Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Acetate-CoA Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. EC 6.2.1.1.Coenzyme AAcetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Coenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.Phosphate Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC 2.3.1.8.Acetate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of acetate in the presence of a divalent cation and ATP with the formation of acetylphosphate and ADP. It is important in the glycolysis process. EC 2.7.2.1.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Histone Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.Carnitine O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC 2.3.1.7.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.Acetyl-CoA Hydrolase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the hydrolysis of acetyl-CoA to yield CoA and acetate. The enzyme is involved in the oxidation of fatty acids. EC 3.1.2.1.Thebaine: A drug that is derived from opium, which contains from 0.3-1.5% thebaine depending on its origin. It produces strychnine-like convulsions rather than narcosis. It may be habit-forming and is a controlled substance (opiate) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Part 1308.12 (1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Ubiquinone: A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Carboxyl and Carbamoyl Transferases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of carboxyl- or carbamoyl- groups. EC 2.1.3.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.4-Aminobenzoic Acid: An aminobenzoic acid isomer that combines with pteridine and GLUTAMIC ACID to form FOLIC ACID. The fact that 4-aminobenzoic acid absorbs light throughout the UVB range has also resulted in its use as an ingredient in SUNSCREENS.Organic Chemistry Phenomena: The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.Adipates: Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Malonyl Coenzyme A: A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Glyoxylatesp300-CBP Transcription Factors: A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.PyruvatesGenes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.ATP Citrate (pro-S)-Lyase: An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. This reaction represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.8.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Coenzyme A-Transferases: Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.CobamidesFatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Biotin: A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Acetylesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. EC 3.1.1.6.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.CitratesSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Mesna: A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.Serine O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-SERINE to COENZYME A and O-acetyl-L-serine, using ACETYL-COA as a donor.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.N-Terminal Acetyltransferase A: An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa10p catalytic subunit and the Naa15p auxiliary subunit. The structure of this enzyme is conserved between lower and higher eukaryotes. It has specificity for N-terminal SERINE; ALANINE; THREONINE; GLYCINE; VALINE; and CYSTINE residues and acts on nascent peptide chains after the removal of the initiator METHIONINE by METHIONYL AMINOPEPTIDASES.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.N-Terminal Acetyltransferase E: An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa50p catalytic subunit, and the Naa10p and Naa15p auxiliary subunits. It has specificity for the N-terminal METHIONINE of peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is hydrophobic.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Organophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Dihydrolipoyllysine-Residue Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetyltransferase reaction using ACETYL CoA as an acetyl donor and dihydrolipoamide as acceptor to produce COENZYME A (CoA) and S-acetyldihydrolipoamide. It forms the (E2) subunit of the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Pantothenic Acid: A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Acetylcarnitine: An acetic acid ester of CARNITINE that facilitates movement of ACETYL COA into the matrices of mammalian MITOCHONDRIA during the oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.N-Terminal Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from ACETYL COENZYME A, to the N-terminus of a peptide chain.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Propanediol Dehydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydration of 1,2-propanediol to propionaldehyde. EC 4.2.1.28.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Mevalonic AcidTransfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Methanosarcina barkeri: A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.Pantetheine: An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.CREB-Binding Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Palmitoyl Coenzyme A: A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Riboflavin: Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.E1A-Associated p300 Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Phenylacetates: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.Spermine: A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.Methanobacterium: A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)N-Terminal Acetyltransferase B: An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa20p catalytic subunit and the Naa25p auxiliary subunit. The structure of this enzyme is conserved between YEASTS and HUMAN. It has specificity for the N-terminal METHIONINE of peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is either ASPARTATE; GLUTAMATE; ASPARAGINE; OR GLUTAMINE.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Methanosarcina: A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Glucosamine 6-Phosphate N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses the reaction of D-glucosamine 6-phosphate with ACETYL-COA to form N-acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate.Spermidine: A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.PolyaminesCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins: Vesicular amine transporter proteins that transport the neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE into small SECRETORY VESICLES. Proteins of this family contain 12 transmembrane domains and exchange vesicular PROTONS for cytoplasmic acetylcholine.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cysteine Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.99.8.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Platelet Activating Factor: A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA-Reductases, NADP-dependent: Specific hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductases that utilize the cofactor NAD. In liver enzymes of this class are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis.Methylmalonyl-CoA Mutase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by transfer of the carbonyl group. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. A block in this enzymatic conversion leads to the metabolic disease, methylmalonic aciduria. EC 5.4.99.2.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Cholinergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA. This is a key enzyme in steroid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.5.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.EstersFatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
... acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2) gene Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2 is an acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase enzyme. ... "Entrez Gene: acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2". Human ACAT2 genome location and ACAT2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... This gene shows complementary overlapping with the 3-prime region of the TCP1 gene in both mouse and human. These genes are ... Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, cytosolic, also known as cytosolic acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, is an enzyme that in humans is ...
Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1) gene. Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1 is an acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase enzyme ... "Entrez Gene: acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1". Kano, M; Fukao, T; Yamaguchi, S; Orii, T; Osumi, T; Hashimoto, T (30 ... Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, mitochondrial, also known as acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by ... The region flanking the 5' end of the gene lacks a TATA box, but contains many GC's and also has two CAAT boxes. The gene also ...
HAT molecules facilitate the transfer of an acetyl group from a molecule of Acetyl Coenzyme-A (Acetyl-CoA) to the NH3+ group on ... Kuo, MH; Allis, CD (Aug 1998). "Roles of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases in gene regulation". BioEssays. 20 (8): ... Acetylation is the process where an acetyl functional group is transferred from one molecule (in this case, Acetyl-Coenzyme A) ... leading to gene transcription. Repression of gene transcription is achieved by the reverse of this mechanism. The acetyl group ...
ChAT functions to transfer an acetyl group from acetyl co-enzyme A to choline in the synapses of nerve cells and exists in two ... Strauss WL, Kemper RR, Jayakar P, Kong CF, Hersh LB, Hilt DC, Rabin M (Feb 1991). "Human choline acetyltransferase gene maps to ... The gene for A and B transferases is located on chromosome 9. The gene contains seven exons and six introns and the gene itself ... "Detection of common mutations in the GALT gene through ARMS". Gene. 509 (2): 291-4. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2012.08.010. PMID ...
Ang sumusunod ang ilan sa mga gene na matatagpuan sa kromosomang 11: *ACAT1: acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1 (acetoacetyl ... Ang higit sa 40% ng 856 na mga gene ng reseptor ng pang-amoy sa genome ng tao ay matatagpuan sa 28 na isa at maraming gene na ... Ito ang pinakamayaman sa gene at sakit na mga kromosoma sa genome ng tao. Ang pagtukoy sa mga gene sa bawat kromosomang ito ay ... ay nagpapakitang ang 11.6 na mga gene kada megabase kabilang ang 1,524 na nagkokodigo ng protinang mga gene at 765 mga ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:acetoacetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase (thioester-hydrolysing, ... endocrine regulation and mRNA distribution of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase (HMG-S) gene from the pine ... acetoacetyl coenzyme A transacetase, hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, and hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A-condensing ... to produce an acetyl-enzyme thioester, releasing the reduced coenzyme A. The subsequent nucleophilic attack on acetoacetyl-CoA ...
ACAT1: acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1 (acetoacetyl Coenzyme A thiolase) ACRV1: encoding protein Acrosomal protein SP-10 ... More than 40% of the 856 olfactory receptor genes in the human genome are located in 28 single-gene and multi-gene clusters ... At about 21.5 genes per megabase, chromosome 11 is one of the most gene-rich, and disease-rich, chromosomes in the human genome ... See also: Category:Genes on human chromosome 11. The following is a partial list of genes on human chromosome 11. For complete ...
... phosphate acetyltransferase (pta), triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) and acetyl coenzyme A acetyltransferase (yqiL) as specified ... However, it is not uncommon for up to ten housekeeping genes to be used. For Vibrio vulnificus, the housekeeping genes used are ... Quoting Staphylococcus aureus as an example, seven housekeeping genes are used in MLST typing. These genes include carbamate ... but instead concatenates the sequences of the gene fragments of the housekeeping genes and uses this concatenated sequence to ...
High-level resistance is conferred by the cat-gene; this gene codes for an enzyme called chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, ... which inactivates chloramphenicol by covalently linking one or two acetyl groups, derived from acetyl-S-coenzyme A, to the ... and elaboration of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. It is easy to select for reduced membrane permeability to chloramphenicol ... "Pediatric fecal microbiota harbor diverse and novel antibiotic resistance genes". PLoS ONE. 8 (11): e78822. Bibcode:2013PLoSO ...
ChAT catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from the coenzyme acetyl-CoA to choline, yielding acetylcholine (ACh). ChAT is ... In humans, the choline acetyltransferase enzyme is encoded by the CHAT gene. Choline acetyltransferase was first described by ... Strauss WL, Kemper RR, Jayakar P, Kong CF, Hersh LB, Hilt DC, Rabin M (1991). "Human choline acetyltransferase gene maps to ... Chireux MA, Le Van Thai A, Weber MJ (1995). "Human choline acetyltransferase gene: localization of alternative first exons". J ...
... gene. The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:enzyme N6-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine S-acetyltransferase. Other names ... transfers the acetyl group to coenzyme A (CoA), and dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (EC 1.8.1.4) regenerates the lipoamide. Because ... acetyl-CoA S-acetyltransferase, lipoate acetyltransferase, lipoate transacetylase, lipoic acetyltransferase, lipoic acid ... dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase, acetyl-CoA:enzyme 6-N-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine S-acetyltransferase. dihydrolipoamide S- ...
"Cloning and disruption of the cefG gene encoding acetyl coenzyme A: deacetylcephalosporin C o-acetyltransferase from Acremonium ... acetyl coenzyme A:DAC acetyltransferase, acetyl-CoA:DAC acetyltransferase, CPC acetylhydrolase, acetyl-CoA:DAC O- ... Other names in common use include acetyl-CoA:deacetylcephalosporin-C acetyltransferase, DAC acetyltransferase, cefG, ... "Purification of acetyl coenzyme A: deacetylacephalosporin C O-acetyltransferase from Acremonium chrysogenum". Biosci. ...
... acetyl coenzyme A thiolase, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, acetyl-CoA:N-acetyltransferase, and thiolase II. This enzyme ... Human genes encoding acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferases include: PDB: 2WKT​; Meriläinen G, Poikela V, Kursula P, Wierenga RK ( ... In enzymology, an acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 2 acetyl-CoA ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase. Other names in common use include ...
Coy M, Paw BH, Bindereif A, Neilands JB (1986). "Isolation and properties of N epsilon-hydroxylysine:acetyl coenzyme A N ... de Lorenzo V, Bindereif A, Paw BH, Neilands JB (1986). "Aerobactin biosynthesis and transport genes of plasmid ColV-K30 in ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:N6-hydroxy-L-lysine 6-acetyltransferase. Other names in common use ... In enzymology, a N6-hydroxylysine O-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.102) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl- ...
Glycine C-acetyltransferase is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GCAT gene. The degradation of L-threonine to glycine ... which then catalyzes the reaction between 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate and coenzyme A to form glycine and acetyl-CoA. The encoded ... "Entrez Gene: Glycine C-acetyltransferase". Jacquot C, Lanco X, Carbonnelle D, Sevestre O, Tomasoni C, Briad G, Juget M, Roussis ... Edgar AJ, Polak JM (Mar 2000). "Molecular cloning of the human and murine 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase cDNAs". ...
... is catalyzed by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase to produce acetylcholine and coenzyme A as abyproduct. Melatonin synthesis ... Acetyl-CoA is also an allosteric activator of pyruvate carboxylase. Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to visit ... Acetyl coenzyme A or acetyl-CoA is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and ... Acetyl Coenzyme A at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Metabolism portal. ...
S-acetyltransferase. Other names in common use include acetyl coenzyme A-acyl-carrier-protein transacylase, Acetyl CoA:ACP ... "Isolation and characterization of the beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III gene (fabH) from Escherichia coli K-12". ... Preparation and general properties of acetyl coenzyme A and malonyl coenzyme A-acyl carrier protein transacylases". J. Biol. ... acetyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and acyl carrier protein, whereas its two ...
... carnitine acetyl coenzyme A transferase, carnitine acetylase, carnitine acetyltransferase, carnitine-acetyl-CoA transferase, ... "Entrez Gene: CRAT carnitine acetyltransferase". McGarry JD, Brown NF (Feb 1997). "The mitochondrial carnitine ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:carnitine O-acetyltransferase. Other names in common use include acetyl- ... If either acetyl-CoA or acetylcarnitine binds to CRAT, a water molecule may fill the other binding site and act as an acetyl ...
In biological organisms, acetyl groups are commonly transferred from acetyl-CoA to coenzyme A (CoA). Acetyl-CoA is an ... For example, on the DNA level, histone acetylation by acetyltransferases (HATs) causes an expansion of chromatin architecture, ... and this is another common way to block DNA acetylation and inhibit gene transcription.[citation needed] Acetylation can be ... In IUPAC nomenclature, acetyl is called ethanoyl, although this term is rarely heard.[citation needed] The acetyl moiety is a ...
"Crystal structure of Homo sapiens thialysine Nepsilon-acetyltransferase (HsSSAT2) in complex with acetyl coenzyme A". Proteins ... Diamine acetyltransferase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SAT2 gene. SAT2 maintains a key metabolic glutamine/ ... "Entrez Gene: SAT2 spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase 2". Jenstad M, Quazi AZ, Zilberter M, Haglerød C, Berghuis P, ... Baek JH, Liu YV, McDonald KR, Wesley JB, Hubbi ME, Byun H, Semenza GL (Aug 2007). "Spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase 2 ...
NATs transfer an acetyl group from acetyl-coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) to the α-amino group of the first amino acid residue of the ... In addition to the genes NAA10 and NAA15, the mammal-specific genes NAA11 and NAA16, make functional gene products, which form ... A tubulin acetyltransferase is located in the axoneme, and acetylates the α-tubulin subunit in an assembled microtubule. Once ... Proteins are typically acetylated on lysine residues and this reaction relies on acetyl-coenzyme A as the acetyl group donor. ...
... by using the enzyme carnitine acetyltransferase and 14C-labelled acetyl-coenzyme A to give labelled acetylcarnitine for ... "Entrez Gene: BBOX1 butyrobetaine (gamma), 2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase (gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase) 1". Paul HS, Sekas G, ... Dawany NB, Dampier WN, Tozeren A (Jun 2011). "Large-scale integration of microarray data reveals genes and pathways common to ... BBOX1 has recently been identified as a potential cancer gene on the basis of a large-scale microarray data analysis. Gamma- ...
Ard1 belongs to N-acetyltransferase family member suggesting multiple ligand binding modes with acetyl coenzyme A and coenzyme ... "Entrez Gene: ARD1A ARD1 homolog A, N-acetyltransferase (S. cerevisiae)". Starheim KK, Gevaert K, Arnesen T (April 2012). " ... "Isolation of new genes in distal Xq28: transcriptional map and identification of a human homologue of the ARD1 N-acetyl ... a processed hARD1 gene duplicate, encoding a human protein N-alpha-acetyltransferase". BMC Biochemistry. 7: 13. doi:10.1186/ ...
In yeast, acetyl-CoA synthetase delivers acetyl-CoA to histone acetyltransferases for histone acetylation. Without correct ... Acetyl-CoA synthetase is also produced when it is needed for fatty acid synthesis, but, under normal conditions, the gene is ... The two molecules joined together that make up Acetyl CoA synthetase are acetate and coenzyme A (CoA). The complete reaction ... The ACS1 form of acetyl-CoA synthetase is encoded by the gene facA, which is activated by acetate and deactivated by glucose. ...
"Acetyl coenzyme A: salutaridinol-7-O-acetyltransferase from Papaver somniferum plant cell cultures: The enzyme catalyzing the ... alkaloid production in hairy root cultures of Papaver bracteatum by over-expression of salutaridinol 7-o-acetyltransferase gene ... This step is mediated by the enzyme salutaridinol 7-O-acetyltransferase. The second step is a ring closure achieved by a ... "Molecular characterization of the salutaridinol 7-O-acetyltransferase involved in morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy Papaver ...
... (AANAT) (EC 2.3.1.87), also known as arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase or serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT), is an enzyme that is involved in the day/night rhythmic production of melatonin, by modification of serotonin. It is in humans encoded by the ~2.5 kb AANAT gene containing four exons, located on chromosome 17q25. The gene is translated into a 23 kDa large enzyme. It is well conserved through evolution and the human form of the protein is 80% identical to sheep and rat AANAT. It is an acetyl-CoA-dependent enzyme of the GCN5-related family of N-acetyltransferases (GNATs). It may contribute to multifactorial genetic diseases such as altered behavior in sleep/wake cycle and research is on-going with the aim of developing drugs that regulate AANAT function. The systematic name of this enzyme class is ...
In animals, fatty acids are formed from carbohydrates predominantly in the liver, adipose tissue, and the mammary glands during lactation.[16]. Carbohydrates are converted into pyruvate by glycolysis as the first important step in the conversion of carbohydrates into fatty acids.[16] Pyruvate is then decarboxylated to form acetyl-CoA in the mitochondrion. However, this acetyl CoA needs to be transported into cytosol where the synthesis of fatty acids occurs. This cannot occur directly. To obtain cytosolic acetyl-CoA, citrate (produced by the condensation of acetyl-CoA with oxaloacetate) is removed from the citric acid cycle and carried across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the cytosol.[16] There it is cleaved by ATP citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. The oxaloacetate is returned to the mitochondrion as malate.[17] The ...
In animals, fatty acids are formed from carbohydrates predominantly in the liver, adipose tissue, and the mammary glands during lactation.[16] Carbohydrates are converted into pyruvate by glycolysis as the first important step in the conversion of carbohydrates into fatty acids.[16] Pyruvate is then decarboxylated to form acetyl-CoA in the mitochondrion. However, this acetyl CoA needs to be transported into cytosol where the synthesis of fatty acids occurs. This cannot occur directly. To obtain cytosolic acetyl-CoA, citrate (produced by the condensation of acetyl-CoA with oxaloacetate) is removed from the citric acid cycle and carried across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the cytosol.[16] There it is cleaved by ATP citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. The oxaloacetate is returned to the mitochondrion as malate.[17] The ...
In animals, fatty acids are formed from carbohydrates predominantly in the liver, adipose tissue, and the mammary glands during lactation.[16] Carbohydrates are converted into pyruvate by glycolysis as the first important step in the conversion of carbohydrates into fatty acids.[16] Pyruvate is then decarboxylated to form acetyl-CoA in the mitochondrion. However, this acetyl CoA needs to be transported into cytosol where the synthesis of fatty acids occurs. This cannot occur directly. To obtain cytosolic acetyl-CoA, citrate (produced by the condensation of acetyl-CoA with oxaloacetate) is removed from the citric acid cycle and carried across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the cytosol.[16] There it is cleaved by ATP citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. The oxaloacetate is returned to the mitochondrion as malate.[17] The ...
Coenzyme A (CoA, CoASH, or HSCoA) is a coenzyme used in up to 4% of enzymatic reactions within all living cells. Notably, it is used in fatty acid synthesis, the Krebs cycle, and the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. ...
അസെറ്റോയിൻ 3-hydroxybutanone or acetyl methyl carbinol, C4H8O2 എന്ന തന്മാത്രാസൂത്രമുള്ള നിറമില്ലാത്ത അല്ലെങ്കിൽ ഇളം മഞ്ഞ അല്ലെങ്കിൽ പച്ച കലർന്ന മഞ്ഞ നിറമുള്ള ആസ്വാദ്യമായ വെണ്ണയുടെ മണമുള്ള ദ്രാവകമാണ്. ബാക്ടീരിയ ഇത് ഉത്പാദിപ്പിക്കുന്നുണ്ട്. [1] ...
கொழுப்பு அமிலங்கள், அல்லது கொழுப்பு அமிலத்தின் மீதங்கள் கொழுப்பு அமில தொகுப்பு எனப்படும் செயல்முறை மூலம் அசிட்டைல்- CoA உடன் மெலோனைல்-CoA அல்லது மெதில்மெலோனைல்-CoA தொகுதிகளை முன்தொடராகக் கொண்ட சங்கிலித் தொடர் நீட்சியாக்கத்தினால் கொழுப்பு அமில தொகுப்பு எனப்படும் செயல்முறை மூலம் தயாரிக்கப்பட்ட வேறுபட்ட மூலக்கூறுகளின் தொகுதியாகும்.[6][7] இவை ஐதரோகார்பன் சங்கிலி யால் ...
Sodium bicarbonate transporter-like protein 11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC4A11 gene. Solute carrier family Congenital endothelial dystrophy type 2 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000088836 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000074796 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Luong A, Hannah VC, Brown MS, Goldstein JL (Sep 2000). "Molecular characterization of human acetyl-CoA synthetase, an enzyme regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding proteins". J Biol Chem. 275 (34): 26458-66. doi:10.1074/jbc.M004160200. PMID 10843999. Parker MD, Ourmozdi EP, Tanner MJ (Apr 2001). "Human BTR1, a new bicarbonate transporter superfamily member and human AE4 from kidney". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 282 (5): 1103-9. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.4692. PMID 11302728. Vithana EN, Morgan P, Sundaresan P, Ebenezer ND, Tan DT, Mohamed MD, Anand S, Khine KO, Venkataraman D, Yong VH, Salto-Tellez M, ...
The US Institute of Medicine (IOM) updated Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for B vitamins in 1998. At that time there was not sufficient information to establish EARs and RDAs for pantothenic acid. In instances such as this, the Board sets Adequate Intakes (AIs), with the understanding that at some later date, AIs may be replaced by more exact information.[11][21]. The current AI for teens and adults ages 14 and up is 5 mg/day. This was based in part on the observation that for a typical diet, urinary excretion was approximately 2.6 mg/day, and that bioavailability of food-bound pantothenic acid was roughly 50%.[11] AI for pregnancy is 6 mg/day. AI for lactation is 7 mg/day. For infants up to 12 months the AI is 1.8 mg/day. For children ages 1-13 years the AI increases with age from 2 to 4 mg/day. As for safety, the IOM sets Tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) for vitamins and minerals when evidence is sufficient. In the case of pantothenic acid ...
The crotonase family comprises mechanistically diverse proteins that share a conserved trimeric quaternary structure (sometimes a hexamer consisting of a dimer of trimers), the core of which consists of 4 turns of a (beta/beta/alpha)n superhelix. Some enzymes in the superfamily have been shown to display dehalogenase, hydratase, and isomerase activities, while others have been implicated in carbon-carbon bond formation and cleavage as well as the hydrolysis of thioesters. However, these different enzymes share the need to stabilize an enolate anion intermediate derived from an acyl-CoA substrate. This is accomplished by two structurally conserved peptidic NH groups that provide hydrogen bonds to the carbonyl moieties of the acyl-CoA substrates and form an "oxyanion hole". The CoA thioester derivatives bind in a characteristic hooked shape and a conserved tunnel binds the pantetheine group of CoA, which links the 3'-phosphate ADP binding site to the site of reaction. Enzymes in the crotonase ...
Coenzyme A (CoA, CoASH, or HSCoA) is a coenzyme used in up to 4% of enzymatic reactions within all living cells. Notably, it is used in fatty acid synthesis, the Krebs cycle, and the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. ...
... , also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10 /ˌkoʊˌkjuːˈtɛn/, CoQ, or Q10 is a coenzyme that is ubiquitous in animals and most bacteria (hence the name ubiquinone). It is a 1,4-benzoquinone, where Q refers to the quinone chemical group and 10 refers to the number of isoprenyl chemical subunits in its tail. This fat-soluble substance, which resembles a vitamin, is present in all respiring eukaryotic cells, primarily in the mitochondria. It is a component of the electron transport chain and participates in aerobic cellular respiration, which generates energy in the form of ATP. Ninety-five percent of the human body's energy is generated this way.[1][2] Therefore, those organs with the highest energy requirements-such as the heart, liver, and kidney-have the highest CoQ10 concentrations.[3][4][5] There are three redox states of CoQ10: fully oxidized (ubiquinone), ...
கொழுப்பு அமிலங்கள், அல்லது கொழுப்பு அமிலத்தின் மீதங்கள் கொழுப்பு அமில தொகுப்பு எனப்படும் செயல்முறை மூலம் அசிட்டைல்- CoA உடன் மெலோனைல்-CoA அல்லது மெதில்மெலோனைல்-CoA தொகுதிகளை முன்தொடராகக் கொண்ட சங்கிலித் தொடர் நீட்சியாக்கத்தினால் கொழுப்பு அமில தொகுப்பு எனப்படும் செயல்முறை மூலம் தயாரிக்கப்பட்ட வேறுபட்ட மூலக்கூறுகளின் தொகுதியாகும்.[6][7] இவை ஐதரோகார்பன் சங்கிலி யால் ...
Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... The ACAT1 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme that ... acetoacetyl Coenzyme A thiolase. *acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1. *acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1 (acetoacetyl ... URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/gene/acat1/ ACAT1 gene. acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 ... mutations and polymorphisms in the human mitochondrial acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase gene. Hum Mutat. 1995;5(2):113-20. ...
... which is often shortened to N-acetyltransferase). This enzyme is located in lysosomes, compartments within cells that digest ... Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... The HGSNAT gene provides instructions for producing an enzyme ... Other Names for This Gene. *acetyl coenzyme A:alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase ... N-acetyltransferase adds a molecule called an acetyl group to the sugar glucosamine in a subset of GAGs called heparan sulfate ...
... acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2) gene Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2 is an acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase enzyme. ... "Entrez Gene: acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2". Human ACAT2 genome location and ACAT2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... This gene shows complementary overlapping with the 3-prime region of the TCP1 gene in both mouse and human. These genes are ... Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, cytosolic, also known as cytosolic acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, is an enzyme that in humans is ...
Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1) gene. Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1 is an acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase enzyme ... "Entrez Gene: acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1". Kano, M; Fukao, T; Yamaguchi, S; Orii, T; Osumi, T; Hashimoto, T (30 ... Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, mitochondrial, also known as acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by ... The region flanking the 5 end of the gene lacks a TATA box, but contains many GCs and also has two CAAT boxes. The gene also ...
Acetyl-CoA Acetyltransferase 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... 8 uM for 2-methylacetoacetyl coenzyme A {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17371050}; KM=508 uM for acetyl coenzyme A {ECO:0000269 PubMed: ... Aliases for ACAT1 Gene Aliases for ACAT1 Gene. * Acetyl-CoA Acetyltransferase 1 2 3 5 ... GeneCards Summary for ACAT1 Gene ACAT1 (Acetyl-CoA Acetyltransferase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ...
probable acetyltransferase. A. 174. Thermus thermophilus HB8. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: TTHA1209. ... ACETYL COENZYME *A. C23 H38 N7 O17 P3 S. ZSLZBFCDCINBPY-ZSJPKINUSA-N. Ligand Interaction. ... Crystal structure of TTHA1209 in complex with acetyl coenzyme A. Kaminishi, T., Takemoto, C., Uchikubo-Kamo, T., Terada, T., ... Crystal structure of TTHA1209 in complex with acetyl coenzyme A. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb2CY2/pdb ...
... acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1 (... GraphId=bcd, ,Graphics Color=Transparent CenterX=9900.0 CenterY=5650.0 ... Entrez Gene ID=622 /, ,/DataNode, ,Line, ,Graphics Color=000000, ,Point x=4850.0 y=2950.0 Head=Arrow /, ,Point x= ... Acetyl-CoA GraphId=b5d, ,Graphics FontWeight=Bold FontSize=180 Color=0000ff CenterX=7950.0 CenterY=3250.0 Width= ... Acetyl-CoA GraphId=f67, ,Graphics FontWeight=Bold FontSize=180 Color=0000ff CenterX=5250.0 CenterY=7600.0 Width= ...
... acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1 (.../, ,Graphics CenterX=754.0 CenterY=360.6666666666667 Width=60.0 Height=20.0 ... Entrez Gene ID=622/, ,/DataNode, ,DataNode TextLabel=Acetyl-CoA GraphId=b5d Type=Metabolite, ,Graphics CenterX=530.0 ... Entrez Gene ID=5019/, ,/DataNode, ,DataNode TextLabel=BDH GraphId=fb6 Type=GeneProduct, ,Attribute Key=org.pathvisio. ... Entrez Gene ID=3158/, ,/DataNode, ,DataNode TextLabel=HMGCL GraphId=b54 Type=GeneProduct, ,Attribute Key=org. ...
Histone acetylation involves addition of an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme via histone acetyltransferase [17]. Histone ... α gene. Cooperation in the activity of epigenetic mechanisms has also been observed with deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) gene ... These miRs target various genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor C, hepatocyte nuclear factor-3β, fascin 1, ... Retinoic acid receptor β2 (RARβ2) is one of the isoforms encoded by RARβ, which is a nuclear receptor gene that was first ...
Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1) gene.[1] Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1 is an acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase ... Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, mitochondrial, also known as acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by ... The region flanking the 5 end of the gene lacks a TATA box, but contains many GCs and also has two CAAT boxes. The gene also ... mutations and polymorphisms in the human mitochondrial acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase gene". Hum. Mutat. 5 (2): 113-20. doi: ...
The acuH gene encodes a protein of 326 amino acids that belongs to the mitochondrial carrier family. The ACUH protein contains ... Northern blotting analysis showed that transcription of the acuH gene occurs in acetate-grown mycelium and at higher levels in ... Sequence comparisons suggest that the acuH gene of A. nidulans encodes the homologue of the carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier of ... The Aspergillus nidulans acuH gene, required for growth on acetate and long-chain fatty acids, was cloned by complementation of ...
Here we report on the identification of eleven genes encoding eleven putative Nat CS polypeptides, and five genes encoding five ... We document that the expansion of Nat CS genes occurs as duplicated blocks distributed across 10 of the 19 poplar chromosomes, ... This exhaustive survey of Nat genes in poplar provides important information to assist future studies on their functional role ... their Nat CS and AS genes are commonly expressed at one relatively low level but share distinct tissue-specific expression ...
Ang sumusunod ang ilan sa mga gene na matatagpuan sa kromosomang 11: *ACAT1: acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1 (acetoacetyl ... Ang higit sa 40% ng 856 na mga gene ng reseptor ng pang-amoy sa genome ng tao ay matatagpuan sa 28 na isa at maraming gene na ... Ito ang pinakamayaman sa gene at sakit na mga kromosoma sa genome ng tao. Ang pagtukoy sa mga gene sa bawat kromosomang ito ay ... ay nagpapakitang ang 11.6 na mga gene kada megabase kabilang ang 1,524 na nagkokodigo ng protinang mga gene at 765 mga ...
... to gamma-N-acetyl-alpha,gamma-diaminobutyric acid (ADABA) with acetyl coenzyme A. ... with acetyl coenzyme A.. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function,/a> section ... help/gene_ontology target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>GO - Molecular functioni. *diaminobutyrate acetyltransferase activity Source: ... N-acetyltransferasePROSITE-ProRule annotation. ,p>Manual validated information which has been generated by the UniProtKB ...
Acetyl-Co A C-acetyltransferase - Isozymes. ... Human genes encoding acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferases include acetyl-Coenzyme A ... Acetyl-Co A C-acetyltransferase. Acetyl-Co A C-acetyltransferase. In enzymology, an acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.9 ... acetyl coenzyme A thiolase, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, acetyl-CoA:N-acetyltransferase, and thiolase II. This enzyme ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase. Other names in common use include ...
... phosphate acetyltransferase (pta), triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), and acetyl coenzyme A acetyltransferase (yqiL). ... MLST.The DNA sequences of 14 housekeeping genes were supplied by M. Burnham of SmithKline Beecham. The sequences of their gene ... All MRSA isolates tested contained the mecA gene, whereas this gene was not detected in the MSSA isolates. ... Sequences of the seven housekeeping gene fragments.Fourteen housekeeping gene fragments were sequenced from 10 S. aureus ...
1). No other genes encoding polypeptides with putative acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase activity were identified in the enterococci ... three acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) units are joined successively to form 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA). HMG ... acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase). Although three homologs were found in S. pyogenes, no putative acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase ... Numbers above the genes indicate the number of nucleotides between genes, and numbers below indicate the length of each gene. ...
These results suggest that isoniazid N-acetyltransferase(s) in mouse liver cytosol is a product of a separate gene that ... Acetyl coenzyme A-dependent N-acetyltransferase and O-acetyltransferase activities were examined in liver cytosols derived from ... Genetic control of acetyl coenzyme A-dependent arylamine N-acetyltransferase, hydrazine N-acetyltransferase, and N-hydroxy- ... Genetic control of acetyl coenzyme A-dependent arylamine N-acetyltransferase, hydrazine N-acetyltransferase, and N-hydroxy- ...
ChAT functions to transfer an acetyl group from acetyl co-enzyme A to choline in the synapses of nerve cells and exists in two ... Strauss WL, Kemper RR, Jayakar P, Kong CF, Hersh LB, Hilt DC, Rabin M (Feb 1991). "Human choline acetyltransferase gene maps to ... The gene for A and B transferases is located on chromosome 9. The gene contains seven exons and six introns and the gene itself ... "Detection of common mutations in the GALT gene through ARMS". Gene. 509 (2): 291-4. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2012.08.010. PMID ...
Acetyltransferase enzymes transfer an acetyl moiety, usually from acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA), onto a target substrate, thereby ... Gene Expression: the Key to Understanding HIV-1 Infection? Gene expression profiling of the host response to HIV infection has ... CRISPR Tools To Control Gene Expression in Bacteria CRISPR-Cas systems have been engineered as powerful tools to control gene ... Small-Molecule Acetylation by GCN5-Related N-Acetyltransferases in Bacteria Acetylation is a conserved modification used to ...
Further, while HDAC inhibitors are known alter chromatin structure resulting in changes in gene transcription, understanding ... the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A to the -lysine side chain in the acceptor histone. Histone acetylation ... 2. Gene Expression Regulation: Chromatin, HATs and HDACs. Gene expression is essentially dependent on factors that alter ... Roth, S.Y.; Denu, J.M.; Allis, C.D. Histone acetyltransferases. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 2001, 70, 81-120. [Google Scholar] [ ...
... including the acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase (Acs), by modulating the degree of Acs acetylation. We report that IolR ... the gene encoding the protein acetyltransferase in S. enterica. Changes in pat expression were monitored in strain JE7449, ... Relevant to this work is the RLA control of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase (Acs), an AMP-forming CoA ligase involved ... Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase (AMP forming). Cell Mol Life Sci 61:2020-2030. doi:10.1007/s00018-004-3448-x. ...
... as its genome does not have homologs to the genes for phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase. Here, we show thatS. ... Title: Pyrophosphate-Dependent ATP Formation from Acetyl Coenzyme A in Syntrophus aciditrophicus , a New Twist on ATP Formation ... We find bacteriamore » use two enzymes, phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase, to make ATP from acetyl-CoA, while ... Accepted Manuscript: Pyrophosphate-Dependent ATP Formation from Acetyl Coenzyme A in Syntrophus aciditrophicus , a New Twist on ...
Mouse Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase ELISA Kit-NP_659033.1 (MBS285428) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits ... Biological Process: acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process; acetyl-CoA catabolic process; coenzyme A biosynthetic process; coenzyme A ... NCBI/Uniprot data below describe general gene information for ACAT1. It may not necessarily be applicable to this product. ... Molecular Function: acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase activity; carbon-carbon lyase activity; catalytic activity; coenzyme binding ...
Increasingly studies are being designed to search for defects in the non-protein coding genome, and for alterations in gene ... Here we review new insights into genomic elements involved in control of gene expression, including methods to analyze ... Here we review new insights into genomic elements involved in control of gene expression, including methods to analyze ... We also review convergence of genome wide association with studies of gene expression, discoveries related to expression ...
  • Conversely, removal of acetyl groups by HDACs results in a condensed chromatin structure that is restrictive to transcription. (springer.com)
  • The low transcript abundance of this enzyme in mammary tissue is consistent with its low activity level and minor contribution of glucose to fatty acid synthesis via acetyl-CoA in ruminant mammary gland (Hood et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In contrast a number of other functionally characterized genes associated with benzylisoquinoline alkaloid synthesis, including Berberine Bridge Enzyme ( BBE ), Tetrahydroprotoberberine cis-N-MethylTransferase ( TNMT ), Salutaridine Reductase ( SalR ), Salutaridinol 7-O-AcetylTransferase ( SalAT ) and Thebaine 6-O-demethylase ( T6ODM ) were expressed in all three varieties ( Fig. 1B ). (ampliconexpress.com)
  • As choline acetyltransferase is not saturated by concentrations of acetyl coenzyme A and choline that are estimated to be present in the nerve terminal, it appears that the rate of acetylcholine synthesis is dependent on precursor availability. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Further, while HDAC inhibitors are known alter chromatin structure resulting in changes in gene transcription, understanding the exact mechanisms responsible for the preclinical efficacy of these compounds remains a challenge. (mdpi.com)
  • Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) accelerate the osteoblast differentiation process by blocking the activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs), which alter gene expression by modifying chromatin structure. (springer.com)
  • Histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases participate in chromatin remodeling and the regulation of gene expression. (springer.com)
  • As a consequence, the condensed chromatin is modified into a more comfortable constitution that's related to higher levels of gene transcription. (jackgibson.info)
  • As a consequence, the condensed chromatin is transformed into a more relaxed structure which is associated with greater levels of gene transcription. (bionity.com)
  • The GCN5 monomer forms a complex with acetyl CoA, which donates the acetyl group, and a 19 peptide carboxy terminal domain of the H3 histone subunit. (kenyon.edu)
  • The gene also may have a binding site for the transcription factor Sp1, and has sequences resembling the binding sites of several other transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interaction of viral products with the host cell machinery may lead to increased frequency of genetic and epigenetic aberrations that cause harmful alterations in gene transcription. (hindawi.com)
  • Northern blotting analysis showed that transcription of the acuH gene occurs in acetate-grown mycelium and at higher levels in oleate-grown mycelium, but not during growth on glucose minimal medium. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, we discuss the mechanistic details of how Cas effectors can modulate gene expression by blocking transcription initiation. (asm.org)
  • Results of quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses of pat , cobB , and acs expression indicated that expression of the genes alluded to in the IolR-deficient strain was reduced 5-, 3-, and 2.6-fold, respectively, relative to the levels present in the strain carrying the iolR + allele. (asm.org)
  • We present data indicating that distinct forms of the SAGA complex may regulate specific subsets of genes and that SAGA and SLIK have multiple partly overlapping activities, which play a critical role in transcription by RNA polymerase II. (asm.org)
  • Retinoic acid receptor, CREB, and STAT-1 also require different histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activities to activate transcription. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, transcription factor-specific differences in configuration and content of the coactivator complex dictate requirements for specific acetyltransferase activities, providing an explanation, at least in part, for the presence of multiple HAT components of the complex. (sciencemag.org)
  • Lysine crotonylation regulates the transcription of active genes in the murine male germ cell and human cell genomes ( 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • the hepatic-TG DNL index was also associated with expression of the hepatic lipogenic genes acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase alpha (ACACA), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP-1), and changes in the expression of these genes were also closely reflected by the VLDL-TG DNL index. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We learned about gene expression in biochemistry, which is comprised of transcription and translation, and referred to as the 'central dogma' of molecular biology. (jackgibson.info)
  • The 1479/10 P element was found inserted 521 bp upstream of the Gcn5 transcription start site, in the coding sequence of the CG14121 gene. (sdbonline.org)
  • This insertion was used to generate deletions via transposase-mediated P-element excision and the lethal deficiency sex204 was recovered that removes a part of the CG14121 coding sequence, the Gcn5 and CG10686 genes, and the transcription start site of the citron gene. (sdbonline.org)
  • The genes for choline acetyltransferase and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter are organized in a single gene locus, and transcription of the two genes is typically co-regulated. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Histone Acetyltransferases such as this one are crucial to successful transcription. (kenyon.edu)
  • This increases the affinity for FACT binding and activity, ultimately allowing transcription to proceed along the gene previously bound by the histone. (kenyon.edu)
  • Catalyzes the conversion of acetate into acetyl-CoA (AcCoA), an essential intermediate at the junction of anabolic and catabolic pathways. (string-db.org)
  • The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) assignment discovered 41 unique sequences representing 11 genes involved in triterpene saponin backbone biosynthesis in the 454-EST dataset. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The candidate genes involved in triterpene saponin biosynthesis, including the putative CYP450s and UGTs, were obtained in this study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, our finding demonstrated the insertion of cytosine at position 581 of the tap , a putative drug efflux encoding gene, in both KM-resistant and KM-susceptible strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Candidate genes that might be involved in artemisinin biosynthesis are proposed based on their putative function and their differential expression level. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Putative functions could be assigned for 2,031 of the protein-coding genes. (asm.org)
  • Although several genes involved in mitochondrial function are direct Myc targets, the role of Myc in mitochondrial biogenesis has not been directly established. (asm.org)
  • Under these conditions, the expression of several genes appeared to be significantly activated or down-regulated. (asm.org)
  • The regulation of several genes by HDIs in MC3T3-E1 cells and primary osteoblasts was verified by quantitative real-time PCR. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, ethanol can be produced by C. thermopalmarium , indicated by the presence of several genes encoding aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenases. (asm.org)
  • Measurements of those cells taken at 15 weeks of age showed that social isolation stimulated significant increases in the expression of three genes-Hk2 (hexokinase), Acly ( ATP citrate lyase ) and Acaca (acetyl-CoA carboxykase). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In comparison to the butyrate producer Clostridium thermobutyricum ( 6 , 7 ), C. thermopalmarium is able to metabolize sucrose, which is indicated by a sucrose-6-phosphate hydrolase-encoding gene. (asm.org)
  • Crotonylation has been identified in renal tissues and is a key contributor to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression ( 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In the brain, PAF participates im physiological mechanisms such as synaptic transmission, long-term potentiation, memory formation, proliferation and differentiation of neural cells, regulation of gene expression, and chemotaxis. (springer.com)
  • We report that IolR, a myo -inositol catabolism repressor, activates the expression of genes encoding components of the RLA system. (asm.org)
  • These data support the hypothesis that HDIs regulate the expression of genes that promote osteoblast differentiation and maturation. (springer.com)