A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.
An early non-mammalian embryo that follows the MORULA stage. A blastula resembles a hollow ball with the layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity (blastocele). The layer of cells is called BLASTODERM.
A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.
The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.
The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Cells in certain regions of an embryo that self-regulate embryonic development. These organizers have been found in dorsal and ventral poles of GASTRULA embryos, including Spemann organizer in amphibians, and Hensen node in chicken and mouse. These organizer cells communicate with each other via a network of secreted signaling proteins, such as BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS and their antagonists (chordin and noggin).
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
A linear band of rapidly proliferating cells that begins near the posterior end of an embryo and grows cranially. Primitive streak is formed during GASTRULATION by the convergent migration of primary ectodermal cells (EPIBLAST). The knot at the tip of the streak is called HENSEN NODE.
Goosecoid protein is a homeodomain protein that was first identified in XENOPUS. It is found in the SPEMANN ORGANIZER of VERTEBRATES and plays an important role in neuronal CELL DIFFERENTIATION and ORGANOGENESIS.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
A genus of aquatic newts belonging to the family Salamandridae and sometimes referred to as "spiny" tritons. There are two species P. waltlii and P. poireti. P. waltlii is commonly used in the laboratory. Since this genus adapts to aquarium living, it is easy to maintain in laboratories.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Members of the transforming growth factor superfamily that play a role in pattern formation and differentiation during the pregastrulation and GASTRULATION stages of chordate development. Several nodal signaling ligands are specifically involved in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during development. The protein group is named after a critical region of the vertebrate embryo PRIMITIVE STREAK referred to as HENSEN'S NODE.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Signaling ligands that act in opposition to NODAL PROTEIN. During vertebrate development they regulate the degree of left-right asymmetry by controlling the spatiotemporal influence of NODAL PROTEIN.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A family of VERTEBRATE homeodomain proteins that share homology with orthodenticle protein, Drosophila. They regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and play an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the BRAIN.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
The region in the dorsal ECTODERM of a chordate embryo that gives rise to the future CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Tissue in the neural plate is called the neuroectoderm, often used as a synonym of neural plate.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Synthetic analogs of NUCLEIC ACIDS composed of morpholine ring derivatives (MORPHOLINES) linked by phosphorodimidates. One standard DNA nucleic acid base (ADENINE; GUANINE; CYTOSINE; OR THYMINE) is bound to each morpholine ring.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A family of metalloproteases that are related to the DROSOPHILA protein tolloid, which is a gene product necessary for dorsal-ventral patterning in early Drosophila embryogenesis. Many members of the group may play a significant role in intercellular signaling.
A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
A genus of SEA URCHINS in the family Toxopneustidae possessing trigeminate ambulacral plating.
Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
"Xenopus Cyr61 regulates gastrulation movements and modulates Wnt signalling". Development. 130 (11): 2429-2441. doi:10.1242/dev ... In Xenopus laevis, Cyr61 is required for normal gastrulation and modulation of Wnt signaling. CYR61 is highly expressed at ...
In Xenopus embryos in which the blastocoel roof is removed prior to gastrulation, the movement of vegetal cells toward the ... Vegetal rotation, a new gastrulation movement involved in the internalization of the mesoderm and endoderm in Xenopus. ... described the internal movements in more detail using pregastrular explants of Xenopus laevis. Gastrulation in amphibians is ... This movement results in formation of Brachet's cleft. As gastrulation continues, further spreading of the blastocoel floor by ...
"Distinct Xenopus Nodal ligands sequentially induce mesendoderm and control gastrulation movements in parallel to the Wnt/PCP ... Studies in Xenopus have found that xnr expression (the Xenopus nodal) is induced by VegT at the vegetal pole and nodals spread ... In Xenopus, the loss-of-function of Tgf1 and Tgf2 causes the up-regulation of Xnr5 and Xnr6. Another example of transcriptional ... Xenopus nodal related 3, (Xnr3) a divergent member of the TGFβ superfamily, induces the expression of the protein, Xbra. The ...
Tada, M.; Smith, J. C. (1 May 2000). "Xwnt11 is a target of Xenopus Brachyury: regulation of gastrulation movements via ... "Silberblick/Wnt11 mediates convergent extension movements during zebrafish gastrulation". Nature. 405 (6782): 76-81. doi: ... In other work he shed light on the molecular basis of gastrulation, and especially the role of non-canonical Wnt signalling. ...
Model organisms that have been studied include the frog Xenopus, and the fly Drosophila. During Xenopus gastrulation, bottle ... The specific mechanism depends on the species, the cell type, and the morphogenetic movement. ... Lee, J.; Harland, R. M. (2010). "Endocytosis Is Required for Efficient Apical Constriction during Xenopus Gastrulation". ... Folded Gastrulation (Fog), a secreted protein, and Concertina, a G alpha protein, are members of the same pathway that ensure ...
The Spemann-Mangold organizer is located in the dorsal blastopore lip, where gastrulation movements originate. Initial ... The Spemann-Mangold organizer refers to the population of cells in the Xenopus laevis embryo that establishes the dorso-ventral ... Spemann initiated the movement of developmental and molecular biology and influenced many projects in Germany based on his ... Another discovery after the organizer discovery was the modified Vogt fate map using newt and Xenopus blastula by researcher ...
Frog (Xenopus), as well as other amphibian, gastrulation serves as an excellent example of the role of convergent extension in ... Wallingford JB, Fraser SE, Harland RM (2002). "Convergent extension: the molecular control of polarized cell movement during ... The IMZ is integral to gastrulation and R. Keller et al. eloquently exemplify the importance of convergent extension in Xenopus ... During gastrulation in frogs, the driving force of convergent extension is the morphogenic activity of the presumptive dorsal ...
More specifically, it regulates the polarity and movement of a cell, in processes in vertebrates (like Xenopus) including ... gastrulation, neural tube closure, and stereocilia orientation in the inner ear. Another pathway independent of β-catenin is ... There are vertebrate homologs in zebrafish, Xenopus (Xdsh), mice (Dvl1, -2, -3) and humans (DVL-1, -2, -3). Dsh relays complex ... which regulate the cellular localization of DVL via movement between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The NLS is between the PDZ ...
"Distinct Xenopus Nodal ligands sequentially induce mesendoderm and control gastrulation movements in parallel to the Wnt/PCP ... Another example of protein speciation is the case of the frog where Xnr1 and Xnr2 regulate movements in gastrulation in ... Thus, in Xenopus, Xnr controls dorso-ventral mesoderm formation along the marginal zone. In zebrafish, Squint and Cyclops are ... Whereas Nodal is initially symmetrically expressed in the embryo, after gastrulation, Nodal becomes asymmetrically restricted ...
The blastocoel also allows blastomeres to move during the process of gastrulation. In Xenopus embryos, the blastula is composed ... This movement of water is facilitated by aquaporins. A seal is created by tight junctions of the epithelial cells that line the ... Pluripotent Xenopus cells, when used in an in vivo strategy, were able to form into functional retinas. By transplanting them ... Xenopus membrane polarity is established with the first cell cleavage. Amphibian EP-cadherin and XB/U cadherin perform a ...
... describes one of the five major types of cell movements that occur in the Gastrulation stage of embryonic development ... Xenopus laevis. Comparisons of epiboly in amniotes, teleosts and X. laevis show that the key movement of epiboly in the fish ... Warga RM, Kimmel CB (April 1990). "Cell movements during epiboly and gastrulation in zebrafish". Development. 108 (4): 569-80. ... Solnica-Krezel L (March 2005). "Conserved patterns of cell movements during vertebrate gastrulation". Curr. Biol. 15 (6): R213- ...
Stat3 coordinates cell movements during gastrulation and contributes to establishing planar polarity. The dorsal/ventral axis ... As in Xenopus, mesoderm induction involves two signals: one from the vegetal pole to induce ventral mesoderm and one from the ... By the late blastula stage, the Xenopus embryos have a clear dorsal/ventral axis. In the early gastrula, most of the tissue in ... Hensen's node is the site where gastrulation begins and it becomes the dorsal mesoderm. Hensen's node is formed from the ...
eFGF regulates Xbra expression during Xenopus gastrulation. EMBO J 13:4469-4481. 20. Mizoguchi T, Izawa T, Kuroiwa A, KikuchiY ... Kimmel CB, Kane DA, Walker C, Warga RM, Rothman MB 1989 A mutation that changes cell movement and cell fate in the zebrafish ... Patterning the Xenopus blastula. Development 124:4179-91. 4. Heasman J. 2006. Patterning the early Xenopus embryo. Development ... For example, in Xenopus, disruption of FGF signaling results in the inhibition of the Nodal-dependent induction and formation ...
... demonstrating that these important movements can be dissociated from gastrulation itself. Her analyses revealed extensive ... Her dissertation dealt with the role of the egg-jelly on the fertilization of Xenopus laevis. Upon returning to Ecuador in 1972 ... Through her, Developmental Biology blossomed in a most unlikely place: Not having any funds to buy Xenopus laevis, she came ... del Pino, Eugenia M.; Elinson, Richard P. (December 1983). "A novel development pattern for frogs: gastrulation produces an ...
These presumptive PGCs are brought to the endoderm of the blastocoel by gastrulation. They are determined as germ cells when ... After transport, involving passive movements and active migration, germ cells arrive at the developing gonads. In humans, ... Columbus proteins, chemoattractants, stimulate the migration in the gonadal mesoderm.[citation needed] In the Xenopus egg, the ... Germ cell specification begins during cleavage in many animals or in the epiblast during gastrulation in birds and mammals. ...
Hammerschmidt M, Wedlich D (November 2008). "Regulated adhesion as a driving force of gastrulation movements". Development. 135 ... Examples that have been especially well studied include tail loss and other changes in the tadpole of the frog Xenopus, and the ... This is the process of gastrulation. During cleavage and gastrulation the first regional specification events occur. In ... Morphogenetic movements not only change the shape and structure of the embryo, but by bringing cell sheets into new spatial ...
The frog, Xenopus has been used as a model organism for the study of gastrulation. The sperm contributes one of the two mitotic ... ISBN 978-0-12-153131-7.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) Knust, Elizabeth (1999). "Gastrulation movements". In ... Gastrulation animations Gastrulation illustrations and movies from Gastrulation: From Cells To Embryo edited by Claudio Stern. ... The first sign of invagination seen in this video of frog gastrulation is the dorsal lip. In the frog, Xenopus, one of the ...
... during avian gastrulation play a role in stimulating a Wnt signaling pathway that is involved in the differential movement of ... Human FGF20 was identified based on its homology to Xenopus FGF-20 (XFGF-20). FGF15 through FGF23 were described later and ... in Xenopus laevis". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 261 (3): 756-65. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1999.1039. PMID ... "Expression of a dominant negative mutant of the FGF receptor disrupts mesoderm formation in Xenopus embryos". Cell. 66 (2): 257 ...
... gastrulation, which lasts around 24 hours. The first visible stage of gastrulation is the creation of a concavity on the dorsal ... The process of involution occurs simultaneously with the process of epiboly, a cell movement associated with the covering of ... The embryonic development of tailless amphibians is presented below using the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) and the ... Near the end of gastrulation, the yolk sac becomes entirely covered by the ectoderm, and the blastopore assumes the shape of a ...
The stiffened notochord prevents movement through telescoping motion, such as that of an earthworm. The notochord plays a key ... Embryos of modern vertebrates form transient notochord structures during gastrulation. The notochord is found ventral to the ... Cleaver, Ondine (2000). "Endoderm patterning by the notochord: development of the hypochord in Xenopus" (PDF). Development. 127 ... The notochord forms during gastrulation and soon after induces the formation of the neural plate (neurulation), synchronizing ...
Neural induction is often studied in xenopus embryos since they have a simple body pattern and there are good markers to ... At the onset of gastrulation presumptive mesodermal cells move through the dorsal blastopore lip and form a layer in between ... An example of tangential migration is the movement of Cajal-Retzius cells within the marginal zone of the cortical ... The posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) are helpful in predicting movement. In adults ...
Neural induction is often studied in Xenopus embryos since they have a simple body plan and there are good markers to ... At the onset of gastrulation presumptive mesodermal cells move through the dorsal blastopore lip and form a layer of mesoderm ... An example of tangential migration is the movement of interneurons from the ganglionic eminence to the cerebral cortex. One ... the frog Xenopus laevis, and the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Myelination, formation of the lipid myelin sheath around ...
Further regulation of gastrulation is achieved when Wnt uses ROR2 along with the CDC42 and JNK pathway to regulate the ... They can be found in mice, humans, Xenopus, zebrafish, Drosophila and many others. Wnt signaling begins when a Wnt protein ... Wnt signaling activated by FGFs is responsible for this movement. Wnt signaling is also involved in the axis formation of ... Wnt regulates gastrulation when CK1 serves as an inhibitor of Rap1-ATPase in order to modulate the cytoskeleton during ...
Avian embryos, Xenopus laevis embryos, are both fair models. However, zebrafish and mouse embryos have widespread use for ... Endothelial cells can be found throughout the whole vascular system and they also play a vital role in the movement of white ... that cells with hemangioblast properties have been located in the posterior end of the primitive streak during gastrulation. In ...
The embryo undergoes well-characterized morphogenetic movements during gastrulation and early development, including germ-band ... Hooper SL (May 2012). "Body size and the neural control of movement". Current Biology. 22 (9): R318-22. doi:10.1016/j.cub. ... One such group in the abdominal nerve cord allows the female fly to pause her body movements to copulate.[22] Activation of ... Once this process is completed, gastrulation starts.[92] Nuclear division in the early Drosophila embryo happens so quickly, no ...
Distinct Xenopus Nodal ligands sequentially induce mesendoderm and control gastrulation movements in parallel to the Wnt/PCP ... Distinct Xenopus Nodal ligands sequentially induce mesendoderm and control gastrulation movements in parallel to the Wnt/PCP ... Distinct Xenopus Nodal ligands sequentially induce mesendoderm and control gastrulation movements in parallel to the Wnt/PCP ... Distinct Xenopus Nodal ligands sequentially induce mesendoderm and control gastrulation movements in parallel to the Wnt/PCP ...
1987) Gastrulation movements provide an early marker of mesoderm induction in Xenopus. Development 101, 339-349. ... 1998) The role of paraxial protocadherin in selective adhesion and cell movements of the mesoderm during Xenopus gastrulation. ... Xwnt11 is a target of Xenopus Brachyury: regulation of gastrulation movements via Dishevelled, but not through the canonical ... Xwnt11 is a target of Xenopus Brachyury: regulation of gastrulation movements via Dishevelled, but not through the canonical ...
The zinc finger transcription factors GATA4 and GATA6 are expressed in this migratory tissue during gastrulation, but their ... Mosaic inhibition of GATA activity indicates that GATA factors function cell autonomously to induce cell spreading and movement ... This study further characterises the expression of GATA4 and 6 during gastrulation, and investigates their function in ... Gastrulation movements in Xenopus laevis are becoming increasingly well characterised, however the molecular mechanisms ...
These results suggest that maternally prepared Xoom protein is involved in gastrulation movement on ectodermal cells. ... Anti-Xoom antibodies revealed that there are two forms of Xoom protein in Xenopus embryos: (i) a 45 kDa soluble cytoplasmic ... Anti-Xoom antibodies caused gastrulation defect in a dose- dependent manner. ... Xoom has been identified as a novel gene that plays an important role in gastrulation of Xenopus laevis embryo. Although Xoom ...
Planar polarization of collective cell movements. (A) Convergent extension during Xenopus gastrulation. Mesodermal cells ... collective cell movements, oriented cell divisions, and asymmetric cell fate specification. The planar cell polarity pathway ... undergo mediolateral directed intercalation to narrow and lengthen the body axis during gastrulation. Intercalation is driven ...
... The essential role of FAK in mesoderm migration provided us with a tool with which to address the role of this movement during ... vivo we developed NIR QD based methodology which for the first time allowed in vivo visualization of deep movements in Xenopus ... These results implicate FAK as an important regulator of morphogenesis in Xenopus and demonstrate the power of the NIR QD ...
Regulates morphogenic cell movements, controlling convergent extension during gastrulation. May play a role in the regulation ... Regulates morphogenic cell movements, controlling convergent extension during gastrulation. May play a role in the regulation ... Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog)Imported. ,p>Manually validated information which has been imported from another database ... "JNK functions in the non-canonical Wnt pathway to regulate convergent extension movements in vertebrates.". Yamanaka H., ...
Transcriptional regulation of tissue separation during gastrulation of Xenopus laevis Dissertation submitted to the Combined ... Transcriptional regulation of tissue separation during gastrulation of Xenopus laevis [Elektronische Ressource] / presented by ... 1: Cell movements during Xenopus gastrulation. (A) Blastula embryo. The animal hemisphere is built from ectodermal cells, the ... In Xenopus gastrulation, the involuting mesodermal cells undergo convergent extension movements after internalisation, thus ...
Next article in issue: Xenopus Tetraspanin-1 regulates gastrulation movements and neural differentiation in the early Xenopus ... Next article in issue: Xenopus Tetraspanin-1 regulates gastrulation movements and neural differentiation in the early Xenopus ...
in selective adhesion and cell movements of the mesoderm. during Xenopus gastrulation., Development 1998 ... Xenbase: The Xenopus laevis and X. tropicalis resource.. Version: 4.13.0 © Xenbase 2005-2020 ... NM_001092765,Xenopus laevis protocadherin 8 L homeolog (pcdh8.L), mRNA ... XM_018249920,>XM_018249920.1 PREDICTED: Xenopus laevis protocadherin-8-like (LOC108709783), mRNA ...
Role of frizzled 7 in the regulation of convergent extension movements during gastrulation in Xenopus laevis. ... Activation of Gbetagamma signaling downstream of Wnt-11/Xfz7 regulates Cdc42 activity during Xenopus gastrulation. ... Xenopus frizzled 4 is a maternal mRNA and its zygotic expression is localized to the neuroectoderm and trunk lateral plate ... Signaling specificities of fibroblast growth factor receptors in early Xenopus embryo.. Umbhauer M, Penzo-Méndez A, Clavilier L ...
Morphogenetic Movements during the Xenopus Gastrulation and Development of Biocompatible Quantum Dots. ... Morphogenetic Movements during the Xenopus Gastrulation and Development of Biocompatible Quantum Dots. ... The study of gastrulation and morphogenetic movements has always demanded cutting edge imaging and the pace of discovery in the ... During gastrulation cell and tissue movements on a massive scale create great complexity from a very simple starting form, ...
Chemotaxis in Coordinating Cell Movements during Gastrulation. C.J. Weijer. 23. Symmetry Breaking in the Egg of Xenopus laevis ... Gastrulation in the Chick. C.D. Stern. 16. Gastrulation in the Mouse Embryo. P.P.L. Tam and J.M. Gad. 17. Gastrulation in the ... Teleost Gastrulation. D.A. Kane and R.M. Warga. 13. Gastrulation in Amphibians. R. Keller and D. Shook. 14. Gastrulation in ... 7. Gastrulation in Drosophila. M. Leptin. 8. Gastrulation in Other Insects. S. Roth. 9. Sea Urchin Gastrulation. D.R. McClay, J ...
... epithelial-based mechanisms of gastrulation in non-vertebrate animals. ... The cellular behaviours that underlie the internalization of the multilayered endoderm anlage in Xenopus laevis link the ... Tissue movements during Xenopus laevis gastrulation.. (A) Fate map and tissue deformation of X. laevis germ layers for stages ... Vegetal rotation, a new gastrulation movement involved in the internalization of the mesoderm and endoderm in Xenopus ...
Tada, M.; Smith, J. C. (1 May 2000). "Xwnt11 is a target of Xenopus Brachyury: regulation of gastrulation movements via ... "Silberblick/Wnt11 mediates convergent extension movements during zebrafish gastrulation". Nature. 405 (6782): 76-81. doi: ... In other work he shed light on the molecular basis of gastrulation, and especially the role of non-canonical Wnt signalling.[15 ...
A mechanism is revealed for orchestrated cell movement during gastrulation in Xenopus. ... A mechanism is revealed for orchestrated cell movement during gastrulation in Xenopus. ... How actomyosin is controlled during such collective cell movement remains poorly understood. Working with developing Xenopus ... The collective movements of convergent extension drive both global reorganization of the early embryo and local remodeling ...
to regulate gastrulation cell movements in zebrafish., Cheng XN, Shao M, Li JT, Wang YF, Qi J, Xu ZG, Shi DL., Nat Commun. ... in Xenopus gastrulation., Gentzel M, Schille C, Rauschenberger V, Schambony A., Mol Biol Cell. March 1, 2015; 26 (5): 966-77. ... regulates Xenopus convergent extension movements by mediating Frizzled7. endocytosis for Wnt/PCP signal activation., Lee H, Lee ... formation in Xenopus., Miyagi A, Negishi T, Yamamoto TS, Ueno N., Dev Biol. November 1, 2015; 407 (1): 131-44. ...
In the amphibian Xenopus laevis, mesoderm arises in the equatorial region... ... Symes, K. and Smith, J. C. (1987) Gastrulation movements provide an early marker of mesoderm induction in Xenopus laevis. ... Smith, J. C., Price, B. M. J., Green, J. B. A., Weigel, D., and Herrmann, B. G. (1991) Expression of a Xenopus homolog of ... Jones, E. A. and Woodland, H. R. (1987) The development of animal cap cells in Xenopus: a measure of the start of animal cap ...
Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor xNET1 implicated in gastrulation movements during Xenopus development. Differentiation. ... RhoA and microtubule dynamics control cell-basement membrane interaction in EMT during gastrulation. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10(7): ...
Nodal signaling regulates gastrulation cell behaviors largely in parallel with planar cell polarity signaling and is sufficient ... Distinct Xenopus nodal ligands sequentially induce mesendoderm and control gastrulation movements in parallel to the wnt/PCP ... Xwnt11 is a target of Xenopus brachyury: regulation of gastrulation movements via dishevelled, but not through the canonical ... Gastrulation movements provide an early marker of mesoderm induction in Xenopus laevis ...
Xenopus Cyr61 regulates gastrulation movements and modulates Wnt signaling. Development 130, 2429-2441. ... In cultured Xenopus cells, CCN2 binds TGFβ and enhances the ability of TGFβ to bind TGFβ receptors at low TGFβ concentrations ...
2000) Xwnt11 is a target of Xenopus Brachyury: Regulation of gastrulation movements via Dishevelled, but not through the ... Gastrulation defects, such as those we observed in Fig. 5A, frequently arise from alterations in a set of cell movements ... GBAi Inhibits DAPLE-Mediated Gastrulation and Convergent Extension Defects in Xenopus laevis Embryos.. The inhibition of GIV- ... Noncanonical Wnt signaling is crucial for the orchestration of cell movements during gastrulation, and Dishevelled is a core ...
Signals through a non-canonical Wnt pathway to activate Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) to regulate gastrulation movements. Acts in ... Signals through a non-canonical Wnt pathway to activate Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) to regulate gastrulation movements. Acts in ... Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (Silurana tropicalis). Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog). 352. UniRef90_B2GUT4. ... Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (Silurana tropicalis). ,p>This subsection of the Names and taxonomy section shows ...
... cell movement, differential cell adhesion). Stages of development (early cell division, gastrulation, neurulation, organ ... Development of important model systems (Drosophila, C. elegans, zebrafish, Xenopus, chick, mouse, evolutionary comparison). ...
... observed defects in gastrulation that might be consistent with the role of the Wnt pathway in convergent extension movements. ... Xenopus Microinjection. Xenopus eggs were in vitro fertilized following established methods (16). Embryos were raised in 0.1× ... Xenopus LRRFIP2 was cloned by RT-PCR from the stage-20 embryos and inserted into the pCS2-Flag vector. The sequences of the ... Sive, H., Grainger, R. & Harland, R. (2000) Early Development of Xenopus laevis: A Laboratory Manual (Cold Spring Harbor Lab. ...
Disruption of gastrulation movements in Xenopus by a dominant-negative mutant for C-cadherin. Dev. Biol. 171:363-373. ... The role of paraxial protocadherin in selective adhesion and cell movements of the mesoderm during Xenopus gastrulation. ... Cell rearrangement during gastrulation of Xenopus: direct observation of cultured explants. Development. 112:289-300. ... Cells remain competent to respond to mesoderm-inducing signals present during gastrulation in Xenopus laevis. Dev. Biol. 225: ...
Xenopus Tetraspanin-1 Regulates Gastrulation Movements and Neural Differentiation in the Early Xenopus Embryo Differentiation; ... In Xenopus, maternal xTsg mRNA can be found throughout the early embryo. After gastrulation, xTsg is expressed as part of the ... of cellular interactions that are required for gastrulation movements and neural differentiation in the early Xenopus embryo. ... Xenopus and mammalian Galntl-1 inhibited Activin as well as BMP signalling in the early Xenopus embryo and in human HEK 293T ...
Distinct Xenopus Nodal ligands sequentially induce mesendoderm and control gastrulation movements in parallel to the Wnt/PCP ... Role of Siamois before and during gastrulation. In Gastrulation : From cells to embryo. Kodjabachian L, and Lemaire P. ... Neural induction in Xenopus requires early FGF signalling in addition to BMP inhibition.. Delaune E, Lemaire P, Kodjabachian L. ... The Xenopus laevis embryo is easily amenable to manipulation of protein-coding genes as well as non-coding RNAs (microRNAs, ...
Tada, M. and Smith, J. C. (2000). Xwnt11 is a target of Xenopus Brachyury: regulation of gastrulation movements via Dishevelled ... Role of frizzled 7 in the regulation of convergent extension movements during gastrulation in Xenopus laevis. Development 127, ... Silberblick/Wnt11 mediates convergent extension movements during zebrafish gastrulation. Nature 405, 76-81. ... Dishevelled controls cell polarity during Xenopus gastrulation. Nature 405, 81-85. ...
Discuss) Gastrulation is a phase early in the development of ... Gastrulation It has been suggested that epiboly be merged into ... There are four kinds of cell movements that drive gastrulation in Xenopus: invagination, involution, convergent extension and ... The embryonic epiblast undergoes gastrulation. Gastrulation itself. Gastrulation in mammals is similar to that in birds with ... The movement of cells in the hypoblast are similar to the involuting mesoderm of amphibians. The end result of gastrulation is ...
  • 1991 ) Organizer-specific homeobox genes in Xenopus laevis embryos. (biologists.org)
  • 1992 ) Ectopic mesoderm formation in Xenopus embryos caused by widespread expression of a Brachyury homologue. (biologists.org)
  • Xoom is maternally stored and functions as a transmembrane protein for gastrulation movement in Xenopus embryos. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Petridou NI, Stylianou P, Christodoulou N, Rhoads D, Guan JL, Skourides PA.Activation of endogenous FAK via expression of its amino terminal domain in Xenopus embryos. (ucy.ac.cy)
  • In sea urchin embryos, gastrulation entails bending the sheet of cells that form the surface of the embryo inward at a predetermined site to generate a pocket that will become the digestive system. (elifesciences.org)
  • By contrast, frog embryos begin gastrulation as multilayered structures, and the embryo's surface does not bend. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, Wen and Winklbauer show that the cell behaviours that drive these movements are similar to the behaviours of cells in single-layered embryos, and indeed the behaviour of single-celled organisms such as amoebae. (elifesciences.org)
  • The sculpting of embryos during development involves coordinated movement of cells in large groups. (sciencemag.org)
  • Despite our understanding of actomyosin function in individual migrating cells, we know little about the mechanisms by which actomyosin drives collective cell movement in vertebrate embryos. (sciencemag.org)
  • regulating proteins in early Xenopus embryos. (xenbase.org)
  • Vegetal rotation is a morphogenetic movement that drives mesoderm internalization during gastrulation in amphibian embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • The internalization of vegetal cells prior to gastrulation was first observed in the 1930s by Abraham Mandel Schechtman through the use of vital dye labeling experiments in Triturus torosus embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Xenopus embryos in which the blastocoel roof is removed prior to gastrulation, the movement of vegetal cells toward the blastocoel and their intercalation into the blastocoel floor causes the floor to spread, pushing the dorsal edge downward. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemmati-Brivanlou, A. and Harland, R. M. (1989) Expression of an engrailed -related protein is induced in the anterior neural ectoderm of early Xenopus embryos. (springer.com)
  • Harland, R. M. (1991) In situ hybridization: an improved whole mount method for Xenopus embryos, in Methods in Cell Biology, Vol. 36 (Kay, B. K. and Peng, H. B., eds. (springer.com)
  • a dominant negative form of LRRFIP2 suppresses ectopic Wnt signaling in Xenopus embryos and partially inhibits endogenous dorsal axis formation. (pnas.org)
  • Gastrulation is a phase early in the development of animal embryos , during which the morphology of the embryo is dramatically restructured by cell migration . (bionity.com)
  • Embryos that are morphant for pcdh19 exhibit severely disrupted brain morphology, which is caused at least in part by a defect in cell movements in the anterior neural plate. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we show that Pcdh19 and Ncad act in concert to coordinate cell movements during neurulation of the anterior neural plate in zebrafish embryos. (rupress.org)
  • We will briefly summarize Ca 2+ sources, highlight data on endogenous Ca 2+ release in vertebrate embryos relevant to body plan formation and cell movement, and integrate pharmacological and molecular-genetic studies to lend insight into the signalling pathways involved. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The process of gastrulation allows for the formation of the germ layers in metazoan embryos, and is generally achieved through a series of complex and coordinated cellular movements. (asu.edu)
  • Additionally Xenopus embryos are amenable to molecular manipulations in vivo, and the tissue can be excised from embryos and cultured in vitro. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • DiCaprio RA, French AS, Sanders EJ (1974) Dynamic properties of electronic coupling between cells of early Xenopus embryos. (springer.com)
  • Activins have been studied extensively as stimulators of follicle‐stimulating hormone production in humans and as mesoderm inducers in Xenopus laevis embryos ( Piepenburg et al , 2004 ). (embopress.org)
  • 22, (1976) 575 Printed in Great Britain CIRCUS MOVEMENTS AND BLEBBING LOCOMOTION IN DISSOCIATED EMBRYONIC CELLS OF AN AMPHIBIAN, XENOPUS LAEVIS KURT E. JOHNSON Department of Anatomy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, U.S.A. SUMMARY Circus movements, which involve the circumferential rotation of a hyaline cytoplasmic protrusion, occur in cells obtained by EDTA dissociation of gastrula-atage Xenopus laevis embryos. (businessdocbox.com)
  • Studies of the Xenopus organizer have laid the foundation for our understanding of the conserved signaling pathways that pattern vertebrate embryos during gastrulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have studied its distribution in Xenopus embryos by immunofluorescence on frozen sections. (biologists.com)
  • Expression of cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin in Xenopus embryos begins at gastrulation and predominates in the ectoderm. (biologists.com)
  • A cadherin-like protein in eggs and cleaving embryos of Xenopus laevis is expressed in oocytes in response to progesterone. (biologists.com)
  • the first being a class that transforms C57mg mouse mammary epithelial cells and also promotes duplication of the dorso-ventral axis when over-expressed in Xenopus embryos. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Instead, when over-expressed in frog or fish embryos, these Wnts perturb the movements of gastrulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The gray crescent is a specific region in Xenopus frog embryos that directs movement of cells during gastrulation. (gatech.edu)
  • Twin Xenopus laevis embryos appearing from flattened eggs. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • It is no surprise that UV causes damage to eggs and embryos of Xenopus laevis . (gatech.edu)
  • Neither goosecoid nor chordin was expressed in UV-treated embryos, showing that there was no organizer during gastrulation (Jansen et al. (gatech.edu)
  • 2007). In fact, it was found that other than organizer specific morphogenetic movements, the remaining gastrulation movements are normal in UV-treated embryos. (gatech.edu)
  • Gastrulation is one of the earliest events where it is possible to observe a convergence of fate specification and morphogenetic processes in embryos [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We present 3-dimensional volume-rendered in vivo images of developing embryos of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis taken with our new en-face-scanning, focus-tracking OCM system at 1300 nm wavelength. (spie.org)
  • FoxI1e activates ectoderm formation and controls cell position in the Xenopus blastula. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The embryonic body plan first emerges during gastrulation, when the three primordial germ layers - ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm - are formed and shaped, and embryonic axes are morphologically manifest. (elifesciences.org)
  • The ectoderm, consisting of the cells on the outside of the gastrula that played little part in gastrulation, will develop into the skin and the central nervous system. (bionity.com)
  • Using the powerful technique of subtractive cloning, we isolated from Xenopus more than forty genes that are expressed during gastrulation in induced dorsal ectoderm but not in uninduced ectoderm. (searlescholars.net)
  • Currently, we are constructing molecular maps of the ectoderm at different stages of gastrulation to unequivocally identify steps in A/P patterning. (searlescholars.net)
  • During gastrulation, a single epithelial cell layer, the ectoderm, generates two others: the mesoderm and the endoderm. (nih.gov)
  • In amniotes (birds and mammals), mesendoderm formation occurs through an axial midline structure, the primitive streak, the formation of which is preceded by massive 'polonaise' movements of ectoderm cells. (nih.gov)
  • In early gastmlae, only 17% of prospective endodermal cells show circus movements while 79% of prospective mesodern, archenteric roof, and posterior neural ectoderm do so. (businessdocbox.com)
  • Ventral ectoderm of Xenopus forms neural tissue, including hindbrain, in response to activin. (biologists.com)
  • More recently, we have been investigating cross-talk of apical-basal and planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins in vertebrate ectoderm, using Xenopus and mammalian progenitor models. (mssm.edu)
  • It occurs in all metazoans and encompasses a choreography of cell movements that transforms a group of seemingly identical epithelial cells, with species-specific geometry, into the outline of an organism exhibiting an overt anterior-posterior organization and three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm) [ 4 ]-[ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The process of gastrulation results in the formation of the three germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. (gatech.edu)
  • Mechanisms of Mesendoderm Internalization in the Xenopus Gastrula: Lessons from the Ventral Side. (wikipedia.org)
  • reported that Xenopus gastrula explants with different AP positional values extend when apposed ex vivo, whereas those with the same positional identity do not. (elifesciences.org)
  • The Xenopus gastrula has a dorsal and a ventral signaling center, marked here by the expression of, respectively, Chordin and Sizzled. (hhmi.org)
  • An extracellular network of secreted proteins regulates D-V cell differentiation in the Xenopus gastrula. (hhmi.org)
  • This morphological analysis describes the similarity of gastrula structure in the sturgeon and the amphibian Xenopus laevis, and suggests that the species share many developmental mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • Only a few dissociated blastula-stage cells show circus movements, more early gastrula-stage cells show them, and nearly all late gastrula-stage cells show them. (businessdocbox.com)
  • RESULTS Circus movements When a fragment of the roof of the blastocoel of a late gastrula (Stage 12) is dissociated and put in culture, hyaline lobopodia protrude from the cell surface and begin to move around the cell periphery. (businessdocbox.com)
  • This fact, together with the fact that head mesoderm undergoes early cryptic movement in Xenopus, and the fact that much of the prospective neural tissue is very close to the meso-derm in the early gastrula, make it very likely that early and transient, and perhaps permanent vertical neural-inducing signals occur in Xenopus exogastrulae. (alpfmedical.info)
  • In this study, we compare two-photon excitation with laser scanning confocal and conventional digital deconvolution fluorescence microscopy, using the same optical configuration, for their ability to resolve cell shape deep in Xenopus gastrula and neurula tissues. (virginia.edu)
  • Second, these progenitors are spatially rearranged during gastrulation through numerous and complex movements to give rise to an embryo comprising three concentric germ layers, polarised along dorsoventral, anteroposterior and left-right axes. (biologists.org)
  • Gastrulation is followed by organogenesis , when individual organs develop within the newly formed germ layers . (bionity.com)
  • The following description concerns gastrulation in echinoderms, representative of the triploblasts, or animals with three embryonic germ layers. (bionity.com)
  • The illustration, however, depicts the gastrulation of a diploblast, animals with two germ layers. (bionity.com)
  • in triploblastic organisms (most other complex metazoans), triploblastic gastrulation produces all three germ layers. (asu.edu)
  • The node is the site where gastrulation, the formation of the three germ layers, first begins. (asu.edu)
  • Classical experiments in Amphibians showed that induction was underway by the middle of 'gastrulation' (the cell movements that form the embryonic "germ layers"), however, these experiments were rather crude. (searlescholars.net)
  • This matrix was first detected at early gastrulation (65% epiboly) in the form of punctae that localize to tissue boundaries separating germ layers from each other and the underlying yolk cell. (meta.org)
  • The mesoderm is one of the three principle germ layers and is formed during gastrulation. (biologists.com)
  • The formation of the primitive streak is the first visible sign of gastrulation, the process by which the three germ layers are formed from a single epithelium during early development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We could come to a conclusion that Notch activation alters the expression of markers of the three germ layers and impairs morphogenetic movements during gastrulation (figure 2). (gatech.edu)
  • Because gain-of-function experiment sometimes causes abnormal activities of gene expression, the author also performed a loss-of-function experiment to see whether this pathway involved in segregation of the three germ layers during gastrulation. (gatech.edu)
  • 1997 ) A-catenin/XTcf-3 complex binds to the siamois promoter to regulate dorsal axis specification in Xenopus . (biologists.org)
  • Mosaic inhibition of GATA activity indicates that GATA factors function cell autonomously to induce cell spreading and movement in dorsal mesendoderm. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Gastrulation in amphibians is initiated by formation of bottle cells at the dorsal marginal zone, followed by involution of prospective mesodermal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Formation of the dorsal marginal zone in Xenopus laevis analyzed by time-lapse microscopic magnetic resonance imaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Xenopus laevis , patterning of the trunk mesoderm into the dorsal notochord and lateral somites depends on differential regulation of Wnt-β-catenin signaling. (rupress.org)
  • It also identifies important differences, such as the equatorial dorsal lip in sturgeon, and provides a basis for interpreting experiments that test the effect of these differences on gastrulation. (nih.gov)
  • Zebrafish gastrulation entails morphogenetic cell movements that shape the body plan and give rise to an embryo with defined anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes. (meta.org)
  • The dorsal lip, which is the fold of blastula showing the dorsal limit of the blastopore during gastrulation and is important for neural development, will form 180 degrees opposite to the sperm entry point. (gatech.edu)
  • Cortical rotation of the xenopus egg: consequences for the anteroposterior pattern of embryonic dorsal development. (gatech.edu)
  • From Dorsoventral polarization and formation of dorsal axial structures in Xenopus laevis: analyses using UV irradiation of the full-grown oocyte and after fertilization by NATHAN MISE and MASAMI WAKAHARA Figure 2: Shows that the second cleavage plane regresses at the pole in an irradiated egg. (gatech.edu)
  • Transport of dorsal determinants requires cytoskeletal reorganization of a vegetal array of microtubules, microtubule motors, and an off-center movement of the vegetal cortex with respect to the inner egg core, a so-called cortical rotation. (intechopen.com)
  • This book is the definitive guide to this vitally important period in embryonic development, providing authoritative and up to date information that includes the first comprehensive interspecies comparison, cell movements and patterning events, the roles of individual genes and gene families, and the evolution of gastrulation. (cshlpress.com)
  • During vertebrate gastrulation, convergence and extension (C and E) of the primary anteroposterior (AP) embryonic axis is driven by polarized mediolateral (ML) cell intercalations and is influenced by AP axial patterning. (elifesciences.org)
  • Within otherwise naïve zebrafish blastoderm explants, however, Nodal induces C and E in a largely PCP-dependent manner, arguing that Nodal acts both upstream of and in parallel with PCP during gastrulation to regulate embryonic axis extension cooperatively. (elifesciences.org)
  • Our team studies the embryonic skin of the amphibian Xenopus laevis, which is proving very powerful to reveal molecular and cellular principles of multiciliogenesis conserved with humans. (univ-mrs.fr)
  • The embryonic Xenopus laevis epidermis contains a mucociliary epithelium similar to the one covering our airways. (univ-mrs.fr)
  • The embryonic epiblast undergoes gastrulation. (bionity.com)
  • During gastrulation, extraembryonic mesoderm forms within the hypoblast or embryonic mesoderm and migrates out to form the blood vessels of the chorion and connect the chorion to the embryo through the umbilical cord . (bionity.com)
  • One of the most interesting motile phenomena shown by dissociated embryonic cells is the so-called circus movement which involves a circumferential rotation of a protruding hyaline bleb. (businessdocbox.com)
  • After isolating embryonic ventral halves at early and late gastrulation, we analyze the transcriptional response to these molecules within the generated ectopic organizers using oligonucleotide microarrays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • the dramatic rearrangement (movement) of cells in the blastula to create the embryonic tissue layers. (gatech.edu)
  • The next stage in embryonic development is gastrulation , in which the cells in the blastula rearrange themselves to form three layers of cells and form the body plan. (gatech.edu)
  • On the completion of gastrulation, the blastopore closes and the embryo begins to lengthen along the embryonic axis. (hometownfamilycare.com)
  • We report that Dsh protein accumulates in cell nuclei when Xenopus embryonic explants or mammalian cells are incubated with inhibitors of nuclear export or when a specific nuclear-export signal (NES) in Dsh is disrupted by mutagenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We present time-lapse movies of frog gastrulation, an early event during vertebrate embryonic development in which cell movements result in the formation of three distinct layers that later give rise to the major organ systems. (spie.org)
  • One of the genes that confers mesodermal identity in Xenopus is Brachyury (Xbra), which is required for normal gastrulation movements and ultimately for posterior mesoderm and notochord differentiation in the development of all vertebrates. (biologists.org)
  • 1991 ) Xwnt-8 , a Xenopus Wnt-1/int-1-related gene responsive to mesoderm-inducing factors, may play a role in ventral mesodermal patterning during embryogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • 1987 ) The organization of mesodermal pattern in Xenopus laevis: experiments using a Xenopus mesoderm-inducing factor. (biologists.org)
  • Mesodermal cells undergo mediolateral directed intercalation to narrow and lengthen the body axis during gastrulation. (nih.gov)
  • Unless more work is done on the movements and anatomy of the Xenopus exogastrulae, it is useless for the study of neural (and mesodermal) induction. (alpfmedical.info)
  • During amphibian gastrulation, mesodermal cell movements depend on both cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. (naver.com)
  • Frizzled-7 (fzd7) is expressed during gastrulation in the mesodermal cells fated to become heart and then in the primary heart field. (uea.ac.uk)
  • After gastrulation, PRH is expressed within the embryo itself: in mesodermal tissues that give rise to haematopoietic and vascular progenitors and the endocardium of the heart, and in endodermal tissues that are involved in the formation of organs such as the liver, thyroid, lung, thymus, gallbladder and pancreas [ 9 - 11 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • Broadly speaking, mesodermal derivatives provide support and movement, whereas ectodermal derivatives provide for sensation of, and protection from, the environment. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Xbra is a transcription activator, and interference with transcription activation leads to an inhibition of morphogenetic movements during gastrulation. (biologists.org)
  • Our past experiments revealed an essential role for the Wnt pathway in vertebrate axis determination and uncovered its equally important function in morphogenetic movements during gastrulation and neurulation. (mssm.edu)
  • [7] More specifically, it regulates the polarity and movement of a cell, in processes in vertebrates (like Xenopus) including gastrulation, neural tube closure, and stereocilia orientation in the inner ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice mutant for PTK7 show an open neural tube, defects in convergent extension movements during gastrulation and polarity defects of inner ear hair cells, which are classical PCP phenotypes in vertebrates [16] - [21] . (prolekare.cz)
  • PTK7 knock-down in Xenopus furthermore caused defects in migration of cranial neural crest cells [23] , very similar to animals in which the function of Dishevelled, an intracellular component of Wnt signaling, has been impaired [24] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Experiments using this chimeric protein suggest that XSIP1 is required for normal gastrulation movements to occur and for the development of the anterior neural plate. (kuleuven.be)
  • Xenopus exogastrulae have been used to argue that planar signals induce neural tissue properties, on the assumption that they, like the exogastrulae used by Holtfreter, have no vertical signaling (81,82). (alpfmedical.info)
  • What we do know about normal gastrulation and exogastrulation in Xenopus suggests that its exogastrula is unsuitable for studies of neural induction. (alpfmedical.info)
  • induction of bottle cell formation at the onset of gastrulation after germ layer induction, and regulation of the morphogenetic movements of neurulation in relation to neural plate patterning. (oatd.org)
  • 1994 ) Regulation of C-cadherin function during activin induced morphogenesis of Xenopus animal caps. (biologists.org)
  • Mechanical and signaling roles for keratin intermediate filaments in the assembly and morphogenesis of Xenopus mesendoderm tissue at gastrulation​ by Pooja R. Sonavane, et al. (virginia.edu)
  • An Evaluation of Two-Photon Excitation Versus Confocal and Digital Deconvolution Fluoescence Microscopy Imaging in Xenopus Morphogenesis by Ammasi Periasamy, et al. (virginia.edu)
  • Role of frizzled 7 in the regulation of convergent extension movements during gastrulation in Xenopus laevis. (nih.gov)
  • Heasman, J. (1997) Patterning the Xenopus blastula. (springer.com)
  • At the beginning of vertebrate gastrulation, the embryo is a hollow ball of cells known as the blastula, with an animal pole and a vegetal pole. (bionity.com)
  • This is demonstrated by experiments such as the one shown here, in which a Xenopus embryo was cut in half at the blastula stage. (hhmi.org)
  • In addition, the blastocoel shrinks and the blastocoel roof often collapses on the VE in high-salt solutions, making it likely that both the mor-phogenetic movements and inductive interactions in the blastula stages are abnormal (see refs. (alpfmedical.info)
  • In vertebrates, Nodal signalling is required to induce the mesendoderm, which has precluded an analysis of its potential role during the later process of gastrulation. (biologists.org)
  • The process of gastrulation can be either diploblastic or triploblastic. (asu.edu)
  • The primitive streak defines the axis of an embryo and is capable of inducing the differentiation of various tissues in a developing embryo during gastrulation. (asu.edu)
  • The two primary activities of the organizer, BMP and Wnt inhibition, can regulate a spectrum of genes that pattern essentially all aspects of the embryo during gastrulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Research has identified a host of genes that, under the control of the organizer, pattern different aspects of the embryo during gastrulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The team X-rayed an embryo during gastrulation, the period when its hundreds of cells start to organize into differentiated tissues that eventually form the nervous system, muscles and internal organs. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Quantitative analysis of in vivo two-photon time-lapse image sequences reveals that loss of either pcdh19 or ncad impairs cell movements during neurulation, disrupting both the directedness of cell movements and the coherence of movements among neighboring cells. (rupress.org)
  • The onset of gastrulation in the sturgeon is marked by the appearance of a blastoporal equatorial pigment line that forms as the apices of bottle cells contract and concentrate surface pigment granules. (nih.gov)
  • We show here that Xbra and XSIP1 are co-expressed at the onset of gastrulation, but that expression subsequently refines such that Xbra is expressed in prospective mesoderm and XSIP1 in anterior neurectoderm. (kuleuven.be)
  • A star was added to the right of embryo at the onset of gastrulation (stage 10), when embryo-wide cellular movements begin. (edu.au)
  • At stage E6.5, preceding the onset of gastrulation movements, Bra expression becomes restricted to the proximal posterior region of the embryo [ 9 ], at the position where under the influence of nodal and Wnt signalling, the primitive streak is initiated as a dynamic structure that will progress towards the distal end of the epiblast, ploughing an anteroposterior axis [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gastrulation marks the onset of changes in cell behaviors that begin to shape an individual (Contakos et al, 2005). (gatech.edu)
  • Together, our results suggest that the regulation of morphogenetic movements by Xwnt11 occurs through a pathway similar to that involved in planar polarity signalling in Drosophila. (biologists.org)
  • Working with developing Xenopus mesoderm, Shindo and Wallingford (p. 649 ) found that planar cell polarity proteins and septins interface with the actomyosin machinery to control collective cell movement. (sciencemag.org)
  • While our knowledge of how these proteins impact cell polarity and migration has advanced considerably in the last decade, almost no data exist regarding the organization of extracellular matrix (ECM) during zebrafish gastrulation. (meta.org)
  • Fibrillogenesis increased after mid-gastrulation (80% epiboly) coinciding with the period of planar cell polarity pathway-dependent convergence and extension cell movements. (meta.org)
  • Recall that in some species, the information specifying the body axes was already present during cleavage as a result of cytoplasmic determinants and/or yolk polarity , but the axes actually become visible as a result of gastrulation. (gatech.edu)
  • Initial polarity of the microtubule movement depends on early asymmetries, which are amplified by the movement of the outermost cortex. (intechopen.com)
  • Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, February 26) Embryology Xenopus Early Division Movie . (edu.au)
  • Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, January 21) Embryology Xenopus Early Division Movie . (edu.au)
  • 1997 ) The Rho GTPase and a putative RhoGEF mediate a signaling pathway for the cell shape changes in Drosophila gastrulation. (biologists.org)
  • Although much is known about the molecular mechanisms of mesendoderm induction, signals controlling gastrulation movements are only starting to be revealed. (biologists.org)
  • Using time-dependent inhibition, we show that in Xenopus , Nodal signalling plays sequential roles in mesendoderm induction and gastrulation movements. (biologists.org)
  • Using morpholino-mediated knockdown, we found that the Nodal ligands Xnr5 and Xnr6 are together required for mesendoderm induction, whereas Xnr1 and Xnr2 act later to control gastrulation movements. (biologists.org)
  • The germ-layer precursors are specified prior to gastrulation through a process called mesendoderm induction. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, it is generally assumed that mesendoderm induction and gastrulation are jointly controlled by Nodal signalling, although a demonstration of a direct role in the second process is still lacking. (biologists.org)
  • Symes, K. and Smith, J. C. (1987) Gastrulation movements provide an early marker of mesoderm induction in Xenopus laevis . (springer.com)
  • Yao J., Kessler D.S. (2000) Mesoderm Induction in Xenopus. (springer.com)
  • The last, and the least useful, of the experimental preparations for analyzing planar induction in Xenopus is the exogastrula. (alpfmedical.info)
  • This control is operated via the direct regulation of key movement-effector genes, such as papc, has2 and pdgfr α. (biologists.org)
  • FGF8, Wnt8 and Myf5 are target genes of Tbx6 during anteroposterior specification in Xenopus embryo. (nih.gov)
  • Identification of distinct genes with restricted expression in the somitic mesoderm in Xenopus embryo. (nih.gov)
  • Xenopus and other lower vertebrates contain duplicated wnt11 genes (wnt11 and wnt11b) resulting from an ancient gene duplication event, but the second copy has since been lost in mammals. (uniprot.org)
  • The Xenopus laevis embryo is easily amenable to manipulation of protein-coding genes as well as non-coding RNAs (microRNAs, long non coding RNAs) through micro-injection of mRNA constructs or antisense morpholinos, from the time of fertilization. (univ-mrs.fr)
  • Using the frog Xenopus , we have isolated multiple genes that encode secreted proteins expressed specifically in Spemann's organizer. (hhmi.org)
  • This repression is highly specific, in the sense that XSIP1 does not repress the expression of other regionally expressed genes in the early embryo, and that other members of the family to which XSIP1 belongs, such as deltaEF1 and its Xenopus homologue ZEB, cannot regulate Xbra expression. (kuleuven.be)
  • Moreover, our data sub-divides organizer genes into separate head and trunk organizing groups, which each show distinct responses to Noggin and Dkk-1 activity during gastrulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subsequently, PRH genes have been cloned from many species including, mouse (Hex) [ 3 ], Xenopus (Xhex), zebrafish (hhex) and rat [ 4 - 6 ] ( Figure 1 ). (biochemj.org)
  • Physical separation occurs later during gastrulation in the involuted part of the mesoderm at a time when it starts to elongate anteroposteriorly to shape the main body axis of the embryo. (rupress.org)
  • We study formation of the anteroposterior (A/P) axis in the frog, Xenopus laevis , and in the zebrafish, Danio rerio . (searlescholars.net)
  • beta-catenin is a cytoplasmic protein associated with cadherin adhesion molecules and has been implicated in axis formation in Xenopus (McCrea, P. D., Brieher, W. M. and Gumbiner, B. M. (1993) J. Cell Biol. (biologists.com)
  • It is well known that lithium chloride is effective for axis perturbation of Xenopus laevis. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Accordingly, I also examined dozens of metal oxide compounds for their potential in axis perturbation of Xenopus laevis. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The zinc finger transcription factors GATA4 and GATA6 are expressed in this migratory tissue during gastrulation, but their role here is unknown. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Transcriptional regulation of tissue separation during gastrulation of Xenopus laevis Dissertation submitted to the Combined Faculties of the Natural Sciences and for Mathematics of the Ruperto-Carola University of Heidelberg, Germany for the degree of Doctor of Natural Sciences presented by Dipl. (youscribe.com)
  • 3.2.1 xGit2 and xRhoGAP 11A inhibit convergent extension movements and tissue separation. (youscribe.com)
  • During gastrulation, tissue layers are formed and the overall body plan is established. (cshlpress.com)
  • Wnt signalling regulates cardiogenesis during specification of heart tissue and the morphogenetic movements necessary to form the linear heart. (uea.ac.uk)
  • At the cellular level, gastrulation involves a sequence of highly organized epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) movements that propagate through the tissue in a manner that resembles a travelling wave [ 13 ]-[ 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Intercellular signalling via growth factors plays an important role in controlling cell differentiation and cell movements during the development of multicellular animals. (mdpi.com)
  • It has been considered a gastrulation process unique to amphibians, but we show that at the cell level, endoderm internalisation exhibits characteristics reminiscent of bottle cell formation and ingression, known mechanisms of germ layer internalisation. (elifesciences.org)
  • This intercalation event differs from the convergent extension movements of the mesoderm described in fish and amphibians (anamniotes): it occurs before gastrulation and within a tight columnar epithelium. (nih.gov)
  • As gastrulation continues, further spreading of the blastocoel floor by upward movement of vegetal cells contributes to the advancement of the mesendoderm along the blastocoel roof. (wikipedia.org)
  • We propose that the amniote primitive streak evolved from the ancestral blastopore by acquisition of an additional medio-lateral intercalation event, preceding gastrulation and acting independently of mesendoderm formation to position the primitive streak at the midline. (nih.gov)
  • Xenopus mesendoderm cells migrate collectively along a fibronectin (FN) substrate at gastrulation, but how the adhesive and mechanical forces required for these movements are generated and transmitted is unclear. (virginia.edu)
  • Signals through a non-canonical Wnt pathway to activate Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) to regulate gastrulation movements. (uniprot.org)
  • Our results suggest that Pcdh19 and Ncad function together to regulate cell adhesion and to mediate morphogenetic movements during brain development. (rupress.org)
  • The capacity of LRRK2 to regulate WNT/PCP signaling in vivo was tested in Xenopus laevis ' early development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Xoom has been identified as a novel gene that plays an important role in gastrulation of Xenopus laevis embryo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Zygotic Wnt/beta-catenin signaling preferentially regulates the expression of Myf5 gene in the mesoderm of Xenopus. (nih.gov)
  • An efficient statistical analysis scheme, combined with a new Gene Ontology biological process annotation of the Xenopus genome, allows reliable and faithful clustering of molecules based upon their roles during gastrulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Meanwhile, Wnt inhibition acts later during gastrulation, and is essential for maintenance of organizer gene expression throughout gastrulation, a role which may depend on its ability to block the expression of a host of ventral, posterior, and lateral fate-specifying factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gastrulation in the amphibian embryo is driven by cells of the mesoderm. (biologists.org)
  • The ability of cells to collectively orient and align their behaviors is essential in multicellular organisms for unidirectional cilia beating, collective cell movements, oriented cell divisions, and asymmetric cell fate specification. (nih.gov)
  • To form the primitive gut, a group of cells known as the endoderm must move from the surface to the interior in a process called gastrulation. (elifesciences.org)
  • Furthermore, classic studies of frog gastrulation have found that cells do not leave the surface of the embryo to enter its interior. (elifesciences.org)
  • In the frog embryo, this movement is coordinated into an organised pattern where cells use the surfaces of their slower or stationary neighbours to propel past each other, and then slow down to return the favour. (elifesciences.org)
  • The mesoderm and endoderm then migrate animally along the blastocoel roof, driven in part by movement of the vegetal endoderm cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gastrulation in mammals is similar to that in birds with the formation of the primitive streak and Hensen's node and the ingression of cells through the primitive groove to form the endoderm and the mesoderm . (bionity.com)
  • It has become clear that during gastrulation - a period during which cells participate in morphogenetic movements that lead to the generation of a tripoblastic embryo - the integrin repertoire of each cell is in constant flux. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Using freeze-fracture electron microscopy and fluorescent dye injection we have analysed the contacts between cells of the deeper endoderm taken from neurulae of Xenopus laevis . (springer.com)
  • Circus movements cease in cells prior to mitosis and begin again in daughter cells after mitosis is completed. (businessdocbox.com)
  • Isolated cells as well as groups of cells in vitro are often propelled by circus movements. (businessdocbox.com)
  • The present study confirms previous descriptive accounts, and presents new data on circus movements in cells from different developmental stages and different parts of Xenopus gastrulae. (businessdocbox.com)
  • In our work, we did not only mange to resolve individual cells and parts of their structure, but we could also analyze single cell migration, as well as the movement of cellular networks. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The specific details of gastrulation are different in different animal species, but the general process includes dramatic movement of cells across and inside the embryo. (gatech.edu)
  • During gastrulation, the cells of the embryo move dramatically. (gatech.edu)
  • This movement accompanies the distal/anterior spread of the streak and thus, by the end of gastrulation, two-thirds of the epiblast has been wrapped by the cells that have undergone gastrulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A similar protein in Xenopus affects cell adhesion and gastrulation movements, and may be localized in the secretory pathway. (thermofisher.com)
  • Ioannou A, Santama N, Skourides PA.Xenopus laevis nucleotide binding protein 1 (xNubp1) is important for convergent extension movements and controls ciliogenesis via regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. (ucy.ac.cy)
  • Pubmed ID: 11992721 In fruit flies as well as in humans the Short gastrulation (Sog)/Chordin protein functions as an antagonist of the signaling of decapentaplegic (Dpp)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in the extracellular space. (jove.com)
  • A whole-mount immunocytochemical analysis of the expression of the intermediate filament protein vimentin in Xenopus. (biologists.com)
  • IFT returns proteins from the cilium to the cell body by means of a retrograde movement driven by a dynein motor ( 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Regulating these cell movements are diverse signaling pathways and proteins including Wnts, Src-family tyrosine kinases, cadherins, and matrix metalloproteinases. (meta.org)
  • Activation of Xwnt11 is induced in an immediate-early fashion by Xbra and its expression in vivo is abolished by a dominant-interfering form of Xbra, Xbra-En(R). Overexpression of a dominant-negative form of Xwnt11, like overexpression of Xbra-En(R), inhibits convergent extension movements. (biologists.org)
  • Repression of XMyoD expression and myogenesis by Xhairy-1 in Xenopus early embryo. (nih.gov)
  • Signaling specificities of fibroblast growth factor receptors in early Xenopus embryo. (nih.gov)
  • Role of fibroblast growth factor during early midbrain development in Xenopus. (nih.gov)
  • Since the early 1900s, the sea urchin and the frog have been the standard species used to study gastrulation. (elifesciences.org)
  • The collective movements of convergent extension drive both global reorganization of the early embryo and local remodeling during organogenesis. (sciencemag.org)
  • While vegetal rotation appears to be important prior to and in the early stages of gastrulation, by stages 10.5-11, vegetal rotation ceases and further involution appears to be driven primarily by cell rearrangements. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we describe the application of such an approach to study the early notochord-somite boundary in Xenopus laevis . (rupress.org)
  • Expression of dominant negative XGIPC results in the interruption of gastrulation movements in the early embryo. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Xenopus Brachyury (Xbra) plays a key role in mesoderm formation during early development. (kuleuven.be)
  • The organizer is the primary patterning center during early vertebrate gastrulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The armadillo homologs b-catenin and plakoglobin are differentially expressed during early development of Xenopus laevis. (biologists.com)
  • More recently, Winklbauer and Schürfeld (1999) described the internal movements in more detail using pregastrular explants of Xenopus laevis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, we determined the input of the canonical Wnt/ß-catenin pathway into the cnidarian endomesodermal GRN using morpholino and mRNA overexpression experiments to show that NvTcf/canonical Wnt signaling is required to pattern both the future endomesodermal and ectodermal domains prior to gastrulation, and that both BMP and FGF (but not Notch) pathways play important roles in germ layer specification in this animal. (prolekare.cz)
  • During amphibian gastrulation, presumptive endoderm is internalised as part of vegetal rotation, a large-scale movement that encompasses the whole vegetal half of the embryo. (elifesciences.org)
  • Vegetal rotation, a new gastrulation movement involved in the internalization of the mesoderm and endoderm in Xenopus. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the second phase of gastrulation, the vegetal plate invaginates into the interior, replacing the blastocoelic cavity and thereby forming a new cavity, the archenteron (literally: primitive gut), the opening into which is the blastopore. (bionity.com)
  • This study further characterises the expression of GATA4 and 6 during gastrulation, and investigates their function in migratory behaviour. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cloning and developmental expression of STAT5 in Xenopus laevis. (nih.gov)
  • Xenopus frizzled 4 is a maternal mRNA and its zygotic expression is localized to the neuroectoderm and trunk lateral plate mesoderm. (nih.gov)
  • Differential expression of two cadherins in Xenopus laevis. (biologists.com)
  • There are three Xenopus alleles (flotillin 1a, 1b, 1c) that have very similar expression profiles. (gwu.edu)
  • In Xenopus eggs, cortical rotation takes place and cytoplasmic movements can be visualized but grey crescent is not exposed. (letstalkacademy.com)
  • In Xenopus , the inferred transport of these determinants is coincident with the shift of the outer cortex, the "cortical rotation," relative to the entire cytoplasm, a shift that is readily apparent due to pigmentation patterns of granules in the cortex. (intechopen.com)
  • Keller RE, Schoenwolf GC (1977) An SEM study of cellular morphology, contact and arrangement as related to gastrulation in Xenopus laevis . (springer.com)
  • Gastrulation entails a set of morphogenetic processes that generate the external form of developing animals as well as the internal organisation of organ primordia. (biologists.org)
  • 1999 ) Bix4 is activated by VegT and mediates endoderm formation in Xenopus development. (biologists.org)
  • Morphogenetic Movements during the Xenopus Gastrulation and Development of Biocompatible Quantum Dots. (ucy.ac.cy)
  • These boundaries act as barriers against further cell movements and, thus, ensure the unperturbed progression of development in the respective cell populations. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, I examine two process of Xenopus laevis embryo development--namely, the processes of egg flattening and twin embryo production. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We propose that Fzd7 has an important role during Xenopus heart development. (uea.ac.uk)
  • So despite generations of students having learned about how gastrulation occurs in backboned animals from studying frogs, the cell behaviours that internalise the endoderm are still not understood. (elifesciences.org)
  • In mammals, gastrulation occurs after implantation , around day 16 after fertilization in human embryogenesis . (bionity.com)
  • Through comparison of these data with published ChIP-seq data in human, mouse and Xenopus we show that the transcriptional network driven by Smad2 in mesoderm and endoderm is conserved in these vertebrate species. (biomedcentral.com)

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