A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.
Sterile, gelatin-base surgical sponge applied topically as an adjunct to hemostasis when the control of bleeding by conventional procedures is ineffective to reduce capillary ooze or is impractical. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p797)
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the degradation of gelatin by acting on the peptide bonds. EC 3.4.24.-.
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.
A 3.5 per cent colloidal solution containing urea-cross-linked polymerized peptides. It has a molecular weight of approximately 35,000 and is prepared from gelatin and electrolytes. The polymeric solution is used as a plasma expander.
Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.
Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
Compounds that inhibit the enzyme activity or activation of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES.
Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.
A member of the family of TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASES. It is a 21-kDa nonglycosylated protein found in tissue fluid and is secreted as a complex with progelatinase A by human fibroblast and uncomplexed from alveolar macrophages. An overexpression of TIMP-2 has been shown to inhibit invasive and metastatic activity of tumor cells and decrease tumor growth in vivo.

Cyclosporin exerts a direct fibrogenic effect on human tubulointerstitial cells: roles of insulin-like growth factor I, transforming growth factor beta1, and platelet-derived growth factor. (1/1076)

To assess the direct fibrogenic effects of cyclosporin A (CyA) on the human tubulointerstitium, primary cultures of human renal proximal tubule cells (PTC) and renal cortical fibroblasts (CF) were incubated for 24 h with various concentrations of CyA. Cytotoxicity was confirmed in both cell populations by dose-dependent inhibition of thymidine incorporation, viability, and PTC apical sodium-hydrogen exchange activity (ethylisopropylamiloride-sensitive apical 22Na+ uptake). Compared with controls, both 500 and 1000 ng/ml CyA significantly stimulated CF collagen synthesis (proline incorporation 4.6 +/- 0.4, 6.5 +/- 0.8, and 7.1 +/- 1.0%, respectively; p <.05) and inhibited matrix metalloproteinase-2 (100%, 85.7 +/- 10.0%, and 38.8 +/- 9.2%) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity (100%, 110.6 +/- 19.0%, and 49.9 +/- 12.8%). CyA did not affect CF secretion of transforming growth factor beta1, but markedly stimulated insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion and inhibited secretion of both IGF-I binding protein-(IGFBP)-3 and IGFBP-2. CyA-induced CF collagen synthesis was abrogated by 5 microgram/ml anti-IGF-I receptor antibody, but not by 5 microgram/ml murine nonimmune globulin. Increasing concentrations of CyA progressively augmented PTC secretion of the fibrogenic cytokines transforming growth factor-beta1 and platelet-derived growth factor. These results indicate that clinically relevant concentrations of CyA are directly toxic to PTC and CF, irrespective of hemodynamic effects, and promote interstitial fibrosis by inhibiting matrix degradation and stimulating cortical fibroblast collagen synthesis via induction of autocrine IGF-I action. The latter effect may be further accentuated by the ability of CyA to augment secretion of transforming growth factor beta1 and platelet-derived growth factor by PTCs.  (+info)

Increased E1AF expression in mouse fibrosarcoma promotes metastasis through induction of MT1-MMP expression. (2/1076)

In this study, we investigated the role of E1AF, a member of ets family transcription factor, in the acquisition of metastatic capacity by non-metastatic mouse fibrosarcoma cell clone, QR-32. The QR-32 cell clone grows progressively after co-implantation with gelatin sponge in syngeneic C57BL/6 mice. The cell lines (QRsP) established from arising tumors after the co-implantation exhibited enhanced tumorigenicity and pulmonary metastasis in vivo as compared with parent QR-32 cells. The enhanced pulmonary metastasis of QRsP cells was correlated well with augmented production of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and increased expression of membrane-type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP). The QRsP cells also acquired higher chemokinetic activities to fibronectin and higher invasive activities through a reconstituted basement membrane. Furthermore we observed the elevated mRNA expression of E1AF in QRsP cells compared to parent QR-32 cells. Therefore, we transfected QR-32 cells with E1AF cDNA. Overexpression of E1AF in the QR-32 cells resulted in the induction of MT1-MMP expression and converting an exogenously added precursor MMP-2 into active form. E1AF transfectants exhibited more motile and invasive activities, and moderately increased pulmonary metastatic activities than parental QR-32 cells in vivo, although their metastatic activities were lower than those of QRsP cells. These findings suggest that the increased expression of E1AF in fibrosarcoma contributes to invasive phenotypes including MT1-MMP expression and enhanced cell migration, but not sufficient for exhibiting highly metastatic activity in vivo.  (+info)

Growth of human tumor cells in macroporous microcarriers results in p53-independent, decreased cisplatin sensitivity relative to monolayers. (3/1076)

Multicellular contact has been shown to influence the in vitro sensitivity of cells to drug treatment. We investigated the use of macroporous gelatin microcarriers, CultiSpher-G, as a convenient laboratory system for the molecular analysis of this "contact effect". We determined that human A549 cells can be grown in CultiSphers with growth and cell cycle parameters similar to those of monolayers. In addition, cells in CultiSphers express less p27/kip1, an indicator of cell cycle arrest, than equivalent cells in monolayers. When treated with drugs, A549 cells grown in CultiSphers or monolayers accumulate equivalent amounts of platinum-DNA adducts and similar amounts of doxorubicin. Moreover, A549 and KB-3-1 cells in CultiSphers have significantly decreased sensitivity to cis-platinum(II)diammine dichloride (cisplatin), 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and paclitaxel (taxol) compared with cells in monolayers when assayed by clonogenic survival. Cisplatin treatment in monolayers or CultiSphers did not result in apoptotic cell death. In contrast, paclitaxel caused a significant amount of sub-G1 DNA, an indicator of apoptosis, which was diminished when cells were grown in CultiSphers compared with monolayers. When grown in CultiSphers, cells with abrogated p53 function (A549/16E6 and NCI-H1299) were less sensitive to cisplatin than the corresponding monolayer cells, indicating that the decrease in sensitivity is p53 independent. Taken together, the data suggest that CultiSpher-G microcarriers are a useful in vitro system to examine the effects of three-dimensional cell contact on drug sensitivity of human tumor cells.  (+info)

Dietary chromic oxide does not affect the utilization of organic compounds but can alter the utilization of mineral salts in gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata. (4/1076)

This study was conducted to determine whether the level of chromic oxide supplemented to diets containing gelatinized starch as the carbohydrate source affects digestibility, body composition, growth performances, and liver enzyme activities in gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. Gilthead sea bream fingerlings were fed diets containing gelatinized corn starch as the carbohydrate source and several levels of chromic oxide (0, 5, 10 and 20 g/kg) for 6 wk. No effect of dietary chromium level was detected on carbon, nitrogen, or dry matter digestibility. Calcium and phosphorus digestibility were higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with 5 g/kg chromic oxide than in fish fed the other supplemented diets. Dietary chromium did not affect dry matter, carbon, nitrogen, protein, or lipid concentrations in fish. However, fish fed 5 g/kg chromic oxide generally had higher levels of calcium, phosphorus, and ash than fish fed the other Cr-containing diets. Chromium concentration was significantly higher in fish fed the diets with 0.5 and 1% chromic oxide than in fish fed the control diet. Chromium supplementation of the diets did not affect the specific growth rate, the food efficiency ratio, the protein efficiency ratio, or, protein or nitrogen retention of the fish. Blood glucose and the activity of several liver enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were unaffected by dietary chromic oxide. Alanine aminotransferase was lower in the fish fed the diet with 10 g/kg of chromic oxide than in unsupplemented controls. Our results indicate that chromic oxide can be used as a neutral marker in fish nutrition studies involving organic compounds, but not mineral salts.  (+info)

Reactivity of the immunoglobulin E in bovine gelatin-sensitive children to gelatins from various animals. (5/1076)

It has been reported that most children who showed anaphylaxis to measles, mumps and rubella vaccines containing bovine gelatin as a stabilizer have anti-bovine gelatin IgE. The present study was designed to investigate the reactivity of IgE in bovine gelatin-sensitive children to gelatins from various animals, and the antigenic cross-reactivity between the gelatins. Serum samples taken from 10 children who showed anaphylaxis to vaccines containing bovine gelatin were used in this study. The level of anti-bovine gelatin IgE in these serum samples ranged from 11.0 to 251 Ua/ml. The IgE in most of the children reacted to kangaroo and mouse gelatins, to which they had had little or no exposure as a food or a vaccine stabilizer. The IgE binding to kangaroo and mouse gelatins was completely inhibited by bovine gelatin, whereas reciprocal inhibition was not complete, indicating that antigenic cross-reactivity is present between the mammalian gelatins. Only one child had strong IgE reactivity to fish gelatins, and this reactivity was not inhibited by bovine gelatin, indicating that no antigenic cross-reactivity exists between bovine and fish gelatins. Most of the children who displayed sensitivity to bovine gelatin showed IgE reactivity to other mammalian gelatins. This reactivity may be due primarily to the antigenic cross-reactivity between mammalian gelatins.  (+info)

Sensory perception is related to the rate of change of volatile concentration in-nose during eating of model gels. (6/1076)

The relationship between perceived aroma and the volatile concentration measured in-nose was investigated during eating of a model food. Sensory ranking and time-intensity analysis (TI) were used to measure perceived aroma, while in-nose volatile concentration was monitored by atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry, which produced time release data. A gelatine-sucrose gel with a range of gelatine concentrations (2-8% w/w) and flavoured with furfuryl acetate was used as the model food. Sensory scaling showed decreased flavour intensities and TI showed a decrease in the flavour perceived over time, as the gelatine concentration increased. Studies in model systems and in people demonstrated that the different rates of release observed for different gelatine concentrations were not due to binding of volatile to protein in the gel, nor to mucous membranes, but were due to different rates of gel breakdown in-mouth. There were no significant differences in the maximum in-nose volatile concentrations for the different gelatine concentrations, so the amount of volatile present did not correlate well with the sensory analysis. However, the rates of volatile release were different for the different gels and showed a good correlation with sensory data.  (+info)

Pseudo-proteinuria following gelofusine infusion. (7/1076)

Transient massive proteinuria following cardiopulmonary bypass surgery was observed. It was characterized and attributed to post-operative gelofusine infusion. Gelofusine was found to interfere with dye binding but not immunochemical assays of proteinuria. Proteinuria following gelofusine infusion may not reflect underlying glomerular pathology.  (+info)

Production and inhibition of the gelatinolytic matrix metalloproteinases in a human model of vein graft stenosis. (8/1076)

OBJECTIVES: human vein graft stenoses are caused by intimal hyperplasia, a process which is characterised by extensive degradation and accumulation of extracellular matrix. This study investigated the role of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) - the principal physiological mediators of extracellular matrix degradation - in the development of intimal hyperplasia in cultured human long saphenous vein. DESIGN: experimental study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: paired venous segments with the endothelium intact or denuded were cultured in standard conditions for 14 days. At the termination of culture, MMPs were extracted from one half of the tissue, whilst the remainder of the vein was prepared for histological examination. RESULTS: stereologic analysis revealed that the endothelium intact veins developed a significantly thicker neointima when compared to the denuded venous segments (20 micron v. 0 micron, p=0.006). Quantification of MMPs by substrate gel enzymography demonstrated that the development of a neointima was associated with increased production of the gelatinolytic MMP-9 (p=0. 03) in intact veins. Immunocytochemistry showed that the MMP-9 localised to the internal elastic lumina, which suggested a role in facilitating smooth-muscle-cell migration into the intima. The role of MMPs-2 and -9 in intimal hyperplasia was further investigated by culturing intact venous segments with a therapeutic concentration of doxycycline--a potent MMP inhibitor. These experiments demonstrated that a therapeutic dose of doxycycline significantly reduced neointimal thickness (control 21 micron, doxycycline 10 mg/l-5.5 micron), in conjunction with a significant reduction in the production of MMP-9. CONCLUSIONS: these data suggest that elevated levels of MMPs may play a significant role in the development of human intimal hyperplasia and that inhibition of these enzymes may offer a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention of hyperplastic lesions.  (+info)

Gelatin is not strictly a medical term, but it is often used in medical contexts. Medically, gelatin is recognized as a protein-rich substance that is derived from collagen, which is found in the skin, bones, and connective tissue of animals. It is commonly used in the production of various medical and pharmaceutical products such as capsules, wound dressings, and drug delivery systems due to its biocompatibility and ability to form gels.

In a broader sense, gelatin is a translucent, colorless, flavorless food ingredient that is derived from collagen through a process called hydrolysis. It is widely used in the food industry as a gelling agent, thickener, stabilizer, and texturizer in various foods such as candies, desserts, marshmallows, and yogurts.

It's worth noting that while gelatin has many uses, it may not be suitable for vegetarians or those with dietary restrictions since it is derived from animal products.

A gelatin sponge, absorbable is a surgical implant material that is derived from animal collagen. It is prepared in the form of a sterile, compressed sponge which can be expanded with the addition of fluids. The sponge is designed to absorb and hold surgical drainage, promote healing by providing a framework for the growth of new tissue, and then gradually break down and be absorbed by the body over time. It is often used in neurosurgery, plastic surgery, and other surgical specialties for its hemostatic (bleeding control) and supportive properties.

Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), also known as gelatinase A, is an enzyme that belongs to the matrix metalloproteinase family. MMPs are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix components, and MMP-2 is responsible for degrading type IV collagen, a major component of the basement membrane. This enzyme plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including tissue remodeling, wound healing, and angiogenesis. However, its dysregulation has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as cancer, arthritis, and cardiovascular diseases. MMP-2 is synthesized as an inactive proenzyme and requires activation by other proteases or chemical modifications before it can exert its proteolytic activity.

Gelatinases are a group of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that have the ability to degrade gelatin, which is denatured collagen. There are two main types of gelatinases: MMP-2 (gelatinase A) and MMP-9 (gelatinase B). These enzymes play important roles in various physiological processes such as tissue remodeling and wound healing, but they have also been implicated in several pathological conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological disorders.

MMP-2 is produced by a variety of cells, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells. It plays a crucial role in angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels) and tumor cell invasion and metastasis. MMP-9 is primarily produced by inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and macrophages, and it has been associated with the degradation of the extracellular matrix during inflammation and tissue injury.

Both MMP-2 and MMP-9 are synthesized as inactive zymogens and require activation by other proteases or physicochemical factors before they can exert their enzymatic activity. The regulation of gelatinase activity is tightly controlled at multiple levels, including gene expression, protein synthesis, secretion, activation, and inhibition. Dysregulation of gelatinase activity has been linked to various diseases, making them attractive targets for therapeutic intervention.

Medical Definition:

Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), also known as gelatinase B or 92 kDa type IV collagenase, is a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family. These enzymes are involved in degrading and remodeling the extracellular matrix (ECM) components, playing crucial roles in various physiological and pathological processes such as wound healing, tissue repair, and tumor metastasis.

MMP-9 is secreted as an inactive zymogen and activated upon removal of its propeptide domain. It can degrade several ECM proteins, including type IV collagen, elastin, fibronectin, and gelatin. MMP-9 has been implicated in numerous diseases, such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Its expression is regulated at the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels, and its activity can be controlled by endogenous inhibitors called tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs).

A capsule is a type of solid pharmaceutical dosage form in which the drug is enclosed in a small shell or container, usually composed of gelatin or other suitable material. The shell serves to protect the drug from degradation, improve its stability and shelf life, and facilitate swallowing by making it easier to consume. Capsules come in various sizes and colors and can contain one or more drugs in powder, liquid, or solid form. They are typically administered orally but can also be used for other routes of administration, such as rectal or vaginal.

Polygeline is a colloidal plasma expander, which is a type of intravenous fluid used to increase blood volume in hypovolemia or shock. It is made up of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) molecules that are cross-linked with divinyl sulfone and then suspended in an electrolyte solution. Polygeline works by drawing water into the circulation, thereby increasing the volume of the plasma.

It is important to note that polygeline has been associated with anaphylactic reactions and therefore should be used with caution. It is also not recommended for use in patients with renal impairment or those who are allergic to PVP. As with any medical treatment, it should only be administered under the direction of a qualified healthcare professional.

Plasma substitutes are fluids that are used to replace the plasma volume in conditions such as hypovolemia (low blood volume) or plasma loss, for example due to severe burns, trauma, or major surgery. They do not contain cells or clotting factors, but they help to maintain intravascular volume and tissue perfusion. Plasma substitutes can be divided into two main categories: crystalloids and colloids.

Crystalloid solutions contain small molecules that can easily move between intracellular and extracellular spaces. Examples include normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride) and lactated Ringer's solution. They are less expensive and have a lower risk of allergic reactions compared to colloids, but they may require larger volumes to achieve the same effect due to their rapid distribution in the body.

Colloid solutions contain larger molecules that tend to stay within the intravascular space for longer periods, thus increasing the oncotic pressure and helping to maintain fluid balance. Examples include albumin, fresh frozen plasma, and synthetic colloids such as hydroxyethyl starch (HES) and gelatin. Colloids may be more effective in restoring intravascular volume, but they carry a higher risk of allergic reactions and anaphylaxis, and some types have been associated with adverse effects such as kidney injury and coagulopathy.

The choice of plasma substitute depends on various factors, including the patient's clinical condition, the underlying cause of plasma loss, and any contraindications or potential side effects of the available products. It is important to monitor the patient's hemodynamic status, electrolyte balance, and coagulation profile during and after the administration of plasma substitutes to ensure appropriate resuscitation and avoid complications.

Hydroxyethyl starch derivatives are modified starches that are used as plasma expanders in medicine. They are created by chemically treating corn, potato, or wheat starch with hydroxylethyl groups, which makes the starch more soluble and less likely to be broken down by enzymes in the body. This results in a large molecule that can remain in the bloodstream for an extended period, increasing intravascular volume and improving circulation.

These derivatives are available in different molecular weights and substitution patterns, which affect their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. They are used to treat or prevent hypovolemia (low blood volume) due to various causes such as bleeding, burns, or dehydration. Common brand names include Hetastarch, Pentastarch, and Voluven.

It's important to note that the use of hydroxyethyl starch derivatives has been associated with adverse effects, including kidney injury, coagulopathy, and pruritus (severe itching). Therefore, their use should be carefully monitored and restricted to specific clinical situations.

Metalloendopeptidases are a type of enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in proteins, specifically at interior positions within the polypeptide chain. They require metal ions as cofactors for their catalytic activity, typically zinc (Zn2+) or cobalt (Co2+). These enzymes play important roles in various biological processes such as protein degradation, processing, and signaling. Examples of metalloendopeptidases include thermolysin, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and neutrophil elastase.

Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (MMPIs) are a class of pharmaceutical compounds that work by inhibiting the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are a family of enzymes involved in the breakdown and remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. MMPs play important roles in various physiological processes, including tissue repair, wound healing, and angiogenesis, but they can also contribute to the pathogenesis of several diseases, such as cancer, arthritis, and cardiovascular disease.

MMPIs are designed to block the activity of MMPs by binding to their active site or zinc-binding domain, thereby preventing them from degrading ECM proteins. These inhibitors can be broad-spectrum, targeting multiple MMPs, or selective, targeting specific MMP isoforms.

MMPIs have been studied as potential therapeutic agents for various diseases, including cancer, where they have shown promise in reducing tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis by inhibiting the activity of MMPs that promote these processes. However, clinical trials with MMPIs have yielded mixed results, and some studies have suggested that broad-spectrum MMPIs may have off-target effects that can lead to adverse side effects. Therefore, there is ongoing research into developing more selective MMPIs that target specific MMP isoforms involved in disease pathogenesis while minimizing off-target effects.

Hydrogels are defined in the medical and biomedical fields as cross-linked, hydrophilic polymer networks that have the ability to swell and retain a significant amount of water or biological fluids while maintaining their structure. They can be synthesized from natural, synthetic, or hybrid polymers.

Hydrogels are known for their biocompatibility, high water content, and soft consistency, which resemble natural tissues, making them suitable for various medical applications such as contact lenses, drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, wound dressing, and biosensors. The physical and chemical properties of hydrogels can be tailored to specific uses by adjusting the polymer composition, cross-linking density, and network structure.

Microspheres are tiny, spherical particles that range in size from 1 to 1000 micrometers in diameter. They are made of biocompatible and biodegradable materials such as polymers, glass, or ceramics. In medical terms, microspheres have various applications, including drug delivery systems, medical imaging, and tissue engineering.

In drug delivery, microspheres can be used to encapsulate drugs and release them slowly over time, improving the efficacy of the treatment while reducing side effects. They can also be used for targeted drug delivery, where the microspheres are designed to accumulate in specific tissues or organs.

In medical imaging, microspheres can be labeled with radioactive isotopes or magnetic materials and used as contrast agents to enhance the visibility of tissues or organs during imaging procedures such as X-ray, CT, MRI, or PET scans.

In tissue engineering, microspheres can serve as a scaffold for cell growth and differentiation, promoting the regeneration of damaged tissues or organs. Overall, microspheres have great potential in various medical applications due to their unique properties and versatility.

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a group of enzymes responsible for the degradation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix, the structural framework of most tissues in the body. These enzymes play crucial roles in various physiological processes such as tissue repair, wound healing, and embryonic development. They also participate in pathological conditions like tumor invasion, metastasis, and inflammatory diseases by breaking down the components of the extracellular matrix, including collagens, elastins, proteoglycans, and gelatins. MMPs are zinc-dependent endopeptidases that require activation from their proenzyme form to become fully functional. Their activity is tightly regulated at various levels, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and enzyme inhibition by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Dysregulation of MMPs has been implicated in several diseases, making them potential therapeutic targets for various clinical interventions.

Fibronectin is a high molecular weight glycoprotein that is found in many tissues and body fluids, including plasma, connective tissue, and the extracellular matrix. It is composed of two similar subunits that are held together by disulfide bonds. Fibronectin plays an important role in cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation by binding to various cell surface receptors, such as integrins, and other extracellular matrix components, such as collagen and heparan sulfate proteoglycans.

Fibronectin has several isoforms that are produced by alternative splicing of a single gene transcript. These isoforms differ in their biological activities and can be found in different tissues and developmental stages. Fibronectin is involved in various physiological processes, such as wound healing, tissue repair, and embryonic development, and has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis, tumor metastasis, and thrombosis.

Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body, and it is a major component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. Collagen provides structure and strength to these tissues and helps them to withstand stretching and tension. It is made up of long chains of amino acids, primarily glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline, which are arranged in a triple helix structure. There are at least 16 different types of collagen found in the body, each with slightly different structures and functions. Collagen is important for maintaining the integrity and health of tissues throughout the body, and it has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in various medical conditions.

Collagenases are a group of enzymes that have the ability to break down collagen, which is a structural protein found in connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, and skin. Collagen is an important component of the extracellular matrix, providing strength and support to tissues throughout the body.

Collagenases are produced by various organisms, including bacteria, animals, and humans. In humans, collagenases play a crucial role in normal tissue remodeling and repair processes, such as wound healing and bone resorption. However, excessive or uncontrolled activity of collagenases can contribute to the development of various diseases, including arthritis, periodontitis, and cancer metastasis.

Bacterial collagenases are often used in research and medical applications for their ability to digest collagen quickly and efficiently. For example, they may be used to study the structure and function of collagen or to isolate cells from tissues. However, the clinical use of bacterial collagenases is limited due to concerns about their potential to cause tissue damage and inflammation.

Overall, collagenases are important enzymes that play a critical role in maintaining the health and integrity of connective tissues throughout the body.

Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) is a protein that inhibits the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are enzymes involved in breaking down and remodeling extracellular matrix (ECM) components. TIMP-2 specifically inhibits MMP-2, also known as gelatinase A, by forming a 1:1 complex with it.

TIMP-2 is produced by various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. It plays important roles in regulating ECM turnover, tissue remodeling, and wound healing. Imbalances between MMPs and TIMPs have been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as cancer, fibrosis, and cardiovascular diseases.

In the context of cancer, increased MMP-2 activity has been associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. TIMP-2 can counteract this effect by inhibiting MMP-2, thus potentially reducing tumor progression. However, the precise role of TIMP-2 in cancer is complex and may depend on various factors, including the type of cancer and the stage of disease progression.

Within the gelatin industry, the gelatin obtained from acid-treated raw material has been called type-A gelatin and the gelatin ... Gelatin is present in gelatin desserts, most gummy candy and marshmallows, ice creams, dips, and yogurts. Gelatin for cooking ... gelatin derived from fish has a lower melting and gelation point than gelatin derived from beef or pork. When dry, gelatin ... Gelatin absorbs 5-10 times its weight in water to form a gel. The gel formed by gelatin can be melted by reheating, and it has ...
... is traditionally a solution of gelatin powder in water. Ballistic gelatin closely simulates the density and ... September 1988). "Ordnance gelatin for ballistic studies. Detrimental effect of excess heat used in gelatin preparation". Am J ... "Ordnance gelatin for ballistic studies. Detrimental effect of excess heat used in gelatin preparation". Am J Forensic Med ... While ballistic gelatin does not model the tensile strength of muscles or the structures of the body such as skin and bones, it ...
Gelatin art desserts, also known as 3D gelatin desserts, are made by injecting colorful shapes into a flavored gelatin base. ... The clear gelatin base is prepared using gelatin, water, sugar, citric acid and food flavoring. When the clear gelatin base ... for gelatin. Vegans and vegetarians can use agar to replace animal-derived gelatin. Another common seaweed-based gelatin ... Gelatin art tools are attached to a syringe and used to inject a predetermined shape into gelatin. When combined with other ...
... s are polymer microparticles constructed of gelatin. Gelatin, a bipolymer, is produced through the ... Gelatin microparticles have been used to encapsulate growth factors, such as TGF-β1-3, into delivery systems as well as served ... Gelatin, along with its more familiar uses, is widely used for the production of microparticles due to its efficiency in ... Gelatin can be manipulated to form a stable matrix for biologically reactive compounds, allowing for the incorporation and ...
... milk gelatin. It is prepared by combining multiple cubes of flavored gelatin with a blended mixture of unflavored gelatin and ... The gelatin can have either a water or a milk base. The gelatin itself can be of a single flavor or multiple flavors. The ... Mosaic gelatin is a gelatin dessert that is popular in Mexico and Brazil. However, it is unclear if it is of Mexican or ... The most characteristic representation of mosaic gelatin is pieces of colored, flavored gelatin scattered in a background of ...
Gelatin is a translucent food ingredient. It may also refer to: Gelatin dessert Gelatine (airship) Gelatin (artist group) ... also known as blasting gelatin Starch gelatinization This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Gelatin ...
... or ass-hide glue (Latin: colla corii asini) is gelatin obtained from the skin of the donkey (Equus asinus) ... Ejiao is either prepared as dry gelatin or mixed with powdered oyster shell or pollen to form glue balls. It tastes sweet. ... It is believed that donkey-hide gelatin treats a variety of conditions such as bleeding, dizziness, insomnia and a dry cough, ... The gelatin is produced in several coastal provinces of China: Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong. Shandong's Dong'e County was where ...
A gelatin silver print is composed of four layers: paper base, baryta, gelatin binder, and a protective gelatin layer or ... This gelatin image layer is only one of the four layers found in a typical gelatin silver print, which typically include the ... The third layer is the gelatin binder that holds the silver grains of the photographic image. Gelatin has many qualities that ... Before a paper is exposed, the image layer is a clear gelatin matrix holding the light-sensitive silver halides. For gelatin ...
An absorbable gelatin sponge is a sterile hemostatic agent composed of purified porcine-derived gelatin. In regional ... Shenoi PM (February 1973). "Ototoxicity of absorbable gelatin sponge". Proc. R. Soc. Med. 66 (2): 193-6. PMC 1644504. PMID ... "Definition of absorbable gelatin sponge - National Cancer Institute Drug Dictionary". Mishra LD, Nath SS, Gairola RL, Verma RK ... Mohanty S (April 2004). "Buprenorphine-soaked absorbable gelatin sponge: an alternative method for postlaminectomy pain relief ...
The Grayslake Gelatin Factory is a defunct gelatin factory formerly owned by the Grayslake Gelatin Company, and is located in ... Epstien's son: John, became president of the company before gelatin production ceased in 1982. The company re-acquired the ... After founder of the Grayslake Gelatin Company, Harry Epstein, discovered a modern creation process by using slaughtered animal ... the Epstien family continued to operate the Grayslake Gelatin Company as a real estate lessor, with various tenants renting ...
Gelatin is derived from animal skin, bone, and tissue most often from pigs or beef. There is no practical way of determining if ... Non-animal derived alternatives to gelatin include pectin as a gelling agent or cellulose for creating capsules. Lactose is ... "Gelatin , animal protein". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-03-04. "Medicines/Pharmaceuticals of Animal Origin" (PDF). ... the gelatin used in pharmaceuticals is derived from beef or pork. It is used primarily for gel capsules and as stabilizers for ...
... gelatin; inspected cooked meat products for humans; milk products; and products containing pork and equine (and avian) proteins ...
... gelatin; nonfat yogurt (cultured nonfat milk); natural soy lecithin; vegetable mono and diglycerides (potassium sorbate, E202, ...
This means that gelatin can melt, then reset due to its sensitivity to temperature. The melting point of gelatin gel is around ... Gelatin is cooked with sugar and syrup. After the gelatin-containing syrup is cooked, it is allowed to cool slightly before air ... "Gelatin Alternatives". PETA. Archived from the original on 2017-10-24. Retrieved 2017-10-24. "A Closer Look - Gelatin - Kosher ... This is why the omission of gelatin from a marshmallow recipe will result in marshmallow creme, since there is no gelatin ...
... and gelatin. If a beer is marked "suitable for Vegans", it was generally clarified either with seaweed or with artificial ...
... and gelatin. If a beer is marked "suitable for vegans", it is clarified either with seaweed or with artificial agents. The ...
Capsules are coated with gelatin. Enterics control the rate of drug release and determine where the drug will be released in ... magnesium stearate or stearic acid are the most frequently used lubricants in tablets or hard gelatin capsules. Lubricants are ... gelatin; Synthetic polymers: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyethylene glycol (PEG)... Binders are classified according to their ... Examples include gelatin, cellulose, cellulose derivatives, polyvinylpyrrolidone, starch, sucrose and polyethylene glycol. Dry ...
"Gelatin Gleanings". The Baltimore Sun. 15 Mar 1936. Retrieved 2019-11-17. "Gan Just Kidding When He's Killing". The Pittsburgh ...
Gelatin silver print; Dimensions: 23.9 x 18.6cm (9 7/16 x 7 5/16") Matte: 55.9 x 40.6cm (22 x 16"); Costume\Outerwear\Cape ...
Gelatin Hydrolysis =negative , Relationship to Oxygen =microaerophile , Cell shape = coccobacillus Trujillo, ME; Dedysh, S; ...
Depending on the method of extraction, there are various types of ossein gelatin (acid ossein gelatin, limed ossein gelatin, ... yielding gelatin. The product is specifically known as ossein gelatin in contrast to skin gelatin, which is generated from ... ISBN 978-92-5-102695-3. Cronin, A.C.; Field, D.S. (8 July 2016). "Acid Ossein Gelatin". The Imaging Science Journal. 45 (3-4): ... This substance is used in industry for the production of gelatin and bone glue. In the early 20th century, bones were found to ...
To make the gelatin dry plate, the glass was cleaned, polished, and treated to ensure the gelatin would adhere to the glass ... After 1879, when further improvements were made to the gelatin emulsion, gelatin glass plates began being mass-produced by ... made using a silver halide mixture in gelatin. Fluctuations in RH can strain the adhesive emulsion, causing the gelatin to ... With gelatin dry plates, high humidity can cause mold to grow on the emulsion. High levels of humidity can cause glass plates ...
Ice Breakers gum was banned in the Kuwaiti market due to containing pig gelatin. "COMPANY NEWS; HERSHEY FOODS TO ACQUIRE ... Ice Breakers' gum banned in Kuwait; contains pig gelatin". arabtimesonline (news). 2019-08-26. Archived from the original on ...
"SILVER GELATIN" (PDF). Getty.edu. Getty. Retrieved 19 June 2023. P. Bergthaller (1996). "Silver halide photography". Chemistry ... Another famous process that used silver chloride was the gelatin silver process where embedded silver chloride crystals in ... gelatin were used to produce images. However, with advances in color photography, these methods of black-and-white photography ...
For instance, gelatin embedded in a polyacrylamide gel will be digested by active gelatinases run through the gel. After ... "Gelatin zymography protocol , Abcam". www.abcam.com. Retrieved 2017-05-12. Martínez TF, Alarcón FJ, Díaz-López M, Moyano FJ ( ... A suitable substrate (e.g. gelatin or casein for protease detection) is embedded in the resolving gel during preparation of the ...
The gelatin test is used to analyze whether a microbe can hydrolyze gelatin with the enzyme gelatinase. The gelatin makes the ... "Gelatin Hydrolysis Test". www.vumicro.com. Retrieved 2017-04-03. "Enzyme Substrate Test - Gonorrhea - STD Information from CDC ... agar solid, so if an organism can produce gelatinase and consume gelatin as an energy and carbon source, the agar will become ...
Gelatin silver print., Baltimore, Maryland: Julius Anderson Photograph Collection, Baltimore City Life Museum Collection, ...
Gelatin Silver Print. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY, NY. *Manet, Julie, Rosalind de Boland Roberts, and Jane Roberts. ...
... is a vegetarian and vegan alternative to gelatin in some applications, so may be used to replace gelatin in ... Montaño, Marco Nemesio (16 September 2004). "Gelatin, gulaman, 'JellyAce,' atbp". PhilStar Global. Retrieved 10 February 2021. ...
Silkscreened silver gelatin print. Magic in Nature. Edition for Whitechapel Gallery, London, produced by the artist. Selenium ... toned silver gelatin print with hand printed label, framed. "Hannah Collins (1956 − )". Visual Arts. British Council. 2009. ...

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