Electrophoresis, Starch Gel: Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.Acrylamide: A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Acrylamides: Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.Blood Protein Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Phosphoglucomutase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of alpha D-glucose 1-phosphate to alpha D-glucose 6-phosphate. EC 5.4.2.2.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Esterasesgamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Amylose: An unbranched glucan in starch.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives: Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Electrophoresis, Disc: Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.Starch Phosphorylase: An enzyme of the PHOSPHORYLASES family that catalyzes the degradation of starch, a mixture of unbranched AMYLOSE and branched AMYLOPECTIN compounds. This phosphorylase from plants is the counterpart of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE in animals that catalyzes the reaction of inorganic phosphate on the terminal alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond at the non-reducing end of glucans resulting in the release of glucose-1-phosphate.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Plant Tubers: An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Electrophoresis, Microchip: A highly miniaturized version of ELECTROPHORESIS performed in a microfluidic device.Drinking Water: Water that is intended to be ingested.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.AcrylatesFood Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Isotonic Solutions: Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.alpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.1,4-alpha-Glucan Branching Enzyme: In glycogen or amylopectin synthesis, the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a segment of a 1,4-alpha-glucan chain to a primary hydroxy group in a similar glucan chain. EC 2.4.1.18.Acrylic ResinsEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Pharmaceutical Solutions: Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Plasma Substitutes: Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.Isoamylase: An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.69) by its action on glycogen. With EC 3.2.1.69, it produces the activity called "debranching enzyme". EC 3.2.1.68.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glucose-1-Phosphate Adenylyltransferase: An ATP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the addition of ADP to alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate to form ADP-glucose and diphosphate. The reaction is the rate-limiting reaction in prokaryotic GLYCOGEN and plant STARCH biosynthesis.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Glucan 1,4-alpha-Glucosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of polysaccharide chains with the release of beta-glucose. It is also able to hydrolyze 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in sequence is 1,4.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.

*Isoelectric focusing

IEF involves adding an ampholyte solution into immobilized pH gradient (IPG) gels. IPGs are the acrylamide gel matrix co- ... Proteins are introduced into an Immobilized pH gradient gel composed of polyacrylamide, starch, or agarose where a pH gradient ... Isoelectric focusing is the first step in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, in which proteins are first separated by their ... Microchip based electrophoresis is a promising alternative to capillary electrophoresis since it has the potential to provide ...

*QPNC-PAGE

"Electrophoresis of proteins in polyacrylamide and starch gels (Part I, Chapter 2 Acrylamide gel)". Laboratory Techniques in ... acrylamide/aqueous solution) to 10 (acrylamide/buffer solution) for acrylamide gels with total monomer concentrations in the ... "Gel composition in gels for submurged gel electrophoresis". Patent US5458760 (A). Westermeier R (2016). Electrophoresis in ... Electrophoresis Gel electrophoresis Protein electrophoresis Protein purification Metallome Seelert H, Krause F (2008). " ...

*Gel electrophoresis

... introduction of starch gels, mediocre separation (Smithies) 1959 - introduction of acrylamide gels; disc electrophoresis ( ... gels may melt during electrophoresis. Electrophoresis is performed in buffer solutions to reduce pH changes due to the electric ... Gel electrophoresis can also be used for separation of nanoparticles. Gel electrophoresis uses a gel as an anticonvective ... by native gel electrophoresis, by preparative gel electrophoresis (QPNC-PAGE), or by 2-D electrophoresis. Characterization ...
PubMed journal article A prospective study on dietary acrylamide intake and the risk for breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Commission Recommendation 2007/331/EC of 3 May 2007 on the monitoring of acrylamide levels in food requires the Member States to perform annually in 2007, 2008 and 2009 the monitoring of acrylamide levels in certain foodstuffs. The current report describes the results of the monitoring exercise for 2008. A total of 22 Member States and Norway submitted to EFSA 3461 results. The mean acrylamide level (upper bound values) ranged from 23 µg/kg for bread non-specified to 1124 µg/kg for substitute coffee. Both the highest 95th percentile value and maximum value were reported for substitute coffee at 3300 and 7095 µg/kg, respectively. The 2008 results were compared with the 3281 results collected in 2007. The product categories potato crisps, instant coffee and substitute coffee showed statistically significantly higher levels of acrylamide in 2008 data compared to 2007 data. On the other hand, French fries and fried potato products for home ...
The aim of this thesis was to verify the indicated occurrence of acrylamide formation in heating of food, to identify factors affecting the formation, and to identify important sources of acrylamide exposure from food. As a prerequisite for the studies, gas- and liquid-chromatographic methods with mass spectrometric detection were developed for the analysis of acrylamide in food. The developed methods showed a high correlation coefficient (0.99), high sensitivity and reproducibility. Acrylamide was demonstrated to occur in heated food products, with unexpectedly high levels in potato products (up to mg/kg level in potato crisps) and in beetroot. The identity of acrylamide was confirmed by the developed methods. With potato as a food model, different factors affecting the acrylamide formation were tested. It was shown that the addition of asparagine and fructose, as well as heating temperature and time had a ...
In our large, prospective cohort study among women, we found no association between acrylamide intake and risk for breast cancer. However, we observed an increased risk for endometrial cancer overall and among never-smoking women and a suggestion of increased risk for ovarian cancer overall, with a significantly increased risk for invasive and serous ovarian tumors.. The lack of association between acrylamide intake and breast cancer risk is in line with findings from previous prospective studies based on food-frequency questionnaires, including two cohorts of Swedish women (10, 12), the Netherlands Cohort Study (13), and the NHS II (11). A separate report from the Netherlands Cohort Study (14) did find a suggestion of increased risk for estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive in postmenopausal women; however, neither the relative risks for the top quintiles nor the P values for linear trend were statistically significant. These results seem to be in conflict with a ...
Acrylamide is a chemical compound found in carbohydrate rich foods [1]. There has been an increased interest in acrylamide as it has been shown to be a carcinogenic and neurotoxic substance [1]. Neurotoxins are toxins that target the nervous system and disrupt the signalling that allows neurons to communicate effectively [2]. An EFSA report on the exposure of acrylamide in European member states shows that main contributors of acrylamide, across Europe, are French fries, potato crisps and coffee [3].. Factors to consider when examining the formation of acrylamide are the ingredients used in the recipe of the product and how the product is produced [4].Temperature has a major effect on the formation of acrylamide in foods; it has been shown that there are high levels of acrylamide in food that are cooked at temperatures above 120°C [4].. In 2005 a set of voluntary guidelines (it was later ...
This prospective cohort study provides the first epidemiologic indications that dietary acrylamide intake may increase the risk of cancer in humans. For both endometrial and ovarian cancer, a positive association with dietary acrylamide was observed, particularly in the subgroup of never-smoking women. Whether the differences between the total group and the never-smokers are due to effect modification by smoking or due to masking of the dietary acrylamide effect by acrylamide or other compounds in tobacco smoke remains to be established. Smoking may induce epoxide hydrolase, which results in enhanced metabolism of glycidamide (33), after which there is less glycidamide left to damage DNA.. There was no association between acrylamide intake and postmenopausal breast cancer, which is in line with the only other prospective cohort study on this topic (23), although this latter study investigated mainly premenopausal breast ...
Following a comprehensive review of the available evidence, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) expert Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain has published a scientific opinion reconfirming previous evaluations that the food processing contaminant acrylamide is potentially carcinogenic.. Acrylamide is produced in a variety of starchy foods that are cooked at high temperatures as a by-product of the Maillard browning reaction. The most important food groups contributing to acrylamide exposure are fried potato products, coffee, biscuits, crackers, crisp bread and soft bread.. Animal studies have shown that acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide are genotoxic and carcinogenic. Evidence from studies on the effect of dietary exposure to acrylamide in humans is limited and so far inconclusive, but the Panel reiterated its view that the chemical potentially increases the risk of developing cancer for ...
Neurodegenerative properties of acrylamide were studied in vitro by exposure of differentiated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells for 72 h. The number of neurites per cell and the total cellular protein content were determined every 24 h throughout the exposure and the subsequent 96-h recovery period. Using kinetic data on the metabolism of acrylamide in rat, a biokinetic model was constructed in which the in vitro toxicity data were integrated. Using this model, we estimated the acute and subchronic toxicity of acrylamide for the rat in vivo. These estimations were compared to experimentally derived lowest observed effect doses (LOEDs) for daily intraperitoneal exposure (1, 10, 30, and 90 days) to acrylamide. The estimated LOEDs differed maximally twofold from the experimental LOEDs, and the nonlinear response to acrylamide exposure over time was simulated correctly. It is concluded that the integration of the present in ...
There are various favourable factors driving the growth of the global acrylamide monomer market. Acrylamide monomer is majorly used in the synthesis of polyacrylamide which is further used in wastewater treatment, thereby contributing to the growth of the market. Increasing environmental regulations aimed to limit the waste produced by industrial and municipal plants has boosted the demand for polyacrylamide. Further, the consumption of acrylamide monomer has increased in various sectors such as ore processing, gel electrophoresis, cosmetics, tertiary oil refinery and in the synthesis of dyes and plastic. According to the report, the global acrylamide monomer market is anticipated to reach a value of US$ 4551 Million by 2022, growing at a CAGR of more than 9% during 2017-2022.. The market has been segregated on the basis of end-use where the waste and ...
There are various favourable factors driving the growth of the global acrylamide monomer market. Acrylamide monomer is majorly used in the synthesis of polyacrylamide which is further used in wastewater treatment, thereby contributing to the growth of the market. Increasing environmental regulations aimed to limit the waste produced by industrial and municipal plants has boosted the demand for polyacrylamide. Further, the consumption of acrylamide monomer has increased in various sectors such as ore processing, gel electrophoresis, cosmetics, tertiary oil refinery and in the synthesis of dyes and plastic. According to the report, the global acrylamide monomer market is anticipated to reach a value of US$ 4551 Million by 2022, growing at a CAGR of more than 9% during 2017-2022.. The market has been segregated on the basis of end-use where the waste and ...
There are various favourable factors driving the growth of the global acrylamide monomer market. Acrylamide monomer is majorly used in the synthesis of polyacrylamide which is further used in wastewater treatment, thereby contributing to the growth of the market. Increasing environmental regulations aimed to limit the waste produced by industrial and municipal plants has boosted the demand for polyacrylamide. Further, the consumption of acrylamide monomer has increased in various sectors such as ore processing, gel electrophoresis, cosmetics, tertiary oil refinery and in the synthesis of dyes and plastic. According to the report, the global acrylamide monomer market is anticipated to reach a value of US$ 4551 Million by 2022, growing at a CAGR of more than 9% during 2017-2022.. The market has been segregated on the basis of end-use where the waste and ...
Introduction: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunostimulant effects of The Carica papaya fruit aqueous extract (CPF, Caricaceae) against acrylamide induced oxidative stress and improvement of Immune functions which affected by free radicals liberating acrylamide in rats. Material and methods: Sixty male wistar albino rats (195-230g) were assigned to four groups, (fifteen/group). The first group used as control group and received normal physiological saline orally daily. The second group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water. The third group was gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The fourth group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water and gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The chosen dose of papaya fruit extract was based on the active pharmacological dose range obtained from the ...
As part of a larger study investigating diversity and distribution of Mycobacterium spp. in Australia, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis was used to assess genetic relationships at 17 enzyme loci amongst a collection of reference strains and isolates initially identified on biochemical and other grounds as M. intracellulare (70), "X mycobacteria (10), M. scrofulaceum (7), M. avium (8) and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (2). Two of the isolates initially identified as M. intracellulare were shown to be quite distinct from the others. Both gave negative results in a species-specific DNA probe test, whilst one was positive by PCR. These results emphasize the uncertainties involved in identifying members of this group. The other M. intracellulare isolates formed a cohesive but diverse group, being divided into 48 electrophoretic types (ETs), with a mean genetic diversity of 0.38. Forty-three of these ETs contained only single isolates. There was no clear relationship between the serovar and ET ...
Recently the results of a comprehensive epidemiological follow up study of cancer mortality in cohorts with occupational exposure to acrylamide was published.1 With the exception of a weak significance for a raised incidence of pancreatic cancer the study arrived by and large at the conclusion that there is "little evidence for a causal relation between exposure to acrylamide and mortality from any cancer sites". The study updates and confirms an investigation 10 years earlier of the same cohorts.2 The analysis was based on standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) in comparison with United States national or relevant county mortality statistics. It exemplifies the shortcomings of epidemiological studies of this kind to detect moderate influences of specific causative factors on cancer mortality or incidence. The investigators state that they have carried out "the most definitive study of the human carcinogenic potential of exposure to acrylamide conducted to ...
Superabsorbent composites based on chitosan-g-poly(acrylamide) and montorillonite (CTS-g-PAAm/MMT) were synthesized through in situ radical polymerization by grafting of crosslinked acrylamide onto chitosan backbone in presence of MMT at different contents. The formation of the grafted network was confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetery (DSC). The obtained porous structure was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The presence of clay and its interaction with chitosan-g-poly(acrylamide) (CTS-g-PAAm) matrix was evidenced by ATR-FTIR analysis. The morphology was investigated by both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM analyses. It was suggested the formation of mostly exfoliated structures with more porous structures. Besides, the thermal stability of these composites, observed by TGA analysis, was slightly affected by the clay ...
A team of researchers from Maastricht University in the Netherlands have studied the association between cancer and the chemical acrylamide-a substance known to cause cancer in mice. The study is published in the May issue of The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Acrylamide is found in French fries, potato chips, coffee, fried and baked foods, olives, and even breakfast cereals. It s also used for food packaging, and to manufacture cosmetics and plastics. We have known for years that acrylamide is present in much of our food. What we haven t known is whether it poses a health risk to humans. Researchers from the Netherlands began looking at data from a large study on diet and cancer that began in 1986. Acrylamide intake was estimated among 121000 participants who revealed their eating habits by way of a questionnaire. The study focused on cancer rates and acrylamide intake. The group was followed for thirteen years. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic and morphometric comparisons of squat lobster, Munidopsis scobina (Decapoda. T2 - Anomura : Galatheidae) populations, with notes on the phylogeny of the genus Munidopsis. AU - Creasey, S. AU - Rogers, A. AU - Tyler, Paul. AU - Gage, John D. AU - Jollivet, D. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Specimens of the galatheid Municdopsis scobina were collected from two stations on the continental slope off Oman, at depths of 900 and 1000 m, using an Agassiz trawl, Starch gel electrophoresis, across 10 enzyme loci, was carried out on 427 specimens. Genetic variability was calculated for both populations using a number of parameters. F-statistics were used to estimate genetic variance within (F-IS) and between (F-ST) populations. Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were detected at one locus (Gotb), Analyses of F-IS revealed significant differences from zero at Gotb and Pgm, as a result of heterozygote deficiency. ...
Genetic variation within and among 11 natural populations of Pterocarpus macrocarpus Kurz. from different forest habitats in Thailand was examined by starch gel electrophoresis of 18 loci coding for 11 enzymes. The species possesses a high level of isozyme variation. The percentage of polymorphic loci per population ranged from 66.67 to 100% with a mean of 82.32% and the number of alleles per locus per population ranged from 2.44 to 2.94, averaging 2.67. Observed average population heterozygosity, at 0.222, was lower than the expected average population heterozygosity (0.246) and the estimate of FIS, at 0.099, suggests some degree of inbreeding within populations. There was a high degree of among-population differentiation. All 18 loci exhibited allelic heterogeneity and the estimate of FST was 0.12. Cluster analysis revealed an east-west pattern of population grouping, in accordance with significant correlations between allelic frequencies ...
The discovery came after a sequence of unusual, coincidental events. A Swedish construction team using polyacrylamide to plug leaks in a tunnel became ill, and Törnqvist was asked to investigate the workers exposure to acrylamide. But when she looked for healthy members of the public to use as controls, they too had unexpectedly high levels of acrylamide. At the same time, Tareke was studying acrylamide levels in wild animals and domesticated pets, and she found unexpectedly high levels of the compound in pets, she told C&EN. Because a main difference between wild and domesticated animals is their consumption of highly processed pet food, the researchers began to wonder whether the levels of acrylamide in humans are also attributable to consumption of highly processed food. Then they showed that processed food did in fact have substantial levels of the chemical.. ...
Hybrids between walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum and sauger S. canadense in Lake Sakakawea, North Dakota were identified electrophoretically using the species-specific marker malate dehydrogenase. Hybrids represented 10% of 279 percids analyzed. Univariate analysis indicated that counts for eight meristic characters of hybrids were intermediate to, but not significantly different (P ≥ 0.05) form those of parental species, because the respective counts overlapped broadly. Discriminant analysis revealed five of 14 morphometric characters contributed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) to multivariate discrimination among Stizostedion species and hybrids. Using those characters selected by discriminant analysis, 188 of 259 (73%) specimens were correctly classified. Meristic counts and morphometric measurements offer little promise as diagnostic tools for identification of Stizostedion species and their associated hybrids from sympatric populations. Horizontal starch ...
Polymorphism of Erythrocyte G-6-PD in the Baboon D. GOURDIN, H. VERGNES, C. BOULOUX, J. RUFFIE AND M. GHERARDI Ceiztrr dHemotypologie dri Ceirtw Nntionnl de In Recherche Scieiztifiqzie Hopital P u r p m i - Toulouse (France) KEY WORDS GS-PD . Baboon , Papio . Polymorphism . Erythrocyte. Blood samples from several populations of baboons (genus Papio) were examined for GB-PD variants. Several G - 8 P D phenotypes were detected by starch gel electrophoresis. The so-called fast variant phenotypes of G6-PD in baboons differ from human variant phenotypes in several physico- ABSTRACT chemical constants. Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD, E.C. I, I, I, 41) is one of the best known red-cell enzymatic systems of man, both in its biochemistry and its genetics. In Drosophila, Young et al. (64) put forward arguments in favor of genetic control of the enzyme by a locus situated on the X chromosome; in the horse, donkey and mule, Mathai et al. (66) ...
Results of field observations, cross-breeding experiments, morphometry, and starch gel electrophoresis suggest that A. cinereus and A. najas are specifically distinct. Cross-breeding experiments between the two taxa in the laboratory were only successful when using males of A. cinereus and females of A. najas. Field observations on mixed populations in spring did not reveal any pre- or postcopulae involving partners of the two taxa (assigned by body length). Instead all pairs observed consisted of conspecific males and females. Morphometry of field caught adults of A. najas and A. cinereus yielded a clearly bimodal distribution of body length with only very few individuals of intermediate size. Therefore, body length alone allows reasonable separation of the two taxa in natural populations. Although F1-hybrids from laboratory rearings (photoperiod 18L:6D, temperature ∼ 23°C) differed only marginally in body length from A. najas reared under ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein adsorption mechanisms determine the efficiency of thermally controlled cell adhesion on poly(N -isopropyl acrylamide) brushes. AU - Choi, Sangwook. AU - Choi, Byung Chan. AU - Xue, Changying. AU - Leckband, Deborah E. PY - 2013/1/14. Y1 - 2013/1/14. N2 - This study investigated the impact of the protein adsorption mechanism(s) on the efficiency of thermally controlled cell adhesion and release from poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) brushes. Large format polymer gradients were used to screen for grafting densities and substrate chemistries that alter both cell adhesion at 37 °C and rapid cell release at 25 °C. In particular, the grafting conditions investigated allowed protein adsorption to the underlying substrate, penetration of the brush only, or adsorption to the outer edge of the film. At an average molecular weight of 30 kDa (degree of polymerization N ∼ 270), the results show that robust protein adsorption to polymer brushes impairs rapid cell ...
The Global And China Acrylamide Monomer Industry 2017 Market Research Report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Acrylamide...
Introduction. Potato Chip Experiment Aim: Investigate which salt solution will keep the potato chip freshest for longest. Prediction: In my experiment, I am going to be using the salt solutions: 1) Om. 2) O.2m. 3) O.4m. 4) O.6m. 5) O.8m. 6) 1m. We will be experimenting to which salt solution will keep the chip freshest, for longest. In the experiment I predict that the salt solution most likely to keep the potato chip freshest will be the O.2m salt solution. I believe this because the only piece of information we were given was that the red blood cell concentration was O.25m, and from that piece of information, I believe that the O.2m salt solution will keep the potato chip freshest for longest. I think that O.2m will be the best solution because anything less than the red blood cell concentration O.25m for example Om, will let water into the cell and make the potato chip soggy, and anything ...
The corrosion inhibition characteristics of some amide compounds, namely benzamide, acetamide and acrylamide on the carbon steel corrosion in 1 M hydrochloric acid have been investigated at 30oC by weight
In reviewing the epidemiological evidence on mobile phone use and brain tumors, The IARC Monograph Working Group (19) noted the limited data available from epidemiological studies at that time though noting that Hardell et al have conducted the most detailed and largest number of studies on the risks for glioma from wireless phone (mobile and/or cordless phone).. Morgan et al (20) suggested that the magnitude of the under-estimation of risk was 25% in the INTERPHONE study. This is consistent with the INTERPHONE Study Group (5) conclusion that their under-estimation was at least 19% based on regular mobile phone use. Nevertheless, when minimal use was defined as the reference level, risks in the INTERPHONE study were significant: for 10+ years since first use compared to 1-1.9 years since first use, OR 2.18 (95% CI 1.43-3.31), for ,1,640 cumulative hours of use compared to ,5 h of use, OR 1.82 (95% CI 1.15-2.80).. The IARC Monograph Working Group concluded that radiofrequency fields were ...
Pregelatinized starches are physically modified starches with ability to absorb water and increase viscosity at ambient temperature. The main purpose of this study was to determine how different concentrations of acetic acid (0, 500, 1000, 10,000 mg/kg) can affect functional properties of pregelatinized wheat and corn starches (PGWS and PGCS, respectively) produced by a twin drum drier. With increasing acetic acid following changes occurred for both samples; cold water solubility (at 25 °C) increased, water absorption and apparent cold water viscosity (at 25 °C) reduced, the smooth surface of the starch particles converted to an uneven surface as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, cohesiveness, consistency and turbidity of the starch gels reduced while their syneresis increased. It was found that in presence of ...
High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a Fraction Collector was employed to isolate Maillard reaction products (MRPs) formed in model systems comprising of asparagine and monosaccharides in the 60-180°C range. The primary MRP which is detected at 60°C is important for Acrylamide content and color/aroma development in foods and also in the field of food biotechnology for controlling the extent of the Maillard reaction with temperature. The discrete fractions of the reaction products were reacted with Hemoglobin (Hb) and Myoglobin (Mb) at physiological conditions and the reaction adducts were monitored by UV-vis and Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry ...
The FDA website includes several glaring errors on its Established List of Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products or Tobacco Smoke (here). For example, the list wrongly identifies acrylamide as both a respiratory and a cardiovascular toxicant. It is neither of these. It is a probable human carcinogen, according to IARC, and it was correctly labeled in the list published in the federal register (here). I recently collaborated with scientists from BAT to publish a comprehensive analysis of acrylamide in smokeless tobacco products from Sweden and the U.S. (here). Our study showed that it is present in all products we tested, but "exposure… from consumption of smokeless tobacco products is small compared with exposure from food… or cigarette smoking ...
Preservation Of Potato Chips, Wholesale Various High Quality Preservation Of Potato Chips Products from Global Preservation Of Potato Chips Suppliers and Preservation Of Potato Chips Factory,Importer,Exporter at Alibaba.com.
Europe often has more stringent rules on the safety and labeling of certain foods compared to the FDA and USDA regulations in the US. For example, the European Union requires a warning label on food products with artificial food dyes. Europe has also banned: carrageenan from infant formula, injecting hormones into farm animals, using anabolic sex steroids on farm animals to promote growth, the use of ractopamine in animal feed, injecting phosphate into meat, and alkylphenol use. Europe also has a lower allowable pus cell concentration limit for milk than the US, and a lower maximum acceptable daily intake level of the artificial sweetener aspartame. Stricter rules on the food industry may explain why in Europe, Salmonella contamination of poultry is as low as 2%, compared to a poultry contamination rate in the U.S. higher than 14%. The European food industrys attempt to control fry times to decrease acrylamide levels has not, however, been effective. Also, U.S. grown rice may have lower ...
Acrylamide is a chemical that naturally forms in starchy food products during every-day high-temperature cooking (frying, baking, roasting and also industrial
Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis was used to determine genetic relationships amongst 32 intestinal spirochaetes (Serpulina spp.) isolated from rats (17), rheas (7), chickens, (4), ducks (2), a swan (1) and a flamingo (1). The strains were divided into 20 electrophoretic types (ETs), with a mean genetic diversity per locus of 0.62. The results were compared with those previously published for porcine intestinal spirochaetes. One strain from a healthy rat, and three rhea strains which were recovered from cases of necrotizing typhlitis, were grouped in the same ETs as certain porcine strains of Serpulina hyodysenteriae. The rhea strains could be differentiated from these by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Fifteen of the rat strains were genetically and phenotypically closely related. In contrast the avian strains were genetically more heterogeneous, with pathogenic isolates located in three different genetic groups.. ...
Smart hydrogels are promising materials for actuators and sensors, as they can respond to small changes in their environment with a large property change. Hydrogels can respond to a variety of stimuli, for example temperature, pH, metal ions, etc. In this article, the synthesis and characterization of polyampholyte hydrogels based on open chain ligands showing pH and metal ion sensitivity are described. Copolymer and terpolymer gels using different mixtures of monomers i.e., N-[2-(dimethylaminoethyl)acrylamide] (DMAEAAm), N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAAm), acrylic acid (AA) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulphonic acid (AMPS), have been synthesized. The effect of copolymer composition, i.e., the ratio and amount of ionic monomers and the degree of crosslinking on the swelling characteristics, was evaluated as a function of pH. On this ...
Styrene/acrylamide copolymer - Surfactant - SAAPedia - SAAPedia(Surfactant.TOP),Surfactant,Anionic surfactants, Cationic surfactants, Non-ionic surfactants, Zwitterionic surfactants, Polymer Surfactants, Fluoro surfactants, Silicone surfactants, Biosurfactants, Natural surfactants, Special surfactants - Page1
This gene encodes the alpha subunit of glucosidase II and a member of the glycosyl hydrolase 31 family of proteins. The heterodimeric enzyme glucosidase II plays a role in protein folding and quality control by cleaving glucose residues from immature glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Expression of the encoded protein is elevated in lung tumor tissue and in response to UV irradiation. Mutations in this gene cause autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney and liver disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2016 ...
COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) …/… establishing mitigation measures and benchmark levels for the reduction of the presence of acrylamide in food
Abstract : Acrylamide (AM) and 2-chloroacetamide (CA) are widely used in diverse applications such as biomedical, drug delivery, waste water treatment, and heavy metal ion removal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of amide group containing compounds (AM and CA). The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The control and treated compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and surface area analysis. XRD of treated AM showed decrease in intensity of peaks as compared to control sample. However, the treated AM showed increase in volume of unit cell (0.16%) and molecular weight (0.16%) as compared to control. The crystallite size was decreased by 33.34% in treated AM as compared to control Whereas, the XRD diffractogram of ...
Urinary tract infections affect up to 15% of women each year.2 3 More than 25% of women who have had an infection will experience a recurrence.w2. The most important risk factors for acute cystitis in young women are a history of previous episodes of cystitis and frequent or recent sexual activity.w3 w4 The relative odds of acute cystitis increase by a factor of 60 during the 48 hours after sexual intercourse.w4 The use of spermicidal agents increases the odds of infection by Escherichia coli or by Staphylococcus saprophyticus by a factor of two to three, irrespective of whether the exposure occurs with the use of a diaphragm or a spermicide coated condom.3 w5 w6. Urinary tract infections are common during pregnancy. Infections, and untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria, during pregnancy have been associated with an increased risk of pyelonephritis, premature delivery, and fetal mortality. Because of hormonal changes associated with pregnancy, the incidence of pyelonephritis is highest at the end ...
The utility of four types of Ciphergen Protein Chips were evaluated by comparing protein profiles in control, and in in vitro acrylamide or glycidamide exposed urine using Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Acrylamide (CAS 79-06-1), a widely used industrial chemical, which also may be formed in thermally processed food, can produce peripheral
Abstract Isoenzyme patterns of 32 isolates of Giardia duodenalis, obtained from 6 beavers and 11 humans from British Columbia, plus 15 other isolates were evaluated using thin-layer starch-gel electrophoresis. We attempted to use 12 enzymes; 9 gave reproducible and interpretable results. The isoenzyme patterns of the isolates were classified into 12 groups with 17 (53%) of the 32 isolates confined to 1 group. The other 11 groups each comprised only 1 or 2 isolates. There was no obvious correlation between clinical symptoms and isoenzyme patterns. Our findings suggest that beavers, like humans and gerbils are receptive to organisms with many different isoenzyme patterns.
Glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) deficiency with severe haemolysis and hydrops fetalis was found in the first child of unrelated, healthy Caucasian parents. The child died at 3 hours. Both parents were found to have 50% of normal red cell GPI activity and qualitative tests on their red cells and white cells showed that each was heterozygous for a different GPI variant allele associated with enzyme deficiency. Tests on the placenta showed that the propositus was a compound heterozygote. Examination of amniotic cells obtained by amniocentesis on the mother at 28 weeks in her second pregnancy led to the prenatal diagnosis of GPI deficiency. This second child, a compound heterozygote at the GPI locus indistinguishable from the first, was successfully treated by immediate exchange transfusion and subsequent blood transfusions.
To the Editor:. In your Jan. 6 Topics item "Taste Test" you suggest that potato chips are Americas prototypical "junk food" and state that chips are "too thin to offer much nourishment" and that their main purpose is to "deliver a heavy and unhealthy dose of salt." We think it important to clarify some information for your readers.. There are indeed junk diets, but the term "junk food" is misleading. Every food has some nutritional value. To say potato chips have no nutritional value is simply false. Most packages of chips carry a nutrition label which states that the average serving (1 oz.) offers a variety of nutrients, including 10 percent of the U.S. R.D.A. of vitamin C and vitamin B6.. The amount of salt (sodium) in an ounce of potato chips - about 260 milligrams - is less than you would find in a serving of two one ounce slices of enriched bread or an ounce of pasteurized processed American cheese. Chips taste "salty" because the salt is on the surface, not because it is in great ...
Global Potato Chips (Savory Snacks) Market - Outlook to 2020: Market Size, Growth and Forecast Analytics is a new market research publication announced by Reportstack. This report is a broad level market review of Global Potato Chips market by country. The research handbook provides the up-to-date market size data for period 2011-2015 and illustrative forecast to 2020 covering key market aspects like Sales Value and Volume for Potato Chips and its variants . The research handbook also provides analytics on Sales by Brands and by Distribution Channel. ...
Horizontal starch-gel electrophoresis was used to obtain baseline genetic information on critically endangered Pseudobarbus quathlambae populations in the Senqunyane, Jordane and Bokong Rivers in the Lesotho Highlands. Allelic frequencies were similar between the populations and generations studied. However, allele classes at a large number of polymorphic loci deviated from expected proportions, probably as a result of inbreeding, brought about by isolation in upper catchment streams. Average heterozygosity values range from 4.2-6.2% and the average genetic distance between the populations is 0.008. Gene flow between populations and between generations is good and the populations in the study area can be regarded as a single large population ...
A method of making a gel drop protein chip by transferring proteins, which were obtained from a cellular lysate, partitioned using two-dimensional, protein fractionation, and mixed with a polymeric matrix solution containing acrylamide/bis and glycerol, to an array; a method of making a gel drop protein chip by transferring proteins, which were derivatized with N-hydroxysuccinimide ester of N-methacryloyl-6-aminocaproic acid (NHS monomer), and mixed with a polymeric matrix solution containing acrylamide/bis and glycerol, to an array; a gel drop protein chip containing proteins in a polymeric matrix solution containing acrylamide/bis glycerol; a method of using the gel drop protein chip to interrogate a sample; and a protein derivatized with the NHS monomer.
PathwayCommons: ctd Pathway. 3-(3-methoxyphenyl)-N-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acrylamide inhibits the reaction [9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene results in increased activity of CYP1A2 protein] onclick="removeFacet(PathwayCommons: ctd Pathway/3-(3-methoxyphenyl)-N-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acrylamide inhibits the reaction [9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene results in increased activity of CYP1A2 protein])"> PathwayCommons: ctd Pathway 3-(3-methoxyphenyl)-N-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acrylamide inhibits the reaction [9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene results in increased activity of CYP1A2 protein] ...
14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved regulatory molecules that are expressed in all eukaryotic cells. 14-3-3 proteins have the ability to bind a multitude of functionally diverse signaling proteins, including kinases, phosphatases, and transmembrane receptors. More than 200 signaling proteins have been reported as 14-3-3 ligands. The name 14-3-3 refers to the particular elution and migration pattern of these proteins on DEAE-cellulose chromatography and starch-gel electrophoresis. The 14-3-3 proteins eluted in the 14th fraction of bovine brain homogenate and were found on positions 3.3 of subsequent electrophoresis by Moore and Perez (1967). Elevated amounts of 14-3-3 proteins are found in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. There are seven genes that encode seven distinct 14-3-3 proteins in most mammals (See Human genes below) and 13-15 genes in many higher plants, though typically in ...
For me, the most fascinating segment of Morgan Spurlocks documentary on McDonalds, called Super Size Me, involved the man who has become famous for eating almost nothing but Big Macs since 1972. Don Gorske is the Guinness world record holder for number of Big Macs eaten, having passed 19,800 Big Macs as of June, 2004. Don has eaten anywhere between two and nine Big Macs per day, almost every day since 1972, and yet, his height-weight ratio and blood tests indicate that he is in relatively good health. What I find particularly interesting is that he reports almost never eating French fries. This is in line with my personal belief that French fries are the worst item on the menu at fast food restaurants. Sure, coca cola, processed cheese, and factory farmed meats arent much better. But what is it about deep-fried potatoes that makes them so harmful to health? They are loaded with trans fats, known to cause immune system depression, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, sterility, birth ...
In 1987, the EPA classified formaldehyde as a probable human carcinogen under conditions of unusually high or prolonged exposure. The current draft assessment finds that formaldehyde could be up to five times more likely to cause cancer in humans than the EPA previously calculated. The EPAs preliminary conclusions find that formaldehyde can cause up to one occurrence of cancer for every 1,000 people who breathe it at exposure levels the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considers "typical." The EPAs draft further finds that formaldehyde exposure could increase the frequency of asthma attacks among children and result in harm to childrens lung function and their immune systems.. Last week, in related legislation, The Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products Act(H.R. 4805) (the "Act") was passed in the House, amending the Toxic Substances Control Act, to set stricter formaldehyde emissions limits for plywood and other composite wood products. The Senate approved the Act ...
Although the short-term health effects of formaldehyde exposure are well known, less is known about its potential long-term health effects. In 1980, laboratory studies showed that exposure to formaldehyde could cause nasal cancer in rats. This finding raised the question of whether formaldehyde exposure could also cause cancer in humans. In 1987, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified formaldehyde as a probable human carcinogen under conditions of unusually high or prolonged exposure (1). Since that time, some studies of humans have suggested that formaldehyde exposure is associated with certain types of cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies formaldehyde as a human carcinogen (2). In 2011, the National Toxicology Program, an interagency program of the Department of Health and Human Services, named formaldehyde as a known human carcinogen in its 12th Report on Carcinogens (3). ...
Captan was previously cited as Group B2, a probable human carcinogen by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),[5] but was reclassified in 2004. Since the mode of action has been established as a proliferative response (in mice only) after intestinal villi are disrupted, captan has been deemed not likely to cause tumors at doses that do not irritate the intestine. The EPA now states, "The new cancer classification considers captan to be a potential carcinogen at prolonged high doses that cause cytotoxicity and regenerative cell hyperplasia. These high doses of captan are many orders of magnitude above those likely to be consumed in the diet, or encountered by individuals in occupational or residential settings. Therefore, captan is not likely to be a human carcinogen nor pose cancer risks of concern when used in accordance with approved product labels.[6] A similar reclassification has been made for folpet, a structurally related fungicide, which shares a common mechanism of ...
Pavement sealant is a black liquid sprayed or painted on the asphalt pavement of parking lots, driveways and playgrounds to improve appearance and protect the underlying asphalt. Pavement sealants that contain coal tar have extremely high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Coal tar is a known human carcinogen; several PAHs are probable human carcinogens and some are toxic to fish and other aquatic life.. Rainwater runoff collected as long as three months after coal-tar-sealcoat application caused 100% mortality to minnows and water fleas, which are part of the base of the food chain, when the test organisms were exposed to ultra-violet radiation to simulate sunlight. The full study, reported in the scientific journal Environmental Science and Technology, is available online.. Exposure of fish cells to coal-tar sealant runoff damaged their DNA and impaired the ability of the cells to repair DNA damage. "The simultaneous occurrence of DNA damage and impairment of DNA repair has ...
Preservatives Bronopol, often listed as 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, can contribute to the formation of cancer-causing nitrosamines, according to the FDA. It can also break down to produce formaldehyde (see below). Formaldehyde, found in eye shadows, mascaras and other cosmetics, is "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen," according to the National Toxicology Programs "Ninth Report on Carcinogens" (January 2001)**. The EPA classifies it as a probable human carcinogen. In its liquid state, formaldehyde, present in the ingredients DMDM hydantoin, diazolidinyl urea imidazolidinyl urea and quaternium-15, can be absorbed through the skin and nails. As a volatile organic compound, or VOC, formaldehyde evaporates when the product is wet; levels drop sharply once its dry. Consumer concern has led many manufacturers to remove it from their nail polishes. Health Problems: Breathing formaldehyde fumes has been associated with many types of cancers, including those of the nose and throat. ...
The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.. Online ISSN: 1943-2631. ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are toxic compounds commonly found in nature, and are constituents of coal and petroleum. Seven PAHs have been classified as probable human carcinogens by the US EPA. This application note describes a QuEChERS-based sample preparation protocol for the determination of PAH in shrimp. QuEChERS methodology is quicker, easier, cheaper and safer than prior methods of sample preparation.
The vote capped a campaign led by the local advocacy group Non Toxic Irvine, which has been advocating that the city nix synthetic pesticides in favor of better plant management and materials compatible with organic practices. The group is led by local mothers concerned about the synthetic pesticide health risks related to children. Kathleen Hallal, a leader with Non Toxic Irvine, said, "It is not radical for a city to use organic methods. Its radical to use toxic methods to control weeds and pests around our children.". According to the Orange County Register, in May 2015, the Irvine Unified School District (IUSD) agreed to end the use of glyphosate (RoundUp) on all school properties. The school board was persuaded by the presentation by Non Toxic Irvine, which pointed to the World Health Organizations (WHO) International Agency for the Research on Cancer (IARC) classification of glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen, or chemical that causes cancer in humans based on laboratory testing. ...
Pentachlorophenol, a manufactured chemical, was used in wood treating that took place while the McCormick & Baxter facility operated. It is a restricted use pesticide that has been used industrially for decades as a wood preservative for utility poles, railroad ties, and wharf pilings. Exposure to high levels of pentachlorophenol has been shown to cause liver damage, harm the immune system, and have damaging reproductive and developmental effects. EPA has also identified pentachlorophenol as a probable human carcinogen. ...
Looking for online definition of familial nonspherocytic anemia of Basenji dogs in the Medical Dictionary? familial nonspherocytic anemia of Basenji dogs explanation free. What is familial nonspherocytic anemia of Basenji dogs? Meaning of familial nonspherocytic anemia of Basenji dogs medical term. What does familial nonspherocytic anemia of Basenji dogs mean?
Epidemiological (yawn) data published from large longitudinal cohort studies such as the Womens Health Study, Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, Physicians Health Study, and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) have helped to identify food constituents (dietary folate, vitamin C) 3, 4, 5 and 6, food patterns (cruciferous vegetables) 4, 7 and 8, and specific food outcomes (carrots, tomatoes) 6, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 as more directly linked to reduced risk for selected chronic diseases. For example, consumption in the highest quintiles of green leafy vegetables is associated with a risk reduced by 6% to 30% for cardiovascular disease and stroke 4, 7 and 8. High intakes of broccoli and spinach are associated with reduced risk for some cancers 11 and 12 and cataract formation 13, 14 and 15. The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer (1986-1992; n=62,573) further specified that women with the highest consumption of cooked cauliflower and cooked spinach were associated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Unstable hemoglobin hemolytic anemia. T2 - In vitro incubation studies on erythrocytes with hemoglobin Sabine. AU - Mills, Gordon C.. AU - Alperin, Jack B.. AU - Hill, Freddie L.. AU - Henderson, Ralph J.. PY - 1971. Y1 - 1971. N2 - Additional biochemical studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of the presence of an unstable hemoglobin (Hb Sabine) on metabolism of erythrocytes. In vitro incubation under physiological conditions of these erythrocytes for periods of 5-15 hours has been utilized to evaluate effects of various additives on metabolism of the cells. The addition of adenine to the blood stimulates adenine nucleotide biosynthesis and is effective in maintaining levels of adenine nucleotides. An excessive rate of breakdown of adenine nucleotides to hypoxanthine has been shown previously to be a major factor in the inability of these cells to maintain ATP. The addition of azide during in vitro incubation proved detrimental to the metabolism of these ...
Detailed nutritional values of Snacks, potato chips, made from dried potatoes (preformed), multigrain. Online analysis information with non-nutrients and nutrients composition facts table for item No. 25063 found in category Snacks. Data contents chart for nutritionists. Food details for Snacks, potato chips, fr dried potatoes, multigrain in different kinds of quantities, amounts or measurements.
Its called squamous cell carcinoma on my left tonsil," she explained.. This type of cancer has been found in people like NBA coach George Karl (on his right tonsil), and famously in iconic film critic Roger Ebert, who had the cancer in his head and neck. Karl recovered and is back coaching; Ebert had complications with the surgery, passing away in 2013.. Luckily for Moore, her squamous cell carcinoma was caught in its early stages. Shell begin radiation and chemotherapy treatment.. "The potato chip was a blessing in disguise," Moore said. "I probably wouldnt have found out another year.". This is probably the only time youll hear potato chips improving someones health.. ...
Comprehensive nutrition resource for Miss Vickies Potato Chips, Original Recipe, Handmade Style. Learn about the number of calories and nutritional and diet information for Miss Vickies Potato Chips, Original Recipe, Handmade Style. This is part of our comprehensive database of 40,000 foods including foods from hundreds of popular restaurants and thousands of brands.
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Find Out How Many Calories Are In Deep River Snacks Salt Vinegar Kettle Cooked Potato Chips, Good or Bad Points and Other Nutrition Facts about it. Take a look at Deep River Snacks Salt Vinegar Kettle Cooked Potato Chips related products and other millions of foods.
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Steady-state fluorescence (SSF) technique was employed for studying swelling of polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels. Disc-shaped gels were prepared by free-radical crosslinking copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm) with N, N- methylenebis (acrylamide) (BIS) as crosslinker in the presence of ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator. Pyranine was introduced as a fluorescence probe. Fluorescence intensity of pyranine was measured during in situ swelling process at various temperatures and it was observed that fluorescence intensity values decreased as swelling is proceeded. Li-Tanaka equation was used to determine the swelling time constants, tau(c) and cooperative diffusion coefficients, D-c from intensity, weight and volume variations during the swelling processes. It is observed that swelling time constants, tau(c) decreased and diffusion coefficients, D-c increased as the swelling temperature ...
Absorbent hydrogels are formed by reacting a protein meal base, a radical initiator and a polymerizable monomer. Optionally, a cross-linking agent and/or a radical accelerant, such as tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA) or sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3), is also added to the mixture. Preferably, the radical initiator is ammonium persulfate (APS) or potassium persulfate (KPS), and the cross-linking agent is preferably trifunctional trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) or methylene bis acrylamide (MBA). The polymerizable monomer is preferably acrylic acid, or a combination of acrylic acid and acrylamide. The as-formed hydrogel is washed in order to extract non-reactant components from the gel and then dried. The resultant absorbent and superabsorbent hydrogels have high water uptake ratios, and can be utilized for a variety of applications.
Glimpse Hepatoxicity, drug-induced E Electrophiles definition and mood properties, 99 role of toxicodynamic reworking, 137 Endocrine disrupters, 214 Endotoxin, character in rummy liver plague, 270 Environmental Guardianship Intercession (US-EPA), 18 growth of cell-phone exposure sensors, 39 company, 17 capacity in Tox21 program, 123 Environmental toxicology, 18 longterm colliding of pesticides, 216 Swedish subway acrylamide instalment, 251 vinyl chloride accidents and environmental contamination, 248 Epidemiological studies intimacy of moonshine drinking with cancer risks, 276 British Doctors Study & smoking-related cancer, 294 cardiovascular benefits from non-exclusive smoking reduction, 292 equivocal relating to acrylamide cancer risks, 253 weighting of carcinogens in humanitarian cancer, 228 Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), 136 Epigenetic mechanisms task in latent toxicity and embonpoint, 49 role in prenatal toxicity, 200 Index The using software is hassle version. ...
An optical biosensor for lactate detection is described. By encapsulating enzyme-phosphor sensing molecules within permeable hydrogel materials, lactate-sensitive emission lifetimes were achieved. The relative amount of monomer was varied to compare three homo- and co-polymer materials: poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) and two copolymers of pHEMA and poly(acrylamide) (pAam). Diffusion analysis demonstrated the ability to control lactate transport by varying the hydrogel composition, while having a minimal effect on oxygen diffusion. Sensors displayed the desired dose-variable response to lactate challenges, highlighting the tunable, diffusion-controlled nature of the sensing platform. Short-term repeated exposure tests revealed enhanced stability for sensors comprising hydrogels with acrylamide additives; after an initial
N-Isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM), N,N-dimethyl acrylamide (DMAA), and 2-acetamidoethyl acrylate (AcAMEA) were copolymerized with ethylene employing [(P^O)PdMe(DMSO)] (1-DMSO; P^O = κ2-P,O-Ar2PC6H4SO2O with Ar = 2-MeOC6H4) as a catalyst precursor. Inhibition studies with nonpolymerizable polar additives show that reversible κ-O-coordination of free amide retards polymerization significantly. Retardation of polymerization increases in the order ethyl acetate methyl ethyl sulfone , acetonitrile , N,N-dimethylacetamide ≈ N-methylacetamide ≈ propionic acid , dimethylsulfoxide. Pseudo-first-order rate constants for the insertion into 1-DMSO were determined to increase in the order DMAA , AcAMEA , NIPAM , methyl acrylate. Exposure of 1-DMSO to NIPAM resulted in the formation of consecutive insertion products [(P^O)Pd(C6H11NO2)nMe] (n ≤ 3), as determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The solid-state structure of the methanol adduct of the 2,1-insertion product of NIPAM ...
Objectif : La S-Adénosylméthionine (SAMe) est un important donneur de méthyle dans le cerveau. Cest aussi un antidépresseur qui a peu deffets secondaires signalés. La SAMe est toutefois relativement coûteuse et instable. Il est possible de hausser la concentration de SAMe dans le cerveau en administrant de la méthionine aux rats, ce qui indique que la méthionine pourrait être un antidépresseur. Nous voulions déterminer si la SAMe et la méthionine administrées oralement à des rats pourraient hausser la concentration de SAMe dans le système nerveux central (SNC). Nous voulions aussi vérifier la capacité relative de la SAMe et de la méthionine daccroître la latence du retrait de la queue après un stimulus thermique. Nous avons utilisé ce test pour mesurer les changement du fonctionnement du SNC. Méthodes : On a administré à des rats diverses doses de SAMe et de méthionine par voie orale et procédé par la suite à des tests biochimiques et comportementaux à des ...
Aims: The genetic diversity of Beauveria bassiana was investigated by comparing isolates of this species to each other (49 from different geographical regions of Brazil and 4 from USA) and to other Beauveria spp. Methods and Results: The isolates were examined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and rDNA sequencing. MLEE and AFLP revealed considerable genetic variability among B. bassiana isolates. Several isolates from South and Southeast Brazil had high similarity coefficients, providing evidence of at least one population with clonal structure. There were clear genomic differences between most Brazilian and USA B. bassiana isolates. A Mantel test using data generated by AFLP provided evidence that greater geographical distances were associated with higher genetic distances. AFLP and rDNA sequencing demonstrated notable genotypic variation between B. bassiana and other Beauveria spp. Conclusion: Geographical distance between ...
The group B streptococcus is a common cause of neonatal diseases, such as pneumonia, septicemia, and meningitis; but GBS is also known to cause invasive as well as noninvasive infections in adults. However, little is known about the genetic relationship among the isolates, the diversity of virulence, and possible differences in tropism among GBS isolates. We used MLST analysis and screened for the presence of mobile genetic elements among clinical isolates collected in two geographic regions in Sweden during a 10-year time span to investigate the population structure and dynamics among invasive GBS isolates.. By MLST analysis, 158 GBS invasive isolates collected from northern and western parts of Sweden were resolved into 29 STs and grouped into six genetic lineages, including five major clonal complexes and one singleton. The highly clonal structure has also been shown by a number of other methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus enzyme ...
DNA was isolated from four unrelated glucose phosphate isomerase-deficient patients. Seven new mutations in the coding region were found: 247 C--,T, 671 C--,T, 818 G--,A, 833 C--,T, 1039 C--,T, 1459 C--,T, and 1483 G--,A. Three patients were compound heterozygotes, and one patient was a homozygote of 247 C--,T/247 C--,T. Six mutations were found to involve highly conserved amino acids of glucose phosphate isomerase, suggesting that these residues are crucial for the maintenance of biological activity. Two polymorphic sites were also identified, 489 A--,G and 1356 G--,C, which do not produce a change in the amino acid sequence. ...
Using high resolution molecular fingerprinting techniques like random amplification of polymorphic DNA, repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, a high bacterial diversity below the species and subspecies level (microdiversity) is revealed. It became apparent that bacteria of a certain species living in close association with different plants either as associated rhizosphere bacteria or as plant pathogens or symbiotic organisms, typically reflect this relationship in their genetic relatedness. The strain composition within a population of soil bacterial species at a given field site, which can be identified by these high resolution fingerprinting techniques, was markedly influenced by soil management and soil features. The observed bacterial microdiversity reflected the conditions of the habitat, which select for better adapted forms. In addition, influences of spatial separation on specific groupings of bacteria were ...
lar Systematics, Second Edition, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass., pp. 407-514.. Edwards, K.J. 1998. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs). In A. Karp, P.G. Isaac and D.S. Ingram (eds.), Molecular Tools for Screening Biodiversity, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 171-179.. Frankel, O.H., A.D.H. Brown, and J.J. Burdon. 1995. The Conservation of Plant Biodiversity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.. Gallez, G.P. and L.D. Gottlieb. 1982. Genetic evidence for the hybrid origin of the diploid plant Stephanomeria diegensis. Evolution 36: 1158-1167.. Gottlieb, L.D. 1981. Electrophoretic evidence and plant populations. Prog. Phytochem. 7: 1-46.. Hamrick, J.L. and M.J.W. Godt. 1989. Allozyme diversity in plant species. In A.D.H. Brown, M.T. Clegg, A.L. Kahler and B.S. Weir (eds.), Plant Population Genetics, Breeding, and Genetic Resources, Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass., pp. 43-63.. Ito, M. and M. Ono. 1990. Allozyme diversity and the evolution of Crepidiastrum (Compositae) on the ...
Trypanosoma cruzi infection in central Mexico has not been fully documented, yet some data suggest its presence. In this work, sera from 211 subjects living in the state of Morelos and at risk of T. cruzi infection due to their living in contact with the vector were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to a total antigen extract of a Mexican isolate of T. cruzi. A seropositivity of 20% was demonstrated by both an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting. Furthermore, parasites were isolated from five seropositive individuals, and these were genetically characterized as T. cruzi by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. A case-control electrocardiographic study was conducted that included the seropositive individuals and twice as many seronegative controls living in the same area. A significant correlation was found between seropositivity and electrocardiographic alterations. These findings have important implications for perception of the prevalence of Chagas' disease in ...
Glucose phosphate broth is used to perform Methyl Red (MR) test and Voges Proskauer (VP) test. Glucose - 5 g/l Dipotassium phosphate - 5 g/l Proteose Peptone - 5 g/l Distilled water - 1000 ml pH - 6.9 Principle: It is used to determine the ability of an organism to produce mixed acids by fermentation of glucose and to overcome the buffering capacity of the medium. Inoculate MacConkeys (Glucose phosphate broth) with pure culture of test organism. Incubate the broth at 35 °C for 48-72 hours. After incubation add 5 drops of Methyl Red directly into the broth, through the sides of the tube. The development of stable red color in the surface of the medium indicates sufficient acid production to lower the pH to 4.4 and constitute a positive test. Since other organism may produce lesser quantities of acid from the test substrate, an intermediate orange color between yellow and red may develop. This does not indicate positive test. Positive and negative controls should be run after preparation of each ...
Boxshall, G.; Walter, T. Chad (2011). Monoculus thorace Ström, 1770. In: Walter, T.C. & Boxshall, G. (2017). World of Copepods database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=365814 on 2017-11- ...
Five alleles representing three electromorphs of phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) have been transferred from natural isolates of E. coli into the genetic background of E. coli K12 and examined for their effect on growth rate in chemostats limited for glucose or fructose. With glucose limitation, all alleles are selectively neutral or nearly neutral within the limit of resolution of the technique, whether the genetic background is nonmutant or whether it contains a deletion of the locus of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the enzyme that provides an alternative metabolic pathway for the substrate of PGI. With fructose limitation, one of the naturally occurring alleles has a small but reproducible detrimental effect on growth rate. A kinetic difference in this detrimental allozyme, apparently relating to an inhibition constant, has been observed in some, but not all, lots of substrate, and a similar difference has also been noted in one of the rare electromorphs that could not be transferred ...
Hemoglobinopathies Associated with Unstable Hemoglobin. In: Lichtman MA, Kaushansky K, Prchal JT, Levi MM, Burns LJ, Armitage JO. Lichtman M.A., Kaushansky K, Prchal J.T., Levi M.M., Burns L.J., Armitage J.O. Eds. Marshall A. Lichtman, et al.eds. Williams Manual of Hematology, 9e New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; . http://hemonc.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1889§ionid=137388048. Accessed January 22, 2018 ...
The elasmobranch Mustelus canis has been shown to produce antibodies to Limulus hemocyanin. The serum of both normal and immunized M. canis contains immunoglobulins having sedimentation coefficients of approximately 7S and 17S. Antibody activity was found in the 17S immunoglobulin which may be dissociated to 7S components with concomitant loss of activity. Both 17S and 7S serum, immunoglobulins were antigenically identical. They consisted of light and heavy chains present in amounts comparable to those of higher vertebrates. Peptide maps indicated that the light chains had an entirely different primary structure than the heavy chains, but that the corresponding chains of 7S and 17S dogfish serum immunoglobulins were similar in primary structure. The heavy chains appeared to resemble the n chains of immunoglobulins of higher vertebrates in their starch gel electrophoretic behavior. It is suggested that the elasmobranch M. canis may have only one major class ...
Evaluation of nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. Evaluation of neonatal anemia. Evaluation of unusually severe hemoglobin S trait. Evaluation of unusually severe glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Investigating families with pyruvate kinase deficiency to determine inheritance pattern and for genetic counseling. ...
The Indian Himalayas, being semi-isolated geographically, provide ideal conditions for population genetics investigations. The main aim of this study is to genetically characterize and analyze the genetic structure of the people of Uttarakhand, a newly created North Indian hill state in the Central Himalayas, using original phenotype and allele-frequency data on a battery of seven red cell enzyme polymorphisms. For this analysis, blood samples were collected from 3,222 unrelated subjects belonging to various endogamous caste populations (Brahmin, Rajput, and Shilpkar) and tribal Bhotia inhabiting seven different districts in the Garhwal (northern) and Kumaon (southern) regions of Uttarakhand. Hemolysates were typed for isozymes of ESD, PGM1, ADA, AK1, GLO1, ACP1, and GPI using standard electrophoretic techniques. The genetic structure of these regional caste and tribal population groups was investigated with the help of different statistical measures. The present biochemical marker results show that the
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
I used to reinstall Team Fortress 2 every year for Halloween, dressing up in seasonal cosmetics to fight giant enemies like the Horseless Headless Horsemann, Monoculus, and Merasmus, or to just drive around in karts. Those events continue, and Scream Fortress 11 is live right now. As is the case in recent years it's more of a showcase for player-made creations, with two community maps and a host of community-created cosmetics.Those maps are a king of the hill map called Laughter, and a payload map called Precipice. The cosmetics are bundled in a collection called Spooky Spoils which includes a bird head for the Engineer, a shark head for the Pyro, and a two-piece velociraptor costume for the Scout. The Soul Gargoyle from previous years returns as well.
Intimacy counselling. Find out more about our free, confidential counselling with medical specialists trained in intimacy, body image, sexual confidence and relationships. Available to all those facing cancer and their partners, including members of the LGBTQI community. ...
Pitched at a level suitable for teaching post-baccalaureate courses in the separation sciences this textbook presents a comprehensive survey of chromatographic and capillary electrophoretic techniques.Poole, Colin F. is the author of Essence of Chromatography, published 2002 under ISBN 9780444501998 and ISBN 0444501991. [read more] ...
This pack is the DNA and DNA ladder refill for the HNPCC: Detecting Inherited Forms of Cancer CarolinaBLU™ Kit (item #214820). Pack does not come with any additional instructions or support material. It is designed to be used in conjunction with the kit.
Carosi G.; Piccardo V.; Maccabruni A.; Parisi A.; Franschini G.; Comelli M., 1982: Epidemiological analysis of cases of malaria imported into italy during the period 1976 1980
A Molecular Epidemiological Analysis Of Programmed Cell Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) Protein Expression, Mutations And Survival In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
ALP isoenzyme test - MedHelps ALP isoenzyme test Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for ALP isoenzyme test. Find ALP isoenzyme test information, treatments for ALP isoenzyme test and ALP isoenzyme test symptoms.
Takahasi, J.I. and H. Okada, 1976. Karyotypes and electrophoretic patterns in loaches of the genus Cobitis. Jap. J. Ichthyol. 23(2):114-117 ...

Patent US6613581 - Microfluidic analytic detection assays, devices, and integrated systems - Google PatentsPatent US6613581 - Microfluidic analytic detection assays, devices, and integrated systems - Google Patents

Preferred gel materials include agarose based gels, various forms of acrylamide based gels (reagents available from, e.g., ... The blocking solution typically comprises a blocking protein. The blocking solution is preferably a buffer solution comprising ... The mixtures of components of the invention are separated in one embodiment by electrophoresis in a polymer or gel, such as a ... and hydrated starches. For a review of electrophoretic separation techniques and polyacrylamide gels, see, e.g., The ...
more infohttp://www.google.ca/patents/US6613581

US Patent for Microfluidic in-line labeling method for continuous-flow protease inhibition analysis Patent (Patent #  6,468,761...US Patent for Microfluidic in-line labeling method for continuous-flow protease inhibition analysis Patent (Patent # 6,468,761...

Preferred gel materials include agarose based gels, various forms of acrylamide based gels (reagents available from, e.g., ... Fluidic materials, such as protease solutions, i.e., solutions comprising protease enzymes, substrate solutions, labeling ... silica gel, and the like. Alternatively, a buffer alone is used in the separation channel, e.g., in capillary electrophoresis. ... and hydrated starches. For a review of electrophoretic separation techniques and polyacrylamide gels, see, e.g., The ...
more infohttps://patents.justia.com/patent/6468761

Flavonoid-Deficient Mutants in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): Genetic Control, Linkage Relationships, and Mapping with...Flavonoid-Deficient Mutants in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): Genetic Control, Linkage Relationships, and Mapping with...

Isozyme Analysis: Gel Electrophoresis and Nomenclature. Horizontal 10% starch-gel (Sigma) electrophoresis was carried out to ... acrylamide gels in TRIS-boric-EDTA buffer (pH 8.0). For staining of GSNOR activity, gels were soaked in 0.1 M sodium phosphate ... aqueous solution of EMS (Sigma-Aldrich) for 10 h with intermediate shaking at 25 ± 2°C. M1 seeds were sown treatment-wise in ... B. J. Cardy, C. W. Stuber, and M. M. Goodman, Techniques for starch gel electrophoresis of enzymes from maize (Zea mays L.), ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2012/345983/

Blood proteins facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Blood proteinsBlood proteins facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Blood proteins

The latter may be a normal solution or held upon a porous medium (e.g. starch, acrylamide gel, or cellulose acetate). The rate ... In gel electrophoresis the medium is a gel, typically made of polyacrylamide, agarose, or starch. Electrophoresis, which has ... The liquid may be a normal solution or held upon a porous medium (e.g. starch, acryl-amide gel, or cellulose acetate). The rate ... The liquid may be a normal solution or held upon a porous medium (e.g. starch, acrylamide gel, or cellulose acetate). The rate ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/chemistry/chemistry-general/blood-proteins

Frontiers | Integral Use of Amaranth Starch to Obtain Cyclodextrin Glycosyltransferase, by Bacillus megaterium, to Produce β...Frontiers | Integral Use of Amaranth Starch to Obtain Cyclodextrin Glycosyltransferase, by Bacillus megaterium, to Produce β...

Although waxy corn starch (CS) is used industrially to obtain CGTase and CDs because of its high amylopectin content, ... Although waxy corn starch (CS) is used industrially to obtain CGTase and CDs because of its high amylopectin content, ... from starch and related carbohydrates, producing a mixture of α-, β-, and γ-CDs in different amounts. CGTase production, mainly ... total CDs using AS which was roughly twice as much as that of corn starch (CS; 24.48%). High costs to produce CDs in the ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01513/full

QPNC-PAGE - WikipediaQPNC-PAGE - Wikipedia

"Electrophoresis of proteins in polyacrylamide and starch gels (Part I, Chapter 2 Acrylamide gel)". Laboratory Techniques in ... acrylamide/aqueous solution) to 10 (acrylamide/buffer solution) for acrylamide gels with total monomer concentrations in the ... "Gel composition in gels for submurged gel electrophoresis". Patent US5458760 (A). Westermeier R (2016). Electrophoresis in ... Electrophoresis Gel electrophoresis Protein electrophoresis Protein purification Metallome Seelert H, Krause F (2008). " ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/QPNC-PAGE

Gel electrophoresis - WikipediaGel electrophoresis - Wikipedia

... introduction of starch gels, mediocre separation (Smithies) 1959 - introduction of acrylamide gels; disc electrophoresis ( ... gels may melt during electrophoresis. Electrophoresis is performed in buffer solutions to reduce pH changes due to the electric ... Gel electrophoresis can also be used for separation of nanoparticles. Gel electrophoresis uses a gel as an anticonvective ... by native gel electrophoresis, by preparative gel electrophoresis (QPNC-PAGE), or by 2-D electrophoresis. Characterization ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gel_electrophoresis

Role of adventitious roots in water relations of tamarack (Larix laricina) seedlings exposed to flooding | BMC Plant Biology |...Role of adventitious roots in water relations of tamarack (Larix laricina) seedlings exposed to flooding | BMC Plant Biology |...

... adventitious roots in flooded plants also exhibited retarded xylem and endodermal development and accumulated numerous starch ... sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (12% acrylamide resolving gel) was performed with proteins (30 μg) ... The mineral solution was changed once a week. The initial oxygen concentration of the solution after each weekly change was ... Starch content and distribution was examined in fresh, free-hand sections taken up to 1 cm from the root tip of non-flooded ...
more infohttps://bmcplantbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2229-12-99

Patent US5521067 - Bone marrow cell adhesion molecules and process for detecting adherence ... - Google PatentsPatent US5521067 - Bone marrow cell adhesion molecules and process for detecting adherence ... - Google Patents

... solution. These proteins and antibodies raised against them are useful in the treatment and diagnosis of blood disorders. The ... The solution is then subjected polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to form a gel containing the cell adhesion molecules which ... or pulverized acrylamide gel containing the protein or polypeptide after SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The rabbits ... potato starch, or alginic acid, and a lubricant like stearic acid or magnesium stearate. ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US5521067?dq=7751826

Two Simple and Inexpensive Laboratory Exercises for Teaching Agarose Gel Electrophoresis and DNA Fingerprinting in:...Two Simple and Inexpensive Laboratory Exercises for Teaching Agarose Gel Electrophoresis and DNA Fingerprinting in:...

The gelling medium can be made from a variety of materials, including potato starch, agarose, or acrylamide. In the past, gels ... The gel is now ready to receive the dye solutions-be sure that 1× TAE buffer has been added to the reservoirs and covers the ... These types of gels are often referred to as polyacrylamide (two types of acrylamide) gels (PAG). Gel polymerization with PAG ... However, acrylamide gels are more difficult to work with than agarose gels and contain some very toxic components. For example ...
more infohttps://journals.ashs.org/horttech/view/journals/horttech/18/1/article-p177.xml

Patent US5093257 - Hybrid prokaryotic polypeptides produced by in vivo homologous recombination - Google PatentsPatent US5093257 - Hybrid prokaryotic polypeptides produced by in vivo homologous recombination - Google Patents

The enzymes were then eluted from the column by raising the temperature to 50 C. Starch was removed from the enzymes by gel ... of a given fragment of DNA from a restriction digest means separation of the digest by a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, ... and then purified on poly-acrylamide gels.. "Preparation" of DNA from transformants means isolating plasmid DNA from microbial ... about 1 microgram of plasmid or DNA fragment is used with about 1 unit of enzyme and about 20 microliters of buffer solution. ...
more infohttp://www.google.co.uk/patents/US5093257

Two Cytosolic Glutamine Synthetase Isoforms of Maize Are Specifically Involved in the Control of Grain Production | Plant CellTwo Cytosolic Glutamine Synthetase Isoforms of Maize Are Specifically Involved in the Control of Grain Production | Plant Cell

In-gel digestion was performed with the Progest system (Genomic Solution) according to a standard trypsin protocol. Gel pieces ... Gel Electrophoresis, Protein Gel Blot Analysis, and Protein Sequencing. Proteins were extracted from frozen leaf powder in cold ... cy, cytosol; p, plastid; m, mitochondrion; s, starch granules. Arrows indicate the presence of GS protein. ... Spots were picked out and the acrylamide pieces were collected in 96-well microplates. ...
more infohttp://www.plantcell.org/content/18/11/3252.full

Patent US8123775 - Embolism protection devices - Google PatentsPatent US8123775 - Embolism protection devices - Google Patents

A 2.8 ml solution was prepared comprising 1.5 ml-5 weight % acrylamide solution (approximate final concentration based on a ... A 50 μl quantity of this solution was frozen. The remainder was poured off and replaced with another 5 ml of PBS. Both the gels ... Electrophoresis 2001, 22, 4303-4310.. *28. Mandeville, III, et al., Ionic polymers as anti-infective agents U.S. Pat. No. ... Trimnell D, Fanta C F. Formulations Prepared from Polyacrylamide and Starch. J. Polym. Mater. 1994; 11:271-277. ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US8123775?dq=5491774

Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide Discontinuous Gel Electrophoresis of Proteins | Springer for Research & DevelopmentCetyltrimethylammonium Bromide Discontinuous Gel Electrophoresis of Proteins | Springer for Research & Development

This chapter describes a novel method of electrophoresis that allows the fine separation of proteins to be carried out with the ... Ferguson, K. (1964) Starch gel electrophoresis-Application to the classification of pituitary proteins and polypeptides. ... Tanford, C., Nozaki, Y., Reynolds, J. A., and Makino, S. (1974) Molecular characteriza-tion of proteins in detergent solutions ... Bio-Rad (1987) "Bio-Rad Technical Bulletin #1156: Acrylamide Polymerization-A Practical Approach." Bio-Rad Laboratories, ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/protocol/10.1385%2F1-59259-169-8%3A87

Pancreatitis-associated Protein Protects the Lung from Leukocyte-induced Injury   | Anesthesiology | ASA PublicationsPancreatitis-associated Protein Protects the Lung from Leukocyte-induced Injury | Anesthesiology | ASA Publications

25 Part of the protein solution was submitted to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (15% acrylamide; 0.5 ... After the cannulation procedure, the lungs were perfused with 200 ml Krebs Henseleit hydroxy-ethyl-starch buffer solution (KHB ... Affi-Gel 10 gel; Bio-Rad, Ivry sur Seine, France) according to the manufacturers specifications. The column was equilibrated ... 26 The gels were either stained by a silver-staining method, 27 or the samples were blotted on nitrocellulose membranes, and ...
more infohttp://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1946609

Effects of Quaternary-Ammonium-Based Formulations on Bacterial Community Dynamics and Antimicrobial Susceptibility | Applied...Effects of Quaternary-Ammonium-Based Formulations on Bacterial Community Dynamics and Antimicrobial Susceptibility | Applied...

... acrylamide (acrylamide/bisacrylamide ratio, 37.5:1) stock solutions (Sigma). On this basis, a denaturation gradient for ... Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in microbial ecology, p. 1-27. In A. D. L. Akkermans, J. D. van Elsas, and F. J ... starch, 1.0; peptone, 0.5; tryptone, 0.5; yeast extract, 0.5; NaCl, 1.0; margarine (Flora; Unilever, Crawley, United Kingdom), ... The amount and quality of DNA extracted were estimated by electrophoresis of 5-μl aliquots on a 0.8% agarose gel and by ...
more infohttps://aem.asm.org/content/70/6/3449.full?site=ApplEnvironMicrobiol&utm_source=TrendMDApplEnvironMicrobiol&utm_medium=TrendMDApplEnvironMicrobiol&utm_campaign=trendmdalljournals_0

Microbial Characterization of Biofilms in Domestic Drains and the Establishment of Stable Biofilm Microcosms | Applied and...Microbial Characterization of Biofilms in Domestic Drains and the Establishment of Stable Biofilm Microcosms | Applied and...

... acrylamide (acrylamide-bisacrylamide, 37.5:1) stock solutions (Sigma). On this basis, a denaturation gradient for parallel DGGE ... Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in microbial ecology, p. 1-27. In A. D. L. Akkermans, J. D. van Elsas, and F. J ... starch, 1.0; peptone, 0.5; tryptone, 0.5; yeast extract, 0.5; NaCl, 1.0; margarine (Flora; Van den Berg Foods, Ltd., Crawley, ... Electrophoresis was carried out at 150 V and 60°C for approximately 4.5 h. All gels were stained using SYBR Gold stain [diluted ...
more infohttps://aem.asm.org/content/69/1/177

Plus itPlus it

Panyim S, Chalkley R (1969) High resolution acrylamide gel electrophoresis of histones. Arch Biochem Biophys 130: 337-346. ... To assess its sensitivity to heat denaturation in aqueous solutions, Zea m 1d was pre-incubated for 4 h in 50 mm sodium acetate ... Poly(A+) RNA was isolated from young starch-filled pollen from maize inbred line K21, and a cDNA library was constructed in the ... The gel contained 10% (w/v) acrylamide, 0.27% (w/v) bisacrylamide, 50 mm acetic acid (pH 4.5), and 2.5 m urea. Samples were ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/content/132/4/2073

AU772213B2 - Biochemical purification devices with immobilized capture probes and their uses 
        - Google PatentsAU772213B2 - Biochemical purification devices with immobilized capture probes and their uses - Google Patents

The gel-loading-tip was prepared as described above using a solution containing acrylamide 1 x TBE, made from stock solutions ... A small volume of electrophoresis buffer was layered onto the surface of the gel in the probe-gel-tip and the gel-loading-tip ... Examples include chemically modified acrylamides, starch, dextrans and cellulose-based polymers. Additional examples include ... A Hybrigel solution was prepared from stock solutions of 40% acrylamide (29:1 acrylamide monomer:bis-acrylamide) and 10x TBE ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/AU772213B2/en

equipmentequipment

gel electrophoresis in a straw (keiki gels) *Keiki gels: Gel electrophoreis in a straw; described by one of the original idea ... since they dont expect anyone to use it for gels. Acrylamide is toxic until it polymerizes. You can buy precast gels to ... Table lists starches & flours: :: Table: Alternate to Agar. :"Silica gel is another possible solidifying agent. Likely totally ... "Agarose seems expensive (500g for $300) however this makes almost 25 litres of 2% solution, enough for approx. 1000 gels. 30 ...
more infohttps://diyhpl.us/wiki/diybio/faq/equipment/

Reagents, Strains, Buffers - Laboratory Reagents Manufacturer from ChennaiReagents, Strains, Buffers - Laboratory Reagents Manufacturer from Chennai

Bacterial Strains and Electrophoresis Buffers offered by OPRL Biosciences Pvt.,Ltd, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. ... Stacking Gel Mix (4%). *Starch Standard(10mg/ml). *Trizol. *Trypan Blue solution 0.4% ... Our range of products include laboratory reagents, pcr reagents, bacterial strains, electrophoresis buffers, laboratory buffers ... Acrylamide / Bis- Acrylamide -30% (28 : 2). *Acrylamide / Bis- Acrylamide -30% (29 : 1) ...
more infohttps://www.orangeindia.co.in/reagents-strains-buffers.html

Frontiers | The selective biotin tagging and thermolysin proteolysis of chloroplast outer envelope proteins reveals information...Frontiers | The selective biotin tagging and thermolysin proteolysis of chloroplast outer envelope proteins reveals information...

To evaluate this method, envelope, thylakoid and stroma proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and analyzed ... To evaluate this method, envelope, thylakoid and stroma proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and analyzed ... acrylamide gel and fixed with molten agarose solution to ensure good contact between gel and strip. Twelve gels were cast under ... Two-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (2-D PAGE). All reagents and materials were obtained from Bio-Rad unless ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2014.00203/full

Genetic differentiation of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum in the Asian part of the range, Russian Journal of...Genetic differentiation of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum in the Asian part of the range, Russian Journal of...

Serum Protein Electrophoresis in Acrylamide Gel: Patterns from Normal Human Subjects. Peacock, A.C.; Bunting, S.L.; Queen, K.G. ... Manual for Starch Gel Electrophoresis: A Method for the Detection of Genetic Variation ... "I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researchers problem of #access to #information.". @deepthiw ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/genetic-differentiation-of-pink-salmon-oncorhynchus-gorbuscha-walbaum-gGjEosmz0I

Genetic characterization of cysteine-rich type-b avenin-like protein coding genes in common wheat | Scientific ReportsGenetic characterization of cysteine-rich type-b avenin-like protein coding genes in common wheat | Scientific Reports

... agarose gel electrophoresis, and the expected fragments were purified from the gel using a Gel Extraction Kit (Promega, Madison ... acrylamide, 0.3% bis acrylamide, 0.1% SDS, and 0.125 M Tris-HCL (pH 6.8), and 8.7% acrylamide, 0.3% bis acrylamide, 0.1% SDS, ... 15 ml of upper solution of each sample were loaded on to the gel. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE according to Jackson et ... and starch properties50. These FMs play an important role in MAS-based breeding for improved wheat grain functionality. However ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/srep30692?error=cookies_not_supported&code=0a708842-6bb5-40b1-b364-8a1d2f88454b

Identification of the Soluble Starch Synthase Activities of Maize Endosperm | Plant PhysiologyIdentification of the Soluble Starch Synthase Activities of Maize Endosperm | Plant Physiology

... acrylamide gel containing 0.1% glycogen. Electrophoresis was performed under denaturing conditions (25 mm Tris-HCl, pH 8.3, 192 ... The solutions were incubated on ice for 90 min with gentle mixing every 10 to 15 min, after which 10% (w/v) protein A-Sepharose ... granule-bound starch synthase. GS. glycogen synthase. IPTG. isopropyl-1-thio-β-d-galactopyranoside. SS. starch synthase. ... 1984) Genetics and physiology of starch development. in Starch: Chemistry and Technology. eds Whistler RL, BeMiller JN, ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/content/120/1/205?ijkey=981e3d26864abc208398420e027a75a4a0e50db4&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
  • Control drain microcosm biofilms maintained dynamic stability, as evidenced by culture and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. (asm.org)
  • We have used heterotrophic plate counts, together with live-dead direct staining and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), to characterize the eubacterial communities that had formed as biofilms within domestic sink drain outlets. (asm.org)
  • Nucleic acids however, remain negative at any pH used for electrophoresis and in addition carry a fixed negative charge per unit length of molecule, provided by the PO4 group of each nucleotide of the the nucleic acid. (uct.ac.za)
  • Popular brands of food dyes (red, blue, yellow, and green) purchased at local markets are mixed into a 60% glycerol/water solution and are separated on 1% agarose gels using 100 V for 35 min. (ashs.org)
  • In this exercise, the internally transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal subunit for a fungus, plant, and insect are amplified and separated electrophoretically on agarose gels. (ashs.org)
  • This study identified the complement of soluble starch synthases (SSs) present in developing maize ( Zea mays ) endosperm. (plantphysiol.org)
  • An important step in understanding the specific functions of each SS isozyme in maize starch biosynthesis would be to determine which of the known cDNAs code for the major soluble enzyme activities present during endosperm development. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Cyclodextrins (CDs) are synthesized from starch and related carbohydrates such as amylose, amylopectin and maltooligosaccharide by cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase, E.C.2.4.1.19) which is a bacterial extracellular enzyme ( Ahmed and El-Refai, 2010 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Although, waxy corn starch (CS) is used industrially to obtain CGTase and CDs because of its high amylopectin content, alternative sources such as amaranth starch (AS) could be used to accomplish those purposes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although the pH value (10.00) of the electrophoresis buffer does not correspond to a physiological pH value within a cell or tissue type, the separated ring-shaped protein bands are eluted continuously into a physiological buffer solution (pH 8.00) and isolated in different fractions (see figure Electropherogram). (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the most frequently used tools in plant biotechnology, which includes genomics and proteomics, is gel electrophoresis. (ashs.org)
  • Plant starches are composed almost entirely of glucosyl units joined by either α(1→4) or α(1→6) glycoside bonds. (plantphysiol.org)
  • They all share the trait that they are a three-dimensional arrangement of intertwined strands, which produces holes (or pores) through the gel matrix. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Intact DNA is so large that it cannot move through the pores of a gel (although the technique of pulsed field electrophoresis does allow very large pieces of DNA to be examined). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Genetic and biochemical analyses reveal that individual SS isozymes have specific effects on starch structure, influencing both chain length and branch-linkage formation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • These exercises were developed to demonstrate the principles of electrophoresis and DNA fingerprinting in middle and high school and university laboratories with minimal expense and equipment. (ashs.org)
  • We also provide some technical background information on the basic principles of CAT gel operation and some points to keep in mind when considering the CAT system. (springer.com)
  • Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) is an enzyme that produces cyclodextrins (CDs) from starch and related carbohydrates, producing a mixture of α-, β-, and γ-CDs in different amounts. (frontiersin.org)
  • If several samples have been loaded into adjacent wells in the gel, they will run parallel in individual lanes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first exercise, electrophoresis of common food dyes, is primarily designed for secondary and undergraduate students, but can be used as an inexpensive means for introducing the main concepts of electrophoresis to anyone who has little or no experience, including graduate students. (ashs.org)
  • Scheele, G. A. (1982) Two-dimensional electrophoresis in basic and clinical research, as exemplified by studies on the exocrine pancreas. (springer.com)
  • The relative activity of the two isozymes did not change significantly during the starch biosynthetic period. (plantphysiol.org)
  • CGTase catalyzes the CDs formation from starch via inter- and intramolecular transglycosylation reactions, which include cycization, disproportionation, coupling, and hydrolysis. (frontiersin.org)