosomal aberrations we have applied molecular cytogenetic techniques, including fluorescent in situ hybridization, comparative genomic hybridization, and spectral karyotyping to a series of nine established cell lines. Comparative genomic hybridization revealed recurring chromosomal gains on chromosome arms 3q, 5p, 7p, 8q, 12p, and 20q. Chromosome losses were mapped to chromosome arms 8p, 9p, 17p, 18q, 19p, and chromosome 21. The comparison with comparative genomic hybridization data from primary pancreatic tumors indicates that a specific pattern of chromosomal copy number changes is maintained in cell culture. Metaphase chromosomes from six cell lines were analyzed by spectral karyotyping, a technique that allows one to visualize all chromosomes simultaneously in different colors. Spectral karyotyping identified multiple chromosomal rearrangements, the majority of which were unbalanced. No recurring reciprocal translocation was detected. Cytogenetic aberrations were confirmed using fluorescent in situ hybridization with probes for the MDR gene and the tumor suppressor genes p16 and DCC. Copy number increases on chromosome 20q were validated with a probe specific for the nuclear receptor coactivator AIB1 that maps to chromosome 20q12. Amplification of this gene was identified in six of nine pancreatic cancer cell lines and correlated with increased expression.  (+info)

Evolutionary dynamics of Ty1-copia group retrotransposons in grass shown by reverse transcriptase domain analysis. (6/4702)

The evolutionary dynamics of Ty1-copia group retrotransposons in grass were examined by reverse transcriptase (RT) domain analysis. Twenty-three rice RT sequences were newly determined for this report. Phylogenetic analysis of 177 RT sequences, mostly derived from wheat, rice, and, maize, showed four distinct families, which were designated G1, G2, G3, and G4. Three of these families have elements obtained from distantly related species, indicative of origins prior to the radiation of grass species. Results of Southern hybridization and detailed comparisons between the wheat and rice sequences indicated that each of the families had undergone a distinct pattern of evolution. Multiple families appear to have evolved in parallel in a host species. Analyses of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions suggested that there is a low percentage of elements carrying functional RT domains in the G4 family, indicating that the production of new G4 elements has been controlled by a small number of elements carrying functional RT domains.  (+info)

Survey of gene amplifications during prostate cancer progression by high-throughout fluorescence in situ hybridization on tissue microarrays. (7/4702)

Prostate cancer development and progression is driven by the accumulation of genetic changes, the nature of which remains incompletely understood To facilitate high-throughput analysis of molecular events taking place in primary, recurrent, and metastat prostate cancer, we constructed a tissue microarray containing small 0.6-mm cylindrical samples acquired from 371 formalin-fixed blocks, including benign prostatic hyperplasia (n = 32) and primary tumors (n = 223), as well as both locally recurrent tumors (n = 54) and metastases (n = 62) from patients with hormone-refractory disease. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to the analysis of consecutive tissue microarray sections with probes for five different genes. High-level (> or =3X) amplifications were very rare (<2%) in primary prostate cancers However, in metastases from patients with hormone-refractory disease, amplification of the androgen receptor gene was seen in 22%, MYC in 11%, and Cyclin-D1 in 5% of the cases. In specimens from locally recurrent tumors, the corresponding percentages were 23, 4, and 8%. ERBB2 and NMYC amplifications were never detected at any stage of prostate cancer progression. In conclusion, FISH to tissue microarray sections enables high-throughput analysis of genetic alterations contributing to cancer development and progression. Our results implicate a role for amplification of androgen receptor in hormonal therapy failure and that of MYC in the metastatic progression of human prostate cancer.  (+info)

Molecular determination of species boundaries in corals: genetic analysis of the Montastraea annularis complex using amplified fragment length polymorphisms and a microsatellite marker. (8/4702)

Analyses of DNA have not been widely used to distinguish coral sibling species. The three members of the Montastraea annularis complex represent an important test case: they are widely studied and dominate Caribbean reefs, yet their taxonomic status remains unclear. Analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and a microsatellite locus, using DNA from sperm, showed that Montastraea faveolata is genetically distinct. One AFLP primer yielded a diagnostic product (880 bp in M. faveolata 920 bp in M. franksi and M. annularis) whose homology was established by DNA sequencing. A second primer revealed a 630 bp band that was fixed in M. faveolata, and rare in M. franksi and M. annularis; in this case homologies were confirmed by Southern hybridizations. A tetranucleotide microsatellite locus with several alleles exhibited strong frequency differences between M. faveolata and the other two taxa. We did not detect comparable differences between M. annularis and M. franksi with either AFLPs (12 primers screened) or the microsatellite locus. Comparisons of AFLP patterns obtained from DNA from sperm, somatic tissues, and zooxanthellae suggest that the technique routinely amplifies coral (animal) DNA. Thus analyses based on somatic tissues may be feasible, particularly after diagnostic differences have been established using sperm DNA.  (+info)

The total number of genetic changes combining losses and gains together, total gains alone, total losses alone, and individual gains and losses showing in ,15% cases, and chromosomal amplifications were subjected to univariate analysis examining the associations. No correlation was found with any of the parameters examined, except HPV18 (Table 1). The patients that had HPV18 infection showed higher frequency of chromosomal amplifications (75% in HPV18 vs. 16.9% in other HPV types), total losses (10.00 ± 5.48 in HPV18 vs. 4.62 ± 3.49 in HPV 16) and gains (8.75 ± 6.06 in HPV18 vs. 3.33 ± 2.85 in HPV 16) and total changes (18.75 ± 11.53 in HPV18 vs. 7.96 ± 5.68 in HPV 16) (Table 1). The association of genomic instability represented by chromosomal amplification and copy number changes with HPV18 infection is interesting in the light of the oncogenic potential of this HPV type. HPV18 is known to cause rapid transition to malignancy and HPV18-infected tumors are generally more aggressive [40]. ...
FISH analysis on EGFR gene amplification in MBC.Representative images of amplification of EGFR (a) and high aneusomy of EGFR (b). EGFR gene amplification was de
Silver-enhanced in-situ hybridization (SISH) is an emerging tool for the determination of the Her-2/neu amplification status in breast cancer. SISH is technically comparable to fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) but does not require a fluorescence microscope for its interpretation. Although recent studies on histologic evaluations of SISH are promising, we aimed to evaluate its performance on 71 cytologic breast cancer specimens with the new combined Her-2/Chr17 probe. Her-2/neu status as routinely determined by FISH was available for all patients. We found SISH signals in cytologic cell blocks and smear specimens easy to evaluate in most cases. Small numbers of tumor cells and difficulties in identifying tumor cells in lymphocyte-rich backgrounds were limiting factors. Her-2/neu status, as determined by Her-2/Chr17 SISH, was basically identical to the results of the corresponding FISH. The discrepancies were mainly owing to the heterogeneity of Her-2/neu amplification in the tumor ...
Gene amplification is defined as an increase in the copy number of a restricted region of a chromosome arm [20,21]. Gene amplification is an influential factor in the expression of both protein-coding and non-coding genes, affecting the activity of various signaling pathways in cancer. Gene amplification, similar to gene mutation, plays a significant role in tumorigenesis in many types of cancer, such as gastric cancer, ovarian cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, colon cancer, and others [22,23]. Thus, targeting the driver genes that are amplified may provide novel opportunities for precision medicine [20].. One of the most studied gene amplifications is erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2), an important driver oncogene for breast cancer [24]. In breast cancer, gene amplification of ERBB2 is strongly correlated with its protein expression. Moreover, ERBB2 amplification is also observed in gastric cancer [25,26]. Mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) is a proto-oncogene that encodes ...
Global Gene Amplification Machine Market Research Report 2016 Purchase This Report by calling ResearchnReports.com at +1-888-631-6977.. This report gives an itemized and exhaustive comprehension of Gene Amplification Machine market. With exact information covering every key part of the current market, this report offers existing information of driving producers.. The research report global Market is a market study examining and profiling the current state of the Gene Amplification Machine industry in a professional manner. It comes from daily records, knowledge-bases, white papers and changed knowledge great mass of frees. Inputs from the industry specialists have been added to the study to help the existing and new players in the market to formulate effective business decisions in the next few years.. The report gets at the details of the Gene Amplification Machine market and gives an involutely observation of its applications. The report systematically categorizes the Gene Amplification ...
DNA amplification is frequent in breast cancer and has been associated with specific clinicopathological parameters and/or worsened course of the disease. In the present work, we were interested in further defining the association linking the occurrence of DNA amplification to the emergence of specific breast tumor phenotype. To this aim, we studied by Southern blotting a total of 1875 breast tumor DNAs with 26 probes mapping at 15 distinct chromosomal localizations. Of the 26 loci tested, 11 loci showed elevated levels of amplification, 9 loci showed occasional and/or low level of DNA copy number increase, and 6 loci showed very rare or no variation. This allowed us to define six amplified domains mapping at 8p12, 8q24, 11q13, 12q13, 17q12, and 20q13.2, respectively. Over 60% of the tumors analyzed presented at least one amplification at one of these localizations. Amplifications often covered large regions of DNA and bore complex patterns involving coamplification of several colocalized ...
Synonyms for gene amplification in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for gene amplification. 46 synonyms for amplification: increase, boosting, stretching, strengthening, expansion, extension, widening, raising, heightening, deepening, lengthening.... What are synonyms for gene amplification?
Targeted therapy for cancer is based upon the notion that tumors have characteristics that are quantitatively or qualitatively different from normal tissues, or that tumor cells are uniquely dependent, or addicted , to certain of these characteristic differences. Genetic changes including somatic mutation, gene amplification, and chromosomal translocation often serve as irreversible drivers of tumor growth and survival making them attractive targets for therapy. The amplification of ERBB2Her-2 on chromosome 17q12 in 15 of breast cancers led to the identification of Her-2 as a driver oncogene and successful target for therapy. Other chromosomal regions are recurrently amplified in breast cancer almost as frequently as 17q12 these include 8p11-12 and 11q13. Amplification of 8p11-12 has been shown to confer a high risk of metastasis after primary breast cancer surgery and adjuvant therapy, and it is therefore critical to identify the oncogenes driving this aggressive behavior.
C-myc and HER2 amplification were analyzed on 214 consecutive breast cancers by fluorescence in situ hybridization using tissue microarray technology. The frequencies of amplification were 15.4% (33/214) and 23.3% (49/210), respectively. c- myc amplification was significantly associated with HER2 amplification ( P , .001) and closely linked with cell proliferative activity, measured by Ki67 labeling index ( P = .010). In univariate survival analysis, lymph node status, tumor size, and histological grade were significant prognostic factors, but in multivariate analysis, lymph node status was the only significant factor. Patient survival did not differ according to c- myc amplification status, and c- myc amplification showed no significant correlation with clinicopathologic features of the tumors. A strong correlation between c- myc and HER2 amplification and proliferative activity indicates a biological link between these genes in breast cancer cell.. ...
Background: Pediatric neuroblastoma is divided into MYCN amplified and MYCN non-amplified sub-groups. However, the extent of heterogeneity within MYCN amplified or non-amplified pediatric neuroblastoma is unclear.Methods: The prognostic significance of ...
2934 DNA copy number amplifications induce increased expression of oncogenes and are associated with tumor progression in several tissues. Amplified genes are important in prognostics of several cancers and may serve as targets of therapy. A bibliomics survey was executed that covered 838 published chromosomal comparative genomic hybridization studies. DNA copy number amplification data was collected from more than 4500 cases and reported at chromosome band resolution. Amplification frequency profiles were determined for 82 distinct cancers. Label matrix for cancers was collected using World Health Organization classification. Label collection included information about cell-lineage (system, organ, tissue, cell type, embryonic origin, and differentiation), risk factors (aids, alcohol, asbestos, bacteria, diet, EBV, HIV, HPV, hormonal, implant, inflammation, obesity, parasites, polyoma viruses, radiation, tobacco, toxins, and UV), patient specificity (gender and age), and molecular ...
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway plays a fundamental role in cell proliferation and survival in human tumorigenesis, including gastric cancer. PIK3CA mutations and amplification are two major causes of overactivation of this pathway in human cancers. However, until this work, there was no sound investigation on the association of PIK3CA mutations and amplification with clinical outcome in gastric cancer, particularly the latter. Using direct sequencing and real-time quantitative PCR, we examined PIK3CA mutations and amplification, and their association with clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcome of gastric cancer patients. PIK3CA mutations and amplification were found in 8/113 (7.1%) and 88/131 (67%) gastric cancer patients, respectively. PIK3CA amplification was closely associated with increased phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) level. No relationship was found between PIK3CA mutations and clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcome in gastric cancer. PIK3CA
The present findings argue that intratumoral selection pressures influence the emergence of tumor cell populations with EGFR gene amplification. In addition to our findings, which are discussed below, evidence for such selection pressure in glioblastomas is provided by the long-standing observation that EGFR gene amplification is rapidly lost when these tumors are passaged in vitro (10) ; clearly, the growth advantage provided by EGFR overexpression in vivo is not present in vitro. We suggest that both the genetic and environmental milieu act in vivo to effect such selection.. Contrary to the results of prior studies of glioblastoma using approaches such as Southern blotting and PCR of tumor lysates, which suggested the near exclusivity of EGFR amplification and TP53 mutation (4 , 7) , the present FISH studies demonstrate that EGFR amplification occurs in the majority of glioblastomas with TP53 mutation. However, the cells with EGFR amplification remain isolated and few in number and, therefore, ...
Gene amplification is a cellular process in which multiple copies of a gene are produced. Most instances of gene amplification...
Gene amplification is a cellular process characterized by a selective increase of a particular genomic region without a proportional increase of the entire genome [1-4]. The selective increase accompanies the overexpression of a particular gene within the genomic region that confers a growth advantage to the cell. The growth advantage derived from gene amplification has long been recognized as an important problem for cancer patients. Increased copy numbers of proto-oncogenes, such as MYC, MYCN, and ERBB2, leads to the overexpression of oncogene products that drives abnormal cell proliferation [5-9]. Abnormal cell proliferation results in cancer progression and poor patient survival [10, 11]. In addition, gene amplification is an underlying mechanism for acquired therapy resistance, as cancer cells counteract therapeutic agents by overactivating either therapy-target genes (for example, BCR-ABL amplification) or alternative survival pathways (for example, MET amplification) [12-17]. Despite ...
History Gene amplification is a frequent manifestation of genomic instability that plays a role in tumour progression and development of drug resistance. formation of micronuclei or nuclear buds which correlated with the removal of and increased sensitivity to MTX. These Indoximod findings indicate for the first time that NHEJ plays a specific role in DM formation and that increased MTX sensitivity of DM-containing cells depleted of DNA-PKcs results from removal. Conversely in HSR-containing cells we found no significant switch in the expression of NHEJ proteins. Depletion of DNA-PKcs experienced no effect on amplification and resulted in only a modest increase in sensitivity to MTX. Interestingly both DM-containing and HSR-containing cells exhibited decreased proliferation upon DNA-PKcs depletion. Conclusions We demonstrate a novel specific role for NHEJ in the formation of DMs but not HSRs in MTX-resistant cells and that NHEJ may be Indoximod targeted for the treatment of MTX-resistant colon ...
Interleukin 1 (IL-1) plays an important role in host defense mechanisms by increasing body temperature, inducing the synthesis of a variety of lymphokines and hepatic acute phase proteins and acting as a chemoattractant for lymphocytes. However, in some microenvironments such as injured tissue or joint spaces, elevated IL-1 levels may contribute to pathologic processes, for example, proliferation and fibrosis of tissue involved in pannus formation as well as degradation of matrix and abnormal tissue architecture. To investigate potential mechanisms that may lead to excessive production of IL-1, we have examined the ability of IL-1 to participate in an amplification event by inducing its own gene expression leading to synthesis of biologically active IL-1. When injected into rabbits, recombinant human IL-1-alpha induced biphasic fevers, and during the second temperature elevation 3 hr later, a circulating pyrogenic material was detected by passive transfer of plasma to other rabbits. Induction of ...
The term gene amplification refers to the selective increase of the gene copy number and is better designated as DNA amplification. It should not be confused with elevated gene expression, although amplification generally does result in enhanced levels of the products encoded by the amplified gene. …
To date there has not been a good prognostic model for stratifying glioma patients, probably because of the heterogeneity and genomic instability inherent in malignant astrocytic gliomas. By using the quantitative values of PTEN, VEGF, EGFR and PAX6 gene expression, we were able to greatly improve a prognostic model based on conventional clinical variables. Importantly, we identified a new prognostic marker, the expression value of the PAX6 gene, of which the role in gliomas has not yet been delineated.. Although EGFR gene amplification and overexpression were seen in some gliomas, its expression has no prognostic value according to our analysis. In the case of EGFR gene amplification, there are frequent and various mutations of different regions of the gene that could lead to the increased or decreased oncogenic activity of EGFR (25) . In some cases, however, the total number of EGFR transcripts cannot account for the functional level of EGFR. Quantifying the levels of alternatively spliced ...
By means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, DNA sequences were amplified that flank the crossover sites of a characteristic chromosomal translocation for follicular lymphomas, t(14;18)(q32;q21). This technique permitted the detection of cells carrying the t(14;18) hybrid DNA sequences at a dilution of 1:100,000. The remission marrow and blood samples of a patient with follicular lymphoma and the t(14;18) failed to show any abnormality by morphological examination and conventional Southern blot analysis. However, the t(14;18) hybrid DNA sequences were detected by the PCR technique. Thus, this technique is a highly sensitive tool to detect minimal residual cells carrying the t(14;18) and has the potential to identify a subpopulation of patients with subclinical disease. ...
Map of the amplicon at 3q26 in the JHH-1 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line. (a) Recurrent copy number gains on the chromosomal region 3q26 in HCC cell li
It is well documented that among subgroups of B-ALL, the genetic profile of the leukemic blasts has significant impact on prognosis and stratification for therapy. Recent studies have documented the power of microarrays to screen genome-wide for copy number aberrations (CNAs) and regions of copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity (CNLOH) that are not detectable by G-banding or FISH. Findings identified by array include the co-occurrence of low and high risk abnormalities not previously reported to coexist within a clone, novel regions of chromosomal amplification, clones characterized by numerous whole chromosome LOH that do not meet criteria for doubling of a near-haploid, and characterization of array profiles associated with IKZF1 deletion. This group uses MSI resources that allow them to visualize the array findings using Cirocs, which they have installed on MSI computer space. A bibliography of this groups publications is attached.. Return to this PIs main page.. ...
A total of 2694 patients received NGS tests, 3.27 % (82/2507) of patients had primary MET amplification, and acquired MET amplification accounted for 16.04 % (30/187) of re-biopsy patients. Only 19 patients received monotherapy with crizotinib. In survival analysis, ten patients with copy number greater than 4 (CN , 4) had longer median PFS (mPFS) (4.76 months; 95 %CI: 1.67-7.85 months) compared with other nine patients (CN ≤ 4) (2.10 months; 95 %CI: 1.53-2.68 months; P = 0.063), but failed to get a statistical significance. No significant differences were observed between median PFS (mPFS) of the patients with primary and acquired MET amplification (4.04 months vs 2.76 months; P = 0.310 ...
PART EIGHT [Conclusion]: TRUE SPIRITUALITY AND PURE MITZVOS. In the first seven installments, we spoke of how amplified music at simchas has become widespread and gotten so loud in recent years that more and more people are being caused suffering and damage to their ears and hearing, being caused incurable and often permanent injury (e.g. tinnitus - loud ringing in the ears, dizziness or pain in the inner ears, etc.). We spoke of how it is a mitzva to protect health, how it is forbidden by halacha [Torah law] to cause hurt or damage and how it is an obligation in halacha to guard against causing hurt or damage. Caring for health is a Torah obligation that requires unusually extreme stringency and diligence, and taking no chances. We spoke of how causing damage to ears and hearing are strongly and specifically prohibited by halacha. We spoke of how the so-called music and loud amplification are of non-Jewish derivation and are physical in their essence with a false mask of spirituality, ...
Many breast cancers occur in conjunction with overexpression of the ERBB2 oncogene (also known as HER-2 or Neu). Although gene amplification can lead to ERBB2 overexpression, some human cancers overexpress ERBB2 even without gene amplification. Zuo et al. noticed that a large percentage of older female mice heterozygous for a mutation in the Foxp3 gene (Foxp3sf/+) developed spontaneous cancers; about 60% of these were mammary carcinomas. Further, these mice showed increased susceptibility to developing mammary cancer in response to treatment with the carcinogen DMBA together with progesterone. Analysis of normal mammary epithelial tissue and mammary cancer cells microdissected from heterozygous mice revealed that the wild-type allele of Foxp3 was expressed in the former and silenced in the latter, which also showed increased ErbB2 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that a Foxp3 fusion protein, which decreased ErbB2 expression when transfected into a mouse mammary tumor ...
Results: Between 10/2006 and 6/2007, all 29 patients enrolled (median age: 58 years; M/F 8/21; ECOG PS 0/1/2 2/24/3; stage IIIB/IV 26/3, never/former/current smoker 19/6/4) were evaluable for response. There were 14 PRs (48.3%) while there were 5 SDs (17.2%) and 10 PD (34.5%), giving overall response rate of 48.3% and disease control rate of 65.5%. The response rate in female patients was 57.1% (12/21) while that in never-smokers was 57.9% (11/19). Before the start of treatment, 5 patients were known to have EGFR gene mutation. Among them, interestingly, 2 patients whose tumor also had EGFR gene amplification showed a PR while 2 of 3 patients without gene amplification showed PDs. After a median follow-up of 4.5 months, 12 progressive diseases and 4 deaths were observed. The most common toxicity was skin rash, which was manageable. Retrospective biological study for patients enrolled is still being analyzed and will be presented at the meeting.Conclusions: Erlotinib showed promising response ...
HER2 overexpression/amplification is associated with trastuzumab response in breasts/gastric cancers. success (Operating-system) data were attained for FOCUS/PICCOLO and recurrence and mortality for QUASAR; 29/1342 (2.2%) stage IV and 25/1914 (1.3%) stage II-III tumours showed HER2 proteins overexpression. From the HER2‐overexpressing situations 27 (96.4%) stage IV tumours and 20/24 (83.3%) stage II-III tumours demonstrated HER2 amplification by FISH; 41/47 (87.2%) also showed duplicate number increases. HER2‐overexpression was connected with KRAS/BRAF outrageous‐type (WT) position at all levels: in 5.2% WT versus 1.0% mutated tumours (p < 0.0001) in stage IV and 2.1% versus 0.2% in stage II-III tumours (p = 0.01) respectively. HER2 had not been connected with PFS or Operating-system. At stage II-III there is no significant relationship between HER2 overexpression and 5FU/FA response. An increased percentage of HER2‐overexpressing situations experienced recurrence however the difference ...
Dear molbio.methds-reagnts readers, Our lab has successfully amplified the ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA region in the group of algae we are studying using DNA from a quick and dirty CTAB prep as the template. I am now attempting to modify our protocol to amplify the region using a single colony of algae dropped into the reaction mix as our template. In my first attempt I had no amplification at all. I extended the number of cycles and the extension time and got a very weak, fuzzy band from one of my tubes. (My control was negative). Im going to continue to play with this, but I thought Id throw it out onto the net to see if anyone had any suggestions. Basically I need to get stronger amplification and a sharper band. Have any of you had success in optimizing a PCR protocol like this? Anyone have any tips for amplifying from a single colony (about 10-70 eukaryotic cells)? Even though our target DNA is present in multiple copies in the genome, Im concerned that there might be too little DNA there to ...
PCR Amplification Issues and Primer dimer - posted in PCR, RT-PCR and Real-Time PCR: Hi all, I have been working on getting my PCR done correctly for months with no progress. Most of the time I just get a primer dimer of about 100 bp when run next to a ladder, as my sample is about 360 bp. Every now and then I will get a really nice amplification but these results are not consistent (actually Ive only got 3 good amplifications in the past 5 months). I will start fr...
Purpose The short arm of chromosome 8 (8p) is a frequent target of lack of heterozygosity (LOH) in cancer, and 8p LOH is often associated with a far more aggressive tumor phenotype. and (20% reduction, 26% gain/amplification) and (39% reduction, 9% gain/amplification) at 8p12. Subsequently, we display in a big series of breasts cancer individuals that allelic reduction and amplification in the 8p11-12 breakpoint area predict poor success and chemoradiotherapy response. No matter why malignancy cells go for for amplifications in a few settings and duplicate number reduction in others, these outcomes should increase concern from the prognostic and predictive potential of duplicate number aberrations in this area. Outcomes METABRIC breakpoint id Supplementary Body 1 depicts a heatmap of putative duplicate number phone calls on chromosome 8p seen in METABRIC (n=2173 beneficial situations). In 94% of situations, the duplicate number position of and was equivalent. However, an extremely solid putative ...
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Dr. Thomas Lynch: Dr. Davies, I will start off by asking you what you think copy number is telling us. Why does having a couple of extra copies of the chromosome matter, as opposed to gene amplification? How does that mechanistically explain what is going on?. Dr. Angela Davies: I think we are still learning what that means. It highlights the fact that mutations dont tell the whole story. The patients with mutations are the ones who are going to have dramatic and durable responses to these agents. There is another population of patients who do not benefit and that may partly be predicted by the presence of KRAS mutations. It is that large middle group of patients who would benefit from EGFR inhibitors that we are struggling to identify and select. That may be where the gene copy number fits in terms of predicting when to utilize these agents.. Dr. Charles Butts: There are very few predictors to say you shouldnt treat a particular population with erlotinib. As Dr. Bonomi has shown, the hazard ...
Through a comprehensive molecular analysis, researchers have divided cervical cancer into three main categories and identified a new subtype more similar to endometrial cancer. They also pinpointed five mutant genes not previously linked to this disease, and gene amplifications suggesting a role for immunotherapy. ...
def: A multisubunit complex consisting of Myb and other proteins that regulates site specific DNA replication, gene amplification and transcriptional repression. [PMID:12490953, PMID:15545624 ...
Cheeseman, I; Gomez-Escobar, N; Carret, C; Ivens, A; Tetteh, K; Stewart, L; Conway, D; (2008) A genome-wide survey of gene amplifications and deletions in laboratory and field isolates of Plasmodium falciparam. [Conference or Workshop Item] https://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/7910 Full text not available from this repository ...
Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment.
Hotchkiss, T.; Kramer, H.B.; Doores, K.J.; Gamblin, D.P.; Oldham, N.J.; Davis, B.G., 2005: Ligand amplification in a dynamic combinatorial glycopeptide library
Bring the power of real time qPCR to your lab with the open qPCR system. With up to 16 samples per run, enjoy seamless data generation for your DNA amplification needs.
|i|Background|/i|: Assessment of HER-2/|i|neu|/i| status in invasive breast cancer is crucial to establish eligibility for trastuzumab and taxane based chemotherapy. Next to immunohistochemistry (IHC) to evaluate protein overexpression, a second line gene amplification test is required for cases with equivocal protein expression. This study aimed to validate a new PCR based test, called Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA), as a simple and quick method to assess HER-2/|i|neu|/i| gene amplification status in invasive breast cancer.|i|Methods|/i|: MPLA results were compared with gene amplification status assessed by fluorescence |i|in situ|/i| hybridization (FISH) and chromogenic |i|in situ|/i| hybridization (CISH) as gold standard, and with protein overexpression by IHC in 518 breast carcinoma patients.|i|Results|/i|: About 10% of cases overexpressed HER-2/|i|neu|/i| at the protein level (IHC), and 11% of cases showed gene-amplification by MLPA. A high concordance was found
Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men in developed countries and the second most common malignancy of the urinary tract [1]. The majority of bladder cancer cases arise from the urothelium, the epithelium lining the inside of the bladder and these cases are thus called urothelial carcinomas. Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rarer malignant neoplasm and it accounts for 3-5% of bladder cancer in Western populations [2].. Several studies have investigated the chromosomal alterations associated with development and progression of bladder cancer. Different methods to detect copy number changes, such as classical cytogenetics, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), Southern blot analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) have been used [3].. Several CGH studies providing information about typical losses, gains and amplifications in bladder cancer have been published [4-8]. However, ...
Osteosarcomas are characterized by a high incidence of chromosomal amplifications and rearrangements (2-8, 10). Our previous study using 1-Mb arrays in osteosarcoma refined amplification boundaries for several recurrent chromosomal amplifications identified by CGH, including a 6p amplicon (10). This previous study did not define the exact amplicon boundaries or identify possible target gene(s) from the 6p12-p21 amplicon due to low-density clone coverage on 6p. Therefore, we carried out a systematic evaluation to identify putative oncogene(s) from the 6p12-p21 amplicon. Based on our region-specific array CGH analysis on primary osteosarcoma tumors, we refined the amplicon to 7.9 Mb on 6p and identified 10 highly amplified clones. Subsequently, we identified 11 candidate genes within the amplified clones.. A comprehensive expression analysis of these genes was carried out on primary osteosarcoma tumors and cell lines based on the concept that the amplification leads to the overexpression of genes. ...
001). Our results present synergic performance for erlotinib-cyclopamine association and offer a ideal in vitro model to explore medication combos on GBM cells. gene amplifications are often connected with GBM, producing this tyrosine kinase receptor a putative focus on for therapy.3,4 Malignant gliomas are heterogeneous in their cell structure.5 Lately, a array of tumors, including GBM, possess been found to consist of cancer stem-like cells (CSC).6,7 It has lately been suggested that GBM derive from neural originate or progenitor cells, and CSCs might perform a central part in the distribution of several malignancy types.7 Thus, signaling paths taking part in a key part in old fashioned sensory cells might also be needed in tumorigenesis of glial tumors. 8C11 CSCs possess also been demonstrated to become accountable for a common radioresistance and chemoresistance.12 The hedgehog path is of crucial importance during embryonic advancement13 and is also activated in sensory stem cells14 and GBM ...
The amplification status of human epidermal growth factor receptors 2 (HER2) genes is strongly associated with clinical outcome in patients with breast cancer. The American Society of Clinical Oncology Tumor Marker Guidelines Panel has recommended routine testing of HER2 status on all newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancers since 2001. Although fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technology provides superior accuracy as compared with other approaches, current manual FISH analysis methods are somewhat subjective, tedious, and may introduce interreader variability. The goal of this preliminary study is to develop and test a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to assess HER2 status using FISH images. Forty FISH images were selected for this study from our genetic laboratory. The CAD scheme first applies an adaptive, iterative threshold method followed by a labeling algorithm to segment cells of possible interest. A set of classification rules is then used to identify analyzable interphase ...
RNA amplification is necessary for profiling gene expression from small tissue samples. Previous studies have shown that the T7 based amplification techniques are reproducible but may distort the true abundance of targets. However, the consequences of such distortions on the ability to detect biological variation in expression have not been explored sufficiently to define the true extent of usability and limitations of such amplification techniques. We show that expression ratios are occasionally distorted by amplification using the Affymetrix small sample protocol version 2 due to a disproportional shift in intensity across biological samples. This occurs when a shift in one sample cannot be reflected in the other sample because the intensity would lie outside the dynamic range of the scanner. Interestingly, such distortions most commonly result in smaller ratios with the consequence of reducing the statistical significance of the ratios. This becomes more critical for less pronounced ratios where the
... Gene Amplification technology is one of the rapidly growing markets...San Jose CA (PRWEB) November 4 2008 -- Molecular diagnostics and the...World a href http://www.strategyr.com/Gene_Amplification_Technologi...a href http://www.strategyr.com/Gene_Amplification_Technologies_Mar...,World,Gene,Amplification,Technologies,Market,to,Reach,$2.2,Billion,by,2015,,According,to,New,Report,by,Global,Industry,Analysts,,Inc.,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
It would be expected that N. tabacum would have an IGS signal distribution that reflected the sum of that found in the diploid progenitors N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis. However, there was reduced A1/A2 satellite signal in all three tobacco lines [synthetic tobacco Th37 (Figure 3, D and E), a feral tobacco (Figure 3, F and G) and cv. 095-55 (Figure 3H)]. The reduction in A1/A2 satellite sequence was least apparent in the synthetic tobacco (Figure 3, D and E) and the sequence distribution on a subset of chromosomes most closely reflected, albeit in reduced abundance, that found in N. tomentosiformis (compare labeled chromosomes in Figure 3E with those in Figure 2). But there are differences; e.g., there is a satellite locus on the long arm of the T3 chromosome of Th37 plants that did not occur on chromosome 3 of any N. tomentosiformis varieties studied. The novel locus could have arisen by an allopolyploidy-induced translocation or amplification event.. Distribution of A1/A2 satellite in ...
Gene Amplification and Expression in Thyroid Cancer. We study genomic instability in thyroid cancer. Gain, loss and rearrangement of genomic DNA are major characteristics of cancer, often providing a basis for the altered pattern of gene expression that drives oncogenesis. The least studied aspect of genomic instability in thyroid cancer is the gain of gene copy-number called gene amplification. Since double-stranded DNA breakage by ionizing radiation might enhance gene amplification, we investigated whether the post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cohort exhibits specific patterns of gene amplification that can be distinguished from patterns seen in PTC and other thyroid tumors not associated with radiation exposure.. Using a genome-wide, cDNA microarray-based technique, we analyzed genomic DNA from a pilot series of ten post-Chernobyl PTC cases and from several spontaneous thyroid tumors of various types. For reference we analyzed gDNA from normal individuals and from the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Validated primer set that prevents nuclear DNA sequences of mitochondrial origin co-amplification: A revision based on the New Human Genome Reference Sequence (GRCh37). AU - Ramos, Amanda. AU - Santos, Cristina. AU - Barbena, Elena. AU - Mateiu, Ligia. AU - Alvarez, Luis. AU - Nogués, Ramon. AU - Aluja, Maria Pilar. PY - 2011/3/1. Y1 - 2011/3/1. N2 - A new human genome reference sequence - GRCh37 - was recently generated and made available by the Genome Reference Consortium. Since the prior disposable human reference sequence - hg18 - was previously used for the mitochondrial DNA primer BLAST validation, a revision of those previously published primer pairs is required. Thus, the aim of this Short Communication is to perform an in silico BLAST test of the published disposable nine primer pairs using the new human reference sequence and to report the pertinent modifications. The new analysis showed that one of the tested primer pairs requires a revision. Therefore, a new ...
Cytogenetic studies have identified two types of gene amplification, intrachromosomal HSRs and extrachromosomal DMs. Although these two genetic structures have been suggested to be associated with increased DSBs and subsequent NHEJ repair process, the precise mechanism underlying the formation of HSRs and DMs remains to be investigated. Using a method that has been described previously,20-22 we have generated two HT-29 colon cancer cell lines that are resistant to different concentrations of MTX: (i) a 10−5 mol/L resistant line that harbours amplified DHFR primarily in HSRs and (ii) a 10−4 mol/L resistant line that harbours amplified DHFR primarily in DMs. These two cell lines serve as model systems that provided us a unique opportunity to study the molecular mechanism by which HSRs and DMs are formed and how they relate to the development of dose-dependent MTX resistance.. Initially, we examined whether MTX causes DSBs and whether the two MTX-resistant cell lines exhibit altered levels of ...
Although human papillomavirus was identified as an aetiological factor in cervical cancer, the key human gene drivers of this disease remain unknown. Here we apply an unbiased approach integrating gene expression and chromosomal aberration data. In an independent group of patients, we reconstruct and validate a gene regulatory meta-network, and identify cell cycle and antiviral genes that constitute two major subnetworks upregulated in tumour samples. These genes are located within the same regions as chromosomal amplifications, most frequently on 3q. We propose a model in which selected chromosomal gains drive activation of antiviral genes contributing to episomal virus elimination, which synergizes with cell cycle dysregulation. These findings may help to explain the paradox of episomal human papillomavirus decline in women with invasive cancer who were previously unable to clear the virus.. ...
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All primary neuroblastomas examined in this study were found to express MRP4 and its overexpression was significantly associated with MYCN amplification. In addition, MRP4 and MRP1 expressions were found significantly correlated. We have previously provided evidence that MYCN regulates expression of the MRP1 gene (8), and given that drugs routinely used to treat neuroblastoma do not seem to be MRP4 substrates, it is interesting to speculate that the prognostic significance provided by MRP4 also reflects regulation of its expression by MYCN. We are currently investigating this possibility as several potential MYCN-binding sites (E-boxes) are present in the MRP4 promoter. Alternatively, MRP4 may be transporting some other nondrug substrate important for the maintenance of neuroblastoma malignancy. Given these results, we are currently analyzing the independent prognostic significance of MRP4 and MRP1 gene expression, as well as MYCN gene amplification, in a large cohort of prospectively accrued ...
The purpose of this trial is to determine the efficacy and safety profile of TKI258 in 4 groups of patients with metastatic HER2 negative breast cancer
Aberrant regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays important roles in colorectal carcinogenesis, with over 90% of cases of sporadic colon cancer featuring β-catenin accumulation. While ubiquitination-mediated degradation is widely accepted as a major route for β-catenin protein turnover, little is known about the regulation of β-catenin in transcriptional level. …Elf3, a member of the E-twenty-six family of transcription factors, drives β-catenin transactivation and associates with poor survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. … first found recurrent amplification and upregulation of Elf3 in CRC tissues, and further Gene Set Enrichment Analysis identified significant association between Elf3 expression and activity of WNT/β-catenin pathway. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay consistently revealed that Elf3 binds to and transactivates β-catenin promoter. Ectopic expression of Elf3 induces accumulation of β-catenin in both nucleus and ...
Functional enhancers can accompany oncogenes on the circularized extrachromosomal amplicons found in glioma and other tumors, enhancing cancer growth.
Forward and backward stepwise selection is not guaranteed to give us the best model containing a particular subset of the p predictors but thats the price to pay in order to avoid overfitting. Even if p is less than 40, looking at all possible models may not be the best thing to do. The point is that is not always best to do a full search, even when you can do it because we will pay a price in variance (and thus in test error). Just because best subset has a better model on the training data doesnt mean that its really going to be a better model overall in the context of test data, which is what we really care about. ...
A previous report described the isolation of a directly transforming retrovirus, AKT8, from a spontaneous thymoma of an AKR mouse. The AKT8 provirus has now been molecularly cloned from a transformed, nonproducer cell line. The virus genome contains both viral and nonviral, cell-related sequences; the nonviral sequence has been designated v-akt, the presumed viral oncogene of the AKT8 virus. This gene lacks homology to the 16 other oncogenes tested. The cloned provirus has undergone a partial deletion, during cell passage in vitro, that prevents direct demonstration of the transforming ability of this molecular clone. Two human homologues of the v-akt oncogene, AKT1 and AKT2, were cloned. A survey of 225 human tumors for changes involving AKT1 led to the discovery of a 20-fold amplification of this gene in one of the five gastric adenocarcinomas tested. The results demonstrate that AKT8 has the characteristic structure of a directly transforming retrovirus and that it contains a gene derived ...
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication ...
The group used CNVkit to call genome-wide copy number form the off-target reads in their data. Only 71% of patient samples were amenable to this analysis. They detected chromosome arm loss (e.g. 17P in 19/20 patients) and gene amplification (e.g. ERBB2 in a single patient). I was a little disappointed on reading the description of CNV calling in the report. Whilst the results are good, they are limited to chromosome arm and/or major gene amplification detection. For many cancers we need better CNV analysis than this and I suspect the reason the results were so limited was the size of the panel. You simply dont get enough of-target across the genome to do a robust genome-wide CNV analysis. Id suggest pooling the pre-capture libraries for shallow whole genome sequencing. […]. ...
Whole Genome Amplification (WGA) provides the means to immortalize genomic DNA from fresh, frozen, archived and chemically treated samples. GenomePlex® WGA, produces 500-1000 fold unbiased amplification of genomic DNA via a PCR-based sequence independent approach.
GENETIC ANALYSIS LOC FOR NUCLEIC ACID AMPLIFICATION USING NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE BASED AMPLIFICATION - diagram, schematic, and image 72 ...
Real-time reverse-transcriptase Staurosporine purchase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed, as described previously,23 in a 96-well plate using a Bio-Rad iCycler iQ. The sequences of forward and reverse primers used for amplification are represented in Table 1. For each gene, a standard curve was established from four cDNA dilutions (1/10 to 1/10,000) and was used to determine relative gene-expression variation after normalization, with a geometric average of 18S and TATA box-binding protein expression. Results are expressed as means ± standard error of the mean (SEM). Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance,. followed by the Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test. Differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. Concordant arguments from in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that hepatic expression of CB1R is submitted to an autoregulation process. HM781-36B cell line Activation of ECS by high-fat diets or by agonists is associated with an increase in the expression of CB1R, ...
Devices and methods for carrying out an assay for the determination of nucleic acids are disclosed. The devices comprise (a) a sample receiving chamber, (b) a plurality of additional chambers, at least one of the additional chambers containing reagents for carrying out an assay for the determination of a nucleic acid, (c) means for detecting a signal generated by the reagents, (d) means for permitting fluid communication between the additional chambers, (e) means for introducing a sample into the device, and (f) means for separating the analyte from the remainder of the sample and introducing the analyte into one of the additional chambers, which means comprises suspendible particles. The methods involve introducing a sample suspected of containing a nucleic acid analyte into a device in accordance with the invention. The analyte, if present, and particles in a medium are transported through the chambers of the device. Reagents for conducting an amplification are combined with the transported medium,
Angele, P; Faltermeier, H; Kujat, R; Maghsudi, M; Möller, H D; Nerlich, M; (1998) [Improvement of the amplification rate of human chondrocytes with IGF-I and RGD]. Langenbecks Archiv für Chirurgie. Supplement. Kongressband. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Chirurgie. Kongress, 115 (Suppl). pp. 205-8. ISSN 0942-2854 https://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/19907 Full text not available from this repository ...
The PI3K signaling pathway is crucial for survival and for progression of ovarian carcinoma cells through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The p110α catalytic subunit of PI3K (PIK3CA) is one of the most frequently altered oncogenes in cancer. Approximately 40% of ovarian tumors reveal amplification, whereas only 7% reveal mutation of PIK3CA. Conversely, the majority of breast cancers harbor mutations in PIK3CA (40%), whereas only a few reveal PIK3CA amplifications (9%; refs. 1, 24, 25). We and others have recently shown that the PI3K signaling cascade interacts with lipogenic pathways in cancer cells. In fact, FASN, the crucial enzyme in de novo generation of long-chain fatty acids, is overexpressed in approximately 80% of ovarian carcinomas and is linked with the PI3K system in these tumors (13, 15). Unfortunately, the mechanisms of FASN-mediated regulation of PI3K signaling are still not fully characterized. Experimental evidence suggests that multiple pathways are involved (15). For instance, ...
Extracts features from amplification curve data of quantitative Polymerase Chain Reactions (qPCR) (Pabinger, Stephan, Stefan Roediger, Albert Kriegner, Klemens Vierlinger, and Andreas Weinhauusel (2014) ,doi:10.1016/j.bdq.2014.08.002,) for machine learning purposes. Helper functions prepare the amplification curve data for processing as functional data (e.g., Hausdorff distance) or enable the plotting of amplification curve classes (negative, ambiguous, positive). The hookreg() and hookregNL() functions can be used to predict amplification curves with an hook effect-like curvature. The pcrfit_single() function can be used to extract features from an amplification curve.. ...
Amplification at 20q13 occurs in a variety of tumor types and is associated with aggressive tumor behavior. Kallioniemi et al. (1994) found increased copy number involving 20q13 in 40% of breast cancer cell lines and 18% of primary breast tumors ...
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I added also general information (mostly from the Qiagen site) about the REPLI-g method of amplification and about other similar Qiagen kits available ...
Er cycle respectively) allowed efficient amplification, resulting in a final yield of about 500 ng. The resulting construct was then characterized by agarose
Like anything else, you will only become good at chemistry through experience. These collectively trigger amplification processes that reinforce the initial senescence signal Cheapest manforce by p53.
Discuss the need for rights amplification in Hydra. How does thispractice compare with the cross-ring calls in a ring-protection scheme?
PANP/PILR alpha associated neural protein Overexpression Lysate (Native). Tested Reactivity: Hu. Validated: WB. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
An amplicon is any piece of DNA that has been produced using amplification techniques -- especially one produced artificially. Sometimes the term is also applied to DNA sequences that scientists...
THE DNA amplification technique that underpins much of modern biology and medicine has been made even easier to perform by eliminating the need to heat sam
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
Abstract: The proof of Todas celebrated theorem that the polynomial hierarchy is contained in $¶^{# P}$ relies on the fact that, under mild technical conditions on the complexity class $C$, we have $\exists C \subset BP \cdot \oplus C$. More concretely, there is a randomized reduction which transforms nonempty sets and the empty set, respectively, into sets of odd or even size. The customary method is to invoke Valiants and Vaziranis randomized reduction from NP to UP, followed by amplification of the resulting success probability from $1/\poly(n)$ to a constant by combining the parities of $\poly(n)$ trials. Here we give a direct algebraic reduction which achieves constant success probability without the need for amplification. Our reduction is very simple, and its analysis relies on well-known properties of the Legendre symbol in finite fields ...
I bought a used dual rectifier a couple of years ago and I have nothing bad to say about it, and wouldnt recommend purchasing one either. Never gave me any problems and the used price kept it in my ballpark financially. I Got meh sound out of it for a couple of years, and sold it for more than it should have gone for ...
Lucigen strives to provide life scientists with the highest quality products and services for RNA/DNA amplification, cloning, next gen sequencing, and protein expression. Experience outstanding performance with time-saving convenience at an exceptional price.
Gene amplification Wiedmann, M; Wilson, WJ; Czajka, J; Luo, J; Barany, F; Batt, CA (Feb 1994). "Ligase chain reaction (LCR)-- ... The ligase chain reaction (LCR) is a method of DNA amplification. The ligase chain reaction (LCR) is an amplification process ... Barany, F (Jan 1991). "Genetic disease detection and DNA amplification using cloned thermostable ligase". Proc Natl Acad Sci U ...
Another gene that is a target of gene amplification is SKP2. SKP2 is an F-box protein that roles in substrate recognition for ... Gene amplification often occur in various tumor cases, including of MDM2, a gene encodes for a RING E3 Ubiquitin ligase ... The BRCA1 gene is another tumor suppressor gene in human which encodes the BRCA1 protein that is involved in response to DNA ... Momand J, Jung D, Wilczynski S, Niland J (August 1998). "The MDM2 gene amplification database". Nucleic Acids Research. 26 (15 ...
"Protein Turnover and Gene Amplification". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (e1 2). 27 April 2007.. ... In 1977, he (and doctoral student Fred Alt) discovered the phenomenon of gene amplification in mammalian cells. This discovery ...
January 1984). "Resistance to methotrexate due to gene amplification in a patient with acute leukemia". J. Clin. Oncol. 2 (1): ... Horns RC, Dower WJ, Schimke RT (January 1984). "Gene amplification in a leukemic patient treated with methotrexate". J. Clin. ... Trent JM, Buick RN, Olson S, Horns RC, Schimke RT (January 1984). "Cytologic evidence for gene amplification in methotrexate- ... Likewise, extra copies of the AR gene (amplification) have been observed in anti-androgen resistant prostate cancer. These ...
Frank NY, Frank MH (October 2009). "ABCB5 gene amplification in human leukemia cells". Leukemia Research. 33 (10): 1303-5. doi: ... ABCB5+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ABCB5 human gene location in the ... ABCB5 human gene details in the UCSC Genome Browser.. ... of the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene ABCB 5 in melanoma ... of the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene ABCB 5 in melanoma cells and melanocytes". Pigment Cell Research. 18 (2): 102-12. ...
1996). "Somatic recombination, gene amplification and cancer". Mutat Res. 353 (1-2): 85-107. doi:10.1016/0027-5107(95)00243-x. ... Somatic recombination occurs physiologically in the assembly of the B cell receptor and T-cell receptor genes (V(D)J ... In neurons of the human brain, somatic recombination occurs in the gene that encodes the amyloid precursor protein APP. Neurons ... "Somatic APP gene recombination in Alzheimer's disease and normal neurons". Nature. 563 (7733): 639-645. Bibcode:2018Natur.563.. ...
Powles SB (January 2010). "Gene amplification delivers glyphosate-resistant weed evolution". Proceedings of the National ... This CP4 EPSPS gene was cloned and transfected into soybeans. In 1996, genetically modified soybeans were made commercially ... Monsanto scientists have found that some resistant weeds have as many as 160 extra copies of a gene called EPSPS, the enzyme ... Genes, Fitness, and Agronomic Management". Weed Science. 57 (4): 435-41. doi:10.1614/WS-08-181.1. S2CID 85725624. Peerzada, ...
Calvi BR, Lilly MA, Spradling AC (March 1998). "Cell cycle control of chorion gene amplification". Genes & Development. 12 (5 ... This region undergoes DNA-replication-dependent gene amplification at a defined stage during oogenesis and relies on the timely ... "DNA sequence templates adjacent nucleosome and ORC sites at gene amplification origins in Drosophila". Nucleic Acids Research. ... Gene. 511 (2): 300-5. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2012.09.058. PMID 23026211. Ryan VT, Grimwade JE, Camara JE, Crooke E, Leonard AC ( ...
Chrostek, Ewa; Teixeira, Luis (2015-02-10). "Mutualism Breakdown by Amplification of Wolbachia Genes". PLOS Biology. 13 (2): ... For many years biologists have wondered why plants have so many genes coding for proteins that are known to be essential for ... "Fate of new genes cannot be predicted". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2018-08-24. Teresa Avelar, Ana; Perfeito, Lília; Gordo, Isabel ... These findings were published in the journal PLoS Biology in February 2015, in the first study linking genes and their ...
Goldsbrough, Peter (1990). "Gene amplification in glyphosate tolerant tobacco cells". Plant Science. 72 (1): 53-62. doi:10.1016 ... EPSP synthase is produced only by plants and micro-organisms; the gene coding for it is not in the mammalian genome. Gut flora ... A glyphosate-resistant version of this gene has been used in genetically modified crops. The enzyme belongs to the family of ...
Suzuki, SO; Iwaki, T (2000). "Amplification and overexpression of mdm2 gene in ependymomas". Modern Pathology. 13 (5): 548-53. ... and gene expression differences. Amplification of chromosome 1q and loss of 6q, 17p and 22q are the most common numerical ... However, gene mutations linked to the familial syndromes are rarely found in sporadic cases of ependymoma. For example, NF2 ... A gene expression profiling experiment has shown that three members of the SOX family of transcription factors also possessed ...
Williams R, Peisajovich SG, Miller OJ, Magdassi S, Tawfik DS, Griffiths AD (2006). "Amplification of complex gene libraries by ... DNA sequencing may be used to determine the sequence of individual genes, larger genetic regions (i.e. clusters of genes or ... Min Jou W, Haegeman G, Ysebaert M, Fiers W (May 1972). "Nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for the bacteriophage MS2 coat ... The major landmark of RNA sequencing is the sequence of the first complete gene and the complete genome of Bacteriophage MS2, ...
Chromosomal rearrangement due to genome instability can cause gene amplification and deletion. Gene amplification is the ... Gene deletion is the opposite of gene amplification, where a region of a chromosome is lost an drug resistance occurs by losing ... and BCR-ABL amplification occurs in response to imatinib mesylate. Determining areas of gene amplification in cells from cancer ... "Sister chromatid fusion initiates amplification of the dihydrofolate reductase gene in Chinese hamster cells". Genes & ...
She was awarded a PhD from Imperial College London for research investigating gene amplification in rat cells in 1990 while ... Heard, Edith (1990). Analysis of a gene amplification event in rat cells. imperial.ac.uk (PhD). Imperial College London. hdl: ... Heard, Edith (2013). "We can't undo what our parents have given us in terms of our genes'". theguardian.com. The Guardian. ... "Rb-Mediated Heterochromatin Formation and Silencing of E2F Target Genes during Cellular Senescence". Cell. 113 (6): 703-16. doi ...
Mekalanos JJ (1983). "Duplication and amplification of toxin genes in Vibrio cholerae". Cell. 35 (1): 253-63. doi:10.1016/0092- ... His early work as an independent researcher led to the identification of toxR, a gene that affects the expression of the ...
... provide a location for the adaptive amplification of genes; and be involved in secondary mechanism of telomere maintenance via ... and there are even some cases of small genes residing completely within the intron of a large gene. For some genes (such as the ... Repeated sequence (DNA) Gene family Genetic marker G banding Genome Regulator gene Pryde FE, Gorham HC, Louis EJ (1997) ... When discussing gene with alternate splicing, an exon is a portion of the transcript that could be translated, given the ...
"Gene amplification and overexpression of PRDM14 in breast cancer". Cancer Res. 67 (20): 9649-9657. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06 ... Adachi M, Miyachi T, Sekiya M, Hinoda Y, Yachi A, Imai K (1994). "Structure of the human LC-PTP (HePTP) gene: similarity in ... Further, he developed the diagnostic method of a digestive tract cancer utilizing a methylation of genes expressed in cancer ... Imai discovered three kinds of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) genes having the function of controlling the signal ...
Li JT, Liu W, Kuang ZH, Zhang RH, Chen HK, Feng QS (February 2004). "[Mutation and amplification of RIT1 gene in hepatocellular ... "Entrez Gene: RIT1 Ras-like without CAAX 1". Gos M, Fahiminiya S, Poznański J, Klapecki J, Obersztyn E, Piotrowicz M, Wierzba J ... GTP-binding protein Rit1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RIT1 gene. RIT belongs to the RAS (HRAS; MIM 190020) ...
PCR to circumvent spurious priming during gene amplification". Nucleic Acids Res. 19 (14): 4008. doi:10.1093/nar/19.14.4008. ... as the nonspecific sequences to which primers anneal in early steps of amplification will "swamp out" any specific sequences ... because of the exponential nature of polymerase amplification. The earliest steps of a touchdown polymerase chain reaction ...
David F, Turlotte E (November 1998). "[A method of isothermal gene amplification]" [An Isothermal Amplification Method]. ... This method permits amplification of genes for which only a partial sequence information is available, and allows ... The 5' end of a gene (corresponding to the transcription start site) is typically identified by RACE-PCR (Rapid Amplification ... If the genomic DNA sequence of a gene is known, RT-PCR can be used to map the location of exons and introns in the gene. ...
Whittock NV, Eady RA, McGrath JA (Oct 2000). "Genomic organization and amplification of the human plakoglobin gene (JUP)". ... The JUP gene contains 13 exons spanning 17 kb on chromosome 17q21. Plakoglobin is a member of the catenin family, since it ... "Entrez Gene: JUP junction plakoglobin". "Protein sequence of human JUP (Uniprot ID: P14923)". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas ... Plakoglobin, also known as junction plakoglobin or gamma-catenin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JUP gene. ...
Palese built "the first genetic maps for influenza A, B and C viruses, identified the function of several viral genes, ... ... Luytjes, W.; Krystal, M.; Enami, M.; Parvin, J. D.; Palese, P. (1989). "Amplification, expression, and packaging of foreign ... "The genes of influenza virus". Cell. 10 (1): 1-10. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(77)90133-7. PMID 837439. S2CID 6562438. Buonagurio, D ... "Influenza a virus lacking the NS1 gene replicates in interferon-deficient systems". Virology. 252 (2): 324-330. doi:10.1006/ ...
He demonstrated a rolling circle mechanism for ribosomal gene amplification. He showed that DNA methylation sites can be mapped ... This discovery has allowed new strategies for mapping and identifying genes and it has allowed Bird to propose that the ... This was accomplished by reintroducing a functional MeCP2 gene and proved successful even when the condition was at an advanced ... Bird, Adrian (1972). The cytology and biochemistry of DNA amplification in the ovary of Xenopus laevis (Thesis). University of ...
In ~10% of colorectal carcinomas, cyclin E gene amplification is found, sometimes together with CDK2 gene amplification. Cyclin ... Several mechanisms lead to the deregulated expression of cyclin E. In most cases, gene amplification causes the overexpression ... "Concurrent amplification of cyclin E and CDK2 genes in colorectal carcinomas". International Journal of Cancer. 62 (1): 25-8. ... "Expression and amplification of cyclin genes in human breast cancer". Oncogene. 8 (8): 2127-33. PMID 8336939. Keyomarsi K, ...
February 2011). "ZNF703 gene amplification at 8p12 specifies luminal B breast cancer". EMBO Molecular Medicine. 3 (3): 153-166 ... Gene expression of stem cells are triggered when the ZNF703 gene becomes overexpressed in the complex. As a result, both ... ZNF703 is a gene which has been linked with the development of breast cancers. ZNF703 is contained within the NET/N1z family ... The ZNF703 gene generally plays an active role in luminal B tumor cells contained in mammary ducts. Typically, ZNF703 ...
Ibson JM, Rabbitts PH (1988). "Sequence of a germ-line N-myc gene and amplification as a mechanism of activation". Oncogene. 2 ... Brodeur GM, Seeger RC (1986). "Gene amplification in human neuroblastomas: basic mechanisms and clinical implications". Cancer ... "Preferential amplification of the paternal allele of the N-myc gene in human neuroblastomas". Nat. Genet. 4 (2): 191-4. doi: ... most notably neuroblastomas where patients with amplification of the N-Myc gene tend to have poor outcomes. MYCN can also be ...
van Dartel M, Hulsebos TJ (2004). "Amplification and overexpression of genes in 17p11.2 ~ p12 in osteosarcoma". Cancer Genet. ... Human COPS3 genome location and COPS3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Human CSN3 genome location and CSN3 gene ... COP9 signalosome complex subunit 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COPS3 gene. It encodes a subunit of the COP9 ... 2002). "Genes in a Refined Smith-Magenis Syndrome Critical Deletion Interval on Chromosome 17p11.2 and the Syntenic Region of ...
Neumaier M, Gerhard M, Wagener C (1995). "Diagnosis of micrometastases by the amplification of tissue-specific genes". Gene. ... Mutations in this gene have been linked to cryptogenic cirrhosis. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been ... "Entrez Gene: KRT18 keratin 18". W. Jeffrey Allard; Jeri Matera; M. Craig Miller; et al. (October 2004). "Tumor Cells Circulate ... Waseem A, Gough AC, Spurr NK, Lane EB (1990). "Localization of the gene for human simple epithelial keratin 18 to chromosome 12 ...
Williams R, Peisajovich SG, Miller OJ, Magdassi S, Tawfik DS, Griffiths AD (2006). "Amplification of complex gene libraries by ... DNA sequencing may be used to determine the sequence of individual genes, larger genetic regions (i.e. clusters of genes or ... HeliScope Gene Sequencing / Genetic Analyzer System : Helicos BioSciences. *^ Thompson JF, Steinmann KE (October 2010). "Single ... Another method for in vitro clonal amplification is bridge PCR, in which fragments are amplified upon primers attached to a ...
Stimulation of nociceptive fibers in a pattern consistent with that from inflammation switches on a form of amplification in ... Fu X, Zhu ZH, Wang YQ, Wu GC (January 2007). "Regulation of proinflammatory cytokines gene expression by nociceptin/orphanin FQ ... Amplification in the spinal cord may be another way of producing hyperalgesia. ...
This amplification means that even the absorption of one photon will affect membrane potential and signal to the brain that ... NR2E3 further restricts cells to the rod fate by repressing cone genes. RORbeta is needed for both rod and cone development. ... On the other hand, cones are known to have very fast kinetics in terms of rate of amplification of phototransduction, unlike ... Second, there is a lot of amplification in two stages of classic phototransduction: one pigment will activate many molecules of ...
... corresponding to an amplification of the light. ... Hecht, Eugene (2002). Optics. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 978-0-321- ...
RNA probes can be designed for any gene or any sequence within a gene for visualization of mRNA,[3][4][5] lncRNA[6][7][8] and ... If the fluorescent signal is weak, amplification of the signal may be necessary in order to exceed the detection threshold of ... The technology has potential applications in cancer diagnosis,[14] neuroscience, gene expression analysis,[15] and companion ... MA-FISH is applied for detecting the HER2 gene in breast cancer tissues.[16] ...
The amelogenin gene has been most widely studied in humans, where it is a single copy gene, located on the X and Y chromosomes ... Mutation in regions of AMELY intron 1 commonly used as primer annealing sites may disable PCR amplification. A 6bp insertion to ... Two bands of DNA, at 106bps and 112bps, are resolved if both the AMELX and AMELY versions of the gene are present (i.e. the ... Differences between the X chromosome and Y chromosome versions of the amelogenin gene (AMELX and AMELY respectively) enable it ...
2005). Bioinformatics: A Practical Guide to the Analysis of Genes and Proteins (en inglés) (third edition ed.). Wiley. ISBN 0- ... "Comparative analysis of algorithms for identifying amplifications and deletions in array CGH data". Bioinformatics 21 (19). ... 1993) A Hidden Markov Model that finds genes in E. coli DNA ... Serial Analysis of Gene Expression, Análise en serie da ... Circular SV40 DNA Molecules Containing Lambda Phage Genes and the Galactose Operon of Escherichia coli" (PDF). Proceedings of ...
1994). "Cloning of the alpha-adducin gene from the Huntington's disease candidate region of chromosome 4 by exon amplification ... "Entrez Gene: ADD1 adducin 1 (alpha)". Human ADD1 genome location and ADD1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Mangeat ... 1994). "The murine homologues of the Huntington disease gene (Hdh) and the alpha-adducin gene (Add1) map to mouse chromosome 5 ... Alpha-adducin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADD1 gene. Adducins are a family of cytoskeleton proteins encoded ...
Hailer, F., Gautschi, B., & Helander, B. (2005). Development and multiplex PCR amplification of novel microsatellite markers in ... Evolutionary history of New and Old World vultures inferred from nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. ... Hailer, Frank; Gautschi, Barbara; Helander, Björn (2005). "Development and multiplex PCR amplification of novel microsatellite ... Phylogenetic relationships in diurnal raptors based on nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear marker genes. Raptors ...
There are three main ways the action of the receptor can be classified: relay of signal, amplification, or integration.[2] ... Many genetic disorders involve hereditary defects in receptor genes. Often, it is hard to determine whether the receptor is ... Relaying sends the signal onward, amplification increases the effect of a single ligand, and integration allows the signal to ...
Hormones such as epinephrine, insulin and glucagon regulate glycogen phosphorylase using second messenger amplification systems ... More than 65 mutations in the PYGM gene that lead to McArdle disease have been identified to date.[15][16] Symptoms of McArdle ... in the glycogen phosphorylase gene in a patient with hepatic glycogen storage disease and residual enzyme activity". Molecular ... "Mutations in the liver glycogen phosphorylase gene (PYGL) underlying glycogenosis type VI". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62 (4): 785-91 ...
James, Greg (15 May 2018). "Universal Bacterial Identification by PCR and DNA Sequencing of 16S rRNA Gene". PCR for Clinical ... "16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study". Journal of Bacteriology 173 (2): 697-703. PMC 207061. PMID 1987160 ... "Next-generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons". J Vis Exp (90). PMC 4828026. PMID 25226019. doi:10.3791/51709 ... "A method for high precision sequencing of near full-length 16S rRNA genes on an Illumina MiSeq". PeerJ 4: e2492. PMC 5036073 ...
Reams, AB; Roth, JR (2 February 2015). "Mechanisms of gene duplication and amplification.". Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in ... "Further understanding human disease genes by comparing with housekeeping genes and other genes". BMC Genomics 7: 31. doi: ... "About the HGNC". HGNC Database of Human Gene Names. HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee. Retrieved 14 May 2015. ... "Proto-genes and de novo gene birth.". Nature 487 (7407): 370-4. Bibcode:2012Natur.487..370C. doi:10.1038/nature11184. PMID ...
... viable daughter cells to be produced would require an extra replication of the intact RNA gene homologous to any RNA gene that ... "Amplification of RNA by an RNA polymerase ribozyme". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113 (35): 9786-91. doi ... If at least one damage-free copy of each RNA gene is present in the transient diploid, viable progeny can be formed. For two, ... Tucker BJ, Breaker RR (Jun 2005). "Riboswitches as versatile gene control elements". Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 15 ...
"The thermal history of human fossils and the likelihood of successful DNA amplification". Journal of Human Evolution. 45 (3): ... Papuan and Mamanwa peoples carry some of the genes associated with the Denisovan peoples of Asia, (not found amongst ... "Genome-wide data substantiate Holocene gene flow from India to Australia". PNAS. 110 (5): 1803-1808. Bibcode:2013PNAS.. ...
Amplification[edit]. Main article: Optical amplifier. The transmission distance of a fiber-optic communication system has ... The first transatlantic telephone cable to use optical fiber was TAT-8, based on Desurvire optimised laser amplification ... The fourth generation of fiber-optic communication systems used optical amplification to reduce the need for repeaters and ... Fiber attenuation, which necessitates the use of amplification systems, is caused by a combination of material absorption, ...
Amplification[edit]. The fennec fox uses its distinctive oversized pinnae to radiate excess heat and to amplify the sound of ... Lobe (lobule) - attached or free according to a classic single-gene dominance relationship ... Amplification of sound by the pinna, tympanic membrane and middle ear causes an increase in level of about 10 to 15 dB in a ... This amplification is an important factor in inner ear trauma resulting from elevated sound levels. ...
DellaSala, Gene (August 29, 2004). "Setting the Subwoofer / LFE Crossover for Best Performance". Tips & Tricks: Get Good Bass. ... Any technique that uses crossover filtering followed by amplification is commonly known as bi-amping, tri-amping, quad-amping, ... Passive filtering may also be used in this way before power amplification, but it is an uncommon solution, being less flexible ... crossover is an electronic filter circuit that divides the signal into individual frequency bands before power amplification, ...
DNA integrity is an important factor for studies which involve whole genome amplification.[3] RNA integrity is critical for ... "Gene Expression Profiles from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Are Sensitive to Short Processing Delays". Biopreservation ...
... some fluorescent markers overlap and interfere with other gene markers. The advantage of this technique to identify gene ... report that gene sequences for HIV, Ebola, Hepatitis, and Bacillus Anthracis can be uniquely identified using this technique. ... which could lead to the development of non-overlapping probes for gene detection.[52] ...
Gene Santoro, quoted in Carson (2001), p. 86. *^ "Led Zeppelin Teen-Clubs, Box 45, Egegaard Skole - September 7, 1968". Led ... The electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has historically been the key element in heavy ... Although Gene Simmons of Kiss claims to have been the first to make the gesture on the 1977 Love Gun album cover, there is ... Vocalists similarly modified their technique and increased their reliance on amplification, often becoming more stylized and ...
If a parent carries a copy of the SCS gene mutation, then there is a 50% chance their child will also carry a copy of the gene ... Common methods include PCR, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and chromosomal microarray (CMA). ... If both parents carry a single copy of the SCS gene mutation, then there is a 25% chance their child will have two gene ... Cytogenetic testing and direct gene testing can also be used to study gene/chromosome defects. Cytogenetic testing is the study ...
Leytus SP, Foster DC, Kurachi K, Davie EW (September 1986). "Gene for human factor X: a blood coagulation factor whose gene ... This model has three stages: 1) initiation of coagulation on TF-bearing cells, 2) amplification of the procoagulant signal by ... of the gene encoding human factor X". Gene. 84 (2): 517-9. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(89)90529-5. PMID 2612918.. ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • calcium ion binding. • peptidase activity. • protein binding. • serine-type peptidase ...
... acetylcholinesterase gene to chromosome 7q22 by fluorescent in situ hybridization coupled with selective PCR amplification from ... The human gene encoding acetylcholinesterase is located on the long arm of chromosome 7.. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 1992, 51 (1): 170- ... 遺傳學:100740 鼠基因:87876 同源基因:543 GeneCards: ACHE Gene. ... Ben Aziz-Aloya R, Sternfeld M, Soreq H. Promoter elements and alternative splicing in the human ACHE gene.. Prog. Brain Res. ...
When RRBS is applied to bulk samples, majority of the CpG sites in gene promoters are detected, but site in gene promoters only ... In the amplification step, either PCR or in vitro transcription (IVT) is currently used to amplify cDNA. One of the advantages ... Pennisi E (April 2018). "Chronicling embryos, cell by cell, gene by gene". Science. 360 (6387): 367. Bibcode:2018Sci...360.. ... patterns of gene expression can be identified through gene clustering analyses. This can uncover the existence of rare cell ...
Ford OH, Gregory CW, Kim D, Smitherman AB, Mohler JL (November 2003). "Androgen receptor gene amplification and protein ... No single gene is responsible for prostate cancer; many different genes have been implicated. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, ... Other tumor suppressor genes that are thought to play a role in prostate cancer include PTEN (gene) and KAI1. "Up to 70 percent ... ZIP1 is now called a tumor suppressor gene product for the gene SLC39A1. The cause of the epigenetic silencing is unknown. ...
The amplification of chromosome 4q12, the site of the PDGFRA gene[citation needed], has been identified in 13-29% of adult ... The lung cancer cell line H1703, which is reported to have amplification of both PDGFRA (4q12) and PDGFC (4q32) genes on ... Approximately one-third of AML patients present with a mutation in this gene. The majority of these mutations result in ... Furthermore, PDGFB translocation to the COL1A1 gene locus has been identified to be responsible for dermatofibrosarcoma ...
Tests that use polymerase chain reaction (PCR, aka nucleic acid amplification) to identify genes unique to N. gonorrhoeae are ... and commensal Neisseria species can coexist for long time periods in the pharynx and share anti-microbial resistance genes. ...
"Entrez Gene: cytochrome c".. *^ Tafani M, Karpinich NO, Hurster KA, Pastorino JG, Schneider T, Russo MA, Farber JL (Mar 2002 ... "An aptamer-based bio-barcode assay with isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification for cytochrome-c detection and anti- ... Lurquin PF, Stone L, Cavalli-Sforza LL (2007). Genes, culture, and human evolution: a synthesis. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 79. ISBN ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • electron transporter, transferring electrons from CoQH2-cytochrome c reductase complex and ...
In childhood ALL, this process begins at conception with the inheritance of some of these genes. These genes, in turn, increase ... August 2005). "Amplification of IGH/MYC fusion in clinically aggressive IGH/BCL2-positive germinal center B-cell lymphomas". ... Examples of this include the ETV6-RUNX1 fusion gene that combines two factors that promote blood cell development and the BCR- ... These rearrangements result in increased expression of blood cell development genes by promoting gene transcription and through ...
... synergistic cycle of growth amplification due to COX-2 appears to potentially be present in normal breast tissue.[59][60] ... contains the MKL1 gene, which has been found to modulate the transcriptional activity of ERα).[83] Many of these polymorphisms ... the absence of the common 19-repeat allele in the IGF1 gene is also positively associated with breast volume in women, as well ... "A mammalian model for Laron syndrome produced by targeted disruption of the mouse growth hormone receptor/binding protein gene ...
PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue: Global Gene ... Global Gene Amplification Technologies Industry. http://www.reportlinker.com/p098241/Global-Gene-Amplification-Technologies- ... for Gene Amplification Technologies by Geographic Region - US,. Canada, Japan, Europe, and Rest of World Markets Independently ... This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Gene Amplification Technologies in US$ Million by the following Product Segments ...
Global Gene Amplification Technologies Industry. http://www.reportlinker.com/p098241/Global-Gene-Amplification-Technologies- ... This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Gene Amplification Technologies in US$ Million by the following Product segments ... and Other Gene Amplification Technologies. The report provides separate comprehensive analytics for the US, Canada, Japan, ...
... scientists are gaining insights into the benefits and pitfalls of genome amplification. ... The phenomenon is often referred to as gene, or genome, amplification, and it is implicated in both aging and the development ... Yeast cells serve as ideal models for the study of gene amplification. Photo by Sam LaRussa/Flickr. ... To better understand the relationship between gene amplification, environmental stress and the aging process, scientists at ...
... 03.07.2006. Gene amplification plays an important role in causing cancers via ... Gene amplification is the increase in copy number of a particular piece of DNA and is a hallmark of tumor cells. Amplified ... The first step towards achieving this is to discover the rules that govern whether an amplification event is a double minute or ... Its known that regions of chromosomes that are prone to amplification have palindromic sequences of DNA, which are weak places ...
Gene amplification is a cellular process in which multiple copies of a gene are produced. Most instances of gene amplification ... Gene amplification, also known as gene duplication or chromosomal duplication, is a cellular process in which multiple copies ... associated with the gene. This usually occurs because of a serious genetic flaw in a cell or group of cells. Gene amplification ... Specifically, amplification occurs in a gene that codes for a protein that is able to selectively pump materials out of the ...
Multiple pathways of selected gene amplification during adaptive mutation.. Kugelberg E1, Kofoid E, Reams AB, Andersson DI, ... Multiple pathways of selected gene amplification during adaptive mutation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Nov 14;103(46):17319- ... Multiple pathways of selected gene amplification during adaptive mutation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Nov 14;103(46):17319- ... Multiple pathways of selected gene amplification during adaptive mutation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Nov 14;103(46):17319- ...
Replacement and amplification of bacterial genes with sequences altered in vitro. N I Gutterson and D E Koshland Jr ... Replacement and amplification of bacterial genes with sequences altered in vitro Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Using the method, we have constructed two chromosomal deletions in the chemotaxis gene region of S. typhimurium. In addition, ...
Gene amplification refers to a number of natural and artificial processes by which the number of copies of a gene is increased ... "Gene amplification - Latest research and news - Nature". www.nature.com. "PCR". Genetic Science Learning Center, University of ... However, the amount of DNA or the number of genes can also increase within an organism through gene duplication, a major ... Transcription-mediated amplification, an isothermal, single-tube nucleic acid amplification system utilizing two enzymes, RNA ...
Analysis of gene amplification in head-and-neck squamous-cell carcinoma.. Leonard JH1, Kearsley JH, Chenevix-Trench G, Hayward ... The presence of gene amplification was determined in 66 fresh head-and-neck SCC specimens using a battery of 9 different probes ... Amplification of at least one gene was found in 12 samples (18%), of which 7 were amplified at multiple loci (58%). We observed ... There was no statistically significant difference in survival between patients with or without gene amplification. However, the ...
... there was a prevalence of prophage genes and genes of unknown function in our list. Prophage genes are usually assumed to be ... Artificial gene amplification reveals an abundance of promiscuous resistance determinants in Escherichia coli. Valerie W. C. ... Two central tenets of the IAD model are: (i) that gene amplification events are common; and (ii) that promiscuous activities ... 2008) Engineering Escherichia coli heat-resistance by synthetic gene amplification. Protein Eng Des Sel 21:121-125. ...
Amplification of the plant Myb gene family: The observation that maize encodes a number of R2R3 Myb genes in the same order of ... Local gene duplications followed by dispersion of similar genes is one possible mechanism. In Arabidopsis, R2R3 Myb genes are ... The second possibility could reflect a period of rapid amplification of plant Myb genes (see Braunet al. 1998 for a similar ... The P-wr allele is composed of six gene copies arranged in a tandem head-to-tail array, and the amplification may have occurred ...
... amplification of these genes was significantly related to worse survival, suggesting that these amplified genes may be ... Gene amplification is one of the most frequent genetic alterations, which is believed to play a major role in the development ... Our data showed amplification of these genes was significantly associated with certain clinicopathological characteristics, ... In the present study, we identified three frequently amplified genes from 30 candidate genes using real-time quantitative PCR ...
... we initially detected amplification of 35 genes from f … ... chip to screen for gene copy number changes in primary ... as common cancer genes. Each gene exhibited an amplification frequency of ~30% (range, 20-50%) in primary HCC (n = 57) and ... Frequent amplification of CENPF, GMNN and CDK13 genes in hepatocellular carcinomas PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43223. doi: 10.1371/ ... Interestingly, the oncogenic activity of these genes (excluding FAM82B) was highly correlated with gene-copy numbers in tumor ...
Whole Gene Amplification from Archived Formalinfixed, Paraffin-embedded Tissues. Application Notes. *High yield from limited ... Whole Gene Amplification from Archived Formalinfixed, Paraffin-embedded Tissues. By: Rosemarie Walter,† James Eliason,†* Yezhou ... The average yield was 4 µg with an average amplification of 200-fold amplification (data not shown). ... Figure 2. Amplification plots for different real-time PCR assays. After each PCR cycle fluorescent intensities were normalized ...
... gene amplification explanation free. What is gene amplification? Meaning of gene amplification medical term. What does gene ... Looking for online definition of gene amplification in the Medical Dictionary? ... gene amplification. n.. A cellular process characterized by the production of multiple copies of a particular gene or genes to ... gene amplification. a process in which many copies are made of some genes at one time, while other genes are not replicated. ...
Gene amplification in Paramecium tetraurelia is an example of gene amplification that has occurred in the unicellular organism ... and genes in cancer cells respectively). Gene duplication often leads to amplification of their gene products due to ... Beverley SM (1991). "Gene amplification in Leishmania". Annual Review of Microbiology. 45: 417-44. doi:10.1146/annurev.mi. ... This duplication leads to amplification of the gene that suppresses the expression of any non-mutant pawn-B loci. Duplication ...
The report systematically categorizes the Gene Amplification Machine market, expounding the definition of Gene Amplification ... Global Gene Amplification Machine Market Growth Prospects Scenario for 2016-2021. May 30th, 2017 Research N Reports Releases ... "Global Gene Amplification Machine Market Research Report 2016" Purchase This Report by calling ResearchnReports.com at +1-888- ... The report gets at the details of the Gene Amplification Machine market and gives an involutely observation of its applications ...
Since dysregulated expression of these genes may contribute to the malignant phenotype the expression and amplification of ... cyclin A, B1, C, D1, D2, D3 and E genes were studi … ... Expression and Amplification of Cyclin Genes in Human Breast ... Overexpression occurred in both the presence and absence of gene amplification. Conversely, amplification did not invariably ... Since dysregulated expression of these genes may contribute to the malignant phenotype the expression and amplification of ...
TOP2A and CCND1 amplification. No association between PPM1D gene amplification and PPM1D mRNA overexpression with survival was ... PPM1D overexpression is more pervasive than gene amplification. PPM1D overexpression and amplification are associated with ... Amplification was defined as ,50% of cancer cells with ,5 signals per nucleus/large gene clusters. PPM1D overexpression and ... Co-amplification of PPM1D and HER2/TOP2A and CCND1 are not random events and may suggest the presence of a firestorm genetic ...
Loss of DNA Replication Control Is a Potent Inducer of Gene Amplification ... Loss of DNA Replication Control Is a Potent Inducer of Gene Amplification ... Loss of DNA Replication Control Is a Potent Inducer of Gene Amplification ... Loss of DNA Replication Control Is a Potent Inducer of Gene Amplification ...
The researchers found amplification of the Stat5 gene in a significant fraction of 128 prostate cancer specimens from patients ... Amplification of a Stat5 gene produces excess oncogenic protein that drives prostate cancer spread. 08.05.2013 ... "Lots of cancers have chromosomal rearrangements that lead to amplification of pro-growth genes," says Dr. Nevalainen. "We dont ... The discovery also suggests that testing Stat5 gene amplification in patients could provide a biomarker that identifies those ...
Whole Transcriptome RNA Amplification, YFG - Discover the Power of Your Favorite Gene Pathways, Sigma® Global Education Program ... Direct comparison of microarray gene expression profiles between non-amplification and modified cDNA amplification procedure ... Amplification of Low RNA Input: Effect of Banding Pattern on qPCR Analyses. Amplification of Low RNA Input: Effect of Banding ... Figure 3. Amplification Qualitative Test. Prior to microarray analysis, amplification reaction products were evaluated by real- ...
Direct Amplification of rRNA Genes in Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections. Kaisu Rantakokko-Jalava, Simo Nikkari, Jari Jalava, ... Direct Amplification of rRNA Genes in Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections. Kaisu Rantakokko-Jalava, Simo Nikkari, Jari Jalava, ... Direct Amplification of rRNA Genes in Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections. Kaisu Rantakokko-Jalava, Simo Nikkari, Jari Jalava, ... Direct Amplification of rRNA Genes in Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
Researchers at Umeå University in Sweden are first to discover that bacteria can multiply disease-inducing genes which are ... "Our study represents a breakthrough in which we show that gene-dosage of plasmid-encoded genes is a fast regulatory strategy ... The genes that these bacteria need for infection are located on a circular extra chromosome, called the virulence plasmid. ... It is the first time researchers can demonstrate that an increased number of plasmid-encoded genes is necessary for successful ...
Bias caused by template annealing in the amplification of mixtures of 16S rRNA genes by PCR. ... Bias caused by template annealing in the amplification of mixtures of 16S rRNA genes by PCR. (1996) by M T Suzuki, S J ... Techniques based on amplification of 16S rRNA genes for comparing bacterial communities are now widely used in microbial ... Techniques based on amplification of 16S rRNA genes for comparing bacterial communities are now widely used in microbial ...
Study of Crenolanib in Recurrent/Refractory Glioblastoma With PDGFRA Gene Amplification. The safety and scientific validity of ...
Oestrogen receptor gene (ESR1) amplification is frequent in endometrial carcinoma and its precursor lesions†. Authors. *. A ... Amplification of the ESR1 gene encoding ER was recently shown to constitute a mechanism for ER over-expression in breast ... Ke-Da Yu, Zhi-Ming Shao, ESR1 gene amplification: another mechanism regulating the cellular levels of ERα, Nature Reviews ... 368 endometrial carcinomas and large sections of 43 cases of endometrial hyperplasia were analysed for ESR1 gene amplification ...
... its gene locus is very uncommonly amplified in NPC. CDK4 overexpression is mostly independent with gene amplification and ... Amplification of CDK4 and MDM2 in malignant melanoma. Gene Chromosome Cancer. 2006;45:447-54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Rollbrocker B, Waha A, Louis DN, Wiestler OD, von Deimling A. Amplification of the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) gene is ... An HX, Beckmann MW, Reifenberger G, Bender HG, Niederacher D. Gene amplification and overexpression of CDK4 in sporadic breast ...
The level of HER-2/neu (HER2) gene amplification in breast cancer impacts the persistence of antigen specific T cell immunity ...
Molecular amplification of schistosomal gene via recombinant and technology ... Molecular amplification of schistosomal gene via recombinant and technology, ... Molecular amplification of schistosomal gene via recombinant and technology Category: Books Categories ... Molecular amplification of schistosomal gene via recombinant and technology /. عنوان المقال. Statement of responsibility :. ...
  • This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Gene Amplification Technologies in US$ Million by the following Product Segments: Polymerase Chain Reaction, and Other Gene Amplification Technologies. (prnewswire.com)
  • In research or diagnosis DNA amplification can be conducted through methods such as: Polymerase chain reaction, an easy, cheap, and reliable way to repeatedly replicate a focused segment of DNA by polymerizing nucleotides, a concept which is applicable to numerous fields in modern biology and related sciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The test, a double nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for the amplification of exons 8, 19, 45, 47 and 51 allows the detection of over 70% of all DMD deletions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We developed a sensitive nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure for the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene. (cdc.gov)
  • Differential amplification of rRNA genes by polymerase chain reaction. (asm.org)
  • The polymerase chain reaction [PCR) was used to amplify a portion of the nucleoprotein [NI gene of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). (usgs.gov)
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) dominates the global gene therapy market, with revenues estimated at US$864 million in 2008. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Using new polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers, a once known to be under-transcribed microcystin synthetase A ( mcy A) gene from the only known toxigenic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa dominating the Hartbeespoort Dam was consistently amplified from genomic DNA extracted from a set of algal and cell free water samples collected across this dam. (environmental-expert.com)
  • A test based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 38 kDa gene and IS6110 insertion sequence, specific to Mycobacterium tuberculosis was developed to further increase the sensitivity of a TB-PCR kit targeting only 38 kDa gene developed earlier in the same laboratory. (nih.gov)
  • HER-2/neu gene amplification was detected on homogeneous DNA solution extracted from tumor piece, including the Southern blot technique, the dot-blot, and more recently the quantitative polymerase chain reaction. (freethesaurus.com)
  • These findings indicate that CCNE1 overexpression is critical to growth and survival of ovarian cancer tumors with CCNE1 gene amplification. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we report coamplification of the cyclin D and hst -1 genes in 5 of 20 (25%) human squamous esophageal tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Additionally, because the 11q13 locus is found to be amplified in many types of human tumors, cyclin gene amplification could also play an important role in the development of other forms of human cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Four of 13 (31%) hormone-refractory tumors contained AR gene amplification detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Androgen-independent tumors with gene amplification expressed, on average, a 2-fold higher level of AR than the refractory tumors without the gene amplification. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Amplification is not found in any untreated prostate tumors, suggesting that the gene amplification is likely to be involved in the failure of the hormonal treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To study further the role of the AR gene in endocrine-treatment failure in prostate cancers, we have here quantified the expression of AR and PSA genes in 54 prostate tumors and 10 prostate cancer xenografts using a real-time RT-PCR system (Light Cycler). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Clinical evaluation of topo II a as a predictive marker: Preliminary results from a clinical study suggest that complete remission after treatment with anthracyclines for advanced breast cancer is observed only in case of topo II a gene amplification (7 complete remissions, all in patients with topo II a gene amplified tumors, no complete remissions in patients with a normal or deleted topo II a gene). (knowcancer.com)
  • To reach this ambitious aim, early breast cancer patients with tumors of at least 2 cm (defined by breast ultrasound) will be evaluated for topo II a gene and protein expression. (knowcancer.com)
  • Thus, it may be easy to distinguish tumors with the MYCN amplification (≥10 copies) from tumors without it by PCR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Herein we show that the adenosine-toinosine editing enzyme ADAR1 undergoes gene amplification in non-small cancer cell lines and primary tumors in association with higher levels of the corresponding mRNA and protein. (csic.es)
  • HER2-positivity was found in up to 14.9% in our cohort (IHC score 3+ or IHC score 2+ with gene amplification) and demonstrated a significantly better overall survival (OS) in correlation to HER2-negative tumors (median OS 70.1 vs. 24.6 months, p = 0.006). (biomedcentral.com)
  • While a cut-off for HER2/ERBB2 overexpression had been well established in breast cancer prognosis, little is known about the biological behavior of tumors with very high levels of ERBB2 gene amplification. (ovid.com)
  • DNA amplification patterns in breast tumors are consistent with the existence of at least 4 individual amplification units, suggesting the activation of more than I gene in this region. (cnrs.fr)
  • To evaluate the role of the MYEOV gene in the proximal amplification core, we tested 946 breast tumors for copy number increase of MYEOV relative to neighboring genes or markers. (cnrs.fr)
  • Data presented here show that the MYEOV gene is amplified in 93% (90/946) and abnormally expressed in 16.6% (12/72) of breast tumors. (cnrs.fr)
  • We have analyzed the prevalence of MDM2 gene amplifications and SNP309 in 284 colorectal tumors using a relatively new highly sensitive PCR/ligase detection reaction method in relation to TP53 mutational status and genomic instability. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We found MDM2 to be amplified in 9% of the 284 colorectal cancers analyzed and a significantly higher proportion of tumors with high MDM2 gene amplification retained a wild-type p53 gene ( P = 0.058). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Human tumors and cell lines analyzed from a variety of tissue origins show a correlation between MDM2 gene amplification and increased expression of MDM2, and data from small studies in sarcomas suggests that MDM2 gene amplification and p53 mutation in general are exclusive events ( 12 , 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • These properties could be of important biological significance in breast and ovarian cancerigenesis, and we were, therefore, interested in determining whether the amplification of the AIB1 gene was associated with a particular phenotype or subgroup in these tumors. (cnrs.fr)
  • We tested a population of 1157 breast and 122 ovarian tumors in which DNA amplification had been determined previously at 15 chromosomal locations. (cnrs.fr)
  • AIB1 and CCND1 amplifications may, thus, represent two different subsets of ER-positive breast tumors. (cnrs.fr)
  • Gene amplification is the increase in copy number of a particular piece of DNA and is a hallmark of tumor cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • We found the CCND1 gene amplified and overexpressed in one anaplastic astrocytoma of our tumor series. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Our data showed amplification of these genes was significantly associated with certain clinicopathological characteristics, particularly tumor differentiation and cancer-related death. (mdpi.com)
  • CDK4 overexpression is mostly independent with gene amplification and represents a potential prognostic biomarker in NPC and may indicate tumor aggressiveness through cell cycle dysregulation. (springer.com)
  • The association of gene expression with gene copy number and tumor type was analyzed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The main findings of this study should be seen as hypothesis-generating because of the limited number of patients evaluated (about fifty in each study arm) and because topo II a protein levels depend on gene amplification as well as on tumor proliferation rate. (knowcancer.com)
  • The detection of MYCN gene amplification is based on differential PCR in which three primer pairs were used to coamplify a 178-bp fragment of target MYCN gene with two reference gene fragments, a 237-bp of p53 exon 7 and a 120-bp of β-globin exon 3, in a single tube of 40 surgically resected tumor samples. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We analyzed pretreatment MR imaging scans from 147 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma and correlated MR imaging features with tumor epidermal growth factor receptor amplification status. (ajnr.org)
  • Here, ERBB2 copy number amplifications and ERBB2/centromer17 ratio were investigated in archived tumor samples of breast cancer patients with metastatic lesions who received trastuzumab-based treatment. (ovid.com)
  • The discrepancies were mainly owing to the heterogeneity of Her-2/neu amplification in the tumor tissue. (uzh.ch)
  • We show here by array-based comparative genomic hybridization, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and expression analysis approaches that MYOCD gene is highly amplified and overexpressed in human retroperitoneal leiomyosarcomas (LMS), a very aggressive well-differentiated tumor. (inserm.fr)
  • MDM2 gene amplification was significantly correlated to advanced tumor stage. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The creation of transgenic mice containing increased copies of the MDM2 gene and concomitantly displaying an increase in expression level had a 100% incidence of early tumor development ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In a screen of breast tumor cell lines, of all the genes mapping to the region, AIB1 appeared to be the most consistently amplified and overexpressed. (cnrs.fr)
  • We use a panel of 14 genes and FFPE tumor material to compare this system with the qPCR approach. (aaccjnls.org)
  • They demonstrated widespread extrachromosomal oncogene amplification across many cancer types, showed that it potently drives tumor evolution and drug resistance, and identified specific signaling, biochemical and metabolic mechanisms that control its copy number and activity in response to changing environmental conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Integrating mechanistic studies with analyses of tumor tissue from patients treated in clinical trials, Mischel and colleagues discovered signaling, transcriptional, and metabolic co-dependencies that are downstream consequences of oncogene amplification, including alterations in glucose and lipid metabolism that drive tumor growth, progression and drug resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, rRNA genes are amplified about 4,000 times in oocytes of the clawed toad Xenopus laevis to assist in protein production during egg development. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A broad-range bacterial PCR targeting rRNA genes (rDNAs) was used to directly analyze 536 clinical samples obtained from 459 hospitalized patients during a 4-year study period. (asm.org)
  • Citation Query Bias caused by template annealing in the amplification of mixtures of 16S rRNA genes by PCR. (psu.edu)
  • Bias caused by template annealing in the amplification of mixtures of 16S rRNA genes by PCR. (psu.edu)
  • e of organisms, since the number of rRNA genes varies in different organisms (17). (psu.edu)
  • However, a number of lines of evidence suggest that the relative abundance of PCR rDNAs reasonably reflects the relative in situ abundance of bacterial and archaeal rRNA genes in the samples taken. (psu.edu)
  • In order to develop a species-specific PCR for the detection of Mycoplasma genitalium , the sequence of 1,490 bases of the 16S rRNA gene was determined for M. genitalium G37 (type strain) and four Danish isolates of M. genitalium . (asm.org)
  • From regions showing the least homology to the M. pneumoniae 16S rRNA gene sequence, primers were chosen to amplify DNA from M. genitalium only. (asm.org)
  • 1,030 randomly selected specimens submitted for Chlamydia trachomatis culture were screened with one of the 16S rRNA gene primer sets. (asm.org)
  • Consequently, we decided to develop a species-specific PCR based on amplification of rRNA gene sequences. (asm.org)
  • Phylogenetic dendrogram showing the relationships between cloned 16S rRNA gene fragments from the Ellinbank pasture soil (env. (asm.org)
  • The 16S rRNA gene sequence from E. coli was used to root the dendrogram. (asm.org)
  • PPM1D amplification was significantly associated with HER2 overexpression, and HER2 , TOP2A and CCND1 amplification. (nature.com)
  • PPM1D overexpression and amplification are associated with tumours displaying luminal or HER2 phenotypes. (nature.com)
  • Co-amplification of PPM1D and HER2/TOP2A and CCND1 are not random events and may suggest the presence of a 'firestorm' genetic profile. (nature.com)
  • Overexpression/amplification of HER2 is correlated with worse prognosis in solid malignancies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the expression/amplification of HER2 in EAC in correlation to clinicopathological data to verify its prognostic impact. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is apparent that the detection and quantitation of HER2 protein overexpression and gene amplification has become an essential component during the diagnosis of GGEAC in order to predict response to existing and forthcoming anti-HER2 agents, which are now regarded as standard of care for HER2-positive GGEAC. (freethesaurus.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to compare results for HER2, CCND1, MYC and ESR1 gene amplification detected by MLPA with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) as clinically approved methods. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Evaluating HER2 amplification and overexpression in breast cancer. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Validation of the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique for the determination of HER2 gene amplification in breast cancer. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Determination of HER2 amplification in primary breast cancer using dual-colour chromogenic in situ hybridization is comparable to fluorescence in situ hybridization: a European multicentre study involving 168 specimens. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • HER2 expression or gene amplification is crucial for performing targeted theraphy. (pagepressjournals.org)
  • We assessed p185 HER2 (p185) expression, HER2 amplification and copy number of chromosome 17 centromere (CEP17) in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC). (pagepressjournals.org)
  • In conclusion HER2 amplification and increased CEP17 were mainly related to mTS or mLN and increased CEP17 was not always linked to overexpression of p185. (pagepressjournals.org)
  • The duplicated genes are prone to mutation, as mutations of the copied genes generally do not detract from the health of the host organism. (wisegeek.com)
  • Multiple pathways of selected gene amplification during adaptive mutation. (nih.gov)
  • These include mutation and/or deletion of the retinoblastoma ( RB1 ) gene, homozygous deletion of the CDKN2A and CDKN2B genes, as well as amplification and overexpression of the CDK4 and CDK6 genes. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • RESULTS: A percentage of 36.17% controls and 38.6% patients were heterozygosis, considering Amplification-refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR assay while 23% and 22.85% were heterozygosis using Mismatch Amplification Mutation Assay (MAMA)-PCR. (minervamedica.it)
  • However, alterations in receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK's) like over expression, mutation or amplification of has been identified as targets for patient-tailored therapy in a broad spectrum of malignancies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The wild-type penA gene confers clinically significant ceftazidime resistance only when overexpressed due to a promoter mutation, transcriptional anti-termination or by gene duplication and amplification (GDA). (tropmedres.ac)
  • Quantification of the DNA was determined using the PicoGreen™ assay (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The expression level of the androgen receptor ( AR ) gene in androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer was determined by using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the August 27, 2015, Federal Register , FDA announced it has classified the Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) toxin gene amplification assay into Class II (special controls) medical device. (mondaq.com)
  • Yehia N, Arafa A, El Wahed AA, El-Sanousi AA, Weidmann M & Shalaby MA (2015) Development of reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay for avian influenza H5N1 HA gene detection, Journal of Virological Methods, 223, pp. 45-49. (stir.ac.uk)
  • In this study, a qualitative reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of hemagglutinin gene of H5 subtype influenza viruses was developed. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Anin vitrotranscribed RNA standard of 970 nucleotides of the hemagglutinin gene was developed and used to determine the assay sensitivity. (stir.ac.uk)
  • An easy and rapid dual gene RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous amplification of the capsid protein VP4 (structural) and rotavirus enter toxin NSP4 (non-structural protein) has been developed. (niscair.res.in)
  • We validated the assay by comparing the results of single target PCR with dual-gene PCR products. (niscair.res.in)
  • Gene copy number analysis of FGFR1 gene was investigated by FISH assay (Cytovision, Berlin, Germany) according to the manufactures instructions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A 14-gene multiplex assay conducted with RNA isolated from 20 FFPE blocks was correlated to an analysis of the same with reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). (aaccjnls.org)
  • Procedures have been used such as primer extension pre-amplification (PEP) with random 15-mer primers to amplify genomic DNA from single cells or low available amounts of DNA. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Applying multiple displacement amplification (MDA) 5 with random primers and Ø29 DNA polymerase ensured accu-rate whole genome amplification from small amounts of clinical samples, but typically has not been successful with FFPE tissue. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 50% of tumour cells and subjected to TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR using primers for PPM1D and for two housekeeping genes. (nature.com)
  • Unincorporated primers and other reaction components were removed from the amplification product using the GenElute PCR Cleanup kit (Product No. NA1020 ). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These results indicate that estimates of the prevalence of M. genitalium in various populations using MgPa PCR primers could be incorrectly low if the PCR primers are located in variable regions of the MgPa gene. (asm.org)
  • This variability has not yet been sufficiently characterized to determine the presence of conserved regions in the gene so that PCR primers covering all M. genitalium strains can be designed. (asm.org)
  • Even i re synthesized my primers and also checked my DNA quality and quantity, and it's fine.I also used the same DNA with other primers and i am getting a good result.Can anyone extend the possible solutions to this problem?The below is the gel image of my previous and latest PCR amplification. (protocol-online.org)
  • Here we review the existing specificity and amplification of published primers to subtype neuraminidase genes and describe a new broad spectrum primer pair that can detect all 9 neuraminidase subtypes. (nih.gov)
  • Each i Primer improves the initial amplification of one or more variants because it has fewer mismatches to its intended target than the more abundant tc Primers. (springer.com)
  • As a result of initial amplification, each heterogeneous sequence is shifted stepwise toward a better match with the tc Primers. (springer.com)
  • The present invention provides a primer pool for amplifying a target sequence of a human glucokinase gene including at least one set of primers or variant primers thereof, each set of primers being identified by two consecutive SEQ ID NOS, the SEQ ID NOS starting at SEQ ID NO.3 and terminating at SEQ ID NO.24 according to the present invention. (google.com)
  • The primer set for each gene target consists of six primers, and each set recognises eight distinct regions on the target gene to give highly specific detection of T. parva. (up.ac.za)
  • The multiplex test was validated using sputum samples from pulmonary TB (PTB) cases.Analytical sensitivity of multiplex PCR was found to be 100 fg for 38 kDa gene and 1 fg for IS6110.Four samples showed positive PCR results only with primers for 38 kDa gene. (nih.gov)
  • Four samples showed positive PCR results only with primers for 38 kDa gene. (nih.gov)
  • PCR amplification of 340 bp region in 38 kDa gene of M. tuberculosis using KD1 and KD2 primers exhibiting the analytical sensitivity of PCR. (nih.gov)
  • Based on the elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) gene of Chlamydia trachomatis, a pair of oligonucleotide primers CTUFU and CTUFD, were designed to amplify a specific target fragment of 931 bp. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The sequence analyses confirm the authenticity of the target bands, reiterate the conservation and role of the EF-Tu gene in protein biosynthesis, and indicate the utility of the primers for the rapid detection of C. trachomatis. (nus.edu.sg)
  • cDNA conversion was carried out either by using a standard method with anchored oligo(dT) 18 primers, or using the LightCycler ® RNA Pre-Amplification Kit with both oligo(d)T and random primers. (roche.com)
  • Abstract B31: Fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) gene amplification is frequent in lung squamous cell carcinoma and high gene copy number indicates a better prognosis in early stage NSCLC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • abstract = "We have established a mega base scale physical map of the 5′‐ and 3′‐ flanking regions of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor gene using CpG‐recognition rare‐cutting restriction enzymes and pulsed‐field gel electrophoresis. (elsevier.com)
  • CCNE1 expression and amplification in ovarian cancer was assessed by immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and clinical data collected by retrospective chart review. (nih.gov)
  • Tissue microarrays of 368 endometrial carcinomas and large sections of 43 cases of endometrial hyperplasia were analysed for ESR1 gene amplification and ER protein expression by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry. (wiley.com)
  • The second study run by our group was based on the same series of patients evaluated in the first study, but, this time, both HER-2 and topo II a genes were evaluated by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), which allows the detection of gene aberrations. (knowcancer.com)
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed no polysomy nor an amplification of the FGFR gene copy number in any case. (biomedcentral.com)
  • GenomePlex WGA is based on random fragmentation of genomic DNA and amplification by PCR using ligated adapters to create the OmniPlex™ Library. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Southern blots of genomic DNA's from A431 and other human cell lines were probed with either a v-erb B gene fragment or a human EGF receptor complementary DNA clone (pE7), previously isolated from an A431 complementary DNA library. (sciencemag.org)
  • After 25 cycles of amplification of either messenger or genomic RNA, the PCR product (DNA) of the expected size was easily visible on agarose gels stained with ethidium bromide. (usgs.gov)
  • The PCR was able to amplify the N gene sequence of purified genomic RNA from isolates of IHNV representing 5 different electropherotypes. (usgs.gov)
  • In this study, we established and systematically explored a strategy for the overexpression of magnetosome biosynthesis genes by genomic amplification of single and multiple magnetosome gene clusters via sequential chromosomal insertion by transposition. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • History Gene amplification is a frequent manifestation of genomic instability that plays a role in tumour progression and development of drug resistance. (antibodyassay.com)
  • Collectively, these results show that human retroperitoneal LMS differentiation is dependent on MYOCD amplification/overexpression, suggesting that in these well-differentiated LMS, differentiation could be a consequence of an acquired genomic alteration. (inserm.fr)
  • Restriction digests of genomic DNA from tunicamycin-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cells, 3E11, were probed with the yeast tranferase gene, ALG7. (elsevier.com)
  • Gene amplification plays an important role in causing cancers via activation of oncogenes. (innovations-report.com)
  • In the present study, we identified three frequently amplified genes from 30 candidate genes using real-time quantitative PCR method, including ERBB4 , C-MET and CD44 , and further explored their association with clinicopathological characteristics and poor survival in a cohort of gastric cancers. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, they suggest that CCNE1 silencing RNA-induced phenotypes depend on amplification status of ovarian cancers. (nih.gov)
  • Here we investigate whether PPM1D is overexpressed when amplified in breast cancers and the correlations between PPM1D overexpression and amplification with clinicopathological features and survival of breast cancer patients from a cohort of 245 patients with invasive breast cancer treated with therapeutic surgery followed by adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy. (nature.com)
  • PPM1D overexpression and amplification were found in 25 and 6% of breast cancers, respectively. (nature.com)
  • The researchers found amplification of the Stat5 gene in a significant fraction of 128 prostate cancer specimens from patients, and that Stat5 gene amplification was more frequently found in metastatic cancers that are no longer responsible to castration treatment (29 percent) and in high histological grade cancers (40 percent). (innovations-report.com)
  • Lots of cancers have chromosomal rearrangements that lead to amplification of pro-growth genes," says Dr. Nevalainen. (innovations-report.com)
  • FISH revealed ESR1 amplification in 40/176 (23%) cancers, 6/19 (32%) atypical complex hyperplasias, 3/10 (30%) complex hyperplasias without atypia and 2/14 (14%) simple hyperplasias without atypia. (wiley.com)
  • Given the predictive role of ESR1 amplification for tamoxifen response in breast carcinoma, it will be interesting to investigate the response of ESR1 -amplified endometrial cancers to anti-oestrogenic drugs. (wiley.com)
  • Amplification of the hst -1 and int -2 genes on chromosome 11q13 has previously been found in over 20% of human primary esophageal cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lu SH, Hsieh LL, Luo FC, Weinstein IB (1988) Amplification of the EGF receptor and c-myc genes in human esophageal cancers. (springer.com)
  • Tsutsumi M, Sakamoto H, Yoshida T, Kakizoe T, Koiso K, Sugimura T, Terada M (1988) Coamplification of the hst-1 and int-2 genes in human cancers. (springer.com)
  • Aurora genes are located at loci that are commonly altered in cancers. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In this study, we have analyzed two of these factors, the presence of MDM2 gene amplification and SNP309 in colorectal cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In melanoma, overexpression of MDM2 has been shown in cancers in the absence of gene amplification ( 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Amplification of the AIB1 gene was observed in 4.8% of breast cancers and 7.4% of ovarian cancers. (cnrs.fr)
  • MK-2206 checks AKT signaling in vivo, in addition to inhibits development of cancers of the breast xenografts sheltering PIK3CA strains or ERBB2 amplification. (immune-source.com)
  • The present study protocol: Supported by "in-vitro" and preliminary "in-vivo" data, briefly summarized above, this study is designed to test prospectively the value of topo II alpha gene amplification and protein overexpression in predicting the efficacy of anthracyclines. (knowcancer.com)
  • This study could have important practical implications in the daily clinical management of early breast cancer patients because, if the trial confirms that topo II a gene amplification and/or protein overexpression are associated with high efficacy of anthracyclines, while topo II a normal/deleted gene and low protein content are associated with modest efficacy, an important step forward in the direction of anthracycline "tailoring" would be accomplished. (knowcancer.com)
  • The relative advantages and disadvantages of the gene amplification and the protein overexpression assays are summarized in Table 2. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Gene amplification, also known as gene duplication or chromosomal duplication, is a cellular process in which multiple copies of a gene are produced. (wisegeek.com)
  • Using the method, we have constructed two chromosomal deletions in the chemotaxis gene region of S. typhimurium. (pnas.org)
  • We present a strategy for the overexpression of magnetosome biosynthesis genes in the alphaproteobacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense by chromosomal multiplication of individual and multiple magnetosome gene clusters via transposition. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The 11q13 region harbors several chromosomal breakpoint clusters found in hematologic malignancies and exhibits frequent DNA amplification in carcinomas. (cnrs.fr)
  • The data presented suggest moderate amplification of the N-acetylglucosaminyl-1-phosphate transferase gene occurred in these cells, consistent with the previously observed chromosomal translocations and increased enzymatic activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Dec. 3 (UPI) -- Thanks to a new study of satellite DNA and its formation in yeast cells, scientists are gaining insight into the benefits and pitfalls of genome amplification. (upi.com)
  • The phenomenon is often referred to as gene, or genome, amplification, and it is implicated in both aging and the development of diseases like cancer. (upi.com)
  • Some evidence suggests that the entire yeast genome , the summation of all of yeast's genetic information, experienced a gene duplication event in relatively recent history. (wisegeek.com)
  • Our results show that even the genome of a nonpathogenic bacterium harbors a substantial reservoir of resistance genes, which can be readily accessed through overexpression mutations. (pnas.org)
  • With the development of whole genome amplification (WGA) techniques, large quantities of DNA can be generated from limited starting quantities. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 1 Other strategies like linker adaptor PCR, 2 tagged PCR, 3 and degenerate oligonucleotide primed PCR (DOP) 4 were designed, improving the yield, but the coverage of the genome in the amplification products was not optimal. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • For complete and accurate whole genome amplification, the GenomePlex Kit was applied and an OmniPlex library created according to the supplied protocol. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • I am trying to amplify a gene specific fragment in wheat genome.Initially i used to get a very good amplicon as a PCR product but after some time , i started observing only a bright smear as a product.I tried all the possible modifications (like gradient, touchdown PCR, modifications in PCR mastermix, etc.) but in vain. (protocol-online.org)
  • San Jose, CA (PRWEB) November 4, 2008 -- Molecular diagnostics and the Human Genome Project (HGP) have been the major growth drivers for gene amplification technology. (bio-medicine.org)
  • With chip- or bead-based microarrays, whole-genome gene expression analysis has opened a multitude of new research areas, ranging from basic research to applications in personalized medicine. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Mischel and colleagues integrated whole genome sequencing, cytogenetics and structural modeling to accurately and globally quantify extrachromosomal oncogene amplification, measure its diversity, map its contents, and study its biochemical regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's known that regions of chromosomes that are prone to amplification have palindromic sequences of DNA, which are weak places where the chromosome can break. (innovations-report.com)
  • Genes are specifically located in linear order along the single DNA molecule that makes up each chromosome. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The genes that these bacteria need for infection are located on a circular extra chromosome, called the virulence plasmid. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Localization of a novel v-erbB-related gene, c-erbB-2, on human chromosome 17 and its amplification in a gastric cancer cell line. (asm.org)
  • Chromosome breakage at a major fragile site associated with P-glycoprotein gene amplification in multidrug-resistant CHO cells. (asm.org)
  • These observations underscore the importance of chromosome breakage in the initiation of DNA amplification in mammalian cells. (asm.org)
  • Here, we propose that the site of chromosome breakage consistent with the initial event of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) gene amplification via the breakage-fusion-bridge cycle in three independently established multidrug-resistant CHO cells was located at 1q31. (asm.org)
  • These observations suggest that chromosome fragile sites play a pivotal role in DNA amplification in mammalian cells. (asm.org)
  • Our data are also consistent with the hypothesis that gene amplification can be initiated by stress-induced chromosome breakage that is independent of modes of action of cytotoxic agents. (asm.org)
  • The gene responsible for FSHD has been localized to chromosome 4q35-qter, although a few chromosome 4-unlinked families are known. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Lee JH et al,: 'Characterization of a tandemly repeated 3.3-kb kpnl unit in the facioscapul ohumeral muscular dystrophy(FSHD)gene region on chromosome 4q35. (nii.ac.jp)
  • If these rules operating in yeast can be extended to higher eukaryotes then we can propose that if the oncogene is located between the hairpin-capped break and the telomere, then the amplification event will result in a double minute. (innovations-report.com)
  • If the break occurs between the oncogene and the telomere, then the amplification would yield a homogenously-staining region. (innovations-report.com)
  • The incidence of proto-oncogene amplification in head-and-neck SCC patients is comparable to that reported for other solid tumours. (nih.gov)
  • The sequence of the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor shows great homology with the avian erythroblastosis virus v-erb B oncogene, raising the possibility that the receptor gene is identical to the c-erb B protooncogene. (sciencemag.org)
  • Overall, our results indicate a role for ADAR1 as a lung cancer oncogene undergoing gene amplification-associated activation that affects downstream RNA editing patterns and patient prognosis. (csic.es)
  • Our data suggest that MYEOV is a candidate oncogene activated in the amplification core located proximal to CCND1. (cnrs.fr)
  • These studies, focused primarily on the highly lethal brain cancer, glioblastoma, resulted in new understandings of the fundamental metabolic processes by which oncogene amplification drives cancer progression and drug resistance, demonstrating a central role for EGFR and its downstream effector mTORC2, in cancer pathogenesis through metabolic reprogramming. (wikipedia.org)
  • A particularly appealing model identifies a mechanism by which selection can act continuously to favor both an increase in gene dosage, and divergence of one copy from the parental gene. (pnas.org)
  • Our study represents a breakthrough in which we show that gene-dosage of plasmid-encoded genes is a fast regulatory strategy used by bacteria. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The association between CDK4 transcript level and gene dosage was explored by analysis of an independent public domain dataset. (springer.com)
  • These findings provide the first evidence for the amplification of a cyclin gene in human esophageal cancer and suggest that an increase in cyclin D gene dosage could be an important factor in the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gene dosage depends upon elements that regulate both gene gene and amplification reduction. (antibodyassay.com)
  • We have investigated whether a ERBB2 gene dosage effect might provoke increased biological aggressiveness and altered trastuzumab sensitivity. (ovid.com)
  • Dosage analysis of cancer predisposition genes by multiplex ligationdependent probe amplification. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have discovered that a particular type of DNA break, a hairpin-capped double strand break, induced by these palindromic sequences, is a precursor to amplification. (innovations-report.com)
  • 80 different R2R3 Myb genes, and evolutionary distances among maize Myb BRH sequences indicate that most of the amplification of the R2R3 Myb gene family occurred after the origin of land plants but prior to the separation of monocots and dicots. (genetics.org)
  • A single c-myb -like gene has been reported to date in Drosophila, and the fungi and slime molds express only a handful of Myb-like sequences (reviewed in L ipsick 1996 ). (genetics.org)
  • The sequences of the four Danish strains, mutually different with respect to their MgPa gene, were 100% homologous, although they carried a single common base substitution compared to the type strain. (asm.org)
  • The putative gene product did not exhibit significant homology with sequences present in data banks, and the putative role of this protein in antimony resistance is discussed. (asm.org)
  • A comparison of sequences suggested that the S. graminum gene has introns in the same positions as the first two introns of E4/FE4, with the second intron being considerably larger in S. graminum . (unl.edu)
  • Probing of Southern blots with the 0.85 kb esterase fragment showed that the gene encoding the Type I esterase is amplified 4- to 8-fold in resistant S. graminum and that the amplified sequences contain 5-methylcytosine at Msp I/ Hpa II sites, again in agreement with previous findings for M. persicae genes. (unl.edu)
  • This report describes and illustrates a novel closed-tube method for amplifying and characterizing heterogeneous target sequences using members of the CTX-M beta-lactamase gene family. (springer.com)
  • Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a PCR-based method that allows copy number detection of up to 50 nucleic acid sequences in one reaction. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Multivariate analysis showed gene amplification was an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival and overall survival after standard platinum-taxane chemotherapy (P = .0274, P = .0023). (nih.gov)
  • This study aimed to evaluate the amplification and expression status, correlation with clinicopathological features, and prognostic implications of CDK4 based on public domain dataset and in our well-defined cohort of NPC patients. (springer.com)
  • Lan J, Tai HC, Lee SW, Chen TJ, Huang HY, Li CF. Deficiency in expression and epigenetic DNA Methylation of ASS1 gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: negative prognostic impact and therapeutic relevance. (springer.com)
  • To investigate the frequency and the prognostic impact of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene amplification in 526 curatively resected esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • High FGFR1 amplification is a frequent oncogenic alteration and an independent poor prognostic factor in resected ESCC. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Prognostic relevance of gene amplifications and coamplifications in breast cancer. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • C-MYC amplification in breast cancer: a meta-analysis of its occurrence and prognostic relevance. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Analysis of gene amplification in head-and-neck squamous-cell carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Some of the alternative technologies existing in the market include OmniPlex, Strand Displacement Amplification (SDA), Ligase Chain Reaction (LCR), and Hybrid Capture technology. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Here, we have investigated a series of 110 primary malignant gliomas and 8 glioma cell lines for amplification and expression of the D‐type cyclin genes CCND1 (11q13), CCND2 (12p13), and CCND3 (6p21). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Our data thus suggest that amplification and increased expression of CCND1 and CCND3 contribute to the loss of cell cycle control in a small fraction of human malignant gliomas. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Two candidate oncogenes have been identified, CCND1 and EMSI/CORTACTIN, representing centrally localized amplification units. (cnrs.fr)
  • Recently we reported on a putative transforming gene, MYEOV, mapping 360 kb centromeric to CCND1. (cnrs.fr)
  • This gene was found to be rearranged and activated concomitantly with CCND1 in a subset of t(11;14)(q13;q32)-positive multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines. (cnrs.fr)
  • Amplification patterns showed that MYEOV was most frequently coamplified with CCND1 (74/90), although independent amplification of MYEOV could also be detected (16/90). (cnrs.fr)
  • In contrast to CCND1 amplification, no association with disease outcome could be found. (cnrs.fr)
  • Correlation was also observed with the amplification of MDM2 and FGFR1 genes, but interestingly, no correlation was found with the amplification of CCND1, which is known to be strongly associated with ER. (cnrs.fr)
  • CCND1 amplification and cyclin D1 expression in breast cancer and their relation with proteomic subgroups and patient outcome. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Transcription-mediated amplification, an isothermal, single-tube nucleic acid amplification system utilizing two enzymes, RNA polymerase and reverse transcriptase, to rapidly amplify the target RNA/DNA, enabling the simultaneous detection of multiple pathogenic organisms in a single tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cellular process characterized by the production of multiple copies of a particular gene or genes to amplify the phenotype that the gene confers on the cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This study confirms that the TransPlex Complete Whole Transcriptome Amplification Kit can effectively amplify low input quantities of RNA, approaching the single cell level. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Thermoinducible lysis-defective derivatives of λfrdA phages (λG1F and λG40F) carrying the fumarate marate reductase gene of Escherichia coli, inserted in each of two possible orientations, were used to amplify fumarate reductase synthesis and study the aerobic repression of frdA gene expression. (epfl.ch)
  • 3 ] devised a multistep strategy to amplify mRNA from limited quantities of cDNA in studies of gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene amplification technology addresses applications in molecular biology research (DNA amplification), gene therapy, drug discovery, forensic identification, and diagnosis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Overexpression occurred in both the presence and absence of gene amplification. (nih.gov)
  • Gene amplification in Paramecium tetraurelia is an example of gene amplification that has occurred in the unicellular organism Paramecium tetraurelia. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the first example of gene amplification as a mechanism for aberrations in N-linked glycosylation. (elsevier.com)
  • Usually, the detection of gene amplification is carried out by Southern blot or dot blot hybridization procedures, which require microgram quantities of high quality DNA and several days to obtain the results. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These techniques are also unsuitable for rapid detection of gene amplification, which are used for determining for the appropriate chemotherapeutic regimen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, MLPA can serve as an alternative to ISH for detection of gene amplification. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Gene duplication occurs in a large number of organisms as part of evolution or as the cause or result of disease (as in the case of the amylase genes in humans, and genes in cancer cells respectively). (wikipedia.org)
  • These satellite DNA circles can contain drug resistance genes, which can protect the cancer cells from chemotherapy. (upi.com)
  • Some strategies of pharmaceutical research in cancer prevention and treatment could involve curbing cancer development via restricting gene amplification. (innovations-report.com)
  • Gene amplification has serious implications to evolutionary history as well as to drug resistance in cancer cells , and it is a major concern in biology for many additional reasons. (wisegeek.com)
  • Cancer cells, for example, often express significant drug resistance because of amplification of the gene that prevents the cancerous cells from fully absorbing the chemotherapeutic drugs. (wisegeek.com)
  • I found a research study that infuses T-cells with genes that fight cancer, the T-cells multiply, and then are infused into the cancer patient. (wisegeek.com)
  • These findings are relevant to genetic adaptation in any biological systems in which fitness can be increased by adding gene copies (e.g., cancer and bacterial drug resistance). (nih.gov)
  • Gene amplification is one of the most frequent genetic alterations, which is believed to play a major role in the development and progression of gastric cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • More importantly, amplification of these genes was significantly related to worse survival, suggesting that these amplified genes may be significant predictors of poor prognosis and potential therapeutic targets in gastric cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Targeting these genes may thus provide new possibilities in the treatment of gastric cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Ji, M. Frequent Gene Amplification Predicts Poor Prognosis in Gastric Cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Drug resistance in cancer cells is linked to amplification of the gene that prevents absorption of the chemotherapeutic agent by the cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since dysregulated expression of these genes may contribute to the malignant phenotype the expression and amplification of cyclin A, B1, C, D1, D2, D3 and E genes were studied in 20 breast cancer cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • These data implicate dysregulated expression of several cyclin genes, particularly cyclin D1, as a potential factor in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. (nih.gov)
  • This study examined the clinical significance of CCNE1 (Cyclin E1) amplification and assessed whether CCNE1 is a potential therapeutic target in ovarian cancer. (nih.gov)
  • CCNE1 gene knockdown using silencing RNA and a CCNE1 gene transfection system were used to asses CCNE1 function in tissue samples of ovarian cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Profound growth inhibition and apoptosis were observed in silencing RNA-treated cancer cells with gene amplification compared with results in cancer cells with CCNE1 moderate expression without gene amplification or with low CCNE1 expression. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, CCNE1-targeted therapy may benefit ovarian cancer patients with CCNE1 amplification. (nih.gov)
  • They discovered that the gene that makes the protein is amplified - duplicated many times over - in these cancer cells, which allows them to produce excess amounts of the oncogenic protein. (innovations-report.com)
  • The study, reported in the May 7 issue of the American Journal of Pathology, found a direct association between the number of Stat5 genes in human prostate cancer cells and Stat5 protein levels, and also revealed that gene amplification and protein levels increased as prostate cancer metastasized and became resistant to castration (anti-androgen) therapy. (innovations-report.com)
  • Dr. Nevalainen has long studied Stat5 in prostate cancer, and with her colleagues, has authored a number of crucial studies demonstrating the impact the gene and its protein can have on prostate cancer progression. (innovations-report.com)
  • While it is known that excess Stat5 protein predicts early recurrence of prostate cancer, development of metastatic disease and death from prostate cancer, researchers will need to determine if Stat5 gene amplification is also linked to those outcomes, she adds. (innovations-report.com)
  • These xenografts are the first prostate cancer model systems containing the gene amplification. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Afterwards, all patients, independently of the topo II a gene and protein status, will be treated with single-agent epirubicin Eligibility criteria will allow the participation of patients for whom the use of an anthracycline-based adjuvant therapy would have been most probably proposed after breast cancer surgery, mainly because of estrogen receptor (ER) negativity. (knowcancer.com)
  • In the clinical setting, patients with early-stage lung cancer, but harboring ADAR1 gene amplification, have poor outcomes. (csic.es)
  • FGFR1 is a druggable receptor tyrosine kinase purported to be an oncogenic driver in lung cancer and the gene has been shown to be amplified in SCC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • There is evidence that NHEJ is usually involved in junction formation between amplicon microhomologies during gene amplification.15 16 However the role of NHEJ in the formation of DMs and HSRs relative to drug resistance in cancer cells remains to be investigated. (antibodyassay.com)
  • High-level ERBB2 amplification is associated with shorter TTM, but improved response to trastuzumab in metastatic breast cancer. (ovid.com)
  • Silver-enhanced in-situ hybridization (SISH) is an emerging tool for the determination of the Her-2/neu amplification status in breast cancer. (uzh.ch)
  • We conclude that Her-2/Chr17 SISH is a useful and accurate method for the evaluation of the Her-2/neu gene amplification status in cytologic breast cancer specimens, particularly in metastatic breast cancer lesions. (uzh.ch)
  • Gene amplification and overexpression of Aurora-C in breast and prostate cancer cell lines. (semanticscholar.org)
  • MYEOV DNA amplification correlated with estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive cancer, invasive lobular carcinoma type and axillary nodal involvement. (cnrs.fr)
  • The AIB1 gene was isolated upon microdissection of the homogeneously staining regions observed in breast cancer cell lines. (cnrs.fr)
  • The genetic signatures described in these publications suggest that 10-20 genes, but sometimes as many as 70, are required to obtain an informative subclassification of the cancer of interest ( 2 )( 3 )( 4 )( 5 )( 6 )( 7 ). (aaccjnls.org)
  • In this study, using M2 pyruvate kinase (M2PK) and beta-actin as targets, we investigated whether the LightCycler ® RNA Pre-Amplification Kit can increase the sensitivity of qPCR assays for fragmented mRNA in research samples derived from individuals with pancreatic and colorectal cancer. (roche.com)
  • Table 1: Cp values of amplification curves of ACTB and M2PK from cDNA synthesized either by a standard method from 300 ng RNA, or the LightCycler ® RNA Pre-Amplification Kit from 25 ng RNA extracted from pancreatic cancer tissue samples. (roche.com)
  • Gene amplification is an important mechanism in the development and progression of cancer. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor gene amplification and expression in disseminated pediatric low-grade gliomas. (virtualtrials.com)
  • In esophageal carcinoma, amplification of epidermal growth factor receptor and c-myc gene [1], and coamplification of hst-1 and int-2 genes [2, 3] have been reported. (springer.com)
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor amplification is a common molecular event in glioblastomas. (ajnr.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the potential usefulness of morphologic and diffusion MR imaging signs in the prediction of epidermal growth factor receptor gene amplification status in patients with glioblastoma. (ajnr.org)
  • 12). Quantitative DWI analysis found that all ADC measurements correlated with epidermal growth factor receptor amplification, with the highest correlations found with ADC ROI ( P = .0003) and ADC mean ( P = .0007). (ajnr.org)
  • Our results suggest a role for diffusion MR imaging in the determination of epidermal growth factor receptor amplification status in glioblastoma. (ajnr.org)
  • As soon as the tc Primer hybridization takes place, amplification proceeds with high efficiency. (springer.com)
  • Currently, gene amplification status is generally determined by in situ hybridization (ISH). (koreascience.or.kr)
  • When the d4-95 strain was crossed with a wild-type P. tetraurelia, F2 and later progeny often expressed the phenotype of the pawn-B mutant, despite carrying a wild-type gene at the pawn-B locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result is an amplification of the phenotype, or expressed trait, associated with the gene. (wisegeek.com)
  • These results are consistent with the hypothesis that, in A431 cells, gene amplification, possibly associated with a translocation event, may result in the overproduction of EGF receptor protein or the appearance of the transformed phenotype (or both). (sciencemag.org)
  • RESULTS: Amplification and gain of KRAS present in 3% of the primary lesions and 18% of metastatic lesions correlated significantly with poor outcome, high International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics stage, non-endometrioid subtype, high grade, aneuploidy, receptor loss and high KRAS mRNA levels, also found to be associated with aggressive phenotype. (uib.no)
  • The lethal phenotype of MDM2 knockout mice is completely overcome by concomitant inactivation of the p53 gene ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Quantitative real-time PCR amplifications were performed on an iCycler™ thermocycler (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) with SYBR ® Green dye (Cambrex BioScience Rockland, Rockland, ME) detection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The real-time PCR amplification cycle plot was displayed with the background subtracted and variable baselines. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • High FGFR1 amplification had significantly shorter disease-free survival (34.0 vs 158.5 months P=0.019) and overall survival (52.2 vs not reached P=0.022) than low/no amplification group. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • FGFR1 gene copy number (GCN) and the ratio of FGFR1:CH8 was compared to clinical and pathological characteristics and related to survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The mean and median GCN for FGFR1 were 2.81 (SD±1.17) and 2.36 (range 1.18-6.64) genes/nucleus, respectively, and 1.34 (±0.73) and 1.14 (0.52-5.19) for the FGFR1:CH8 ratio. (aacrjournals.org)
  • FGFR1 GCN alone appears better at showing gene gain compared to the FGFR1:CH8 ratio. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the amplification of the FGFR1 gene in patients suffering from MPM. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Malignant gliomas frequently show genetic aberrations of genes coding for cell cycle regulatory proteins involved in the control of G1/S phase transition. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In this study, we examined whether or not the intensity of hst-1 amplification is associated with the grade of malignant potential, especially organ metastasis, of esophageal carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • http://library.hku.hk:4550/resserv?sid=HKU:IR&issn=0009-9120&volume=&spage=&epage=&date=2005&atitle=Detecting+exon+deletions+and+duplications+of+the+DMD+gene+using+Multiplex+Ligation-dependent+Probe+Amplification+(MLPA). (hku.hk)
  • Amplification of the selected genes were assessed using MLPA, FISH and CISH and results were compared. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • However, the amount of DNA or the number of genes can also increase within an organism through gene duplication, a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene duplication often leads to amplification of their gene products due to transcription and translation of all gene duplicates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence of gene duplication has been observed the inheritance patterns of Paramecium tetraurelia, a common model organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In one strain of P. tetraurelia, d4-95, a recessive mutant allele of a gene known as pawn-B found in this strain is inherited through gene duplication and amplification between generations, and even self-fertilizations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inheritance of this allele is the first description of gene duplication and amplification in the micronucleus of ciliates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, there is evidence that in the development of the macronucleus between generations, there is differential gene duplication of copies of pawn-B which causes variable amplification of the allele - between four and twelve times - and heterogeneity between the copies. (wikipedia.org)
  • This duplication leads to amplification of the gene that suppresses the expression of any non-mutant pawn-B loci. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, scientists observed gene duplication in yeast exposed to high concentrations copper. (upi.com)
  • Analyzing the creation of the eccDNA supports our finding that gene duplication can be actively driven and controlled in response to the environment, rather than random, in order to confer increased resilience to future environmental change. (upi.com)
  • Sometimes, the amplified trait dies with the single organism that experiences the gene duplication. (wisegeek.com)
  • However, the relationship between gene duplication and the emergence of new biochemical functions is complicated, and it has been difficult to quantify the likelihood of evolving novelty in any systematic manner. (pnas.org)
  • However, the relationship between duplication and the emergence of new biochemical functions is complicated because gene duplications are generally expected to be either selectively neutral ( 5 ) or deleterious ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • In addition, evidence is provided for the very recent duplication of particular classes of R2R3 Myb genes in the grasses. (genetics.org)
  • While stepwise amplification of the mms6 operon resulted in the formation of increasingly larger crystals (increase of similar to 35%), the duplication of all major magnetosome operons (mamGFDC, mamAB, mms6, and mamXY, comprising 29 genes in total) yielded an overproducing strain in which magnetosome numbers were 2.2-fold increased. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei acquired ceftazidime resistance due to gene duplication and amplification. (tropmedres.ac)
  • Thus, selection favors a succession of gene-amplification types that make sequence changes more probable by adding targets. (nih.gov)
  • Assays for the frdA-linked ampC gene product, β-lactamase, indicated that the intact ampC gene is not incorporated in the λfrdA phages. (epfl.ch)
  • The two assays were significantly different (P=0.0004 at χ2 Test), but MAMA-PCR showed a better performance for TNF-α -308 G/A gene polymorphism investigation. (minervamedica.it)
  • We have developed two loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the detection of Theileria parva, the causative agent of East Coast fever (ECF), an economically important cattle disease in eastern, central and southern Africa. (up.ac.za)
  • These assays target the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) and p150 LAMP genes. (up.ac.za)
  • qPCR assays using the same volumes but a standard cDNA conversion method without amplification detected significantly higher Cp values for both genes from 300 ng total RNA (see Table 1). (roche.com)
  • Human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells, which have an unusually high number of EGF receptors, were examined to determine whether elevated EGF receptor levels correlate with gene amplification. (sciencemag.org)
  • Gene amplification was identified in 18 (20.4%) of 88 ovarian carcinomas. (nih.gov)
  • Mutations and gene amplifications in Endometrial Carcinomas. (uib.no)
  • Amplification of the MYCN gene and high telomerase activity predict a poor prognosis for the patients with neuroblastoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Among them, MYCN amplification is frequently used as a clinical indicator of poor prognosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The incidence of coamplification of the hst-1 and int-2 genes was reported at 30%-50% and was correlated with poor prognosis and high incidence of postoperative recurrence in distal organs of esophageal carcinoma [4]. (springer.com)
  • A piece of DNA or RNA that is the source and/or product of either natural or artificial amplification or replication events is called an amplicon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiologically regulating proliferation, apoptosis and cell motility, gene amplification and subsequent over expression of these genes lead to relevant activation of pro-oncogenic pathways and correlates with response to tyrosine kinases inhibitors (TKI's). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tsuda T, Tahara E, Kajiyama G, Sakamoto H, Terada M, Sugimura T (1989) High incidence of coamplification of hst-1 and int-2 genes in human esophageal carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • Single cell multiplex PCR amplification of five dystrophin gene exons combined with gender determination. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A target sequence such as the human glucokinase gene may be amplified with a high specificity, a high speed, a high sensitivity and a low cost through a multiplex PCR to detect a maturity-onset of diabetes of the young (MODY) 2 associated gene. (google.com)
  • Multiplex PCR amplifying 340 and 245 bp sequence of 38 kDa gene and IS6110, respectively was standardized and analytical sensitivity was verified. (nih.gov)
  • Analytical sensitivity of multiplex PCR was found to be 100 fg for 38 kDa gene and 1 fg for IS6110. (nih.gov)
  • The presence of gene amplification was determined in 66 fresh head-and-neck SCC specimens using a battery of 9 different probes. (nih.gov)
  • We used PCR techniques for rapid detection of MYCN gene amplification and human telomerase reverse transcriptase ( hTERT ) expression in neuroblastoma specimens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Qualitative detection of nucleic acids within the N gene of SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in respiratory specimens by nucleic acid amplification with probe-based detection using the N1 primer-probe set developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (loinc.org)
  • Conversely, amplification did not invariably lead to overexpression. (nih.gov)
  • Together, these findings render a novel line of evidence for the amplification of the R2R3 Myb gene family in the early history of land plants and suggest that maize provides a possible model system to examine the hypothesis that the expansion of Myb genes is associated with the regulation of novel plant cellular functions. (genetics.org)
  • Using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple hypothesis testing, we estimated the impact of amplification on the preservation of gene expression ratios. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These nonradioisotopic PCR-based protocols for detecting MYCN gene amplification and hTERT mRNA expression are rapid and reliable and are likely to be useful to determine the biological behavior of neuroblastoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSION: These results support that KRAS amplification and KRAS mRNA expression, both increasing from primary to metastatic lesions, are relevant for endometrial carcinoma disease progression. (uib.no)
  • Recent studies of several drug-resistant Chinese hamster cell lines suggested that a breakage-fusion-bridge mechanism is frequently involved in the amplification of drug resistance genes. (asm.org)
  • A further increase in copy number (amplification) improves growth and increases the likelihood of a sequence change by adding more mutational targets to the clone (cells and lac copies per cell). (nih.gov)
  • nucleic acid amplification amplification of a specific nucleic acid sequence, such as to test for presence of a given virus or bacteria in a sample. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Changes in the nucleotide sequence of a gene, either by substitution of a different nucleotide or by deletion or insertion of other nucleotides, constitute mutations which add to the diversity of animal species by creating different alleles and can be used as a basis for genetic selection of different phenotypes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • M. genitalium strains recently isolated from Danish patients ( 11 ) show a significant degree of sequence diversity of the main adhesin (MgPa) gene. (asm.org)
  • Using a published sequence for the Round Butte isolate of IHNV, a pair of PCR pnmers was synthesized that spanned a 252 nucleotide region of the N gene from residue 319 to residue 570 of the open reading frame. (usgs.gov)
  • This region included a 30 nucleotide target sequence for a synthetic oligonucleotide probe developed for detection of IHNV N gene messenger RNA. (usgs.gov)
  • Sequence data and the amplified mcy genes showed that M. aeruginosa is widely distributed and dominant in this dam. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Furthermore, the sequence showed very close similarity to the amplified E4/FE4 esterase genes of Myzus persicae (Sulzer). (unl.edu)
  • Different subgroups of CTX-M genes exhibit low sequence identity, but accurate and efficient detection of these variants is critical because they all confer resistance to penicillin, cefotaxime, and other antibiotics of the beta-lactam class. (springer.com)
  • To provide maximal sequence information, complete viral open reading frames (ORFs 5 and 7) were targeted for amplification. (dtu.dk)
  • Direct cycle DNA sequencing of ~450 bp of the PCR products of four C. trachomatis isolates revealed complete identity of one isolate with the known sequence of serovar F, while the other three isolates harboured three phenotypically silent point mutations at codons 96, 305 and 312 of the EF-Tu gene. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The rapid detection of MYCN gene amplification, especially in small samples obtained by aspiration or biopsy, has stimulated considerable interest in improved clinical management of neuroblastoma patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Considering revealed clinical and gene expression heterogeneity between CA negative and CA positive patients, there is a possibility to characterize them as notable event in multiple myeloma pathogenesis. (linkos.cz)
  • The amplification and detection of diverse strains of an infectious virus or bacteria, or variants within a gene family is important for both clinical and basic research but can be difficult using conventional PCR. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, the limited sensitivity of most microarray platforms requires time-consuming and costly amplification reactions of the target RNA, which negatively affects clinical laboratory work flow. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Yeast cells serve as ideal models for the study of gene amplification. (upi.com)
  • To better understand the relationship between gene amplification, environmental stress and the aging process, scientists at Babraham Institute in Britain turned to yeast cells, an ideal model for epigenetics research. (upi.com)
  • But previous studies showed yeast cells can protect themselves by producing extra copies of the gene CUP1. (upi.com)
  • Lab experiments showed the yeast cells can integrate additional gene copies into their chromosomes or house the copies in satellite DNA circles called extrachromosomal circular DNA, or eccDNA. (upi.com)
  • Specifically, amplification occurs in a gene that codes for a protein that is able to selectively pump materials out of the cancerous cells. (wisegeek.com)
  • The same large repeats were found after selection in cells with a low-copy-number lac amplification. (nih.gov)
  • gene amplification a process by which the number of copies of a gene is increased in certain cells because extra copies of DNA are made in response to certain signals of cell development or of stress from the environment. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • a process in which a specific gene or set of genes is duplicated many times in certain cells in response to defined signals or environmental stresses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One hundred single lymphocytes, 50 female and 50 male cells, were analysed with an overall amplification rate of 98% and an amplification failure of 2% per exon. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Amplification is a mechanism by which cells are amplified or synthesized from a single copy of gene. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Pretreatments of CHO cells with methotrexate or aphidicolin enhanced the frequencies of resistance to vinca alkaloid and amplification of the P-gp gene. (asm.org)
  • Amplification and overexpression of the MDM2 gene has been seen to increase the tumorigenic potential of murine cells ( 9 - 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, gene expression profiles from large, heterogeneous cell populations provide complex patterns from which biological data for the target cells may be difficult to extract. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene expression analysis is a powerful tool for the characterization of tissue or cells. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Krag, Sharon S. / Evidence of gene amplification in tunicamycin-resistant chinese hamster ovary cells . (elsevier.com)
  • Utilizing this map information, we have analyzed the structure of the flanking regions of amplified EGF receptor genes which are found in various squamous carcinoma cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Among seven cell lines tested, four cell lines carrying EGF receptor genes in amounts more than 20 times that of normal cells showed amplification together with large 5′‐ and 3′‐ flanking regions. (elsevier.com)
  • Gene amplification-associated cytogenetic aberrations and protein changes in vincristine-resistant Chinese hamster, mouse, and human cells. (rupress.org)
  • Comparison with antifolate-resistant Chinese hamster cells known to contain amplified dihydrofolate reductase genes localized to HSRs or ABRs strongly suggests that the HSRs, ABRs, or DMs of the Vinca alkaloid-resistant sublines likewise represent cytological manifestations of specifically amplified genes, possibly encoding V19, involved in development of resistance to VCR. (rupress.org)
  • Therefore, our work provides validation and biochemical insight into the innovation, amplification, and divergence model of gene evolution under continuous selection [Bergthorsson U, Andersson DI, Roth JR (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:17004-17009], and also illustrates the high frequency at which novel traits can evolve in bacterial populations. (pnas.org)
  • For example, a bacterial species that does not naturally glow can be inserted with the gene from bioluminescent algae to produce a bacterial strain that is able to produce the same bioluminescent protein as the algae. (lecturio.com)
  • During the growth of a population under selection, these mutations are most likely to be gene amplifications. (pnas.org)
  • Some mutations, be they a single base change in a single gene or a major deletion, are lethal. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • MYCN amplification was identified by this differential PCR in all 10 samples carrying more than 10 copies (already known to have MYCN gene amplification by Southern blot analysis). (aacrjournals.org)
  • To detect MYCN gene amplification in neuroblastoma rapidly without using radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic usefulness, we established a differential PCR protocol. (aacrjournals.org)
  • DNA amplification artificial increase in the number of copies of a particular DNA fragment into millions of copies through replication of the segment into which it has been cloned, a type of nucleic acid amplification . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In both the macro- and micronucleus of the d4-95 strain of P. tetraurelia contained many more copies of the mutant gene than in the wild type strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • This occurs due to the ability of most of the extra pawn-B gene copies to be heritable independently from the original pawn-B locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, in some of the backcrosses, extra copies of the gene were still present, even after multiple generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • To ward off environmental stress, living organisms accumulate extra copies of beneficial genes. (upi.com)
  • Duplicated copies of preexisting genes provide the primary genetic source for functional innovation ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • a process in which many copies are made of some genes at one time, while other genes are not replicated. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Two main approaches, signal amplification and global mRNA amplification, have been developed to overcome this obstacle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Signal amplification, such as dendrimer technology [ 1 ] and tyramide signal amplification (TSA) [ 2 ] aim to increase the fluorescent signal emitted per mRNA molecule. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In current implementations, mRNA amplification techniques require less RNA than those based on signal amplification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Amplification of the ESR1 gene encoding ER was recently shown to constitute a mechanism for ER over-expression in breast carcinoma. (wiley.com)
  • These data indicate that ESR1 amplification might be one mechanism for ER over-expression in endometrial carcinoma, and suggest an early role for ESR1 amplification in the development of a significant fraction of endometrial carcinoma. (wiley.com)
  • Differences in the banding pattern of A431 DNA fragments relative to normal fibroblast DNA indicate the occurrence of a rearrangement in the region of the receptor gene. (sciencemag.org)
  • In 218 sporadic human cases, DNA could not be amplified from 9% of samples for genotyping by PCR-RFLP analysis of the COWP gene ( 5 , 8 ), despite amplification of 18S rDNA fragments or detection of oocysts by microscopy. (cdc.gov)
  • Using the LightCycler ® RNA Pre-Amplification Kit, we produced a pool of 42 µl cDNA. (roche.com)
  • Further 10x dilution of the cDNA did not alter the difference of Cp values between the two genes (not shown). (roche.com)
  • Thus, in our case, cDNA synthesized from 25 ng RNA with pre-amplification was sufficient for at least 84 PCR reactions, and, as shown by the dilutions done, potentially even up to 840 qPCR reactions. (roche.com)
  • Although CDK4 is frequently upregulated, its gene locus is very uncommonly amplified in NPC. (springer.com)
  • Recently, the human cyclin D gene (also referred to as prad 1) has been mapped to the 11q13 locus. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Amplification of one common locus was observed in several independent sodium stibogluconate-resistant mutants, and the locus amplified was novel. (asm.org)
  • MYOCD inactivation by shRNA in a human LMS cell line with MYOCD locus amplification leads to a dramatic decrease of smooth muscle differentiation and strongly reduces cell migration. (inserm.fr)