Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Upper Gastrointestinal Tract: The segment of GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the ESOPHAGUS; the STOMACH; and the DUODENUM.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Lower Gastrointestinal Tract: The segment of GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the small intestine below the DUODENUM, and the LARGE INTESTINE.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Urinary Tract: The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.Intestine, Large: A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Enteric Nervous System: Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Mice, Inbred C57BLTissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Pyramidal Tracts: Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gastrointestinal Transit: Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Mice, Inbred BALB CDogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: All tumors in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT arising from mesenchymal cells (MESODERM) except those of smooth muscle cells (LEIOMYOMA) or Schwann cells (SCHWANNOMA).Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Intubation, Gastrointestinal: The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Stomach Diseases: Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Lactobacillus reuteri: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria found naturally in the human intestinal flora and BREAST MILK.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Enteroendocrine Cells: Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Intestinal Diseases: Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Enteritis: Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Digestive System Diseases: Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Digestive System Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Endoscopes, Gastrointestinal: Instruments for the visual examination of the interior of the gastrointestinal tract.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Digestive System Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Mice, Inbred ICRColitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Administration, Intravenous: Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.Duodenal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Intestinal Perforation: Opening or penetration through the wall of the INTESTINES.Gastrointestinal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Crop, Avian: A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Genitalia, Female: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.Digestive System Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Esophageal Diseases: Pathological processes in the ESOPHAGUS.Mesentery: A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Lactobacillus plantarum: A species of rod-shaped, LACTIC ACID bacteria used in PROBIOTICS and SILAGE production.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Rats, Inbred F344Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Crohn Disease: A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Stomach Ulcer: Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Intestinal Polyps: Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the INTESTINE. A polyp is attached to the intestinal wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Prebiotics: Non-digestible food ingredients mostly of a carbohydrate base that improve human health by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of existing BACTERIA in the COLON.Tablets, Enteric-Coated: Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Myenteric Plexus: One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Colonic Diseases: Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Intestinal Obstruction: Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.
... along the gastrointestinal tract) may be a more fitting term for this route of administration. Furthermore, some application ... Common examples include oral and intravenous administration. Routes can also be classified based on where the target of action ... Administration through the gastrointestinal tract is sometimes termed enteral or enteric administration (literally meaning ' ... administration can also include enteral administration of medications that are poorly absorbable by the gastrointestinal tract ...
... bypassing the gastrointestinal tract. This is the only convenient and efficacious route of administration (apart from ... The sublingual route takes advantage of the highly vascular quality of the oral cavity, and allows for the speedy application ... Intravenous therapy) of nitroglycerin to a patient suffering chest pain from angina pectoris. The tongue evolved with the ... The sublingual region underneath the front of the tongue is an ideal location for the administration of certain medications ...
Intravenous (IV) administration of mycophenolate mofetil is also commonly associated with thrombophlebitis and thrombosis. ... Infrequent adverse effects (0.1-1% of patients) include esophagitis, gastritis, gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage, and/or ... But its medical application was forgotten until two American scientists C.L. Alsberg and O.M. Black resynthesised it in 1912, ... It was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on 3 May 1995 for use in kidney transplantation. Mycophenolate is ...
COL-3 is absorbed slowly from the gastrointestinal tract. 3% are excreted through the urinary tract while 55-66% is excreted in ... The application of TIMPs as therapeutic instrument through gene therapy or direct protein application is still in early stages ... not result in gastrointestinal toxicity and higher plasma levels can be achieved for extended time span reducing administration ... Doxycycline is available in oral and intravenous form. Doxycycline exhibited inhibitory activity on MMP-2 and MMP-9. The ...
It is the fraction of the drug absorbed through non-intravenous administration compared with the corresponding intravenous ... Health of the gastrointestinal tract. *Enzyme induction/inhibition by other drugs/foods: *Enzyme induction (increased rate of ... "Bioequivalence Studies in Drug Development: Methods and Applications. Statistics in Practice. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and ... intravenous administration (i.e., after oral, ocular, rectal, transdermal, subcutaneous, or sublingual administration), with ...
... is approved to treat spasms of the gastrointestinal tract, bile ducts and ureter and for use as a cerebral and ... The hydrochloride salt is available for intramuscular, intravenous, rectal and oral administration. The teprosylate is ... Tang Y, Luan J, Zhang X (2004). "Accelerating tissue expansion by application of topical papaverine cream". Plast. Reconstr. ... or modified for a given application. The in vivo mechanism of action is not entirely clear, but an inhibition of the enzyme ...
For continuous, frequent or prolonged intravenous chemotherapy administration, various systems may be surgically inserted into ... of infections are due to naturally occurring microorganisms in the patient's own gastrointestinal tract (including oral cavity ... Electrochemotherapy is the combined treatment in which injection of a chemotherapeutic drug is followed by application of high- ... There are a number of strategies in the administration of chemotherapeutic drugs used today. Chemotherapy may be given with a ...
... is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and metabolized in the liver. Its time to peak plasma ... The LD50 (intravenous, mouse) is 22 mg/kg. Levamisole reversibly and noncompetitively inhibits most isoforms of alkaline ... 2010) "The use of in vitro drug metabolism studies to complement, reduce and refine in vivo administrations in medication and ... Sanford, Shari (2007). "Levamisole Hydrochloride: Its application and usage in freshwater aquariums". Loaches Online. Archived ...
It is the fraction of the drug absorbed through non-intravenous administration compared with the corresponding intravenous ... Health of the gastrointestinal tract Enzyme induction/inhibition by other drugs/foods: Enzyme induction (increased rate of ... Rowland, Malcolm; Tozer, Thomas N. (2010). Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: Concepts and Applications (4 ed.). ... or sublingual administration), with the bioavailability of the same drug following intravenous administration. ...
Gastrointestinal tract : Frequently, nausea (8%), diarrhea (7%), unspecific abdominal pain (5%). Gastrointestinal tract : ... Peak plasma concentrations of anakinra generally occurred 3 to 7 hours after s.c. administration of clinically relevant doses ( ... Preexisting active tuberculosis (disease may be worsened - see side-effects). Concomitant application of live-virus vaccines ( ... If necessary, the usual symptomatic therapy with corticosteroids, epinephrine, antihistamines and intravenous fluid correction ...
... the motilin receptor has been identified in the gastrointestinal tracts of pigs, rats, cows, and cats, and in the central ... and are sometimes used for their ability to stimulate gastrointestinal motility. Administration of a low dose of erythromycin ... Intravenous injection of glucose, which increases the release of insulin, is also found to inhibit cyclic elevation of plasma ... Itoh Z (1997). "Motilin and clinical application". Peptides. 18 (4): 593-608. doi:10.1016/S0196-9781(96)00333-6. PMID 9210180. ...
The name PreosTM and the New Drug Application is pending approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Preotact is ... Hypercalcemia and/or hypercalciuria reflect the known pharmacodynamic actions of PTH in the gastrointestinal tract, the kidney ... The volume of distribution at steady-state following intravenous administration is approximately 5.4 liters. Intersubject ... Subcutaneous administration of PTH into the abdomen produces a rapid increase in plasma PTH levels which reaches peak at 1 to 2 ...
... gastrointestinal (GI) - gene - gene therapy - genetic engineering - genital ulcer disease - genital warts - genitourinary tract ... Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) - Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) - HELLP syndrome - helper T ... intravenous - intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) - intravitreal - Investigational New Drug (IND) - IRB - ITP - IVIG jaundice - ... New Drug Application (NDA) - New York Cares - NIAID - NICHD - night sweat - NIH - NK cell - NLM - NNRTI - non-Hodgkin's ...
administration. By mouth, intramuscular, intravenous (d/c'd), rectal[1]. Drug class. D2 receptor antagonist; Prolactin releaser ... It increases motility in the upper gastrointestinal tract to a moderate degree and increases[55] lower esophageal sphincter ... for use in people with treatment-refractory gastrointestinal symptoms under an FDA Investigational New Drug application.[1] ... and appear to be greatest with high/very high doses via intravenous administration and in the elderly, as well as with drugs ...
Oral: Oxytocin is destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract, so it is not active orally. Its uterine-contracting properties were ... Nasal administration: Oxytocin is a peptide that is effectively distributed to the brain when administered intranasally via a ... To induce labor: An intravenous infusion of oxytocin is used to induce labor and to support labor in case of slow childbirth if ... No serious adverse effects with short-term application of oxytocin with 18~40 IU (36-80 mcg) have been recorded. Intranasal ...
Gastrointestinal or urinary tract haemorrhage within the last 30 days or any active or recent haemorrhage that, in the opinion ... Check date values in: ,date= (help) "Therapeutic Biologics Applications (BLA)". US Food and Drug Administration. 07-10- 2016. ... Wechsler LR (2011). "Intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke". N Engl J Med. 364 (22): 2138-46. doi:10.1056/ ... Mistry EA (2017). "Mechanical Thrombectomy Outcomes With and Without Intravenous Thrombolysis in Stroke Patients: A Meta- ...
... an intravenous bolus because the highly basic guanidine with pKa 13 prevents it to be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract ... such as requiring intravenous administration and having a variable dose-response curve due to substantial protein binding. In ... Ahrens, Ingo; Karlheinz Peter; Gregory Y.H. Lip; Christoph Bode (2012). "Development and Clinical Applications of Novel Oral ... iv: intravenous, sc: subcutaneous, HIT: heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, VTE: Venous thromboembolism, DVT: Deep vein ...
The adverse effects of bisphosphates taken by mouth on the gastrointestinal tract are not known. Poor growth may be avoided by ... Intravenous, inhaled, and oral antibiotics are used to treat chronic and acute infections. Mechanical devices and inhalation ... Sweat testing involves application of a medication that stimulates sweating (pilocarpine). To deliver the medication through ... insertion of a feeding tube for increasing food energy through supplemental feeds or by administration of injected growth ...
Oral administration is well suited to G.I. tract scans, while intravascular administration proves more useful for most other ... A wide variety of oral contrast agents can enhance images of the gastrointestinal tract. They include gadolinium and manganese ... MRI contrast agents shorten the relaxation times of nuclei within body tissues following oral or intravenous administration. In ... Sinerem (also known as Combidex). Guerbet withdrew the marketing authorization application for this product in 2007. Lumirem ( ...
The application of tocilizumab is contraindicated during acute infections, as well as under latent tuberculosis. The most ... On 11 January 2010, it was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) as Actemra for the same purpose. ... The drug is administered by monthly intravenous infusions. An infusion takes about an hour. An alternative formulation for ... Rare but severe reactions were gastrointestinal perforations (0.26% in six months) and anaphylaxis (0.2%). There are no certain ...
"Driving Miss Emma" is intravenous administration of morphine. Multi-purpose tablets (readily soluble hypodermic tablets that ... "Morphine enhances nitric oxide release in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract via the micro(3) opiate receptor subtype: a ... "BestBets: Does the application of opiates, during an attack of Acute Cardiogenic Pulmonary Oedma, reduce patients' mortality ... morphine exerts its principal pharmacological effect on the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. Its primary ...
... via both intravenous and oral administration, as well as through topical administration in the treatment of malignant and non- ... breast and lung malignancies and cancer of the gastrointestinal tract. Sulphonation significantly increases PC solubility in ... Applications[edit]. Acne[edit]. PDT is currently in clinical trials as a treatment for severe acne. Initial results have shown ... Soluble in biological media, allowing intravenous administration. Otherwise, a hydrophilic delivery system must enable ...
... and related opioids produce their major effects on the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. These ... Gagnon, DJ; Jwo, K (2013). "Tremors and agitation following low-dose intravenous hydromorphone administration in a patient with ... Sarhill, Nabeel; Walsh, Declan; Nelson, Kristine A. (9 February 2014). "Hydromorphone: pharmacology and clinical applications ... "Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of hydromorphone following intravenous and oral administration to human subjects". J Clin ...
Cathartics were postulated to decrease absorption by increasing the expulsion of the poison from the gastrointestinal tract. ... Intravenous injection of an unnaturally high concentration of potassium chloride, such as in the execution of prisoners in ... Gastric lavage, commonly known as a stomach pump, is the insertion of a tube into the stomach, followed by administration of ... Throughout human history, intentional application of poison has been used as a method of murder, pest-control, suicide, and ...
After ingestion, DEG is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and distributed by the bloodstream throughout the body, ... Ethylene glycol is by far the largest volume of the glycol products in a variety of applications. Availability of DEG will ... A graphic story of a race against death from "elixir sulfanilamide," carried on by the Food and Drug Administration in fifteen ... intravenous pain reliever; and an arthritis medication. In April 2006, the Guangdong Province Hospital of Guangzhou began ...
... intravenous - intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) - intravitreal - Investigational New Drug (IND) - IRB - ITP - IVIG ... GAG - gamma globulin - gamma interferon - ganglion - GART - gastrointestinal (GI) - gene - gene therapy - genetic engineering ... fat redistribution - FDA FDC - floaters - follicle - follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) - Food and Drug Administration (United ... New Drug Application (NDA) - New York Cares - NIAID - NICHD - night sweat - NIH - NK cell - NLM - NNRTI - non-Hodgkin's ...
After oral application, methotrexate is absorbed from the gastrointestinal. tract. When administered in low doses (7.5mg/m2 to ... Subcutaneous, intravenous and intramuscular administration demonstrated. similar bioavailability.. Distribution. Approximately ... administration. of. Methotrexate. 25 mg/ml).. Gastrointestinal. ulcers and. bleeding.. 15. Enteritis, melaena. Gingivitis,. ... methotrexate administration may be required (see section 5.2 and 4.4).. Duration and method of administration:. The medicinal ...
Most quinolones have excellent oral bioavailability, with serum drug concentrations equivalent to intravenous administration. ... Applications of fluoroquinolones in biologic warfare are also discussed. ... gastrointestinal infections, gynecologic infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and some skin and soft tissue infections. ... Clinical applications beyond genitourinary tract infections include upper and lower respiratory infections, ...
The typical routes of administration are by intramuscular (injection into a muscle) or intravenous injection (injection into a ... Aminoglycosides are absorbed very poorly from the gastrointestinal tract; in fact, aminoglycosides taken orally are excreted ... or intravenous injection (injection into a vein), irrigation, topical skin application, or inhalation. If the infection being ... Aminoglycosides are absorbed very poorly from the gastrointestinal tract; in fact, aminoglycosides taken orally are excreted ...
... but evidence suggests its benefits and safety vary according to route of administration. A phase I study set out to answer ... 6 Absorption of MLs from the gastrointestinal tract has been shown to be poor because they interact with carbohydrate residues ... Intravenous Application of Mistletoe Extract. Insights into safety and tolerability By Miranda LaBant, ND ... Adverse events from intravenous mistletoe administration have been documented through case reports, case series, and other ...
... radioactivity was absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Following oral or intravenous application of 1 mg/kg bw, about 0.1 ... Following intraduodenal administration or intravenous application to rats with a fistulated bile duct, about 12% of the applied ... gastrointestinal tract (oral application, rat and mouse) and on the peritoneum (intraperitoneal application, rat). Comparison ... At 6 days post-application, the amount of activity in the body less gastrointestinal tract had dropped to below the limit of ...
Beyond the intravenous route. Although nanomedicines are mainly designed for intravenous administration, many other routes of ... Conversely, nanomedicine formulations may also protect the gastrointestinal tract from toxic or irritant drugs [58]. Some ... Polymer nanoparticles were first developed in the mid-1970s by Birrenbach and Speiser [15]. Later on, their application for the ... is difficult to reach both by topical administration and by intravenous administration. For example, encapsulation of ...
... along the gastrointestinal tract) may be a more fitting term for this route of administration. Furthermore, some application ... Common examples include oral and intravenous administration. Routes can also be classified based on where the target of action ... Administration through the gastrointestinal tract is sometimes termed enteral or enteric administration (literally meaning ... administration can also include enteral administration of medications that are poorly absorbable by the gastrointestinal tract ...
... bypassing the gastrointestinal tract. This is the only convenient and efficacious route of administration (apart from ... The sublingual route takes advantage of the highly vascular quality of the oral cavity, and allows for the speedy application ... Intravenous therapy) of nitroglycerin to a patient suffering chest pain from angina pectoris. The tongue evolved with the ... The sublingual region underneath the front of the tongue is an ideal location for the administration of certain medications ...
... bypassing the gastrointestinal tract. This is the only (apart from [[Intravenous_therapy,I.V.]] administration) convenient and ... and allows for the speedy application of medication into the cardiovascular system, ... Vocal tract]] * [[Tongue disease]] ==References== {{reflist}} Millington GWM, Shah SN. (2007) A case of pigmented fungiform ... Anatomy of the Vocal Tract] {{col-3}} {{commonscat,tongue}} {{col-3}} {{wiktionary}} {{col-end}} {{Gustatory system}} {{human ...
Hui, 1997) The intravenous administration served as benchmark for 100% absorption of test material. Collection of urinary and ... Analysis of the biliary fraction showed that 30-35% of the administered radioactivity entered into the gastro-intestinal tract ... following dermal application versus intravenous dosing indicated that 60% of the dermally-applied test chemical was absorbed ... Comparison of excreted radioactivity from groups of rats following dermal application versus intravenous dosing indicated 60% ...
9.4.4 Gastrointestinal Gastrointestinal disturbances have been described both after intravenous administration or oral use of ... After oral administration, miconozole is incompletely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract; peak plasma concentrations of ... 5.4 Eye Solutions of miconazole have been used for topical application into the eye. 5.5 Parenteral Miconazole is administered ... absorption of the drug from gastrointestinal tract, such as emesis, gastric lavage or administration of activated charcoal, ...
... it is expected that SYN-004 can degrade the antibiotic that is excreted in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, thus preserving the ... CDI is a major, unintended risk associated with the prophylactic or therapeutic use of intravenous antibiotics, which may alter ... and international patents intended to support an IND and Biologic License Application (BLA) with the U.S. Food and Drug ... immune-compromising conditions including the administration of chemotherapy, and advanced age. ...
Cannabinoid medications in pill form are designed for oral administration with absorption via the gastrointestinal tract. ... Intravenous administration is currently not available for cannabinoids due to the characteristics of cannabinoid molecules. ... Other methods of cannabinoid administration, such as topical applications - absorbed through the skin are under development but ... some is also swallowed and absorbed in gastrointestinal tract. Cannabinoids in their dried herbal format are generally inhaled ...
Intravenous infusion and topical delivery are the main routes for drug administration by NLCs. The effort to develop ... Permeation by means of the gastrointestinal tract and BBB might be a future pattern. Combination of two therapeutically active ... In this review we might want to demonstrate the present development of NLCs for drug delivery and the focusing on application. ... This review states recent advances in drug delivery by NLCs [81-87]. Notwithstanding intravenous administration, topical and ...
Medication administration; Pain management; Heat/cold application; Analgesic administration. Planning and implementation. ... If an ileus or abdominal distention is present, a nasogastric tube is usually inserted to decompress the gastrointestinal tract ... Priority should be given to timely administration of intravenous (IV) antibiotics to maintain therapeutic blood levels. IV ... The lower female genital tract consists of the vagina and the cervix. The upper female genital tract consists of the body of ...
The typical routes of administration are by intramuscular (injection into a muscle) or intravenous injection (injection into a ... Aminoglycosides are absorbed very poorly from the gastrointestinal tract; in fact, aminoglycosides taken orally are excreted ... vein), irrigation, topical skin application, or inhalation. If the infection being treated involves the central nervous system ... However, this administration schedule is time and labor intensive. Furthermore, administering a single daily dose can be as ...
Endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract -- (a) upper tract; Endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract - (b) lower tract; ... Intravenous urography; Iodinated contrast media L Local anaesthesia -- nerve blocks M Myringotomy N Nasal oxygen administration ... Cast application; Cerebrospinal fluid sampling; Cerebrospinal fluid sampling -- (a) cerebellomedullary cistern; Cerebrospinal ... Barium studies of the gastrointestinal tract - (a) oesophagus; Barium studies of the gastrointestinal tract - (b) stomach and ...
Loiirritation of the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in nausea,increase in bronchial secretions, vomiting, pain in the ... However, inthe case of parenteral administration (intravenous, subcutaneous or intramuscular) additional in vivo tests are ... Of importance on the order valium phoenix part of the organism is the place of application andthe efficiency of the circulation ... Of importance on the order valium phoenix part of the organism is the place of application andthe efficiency of the circulation ...
... pillcam video capsule and its intended use is to verify adequate patency of the gastrointestinal tract prior to administration ... After intravenous application of a daily dose of 250mg prednisolone the ileus formed back quickly within three days. The pt had ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 Ph. 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888-463-6332). ...
NPS submitted a new drug application for teduglutide to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in November 2011. ... disease characterised by the bodys severely impaired ability to absorb nutrients and fluids through the gastrointestinal tract ... Many patients with SBS depend on chronic parenteral nutrition (PN) and/or intravenous (IV) fluids to survive. There are ... A New Drug Application is undergoing FDA review for Gattex® (teduglutide) as a treatment for adult short bowel syndrome (SBS) ...
... in lactic acid bacteria engineered to express therapeutic molecules and achieve systemic delivery following oral administration ... Oral administration typically is not feasible, as the polypeptides are either degraded in the gastrointestinal tract or are ... Direct intravenous administration is therefore the major route by which polypeptides are systemically introduced.. Certain ... APPLICATIONS *Diseases and conditions that may be targeted include metabolic syndrome (e.g., obesity and type-2 diabetes), ...
... it has always been very difficult for most of the drug molecules to be absorbed easily from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) or ... Application of nanoemulsion in different drug delivery systems. Nanoemulsion is proving itself to be an effective drug delivery ... IV administration of nanoemulsions requires biodegradable surfactants. Numerous researches are presently being carried out in ... Few nanoemulsions have been manufactured commercially in oral, topical, ophthalmic and even in intravenous (IV) drug delivery ...
The compositions are well-suited for subcutaneous administration. ... as intravenous administration is disliked by:most patients. ... Pharmaceutical compositions containing amifostine and a chelating agent to enhance gastrointestinal tract absorption of the ... International Published Application WO 90/14007, published Nov. 29, 1990. Amifostine and its derivatives have been shown to ... This route of administration provides numerous advantages over other typical routes of administration, such as intravenous or ...
... and are of interest for various therapeutic applications. EVs can act through uptake by the target cells followed by release of ... and are of interest for various therapeutic applications. EVs can act through uptake by the target cells followed by release of ... Unlike intravenous injection, EV administration by the intraperitoneal or subcutaneous route results in higher accumulation in ... pancreas and gastrointestinal tract and in lower concentrations in liver and spleen (Wiklander et al., 2015). In addition, EV ...
  • Clinical applications beyond genitourinary tract infections include upper and lower respiratory infections, gastrointestinal infections, gynecologic infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and some skin and soft tissue infections. (aafp.org)
  • However, for clinical applications, EV safe and effective production systems and rigorous quality control are needed before the release of clinical batches. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the present review, we summarize the recent developments in EV production for pharmaceutical manufacturing, and discuss the regulatory issues associated with their clinical application. (frontiersin.org)
  • It has cardiac effects and weak anti-inflammatory activity, may also cause excitation of the respiratory and central nerve systems, and increases blood flow in the coronary arteries, explaining its common application for the treatment of coronary heart disease in clinical settings [ 3 - 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • To study the clinical pharmacokinetics of parecoxib sodium via intravenous and intramuscular injections in Chinese populations. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The routes of administration can affect the clinical pharmacokinetic parameters of parecoxib, but not those of valdecoxib. (alliedacademies.org)
  • It does not affect the function of the gastrointestinal tract, the platelets and the kidney, etc. while it exerts the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, and thus, it has fewer clinical side effects and adverse reactions [ 3 - 6 ] and is especially suitable for the treatment of perioperative pain in patients. (alliedacademies.org)
  • This study aimed to investigate the clinical pharmacokinetics of parecoxib via intravenous and intramuscular injections in Chinese populations, thereby providing a theoretical basis for clinical medication. (alliedacademies.org)
  • SYN ), a late-stage clinical company developing therapeutics designed to preserve the microbiome to protect and restore the health of patients, today announced that it has successfully completed an End-of-Phase 2 meeting with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to discuss development of SYN-004 (ribaxamase) for the prevention of antibiotic-mediated Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). (benzinga.com)
  • Synthetic Biologics, in consultation with the FDA, has confirmed the key elements of the Phase 3 clinical program to support a marketing application for ribaxamase, the Company's first-in-class oral enzyme designed to degrade certain intravenous (IV) beta-lactam antibiotics within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to prevent microbiome damage, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), overgrowth of pathogenic organisms and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). (benzinga.com)
  • However, the clinical- evidence-based outcome of GlcN administration remains controversial. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Those drugs which currently have entered clinical application include cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine, nizatidine and roxatidine. (chemicalbook.com)
  • We describe 3 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) with severe, transfusion-dependent gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) refractory to laser ablation who showed remarkable clinical and endoscopic improvement following intravenous (IV) pulse cyclophosphamide (CYC) treatment. (jrheum.org)
  • Review of clinical records and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy images from 3 patients with SSc and severe GAVE before and after treatment with IV pulse CYC. (jrheum.org)
  • We describe 3 cases of SSc with severe transfusion-dependent GAVE refractory to conventional therapy in whom there was remarkable clinical and endoscopic improvement following therapy with intravenous (IV) pulse cyclophosphamide (CYC). (jrheum.org)
  • Preventing Medication Errors boxes reinforce concepts introduced in the medication safety chapter and highlight common errors that occur in clinical practice to help you ensure safe drug administration. (elsevier.com)
  • With subsequent observations of the lower gastrointestinal tracts in a clinical setting, there are no health risks associated with uid depletion and electrolyte imbalance and the condition is the key point is not favour- extremities. (puc.edu)
  • Medicinal chemistry background followed by clinical pharmacy practice, which include medication management and cost-analysis of medication wastage from Medication Administration Record (MAR) in care homes, as well as discharge from hospital and the role of Discharge Advice Letters (DALs) in a seeming transition and integration into primary care. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Growing evidence has shown that hydrogen gas can either alleviate the side effects caused by conventional chemotherapeutics, or suppress the growth of cancer cells and xenograft tumor, suggesting its broad potent application in clinical therapy. (water-ionizers.info)
  • The information may direct the future clinical application of hydrogen gas. (water-ionizers.info)
  • The demonstration of reliable correlations between MICs and clinical antifungal efficacy is paramount to successful clinical application of these standardized methods. (asm.org)
  • The assets include a pre-Investigational New Drug (IND) package, Phase I and Phase II clinical data, manufacturing process data and all issued and pending U.S. and international patents intended to support an IND and Biologic License Application (BLA) with the FDA. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In addition, two Phase II clinical studies demonstrated its ability to preserve GI microflora in hospitalized patients treated with intravenous ampicillin or the combination of piperacillin and tazobactam. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Collection of urinary and fecal excretion over a period of 168h after dosing demonstrated 70% recovery of radioactivity following intravenous dosing whereas a recovery of 88% of dermally-applied test compound was achieved. (europa.eu)
  • The excretion of L(+)-tartaric acid in the urine after p.o. administration was investigated in the rat, guinea-pig, dog and rabbit. (europa.eu)
  • High levels of radioactivity (70-95% of the administered radioactivity) were found in the urine during the first 24 hours, with only a small amount in the faeces, indicating rapid and almost complete absorption from the gastrointestinal tract followed by rapid excretion. (inchem.org)
  • Conclusions Intravenous infusions of GLP-1 decrease spontaneous food intake even at physiological plasma concentrations, implying an important role for GLP-1 in the regulation of the early satiety response in humans. (bmj.com)
  • Therefore the present study was designed to investigate the effects of intravenous infusions of synthetic human GLP-1 on food intake, meal duration, satiety, and feelings of fullness in healthy male subjects. (bmj.com)
  • Selective Digestive Tract Decontamination-Will It Prevent Infection with Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Pathogens but Still Be Applicable in Institutions where Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Are Endemic? (oup.com)
  • The purposes of selective decontamination of the digestive tract are to treat infections that may be incubating at the time a patient is admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), by intravenous administration of antibiotics during the first days of a stay in the ICU, and to prevent ICU-acquired infections, by topical application of antibiotics in the oropharynx and the gastrointestinal tract. (oup.com)
  • Despite multiple trials in which a considerable reduction in the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia was demonstrated, major objections against the routine use of selective decontamination of the digestive tract have included a lack of demonstrated reductions in mortality rates and in length of stay (in individual trials), a lack of cost-efficacy data, and the threat of selection of multidrug-resistant bacteria. (oup.com)
  • Recently, 2 controlled, randomized studies reported significant reductions in mortality rates among patients in ICUs who underwent selective decontamination of the digestive tract in combination with reduced selection of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. (oup.com)
  • In November 2012, Synthetic Biologics, Inc. acquired a series of oral beta-lactamase enzymes (P1A, P2A and P3A) and related assets targeting the prevention of C. difficile infections (CDI), the leading cause of hospital acquired infections (HAI), that generally occur secondary to treatment with intravenous antibiotics. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Although mostly conceived for intravenous administration, nanomedicines hold potential for delivery by other routes, such as the oral, ocular and pulmonary routes, which we examine. (springer.com)
  • The invention relates to liposomes for pulmonary application, advantageously comprising at least one first and at least one second phospholipid, cholesterol, and at least one active substance and/or colorant, wherein the first phospholipid is a phosphatidylcholine, preferably DSPC, and the second phospholipid is a phosphatidylcholine or an ethanolamine, preferably selected from the group DMPC, DPPC, DPPE. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Postmarketing cases of seizures, cardiopulmonary arrest, and death in patients under the age of 3 years have been reported with use of Lidocaine Hydrochloride Oral Topical Solution, USP (Viscous) 2% when it was not administered in strict adherence to the dosing and administration recommendations. (nih.gov)
  • Lidocaine is also well-absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, but little intact drug appears in the circulation because of biotransformation in the liver. (nih.gov)
  • The polymers, for example in the form of microspheres, have improved ability to adhere to mucosal membranes, and thus can be used to deliver a drug or diagnostic agent via any of a range of mucosal membrane surfaces including-those of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, excretory and reproductive tracts. (google.com)
  • A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2.4 First aid measures and management principles In case of oral overdosage the common measures to limit the absorption of the drug from gastrointestinal tract, such as emesis, gastric lavage or administration of activated charcoal, should be performed, if patient seen early after ingestion. (intox.org)
  • and, a portfolio of issued and pending U.S. and international patents intended to support an IND and Biologic License Application (BLA) with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In this review we might want to demonstrate the present development of NLCs for drug delivery and the focusing on application. (rroij.com)
  • While a poison gas or injection can reach the brain and have a profound effect in a matter of seconds at most, it will take a transdermal application 30 minutes before the drug even reaches the brain. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • Conclusion: The results of this study will promote the application of EPS in nanotechnology, which should lead to new and effective local drug formulations for treating VVC. (bvsalud.org)
  • Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) of the Department of Justice was established to enforce the Controlled Substances Act. (studystack.com)
  • The route of administration is defined as the path by which a drug or other substance enters the body. (wellness.com)
  • The development of alternative methods of drug administration has improved the ability of physicians to manage specific problems. (wellness.com)
  • Copper is found buy drug lorazepam in hanoi in small quantities in buy drug lorazepam in hanoi these organsand secretions in man and in animals that have not been treated withit, but in much larger amount after prolonged administration. (superceramics.co.uk)
  • Parameters such as the food or fluid intake of the subject be-fore, during, and after drug administration can have dramaticeffects on the absorption of certain drugs. (superceramics.co.uk)
  • Alginate, a colloidal polyuronic acid structural molecule capable of gelation, is used in the preparation of colloidal biodegradable structures such as gels, biofilms, beads, nanoparticles, and microcapsules suitable for applications that range from gel based separation technologies to drug delivery and cell preservation. (chemicalbook.com)
  • It is the fraction of the drug absorbed through non-intravenous administration compared with the corresponding intravenous administration of the same drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capsicum and paprika are generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in food. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Effectiveness and safety of intravenous lipid emulsions as drug delivery systems. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • BEKINDA ® is a proprietary, bimodal extended-release, once-daily oral pill formulation of the antiemetic drug ondansetron, targeting multiple gastrointestinal indications. (redhillbio.com)
  • As previously announced, in light of discussions with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), RedHill believes that, subject to achieving highly significant positive results, the GUARD study may be sufficient as a single Phase III study to support potential future marketing application in the U.S., conditional upon, among other things, future review and guidance from the FDA. (redhillbio.com)
  • Depending on the elimination half-lifeand drug metabolism phenomena such as enzyme induction, an equilibriumis achieved between the rates of where can i buy zolpidem absorption and elimination at a given timeafter the start of administration. (crownallqueens.com)
  • Hydrogen gas can be generated in small amount by hydrogenase of certain members of the human gastrointestinal tract microbiota from unabsorbed carbohydrates in the intestine through degradation and metabolism ( 20 , 21 ), which then is partially diffused into blood flow and released and detected in exhaled breath ( 20 ), indicating its potential to serve as a biomarker. (water-ionizers.info)
  • The single administration of narcotic analgesics, gamma (γ)-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogs such as gabapentin, pregabalin and baclofen, antidepressants and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to display pain alleviating properties in the clinic and in various animal models. (google.nl)
  • Nanoemulsion is one of the greatest and advantageous dosage forms with the application of nanotechnology in pharmaceutical formulations. (degruyter.com)
  • The nature of phospholipids influences not only the encapsulation efficacy but also the in vivo fate of the liposomes after intravenous administration. (springer.com)
  • To evaluate the usefulness of La-IP6 and Zn-IP6 in vivo, La-IP6 or Zn-IP6 was administrated to mice after intravenous injection of (137)Cs. (americanelements.com)
  • Fabrication and Implantation of Miniature Dual-element Strain Gages for Measuring In Vivo Gastrointestinal Contractions in Rodents. (jove.com)
  • Gregory M. Holmes 1 , Emily M. Swartz 1 , Margaret S. McLean 1 1 Department of Neural and Behavioral Sciences, Penn State University College of Medicine The in vivo measurement of smooth muscle contractions along the gastrointestinal tract of laboratory animals remains a powerful, though underutilized, technique. (jove.com)
  • The route or course the active substance takes from application location to the location where it has its target effect is usually rather a matter of pharmacokinetics (concerning the processes of uptake, distribution, and elimination of drugs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Drugs in carriers administered parenterally, especially via venous route, would exhibit more predictable pharmacokinetics while reducing the toxicity often associated with the use of free drugs and gastrointestinal applications [ 7 ]. (plos.org)
  • SBS is a rare and debilitating disease characterised by the body's severely impaired ability to absorb nutrients and fluids through the gastrointestinal tract in people who have had a significant portion of their small intestine removed. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • Nanomedicine technology has emerged following pioneering work in the 1970s and has given rise to an enormous number of novel delivery systems and applications. (springer.com)
  • CDI is a rising global HAI problem in which the toxins produced by C. difficile bacteria result in diarrhea ( C. difficile -associated diarrhea (CDAD)), and in the most serious cases, pseudomembranous colitis (erosion of the lower GI tract) that can lead to death. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In 2009, aggregate costs associated with CDI-related stays in the hospital were $8.2 billion in the U.S. CDI is a global HAI in which the toxins produced by C. diff bacteria result in diarrhea ( C. diff -associated diarrhea (CDAD)), and in the most serious cases, pseudomembranous colitis (erosion of the GI tract) that can lead to death. (bio-medicine.org)