Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The segment of GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the ESOPHAGUS; the STOMACH; and the DUODENUM.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
The segment of GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the small intestine below the DUODENUM, and the LARGE INTESTINE.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.
Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
All tumors in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT arising from mesenchymal cells (MESODERM) except those of smooth muscle cells (LEIOMYOMA) or Schwann cells (SCHWANNOMA).
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria found naturally in the human intestinal flora and BREAST MILK.
Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.
Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.
Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Instruments for the visual examination of the interior of the gastrointestinal tract.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.
Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Opening or penetration through the wall of the INTESTINES.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
Pathological processes in the ESOPHAGUS.
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the INTESTINE. A polyp is attached to the intestinal wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.
A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
A species of rod-shaped, LACTIC ACID bacteria used in PROBIOTICS and SILAGE production.
Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.
Non-digestible food ingredients mostly of a carbohydrate base that improve human health by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of existing BACTERIA in the COLON.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
c-Kit positive cells related to SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that are intercalated between the autonomic nerves and the effector smooth muscle cells of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Different phenotypic classes play roles as pacemakers, mediators of neural inputs, and mechanosensors.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.
Strong alkaline chemicals that destroy soft body tissues resulting in a deep, penetrating type of burn, in contrast to corrosives, that result in a more superficial type of damage via chemical means or inflammation. Caustics are usually hydroxides of light metals. SODIUM HYDROXIDE and potassium hydroxide are the most widely used caustic agents in industry. Medically, they have been used externally to remove diseased or dead tissues and destroy warts and small tumors. The accidental ingestion of products (household and industrial) containing caustic ingredients results in thousands of injuries per year.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Inflammation of the DUODENUM section of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL). Erosive duodenitis may cause bleeding in the UPPER GI TRACT and PEPTIC ULCER.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).
The consumption of edible substances.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Concretions of swallowed hair, fruit or vegetable fibers, or similar substances found in the alimentary canal.
Pathological development in the ILEUM including the ILEOCECAL VALVE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
A condition caused by the lack of intestinal PERISTALSIS or INTESTINAL MOTILITY without any mechanical obstruction. This interference of the flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS often leads to INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION. Ileus may be classified into postoperative, inflammatory, metabolic, neurogenic, and drug-induced.
The superior portion of the body of the stomach above the level of the cardiac notch.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria used in PROBIOTICS.
Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The sensory fibers innervating the viscera.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Infections of the genital tract in females or males. They can be caused by endogenous, iatrogenic, or sexually transmitted organisms.
A hereditary disease caused by autosomal dominant mutations involving CHROMOSOME 19. It is characterized by the presence of INTESTINAL POLYPS, consistently in the JEJUNUM, and mucocutaneous pigmentation with MELANIN spots of the lips, buccal MUCOSA, and digits.
A type of ILEUS, a functional not mechanical obstruction of the INTESTINES. This syndrome is caused by a large number of disorders involving the smooth muscles (MUSCLE, SMOOTH) or the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.
Infections with BACTERIA of the order Bifidobacteriales. This includes infections in the genera BIFIDOBACTERIUM and GARDNERELLA, in the family Bifidobacteriaceae.
A segment of the COLON between the RECTUM and the descending colon.
Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.
Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.
Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
Abnormal passage communicating with the STOMACH.
A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.
Any of certain small mammals of the order Hyracoidea.
The growth of INTESTINAL POLYPS. Growth processes include neoplastic (ADENOMA and CARCINOMA) and non-neoplastic (hyperplastic, mucosal, inflammatory, and other polyps).
A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.
The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.
Tumors or cancer in the JEJUNUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.
A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.
Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the DIGESTIVE TRACT or the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Polyps can be spheroidal, hemispheroidal, or irregular mound-shaped structures attached to the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the lumen wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
The formation of soft patches on the mucous membrane of a hollow organ, such as the urogenital tract or digestive tract.
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the digestive system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.
A slightly acid milk food produced by fermentation due to the combined action of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of shark in the family SQUALIDAE, used for its oil (SQUALENE) and as fish meal. It also figures heavily in biological research, especially with reference to its RECTAL GLAND in studies of WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A galectin found in the small and large intestine and the stomach. It occurs as a homodimer with two 36-kDa subunits and is localized to sites of cell adhesion where it may play role in assembly of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS.
Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A congenital abnormality characterized by the outpouching or sac formation in the ILEUM. It is a remnant of the embryonic YOLK SAC in which the VITELLINE DUCT failed to close.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Pathological conditions in the INTESTINES that are characterized by the gastrointestinal loss of serum proteins, including SERUM ALBUMIN; IMMUNOGLOBULINS; and at times LYMPHOCYTES. Severe condition can result in HYPOGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA or LYMPHOPENIA. Protein-losing enteropathies are associated with a number of diseases including INTESTINAL LYMPHANGIECTASIS; WHIPPLE'S DISEASE; and NEOPLASMS of the SMALL INTESTINE.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.
A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.

Expression of the type III TGFbeta receptor during chick organogenesis. (1/3143)

Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) is a regulator of embryonic development. The role of specific TGFbeta receptors is emerging, and a unique role for the type III TGFbeta receptor (TBRIII) has been suggested. We report the pattern of TBRIII expression in chicken embryos from 2 to 14 days in ovo.  (+info)

Functions of a chitosan-orotic acid salt in the gastrointestinal tract. (2/3143)

A chitosan (CS)-orotic acid salt (CS-OT) was prepared, and the release of orotic acid (OT) from CS-OT as well as the adsorption of bile acids by CS-OT was investigated in vitro. The amount of OT released from CS-OT was about 2-2.7 micromol/mg CS-OT and this changed depending on the species of CS. CS-OT also adsorbed bile acids and the amount increased incrementally according to the number of amino group contained in CS. Furthermore, CS-OT was given to rats as feed in order to investigate the influence on serum cholesterol levels. A decrease in serum cholesterol levels was observed in the group, which was fed a diet containing CS-OT or CS for 1-2 weeks, but no differences in body weight changes were recognized. Therefore, CS-OT may be applied to treating hyperlipidemia.  (+info)

The pacemaker activity of interstitial cells of Cajal and gastric electrical activity. (3/3143)

Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are the pacemaker cells in the gut. They have special properties that make them unique in their ability to generate and propagate slow waves in gastrointestinal muscles. The electrical slow wave activity determines the characteristic frequency of phasic contractions of the stomach, intestine and colon. Slow waves also determine the direction and velocity of propagation of peristaltic activity, in concert with the enteric nervous system. Characterization of receptors and ion channels in the ICC membrane is under way, and manipulation of slow wave activity markedly alters the movement of contents through the gut. Gastric myoelectrical slow wave activity produced by pacemaker cells (ICC) can be reflected by electrogastrography (EGG). Electrogastrography is a perspective non-invasive method that can detect gastric dysrhythmias associated with symptoms of nausea or delayed gastric emptying.  (+info)

Claudins in Caenorhabditis elegans: their distribution and barrier function in the epithelium. (4/3143)

Claudins ( approximately 23 kDa) with four transmembrane domains are major cell adhesion molecules working at tight junctions in vertebrates, where the intercellular space is tightly sealed (reviewed in ). We examined here the possible occurrence of claudin-like proteins in invertebrates, which do not bear typical tight junctions. Close blast searching of the C. elegans genome database identified four claudin-related, approximately 20-kDa integral membrane proteins (CLC-1 to -4), which showed sequence similarity to the vertebrate claudins. The expression and distribution of CLC-1 was then examined in detail by GFP technology as well as by immunofluorescence microscopy. CLC-1 was mainly expressed in the epithelial cells in the pharyngeal region of digestive tubes and colocalized with AJM-1 at their intercellular junctions. Then, to examine the possible involvement of CLC-1 in the barrier function, we performed RNA interference in combination with a tracer experiment: in CLC-1-deficient worms, the barrier function of the pharyngeal portion of the digestive tubes appeared to be severely affected. CLC-2 was expressed in seam cells in the hypodermis, and it also appeared to be involved in the hypodermis barrier. These findings indicated that multiple species of the claudin homologs, which are involved in the barrier function of the epithelium, exist in C. elegans.  (+info)

Screening of Mongolian plants for influence on amylase activity in mouse plasma and gastrointestinal tube. (5/3143)

Mongolian plants were screened for their influence on alpha-amylase activity in mouse plasma. Methanolic extracts of Geranium pratense, Rhodiola rosea, Ribes pullchelum and Vaccinium uliginosum inhibited the enzyme activity in isolated mouse plasma by greater than 40% and the effect was concentration dependent. Vaccinium uliginosum also showed a depressive effect on elevation of postprandial blood glucose to some extent.  (+info)

PNA-positive glycoconjugates are negatively correlated with the access of neural crest cells to the gut in chicken embryos. (6/3143)

Neural crest cells give rise to many derivatives, including the neurons and glia of the peripheral nervous system, adrenomedulary cells, and melanocytes, and migrate through precise pathways that differ according to their axial level and/or state of specification. The migratory routes taken by neural crest cells are reported to be regulated by extracellular matrix molecules. We examined the possible influence of glycoconjugates on the establishment of barriers to neural crest access to ventral regions leading to the gut, by labeling stage-16-28 white Leghorn (WL) and Silky (SK) embryos with peanut agglutinin (PNA) at vagal, thoracic, and sacral levels. We observed a transitory expression of glycoconjugates that correlate with a barrier to the entrance of neural crest cells into the gut at the thoracic level, which is not present at vagal and sacral levels. In later stages, neural crest cells of melanocytic lineage were observed entering the gut in embryos of the SK chicken, a mutant with an altered pattern of pigmentation. The ventral regions occupied by melanoblasts in SK embryos were free of PNA labeling, while in WL embryos, in which PNA-positive molecules are strongly expressed, melanoblasts were restricted to peripheral regions. We suggest that PNA-binding glycoconjugates are good molecular marker for barriers that control the access of neural crest cells to the gut.  (+info)

Differential and history-dependent modulation of a stretch receptor in the stomatogastric system of the crab, Cancer borealis. (7/3143)

Neuromodulators can modify the magnitude and kinetics of the response of a sensory neuron to a stimulus. Six neuroactive substances modified the activity of the gastropyloric receptor 2 (GPR2) neuron of the stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) of the crab Cancer borealis during muscle stretch. Stretches were applied to the gastric mill 9 (gm9) and the cardio-pyloric valve 3a (cpv3a) muscles. SDRNFLRFamide and dopamine had excitatory effects on GPR2. Serotonin, GABA, and the peptide allatostatin-3 (AST) decreased GPR2 firing during stretch. Moreover, SDRNFLRFamide and TNRNFLRFamide increased the unstimulated spontaneous firing rate, whereas AST and GABA decreased it. The actions of AST and GABA were amplitude- and history-dependent. In fully recovered preparations, AST and GABA decreased the response to small-amplitude stretches proportionally more than to those evoked by large-amplitude stretches. For large-amplitude stretches, the effects of AST and GABA were more pronounced as the number of recent stretches increased. The modulators that affected the stretch-induced GPR2 firing rate were also tested when the neuron was operating in a bursting mode of activity. Application of SDRNFLRFamide increased the bursting frequency transiently, whereas high concentrations of serotonin, AST, and GABA abolished bursting altogether. Together these data demonstrate that the effects of neuromodulators depend on the previous activity and current state of the sensory neuron.  (+info)

Polarization of specific tropomyosin isoforms in gastrointestinal epithelial cells and their impact on CFTR at the apical surface. (8/3143)

Microfilaments have been reported to be polarized in a number of cell types based both on function and isoform composition. There is evidence that microfilaments are involved in the movement of vesicles and the polarized delivery of proteins to specialized membrane domains. We have investigated the composition of actin microfilaments in gastrointestinal epithelial cells and their role in the delivery of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) into the apical membrane using cultured T84 cells as a model. We identified a specific population of microfilaments containing the tropomyosin (Tm) isoforms Tm5a and/or Tm5b, which are polarized in T84 cell monolayers. Polarization of this microfilament population occurs very rapidly in response to cell-cell and cell-substratum contact and is not inhibited by jasplakinolide, suggesting this involves the movement of intact filaments. Colocalization of Tm5a and/or Tm5b and CFTR was observed in long-term cultures. A reduction in Tm5a and Tm5b expression, induced using antisense oligonucleotides, resulted in an increase in both CFTR surface expression and chloride efflux in response to cAMP stimulation. We conclude that Tm isoforms Tm5a and/or Tm5b mark an apical population of microfilaments that can regulate the insertion and/or retention of CFTR into the plasma membrane.  (+info)

The gut-brain axis is the biochemical signaling that takes place between the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and the central nervous system (CNS). The term gut-brain axis is occasionally used to refer to the role of the gut flora in the interplay as well, whereas the term microbiome-gut-brain axis explicitly includes the role of gut flora in the biochemical signaling events that take place between the GI tract and CNS. Broadly defined, the gut-brain axis includes the central nervous system, neuroendocrine and neuroimmune systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis), sympathetic and parasympathetic arms of the autonomic nervous system, including the enteric nervous system and the vagus nerve, and the gut microbiota. Interest in the field was sparked by a 2004 study showing that germ-free mice showed an exaggerated HPA axis response to stress compared to non-GF laboratory mice. As of October 2016, most of the work that had been done on the role of gut flora in the ...
Mammalian guts harbor trillions of microbes, which play important roles in diverse aspects of host biology, including nutrition, immune system development, and behavior. Changes in gut microbial composition have been linked to host health and disease [1-4]. Previous studies have shown that host diet, age, sex, genetics, and environmental exposure all drive normal gut microbial variation [4-12]. However, to date, most studies have been focused on human populations or laboratory animals in controlled settings, and much remains to be learned about the ecological forces shaping gut microbial diversity and their relative strengths in nature. Studies of wild animal populations provide important insights into how environment, host biology, and their interactions affect gut microbiota in nature where hosts and microbes have coevolved.. Diet is believed to be a key selective factor in shaping gut microbiota in wild animals. For example, large differences in gut microbial communities have been found among ...
Introduction: The occurrence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has significantly increased in the last few years. One of the common problems in this group are eating disorders and ailments from the gastrointestinal systems. According to some studies, these problems have a significant impact on the occurrence and severity of symptoms in the neurological system, so it is crucial to increase the attention paid on the role of diet in the treatment of this disease. One of the theories connects ASD with disorders of the digestive system and the intestinal bacterial flora. This theory is based on the gut-brain axis, which means the interaction between the gastrointestinal and nervous systems. Objectives: To demonstrate the differences in behavior habits, interest in nutrition, and frequency of consumption of food products between children suffering from ASD and healthy children. Materials and methods: The study was conducted among 44 children suffering from ASD and 33 healthy children as a control ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The microbiome and autoimmunity. T2 - a paradigm from the gut-liver axis. AU - Li, Bo. AU - Selmi, Carlo. AU - Tang, Ruqi. AU - Gershwin, M. Eric. AU - Ma, Xiong. PY - 2018/6/1. Y1 - 2018/6/1. N2 - Microbial cells significantly outnumber human cells in the body, and the microbial flora at mucosal sites are shaped by environmental factors and, less intuitively, act on host immune responses, as demonstrated by experimental data in germ-free and gnotobiotic studies. Our understanding of this link stems from the established connection between infectious bacteria and immune tolerance breakdown, as observed in rheumatic fever triggered by Streptococci via molecular mimicry, epitope spread and bystander effects. The availability of high-throughput techniques has significantly advanced our capacity to sequence the microbiome and demonstrated variable degrees of dysbiosis in numerous autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis and autoimmune ...
Your brain and microbiome are communicating constantly to keep your body healthy and well. Find out how the gut-brain axis works and understand another way your microbiome impacts your health.
The gut microbiota influences the health of the host, especially with regard to gut immune homeostasis and the intestinal immune response. In addition to serving as a nutrient enhancer, L-tryptophan (Trp) plays crucial roles in the balance between intestinal immune tolerance and gut microbiota maintenance. Recent discoveries have underscored that changes in the microbiota modulate the host immune system by modulating Trp metabolism. Moreover, Trp, endogenous Trp metabolites (kynurenines, serotonin and melatonin), and bacterial Trp metabolites (indole, indolic acid, skatole, and tryptamine) have profound effects on gut microbial composition, microbial metabolism, the hosts immune system, the host-microbiome interface, and host immune system-intestinal microbiota interactions. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates the regulation of intestinal immunity by Trp metabolites (as ligands of AhR), which is beneficial for immune homeostasis. Among Trp metabolites, AhR ligands consist of endogenous
The gut-brain axis is the latest Lockdown Series video. Dr Robert Silverman, chiropractor, clinical nutritionist, international speaker and author, discusses the intertwined functions of the digestive microbiome and the brain. He looks at the function of the vagus nerve, suggests action plans for improving digestive health and provides Monday Morning applications to take back to your practice and achieve the clinical outcomes you want. View the presentation here.. ...
Research studies have shown that leaky gut can affect brain health. The gut-brain axis is the physical and chemical connection between the gut and brain.
The highest quality guaranteed! Our Gut-Brain Axis Bundle optimizes health, energy, and bodily reaction by supporting functioning of both of your brains.
Restore optimal gut environment leads to great gut health with carbon rich alkaline liquid lignite extracts to strengthen tight junction cells
Recent research suggests that the human gastrointestinal microbiota is greatly involved in yielding, storing and expending energy from the diet; therefore,
Jarro-Dophilus Mood contains documented probiotic strains plus clinically tested, natural PharmaGABA in a unique formula that supports the Gut-Brain Axis, promotes mood balance, and helps with digestive discomfort associated with occasional stress.* GABA is a neurotransmitter that helps balance mood, improves adaptability to stress and supports relaxation and calmness.* GABA occurs naturally in various foods. The Gut-Brain Axis The Gut-Brain Axis is a bidirectional communication highway between the brain and digestive tract. Studies have shown that better gut health can have a positive influence on mood.* EnteroGuard Protects Probiotics and Resists Stomach Acid via Food-Grade, pH-Sensitive Coating.
Background Several aquaporins (a family of integral membrane proteins) have been recently identified in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, and their involvement in the movement of fluid and small...
Download gastrointestinal system stock photos. Affordable and search from millions of royalty free images, photos and vectors. Thousands of images added daily.
Gastrointestinal Tract Development,GIT Links]]: [[Gastrointestinal Tract Development,Introduction]] , [[BGD_Lecture_-_Gastrointestinal_System_Development,Medicine Lecture]] , [[Lecture_-_Gastrointestinal_Development,Science Lecture]] , [[Endoderm]] , [[Gastrointestinal Tract - Stomach Development,Stomach]] , [[Gastrointestinal Tract - Liver Development,Liver]] , [[Gastrointestinal Tract - Gall Bladder Development,Gall Bladder]] , [[Gastrointestinal Tract - Pancreas Development,Pancreas]] , [[Gastrointestinal Tract - Intestine Development,Intestine]] , [[Tongue_Development,Tongue]] , [[Sensory_-_Taste_Development,Taste]] , [[Neural_Crest_-_Enteric_Nervous_System,Enteric Nervous System]] , [[Gastrointestinal_Tract_-_Carnegie_Stage_13,Stage 13]] , [[Gastrointestinal_Tract_-_Carnegie_Stage_22,Stage 22]] , [[Gastrointestinal Tract - Abnormalities,Abnormalities]] , [[Movies#Gastrointestinal_Tract,Movies]] , [[Gastrointestinal Tract - Postnatal,Postnatal]] , [[Normal_Development_-_Milk,Milk]] , ...
European Commission - this page describes research project 108-Development and application of high throughput molecular methods for studying the human gut microbiota in relation to diet and health. It was funded within Key Action 1 - Food, Nutrition and Health - of the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources, Fifth Framework Programme for RTD.
The science of psychobiotics, reviewed in a recent paper in Trends in Neurosciences, explores emerging strategies for planting brain-altering bacteria in the gut to provide mental benefits and the challenges ahead in understanding how such products could work for humans.. Now that we know that gut bacteria can speak to the brain, in ways that affect our mood, our appetite, and even our circadian rhythms, the next challenge for scientists is to control this communication.. While its been known for over a century that bacteria can have positive effects on physical health, only studies in the last 10-15 years have shown that there is a gut-brain connection. In mice, enhanced immune function, better reactions to stress, and even learning and memory advantages have been attributed to adding the right strain of bacteria.. Human studies are more difficult to interpret because mood changes in response to probiotics are self-reported, but physiological changes, such as reduced cortical levels and ...
Objectives: To comprehensively review the scientific knowledge on the gut-brain axis. Methods: Various publications on the gut-brain axis, until 31 July 2017, were screened using the Medline, Google, and Cochrane Library databases. The search was performed using the following keywords:
Background & Aims: Chronic gastrointestinal ischemia (CGI) is more common than previously thought. Visible light spectroscopy (VLS) allows for noninvasive measurements of mucosal capillary hemoglobin oxygen saturation during endoscopy. We evaluated the response of patients with occlusive CGI to treatment after evaluation by radiologic imaging of the vasculature and VLS. We also identified factors associated with response to treatment in these patients. Methods: In a prospective study, we collected data from 212 patients referred for evaluation of suspected CGI from November 2008 through January 2011. Patients underwent an extensive evaluation that included visualization of gastrointestinal arteries and assessments of mucosal perfusion by means of VLS. Treatment response was evaluated in patients with occlusive CGI. Factors associated with response to therapy were assessed by using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Occlusive CGI was diagnosed in 107 patients (50%); 96 were ...
Swisse Ultinatal Probiotic Powder For Baby nourishes and restores friendly intestinal gut flora and beneficial bowel flora to support a healthy gastrointestinal system, immune system and digestive system
More information and ongoing research is becoming available, linking the role of food in affecting mood, our gut microbiome and mental health.
Summary: A new study identifies gut bacteria that appears to interact with brain areas associated with mood and behavior.. Source: UCLA.. Researchers have identified gut microbiota that interact with brain regions associated with mood and behavior. This may be the first time that behavioral and neurobiological differences associated with microbial composition in healthy humans have been identified.. BACKGROUND Brain-gut-microbiota interactions may play an important role in human health and behavior. Previous research suggests that microbiota, a community of microorganisms in the gut, can influence behavior and emotion. Rodent models have demonstrated the effects of gut microbiota on emotional and social behaviors, such as anxiety and depression. There is, however, little evidence of this in humans.. For this study the researchers sought to identify brain and behavioral characteristics of healthy women clustered by gut microbiota profiles.. METHOD. Forty women supplied fecal samples for ...
Research is increasingly demonstrating that there is a relationship between our mood and the food we consume, which is the theme we are going to explore today, specifically looking at factors affecting our gut-brain axis (1). Our gut microbiome communicates to our brain via the gut-brain axis, so it can exert an influence over immune…
All metazoan guts are in constant contact with diverse food-borne microorganisms. The signaling mechanisms by which the host regulates gut-microbe interactions, however, are not yet clear. Here, we show that phospholipase C-β (PLCβ) signaling modulates dual oxidase (DUOX) activity to produce microbicidal reactive oxygen species (ROS) essential for normal host survival. Gut-microbe contact rapidly activates PLCβ through Gαq, which in turn mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ through inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate generation for DUOX-dependent ROS production. PLCβ mutant flies had a short life span due to the uncontrolled propagation of an essential nutritional microbe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the gut. Gut-specific reintroduction of the PLCβ restored efficient DUOX-dependent microbe-eliminating capacity and normal host survival. These results demonstrate that the Gαq-PLCβ-Ca2+-DUOX-ROS signaling pathway acts as a bona fide first line of defense that enables gut epithelia to dynamically control ...
article{8518117, abstract = {The aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between the structure of gut microbial communities fed with different diets (i.e. high-protein-HP-versus high-fiber-HF-diet) and their functional stability when challenged with mild and acute doses of a mix of amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline. We made use of the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME (R))-a continuous model of the gastrointestinal tract-coupled with 16S-targeted Illumina and metabolomics (i.e. UHPLC-HRMS) analyses. Independently of the diet, the sudden exposure to an acute stress led to a modification of the microbial community structure, selecting for species belonging to Bacillus spp.; Clostridium cluster XIVa; Enterococci; Bacteroides; and Enterobacteriaceae. The antibiotic treatment led to a decrease in the number of operational taxonomic units (at least -10\%). Cluster analysis of untargeted metabolic data showed that the antibiotic treatment affected the ...
The gut brain connection is strong. Research indicates a rise in gastrointestinal disorders correlates with a rise in mental illness. Fix mental health through microbiome testing.
Interactions of diet, gut microbiota, and host genetics play important roles in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we have investigated the molecular links between gut microbiota, insulin resistance, and glucose metabolism in 3 inbred mouse strains with differing susceptibilities to metabolic syndrome using diet and antibiotic treatment. Antibiotic treatment altered intestinal microbiota, decreased tissue inflammation, improved insulin signaling in basal and stimulated states, and improved glucose metabolism in obesity- and diabetes-prone C57BL/6J mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). Many of these changes were reproduced by the transfer of gut microbiota from antibiotic-treated donors to germ-free or germ-depleted mice. These physiological changes closely correlated with changes in serum bile acids and levels of the antiinflammatory bile acid receptor Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) and were partially recapitulated by treatment with a TGR5 agonist. In contrast, ...
Carlos González Quilen, PhD student at MoBioFood Research Group, investigates how diets rich in fats and carbohydrates can alter the intestinal b...
The mutualistic synergy between microbes and humans is a relationship that is essential for growth, development, health and the prevention of disease.. The past 5 years have seen an amazing increase in our knowledge of how bacteria signal to the brain and the implications this has for psychiatry. There are still many open questions, however.. Firstly, the mechanisms of how the microbiota signals to the brain are only slowly being unraveled. We are at the very early stages of research, which will need to employ experimental rigor that must be employed to unequivocally demonstrate that it is the actual production of a neurochemical in vivo by a specific microorganism, and not a non-neurochemical aspect of the microorganism, such as a cell wall component interacting with immune cells in the gut, that is responsible for a specific change in behavior.. Secondly, the individual components of bacteria that are mediating their effects need to be disentangled. The evolving field of metabolomics is ...
Animals. C57BL/6J ob/+ mothers and their ob/ob, ob/+, and +/+ offspring were raised under a 12-h light cycle, in a specified pathogen-free state. Weaning and adult mice were fed PicoLab chow diet (Purina) ad libitum. All experiments involving mice were performed under protocols approved by the Washington University Animal Studies Committee. All animals were killed at the same time of day.. PCR Amplification of 16S rRNA Genes. Ceca were recovered immediately after the mice were killed. The contents of each intact cecum was recovered by manual extrusion and was frozen immediately (-80°C) until use. A frozen aliquot (≈100 mg) of each sample was added to tubes containing 500 μl of extraction buffer (200 mM Tris, pH 8.0/200 mM NaCl/20 mM EDTA), 210 μl of 20% SDS, 500 μl of phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (24:24:1), and 500 μl of 0.1-mm-diameter zirconia/silica beads (BioSpec Products, Bartlesville, OK). Microbial cells were disrupted mechanically at 23°C with a bead beater (BioSpec ...
Learning Needs: 5320: Psychiatric disorders, anxiety; 5220: Gastrointestinal disorders; 5110: Allergies, sensitivities, intolerances; 5120: Autoimmune diseases, arthritis, lupus; 5200: Disordered eating; and 5350: Substance abuse, alcoholism.. Speaker Biography: Janelle Smith developed a keen interest in the intersection of gastrointestinal disease and mental health after going undiagnosed with celiac disease for five years, all the while being treated for mental illness. Today she is consulting dietitian and Medical Advisory Board Member to the Celiac Disease Foundation (CDF). She recently was featured in Todays Dietitian to illuminate the important role of the dietitian for improving mental and emotional health for individuals with gluten-related disorders. Janelle is also dietitian of eating disorders and chemical dependency programs at La Ventana Treatment Centers in Santa Monica, and owner of her private practice Janelle Smith Nutrition. She specializes in differentiating gastrointestinal ...
Microbiota is classified as an ecological community of microorganisms that share a specific host. Within the human body it is estimated that there are tr
Sophisticated genomic techniques now allow scientists to estimate the strains, not just the species, in samples of the human guts microbe collection. Differences in the strains of microorganisms present might account for the variable influence the guts microbe community has on human health and disease. Understanding the effects of various strain combinations on such functions as metabolism, immunity and drug reactions might suggest ways to manipulate the gut microbiome to improve health.
Research in the Mark Donowitz Lab is primarily focused on the development of drug therapy for diarrheal disorders, intestinal salt absorption and the proteins involved including their regulation, and the use of human enteroids to understand intestinal physiology and pathophysiology. We study two gene families initially recognized by this laboratory: mammalian Na/H exchangers and the subgroup of PDZ domain containing proteins present in the brush border of epithelial cells called NHERF family. A major finding is that NHE3 exists simultaneously in different sized complexes in the brush border, which change separately as part of signal transduction initiated by mimics of the digestive process. Relevance to the human intestine is being pursued using mini-human intestine made from Lgr5+ stems cells made from intestinal biopsies and measuring function via two-photon microscopy.. Research Areas: gastrointestinal system, gastroenterology, pathophysiology, diarrhea, drugs, physiology ...
If youve done much research on gut health, you already know that antibiotics, even when prescribed and used correctly, can really do a number on your digestive health.
Gastrointestinal systems differ largely with respect to the presence of a meaningful symbiotic microbial population and its location. Simple-stomached animals (Figs. 1A and B) do not have an extensive microbial population to greatly alter nutrient recovery, whereas ruminants (Fig. 1C) and nonruminant herbivores (Fig. 1D) support symbiotic populations prior to and after formal digestion by the small intestine, respectively. All GI systems accomplish the same sequence of events but are anatomically and functionally modified to accommodate predominating food and microbial populations.. ...
The stomach flu is caused by a virus that attacks your gastrointestinal system. Learn the best ways to beat it, including rest, fluids, and pain relievers.
Over the last two decades, safety concerns about low/no-calorie sweeteners (LNCS) have been described in the archival scientific literature including elevated risk of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, excessive weight gain, cardiovascular disease, safety, and disruption of the gut microbiome. A recent review by Lobach, Roberts, and Roland in Food and Chemical Toxicology examined 17 research articles on modulation of gut bacteria by LNCS along with other selected publications. In the conclusions of their paper, they claim that LNCS 1) do not affect gut microbiota at use levels and 2) are safe at levels approved by regulatory agencies. Both of these claims are incorrect. The scientific literature on LNCS clearly indicates that it is inappropriate to draw generalized conclusions regarding effects on gut microbiota and safety issues for compounds that vary widely chemical structure and pharmacokinetics. Scientific studies on the sweetener sucralose, used here as a representative LNCS, indicate ...
This module contains many fun & successful teaching tricks by having students build the digestive and accessory organs of the Gastrointestinal System. Students can see the inter-relationship of these organs with each other as they build them on their flat board. Many times textbooks only show the organs in a two-dimensional view, this activity puts your students ahead when they build these organs and show how they fit together in the abdominalpelvic cavity. Great windows for pathology application can also be used doing this activity ...
We provide best online free sample on Systemic Anatomy and Physiology: Endocrine, Urinary and Gastrointestinal Systems. Our team with degree in Biology helps students compose accurate solutions for given assignment. We are available all time of the day to help students write best solutions in minimum time.
A trusted herbal supplement that works to alleviate occasional upset stomach and bloating, intestinal gas, while supporting the health of the spleen and gastrointestinal system.
The complexities and unique attributes of ICD-10-PCS coding of procedures performed on pediatric patients, specifically the Procedures in the Mouth, Throat and Gastrointestinal System.
The gastrointestinal system is the systems of the body that are primarily responsible for processing foods, absorbing nutrients...
Need help with your Nursing homework? In this interactive object, learners review the parts of the gastrointestinal system and then check their knowledge in a matching exercise.
Lernen Sie flexibel mit dem Video-Kurs Year 1 - Spring Semester: Gastrointestinal System I. Den Kurs können Sie am PC ✓, Tablet ✓ und auf dem Smartphone ✓ nutzen. Mit Offline-Funktion und interaktiven Quizfragen. So erreichen Sie Ihre Ziele noch schneller. Jetzt gratis testen!
When can microbiome be harmful?. Gut bacteria of every individual is unique and the body of that individual would listen only to his or her set of microbiome. When diverse conditions change the basic structure of this microbiome, the problem starts! This is when you eat out at some place where stale food is served or when you go to completely different location where the dietary habits are totally different from your normal one then the chances are there that your microbiome changes its form and that wont be as beneficial to you as your original gut flora. This is the reason why many people fall sick when they change the location or are travelling and have the water from different regions. Water plays a major role in changing the gut flora and hence people prefer to carry bottled water whenever they are travelling to foreign regions.. How to get more of gut bacteria?. The health benefits of gut bacteria suggest that you should have more and more of this bacteria in order to enjoy good health. ...
The winged helix factors Foxa1 and Foxa2 are essential members of the transcription factor network that govern secretory cell differentiation in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract.
Summary: A new organ on a chip system helps researchers uncover how bacteria in the human digestive tract can impact neurological diseases.. Source: MIT. In many ways, our brain and our digestive tract are deeply connected. Feeling nervous may lead to physical pain in the stomach, while hunger signals from the gut make us feel irritable. Recent studies have even suggested that the bacteria living in our gut can influence some neurological diseases.. Modeling these complex interactions in animals such as mice is difficult to do, because their physiology is very different from humans. To help researchers better understa nd the gut-brain axis, MIT researchers have developed an organs-on-a-chip system that replicates interactions between the brain, liver, and colon.. Using that system, the researchers were able to model the influence that microbes living in the gut have on both healthy brain tissue and tissue samples derived from patients with Parkinsons disease. They found that short-chain ...
The differences in gut microbiota between the sexes reflects this sexual division of labour, says Stephanie Schnorr. It appears that women have more bacteria to help process fibrous plant foods, which has direct implications for their fertility and reproductive success. These findings support the key role of the gut microbiota as adaptive partners during the course of human evolution by aligning with differing diets.. Finally, the Hadza gut microbe community is a unique configuration with high levels of bacteria, like Treponema, that in western populations are often considered signs of disease, and low levels of other bacteria, like Bifidobacterium, that in western populations are considered healthy.. However, the Hadza experience little to no autoimmune diseases that would result from gut bacteria imbalances. Therefore, we must redefine our notions of healthy and unhealthy bacteria, since these distinctions are clearly dependent on the environment we live in. Genetic diversity of ...
Happy Brain, Happy Gut ! How does it work? The brain and the gut communicate via gut-brain axis, a mode of bidirectional signaling between the digestive tract and the nervous system. There are several central mechanisms by which gut bacteria can communicate with the brain. First, imbalances in gut bacteria can trigger inflammation by increasing the permeability of the intestinal lining, which allows toxins to seep into the bloodstream. Research has linked pro-inflammatory markers (cytokines) and increased intestinal permeability with anxiety and depression. Secondly, bacteria can produce neurotransmitters, which are carried through the blood to the brain. Bacteria can also stimulate specific nerves in the gut that then transmit information to the brain. Fortunately, you can support gut health (and therefore mental health) by eating a diet thats rich in probiotics -- the friendly gut bacteria that support digestion and a balanced microbiome, and are known to boost immune and neurological ...
The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract, digestive tract, alimentary canal) is the tract or passageway of the digestive system ... p. 197 [1]. ISBN 978-0-03-025982-1. "gastrointestinal tract" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Gastrointestinal+tract at the US ... gastrointestinal, or tract in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gastrointestinal tract ... The tract itself is divided into upper and lower tracts, and the intestines small and large parts. The upper gastrointestinal ...
... or Indolent T cell lymphoproliferative disorder of ... and NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorders of the gastrointestinal tract: a review and update". Hematological Oncology. 35 (1): ... "Recurrent STAT3-JAK2 fusions in indolent T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder of the gastrointestinal tract". Blood. 131 (20): ... and pharynx but may involve the GI tract; b) is a malignant and aggressive disease when involving the GI tract in areas below ...
The gastrointestinal tract and associated dorsal mesentery are subdivided into foregut, midgut, and hindgut regions based on ... McMinn RH (1994). "The gastrointestinal tract". In McMinn RH (ed.). Last's anatomy: regional and applied (9th ed.). London: ... as it spans the gastrointestinal tract from duodenojejunal flexure to mesorectal level. In 2012 it was discovered that the ... fat wrapping-creeping fat-involves extension of mesenteric fat over the circumference of contiguous gastrointestinal tract, and ...
"The Gastrointestinal tract, Chapter 17". In Cotran RS, Kumar V, Robbins SL. Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease: 5th Edition. W ... Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any segment of the gastrointestinal tract. ... Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N (July 30, 2004). "The Gastrointestinal Tract". Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease (7th ... It results in a chronic inflammatory disorder, in which the body's immune system defends the gastrointestinal tract, possibly ...
Mayer RJ (2008). "Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer". In Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J (eds.). ... Cancer of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract. PMPH-USA. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-55009-101-4. Archived from the original on 2015-10-30 ... Han Y, Chen W, Li P, Ye J (2015). "Association Between Coeliac Disease and Risk of Any Malignancy and Gastrointestinal ... Even by those using the British English spelling "oesophagus" Kelsen, David (2007). Gastrointestinal oncology: principles and ...
Upper gastrointestinal tract. In Liu J-B, Goldberg BB (eds): Endoluminal Ultrasound. London, Martin Dunitz Ltd, 1998;147-200. ... Alexander AA, Miller LS, Schiano TD, Liu-J-B. Lower gastrointestinal tract. In Liu J-B, Goldberg BB (eds): Endoluminal ... "American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: List of Current Fellows". Retrieved June 8, 2011. "New York Organ Donor ... Miller LS, Schiano TD, Liu J-B. Pancreaticobiliary tract: In Liu J-B, Goldberg BB (eds): Endoluminal Ultrasound. London, Martin ...
... such as the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, and the urogenital tract. The lamina propria is a thin layer of ... especially from the gastrointestinal tract. Progression of epithelial cancer often relies on deep and regional lymph node ... "Blue Histology-Gastrointestinal Tract". The University of Western Australia. Mescher, Anthony (2009). Junqueira's Basic ... "Regulation of cell number in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract: The importance of apoptosis". Journal of Cell Science. 107 ( ...
It appears to be essentially ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, having been found in the gastrointestinal tracts and feces of ... Mitsuoka T (1992). "The human gastrointestinal tract". In Wood BJB (ed.). The lactic acid bacteria in health and disease. Vol. ... In early 2008, L. reuteri was confirmed to be capable of producing reuterin in the gastrointestinal tract, improving its ... including the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other animals. It does not appear to be pathogenic and may have health ...
These include pain or nausea requiring hospitalization (1.08%); upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding (0.56%); peri-gastric ... Mild to moderate gastrointestinal side effects (such as nausea, cramping, bloating, and abdominal discomfort) are common after ... World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. 11 (5): 322-328. doi:10.4253/wjge.v11.i5.322. ISSN 1948-5190. PMC 6556490. PMID ... Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. 68 (1): 51-58. doi:10.1016/j.gie.2007.10.061. ISSN 0016-5107. PMID 18355825. Brethauer, Stacy A.; ...
Anticholinergic drugs reduce gastric motility, prolonging the time drugs spend in the gastrointestinal tract. This impairment ... McCreight LJ, Bailey CJ, Pearson ER (March 2016). "Metformin and the gastrointestinal tract". Diabetologia. 59 (3): 426-35. doi ... and decreases the absorption of glucose from the gastrointestinal tract. Increased peripheral use of glucose may be due to ... Gastrointestinal upset can cause severe discomfort; it is most common when metformin is first administered, or when the dose is ...
Sanderson IR, Walker WA (1999). Development of the gastrointestinal tract. Hamilton, Ontario: B.C. Decker. ISBN 978-1-55009-081 ...
The source is generally the upper gastrointestinal tract, typically above the suspensory muscle of duodenum. It may be caused ... The source of vomited blood is usually from the upper gastrointestinal tract. This can include the esophagus, stomach, and ... Hematemesis may be investigated with endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Barium meal may also be used. Hematemesis ... doi:10.1016/B978-0-323-08500-7.00048-5. ISBN 978-0-323-08500-7. Goff, John S. (2010). "51 - Upper Gastrointestinal Tract ...
Liao, Wen-Shen; Bair, Ming Jong (2007). "Taenia in the Gastrointestinal Tract". New England Journal of Medicine. 357 (10): 1028 ... McManus, Donald P. (2008). "Taenia in the Gastrointestinal Tract". New England Journal of Medicine. 358 (3): 311. doi:10.1056/ ... The eggs enter the digestive tract, which they penetrate to migrate to other body organs. Unlike other Taenia they ... These oncospheres then penetrate the mucous layer of the digestive tract and enter the circulation of the host. This is where ...
Ultrasound of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 7-17. ISBN 978-3-642-31983-9. v t e (Digestive ...
Physiology of the gastrointestinal tract. Said, Hamid M.,, Ghishan, Fayez K. (Sixth ed.). London. 8 March 2018. ISBN 978-0-12- ... such as the textbook Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract. 1998 Elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation ... this appointment provided support for her research on gastrointestinal-tract cell growth and differentiation until 2002. In ... Marvin Pollard Professor of Gastrointestinal Sciences in Internal Medicine in the Division of Gastroenterology and Molecular ...
Sahakian AB, Jee SR, Pimentel M (Aug 2010). "Methane and the gastrointestinal tract". Dig Dis Sci. 55 (8): 2135-2143. doi: ...
Contract sphincters of Gastrointestinal tract. Thickened secretions from salivary glands. Insulin and glucagon secretion from ...
The presence of the inner oblique layer is distinct from other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, which do not possess this ... The enveloped portions form the basis for the adult gastrointestinal tract. The sac is surrounded by a network of vitelline ... Sections of this gut begin to differentiate into the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, and the esophagus, and stomach form ... The stomach is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several ...
MRI of the Gastrointestinal Tract: edited by Jaap Stoker (listed as a contributor). Multislice CT: edited by Konstantin ... 2011). MRI of the gastrointestinal tract. Springer. ISBN 978-3-642-23585-6. OCLC 1136157854. {{cite book}}: ,last= has generic ... Diffusion Weighted Imaging of the Gastrointestinal Tract: edited by Sofia Gourtsoyianni, Nikolaos Papanikolaou. PET/MRI in ... 15 October 2018). Diffusion Weighted Imaging of the Gastrointestinal Tract : Techniques and Clinical Applications. ISBN 978-3- ...
Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract. ISBN 978-0-443-06811-9. Standring S, Borley NR, eds. (2008). Gray's anatomy : the ... Sections of this foregut begin to differentiate into the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, such as the esophagus, stomach, ... The enveloped portions form the basis for the adult gastrointestinal tract. ... "Control of Gastrointestinal Function". In Thomas M. Nosek, Ph.D. (ed.). Gastrointestinal Physiology. Essentials of Human ...
Pseudomelanoses of other parts of the gastrointestinal tract have also been reported, and are of unclear relevance. Patients ... The anthranoid laxatives pass through the gastrointestinal tract unabsorbed until they reach the large intestine, where they ... Sep 1994). "Melanoses of the gastrointestinal tract". Histopathology. 25 (3): 197-207. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2559.1994.tb01319.x. ... Peutz-Jeghers syndrome causes pigmentation of the skin and mucous surfaces with melanin, and polyps in the digestive tract. ...
Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Vol. 1. Academic Press. pp. 1043-. ISBN 978-0-12-382027-3. Fasano, A. (February 2012 ... Intestinal permeability is a term describing the control of material passing from inside the gastrointestinal tract through the ... Kiefer D, Ali-Akbarian L (2004). "A brief evidence-based review of two gastrointestinal illnesses: irritable bowel and leaky ... an immune response at the intestinal submucosa level that leads to diverse gastrointestinal or extra-gastrointestinal symptoms ...
Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Academic Press. p. 617. ISBN 978-0-08-045615-7. "Dogiel cells". Medical Eponyms. ...
216-. ISBN 978-0-08-045615-7. Hamid M. Said (4 July 2012). Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Two Volume Set. Academic ... Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Academic Press. pp. ...
The largest structure of the digestive system is the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). This starts at the mouth and ends at ... Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract. ISBN 978-0-443-06811-9. Cotran RS, Kumar V, Fausto N, Nelson F, Robbins SL, Abbas AK ... The lower gastrointestinal tract (GI), includes the small intestine and all of the large intestine. The intestine is also ... The stomach is a major organ of the gastrointestinal tract and digestive system. It is a consistently J-shaped organ joined to ...
Part 1: The gastrointestinal tract. A statement from a Canadian National Carcinoid Expert Group". Curr Oncol. 13 (2): 67-76. ... Over two-thirds of carcinoid tumors are found in the gastrointestinal tract. Carcinoid tumors are also found in the lungs. ... The next most commonly affected area is the respiratory tract, with 28% of all cases-per PAN-SEER data (1973-1999). The rectum ... "ACS :: What Is a Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor?". Haschek, Wanda; Rousseaux, Colin; Wallig, Matthew (2013). Haschek and ...
The enveloped portions form the basis for the adult gastrointestinal tract. The sac is surrounded by a network of vitelline ... Sections of this gut begin to differentiate into the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, such as the esophagus, stomach, and ... The esophagus is thus one of the first components of the digestive system and the gastrointestinal tract. After food passes ... This makes it distinct from many other structures in the gastrointestinal tract that only have a serosa. In early embryogenesis ...
The damage to the gastrointestinal tract wall is caused by eosinophilic infiltration and degranulation. As a part of host ... Blackshaw A, Levison D (1986). "Eosinophilic infiltrates of the gastrointestinal tract". J. Clin. Pathol. 39 (1): 1-7. doi: ... Any part of the GI tract can be affected, and isolated biliary tract involvement has also been reported. The stomach is the ... histological demonstration of eosinophilic infiltration in one or more areas of the gastrointestinal tract or presence of high ...
"Basic organization of the gastrointestinal tract". Retrieved 15 May 2015. This article incorporates text in the public domain ... Somatostatin suppresses the release of hormones from the digestive tract. Fundic gland polyposis is a medical syndrome where ...
"Taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. IV. Functional implications of bitter taste receptors in gastrointestinal ... Ormsbee HS, Fondacaro JD (March 1985). "Action of serotonin on the gastrointestinal tract". Proceedings of the Society for ... Krause WJ, Yamada J, Cutts JH (June 1985). "Quantitative distribution of enteroendocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract of ... Enteroendocrine cells are specialized cells of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas with endocrine function. They produce ...
"Role of cyclooxygenase-2 in the carcinogenesis of gastrointestinal tract cancers: a review and report of personal experience". ... are less likely than traditional drugs to cause gastrointestinal adverse effects, but could cause cardiovascular events, such ...
... the major site of toxicity being the gastrointestinal tract. Bohemamine has several structural varieties and derivatives, such ...
Syndromes affecting the gastrointestinal tract, Syndromes affecting head size, Syndromes affecting the heart). ...
... the primary structure developed in the earliest stage of embryonic development that gives rise to the entire respiratory tract ... especially in the gastrointestinal, genitourinary and ocular systems. Frequently associated congenital anomalies include ...
... they can pinch soft tissues in the gastrointestinal tract. This has led to an estimated 1,700 emergency room visits and ...
... and men are even more likely to have an underlying cancer of the gastrointestinal tract. Gynecological cancers account for ... Gastrointestinal malignancies account for about half of underlying sources (most commonly gastric cancer, colonic cancer or ... Unknown primary tumors and rarely, urinary or respiratory tract malignancies can cause umbilical metastases. How exactly the ...
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are rare tumors with malignant potential. Primary lymphomas can occur in the appendix. Breast ... cancer, colon cancer, and tumors of the female genital tract may metastasize to the appendix. Carcinoid tumors are the most ...
Non-biliary causes of PCS may be caused by a functional gastrointestinal disorder, such as functional dyspepsia. Chronic ... Biliary tract disorders, Syndromes). ... were caused by persistence of a functional gastrointestinal ... Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. 68 (1): 69-74. doi:10.1016/j.gie.2007.09.046. PMID 18577477. Schmidt M, Søndenaa K, Dumot JA, ...
... as well as the gastrointestinal tracts of various marine and terrestrial organisms, including human beings. In 1965, American ...
"The structural basis for the prevention of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-induced gastrointestinal tract damage by the C- ...
These viruses generally infect the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. Some may cross the placenta and cause congenital ... "Cloning of a human parvovirus by molecular screening of respiratory tract samples". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
They can cause injuries such as hemorrhaging of the lungs, and contusion and ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract. ...
... affects the skin and gastrointestinal tract; brain and central nervous system, immune, skeletal, and ... Changes in intestinal tract absorbability and permeability due, in part, to viral, protozoal, or bacteria pathogens may also ... gastrointestinal, or other infections, e.g., pneumonia. The levels of inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF- ...
Gastrointestinal spasms Renal or biliary spasms Aid in gastrointestinal radiology and endoscopy Irritable bowel syndrome ... especially to reduce respiratory tract secretions) in surgery, most commonly by injection. Scopolamine enters breast milk by ...
... allowing them to shrink the size of the gastrointestinal tract relative to body mass and to increase the brain mass instead. ... Some comparative studies of human and higher primate digestive tracts do suggest that humans have evolved to obtain greater ... and their digestive tract is functionally very similar to that of humans. Chimpanzees are primarily frugivores, but they could ...
... glycoprotein syndrome Carbon baby syndrome Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency Carcinoid syndrome Carcinoma of the vocal tract ... Congenital erythropoietic porphyria Congenital facial diplegia Congenital fiber type disproportion Congenital gastrointestinal ...
Only trace amounts of orlistat are absorbed systemically; the primary effect is local lipase inhibition within the GI tract ... Benefits aside, however, orlistat is noted for its gastrointestinal side effects (sometimes referred to as treatment effects), ... and pancreatic disease The primary side effects of the drug are gastrointestinal-related, and include steatorrhea (oily, loose ...
These pacemaker cells, also called the ICCs, control the frequency of contractions in the gastrointestinal tract. The cells can ... PPY - inhibition of upper GI tract motility GLP-1 - Functions as an "Ileal Brake" to inhibit upper GI tract motility when the ... The frequency of contraction differs at each location in the GI tract beginning with 3 per minute in the stomach, then 12 per ... The smooth muscle throughout most of the GI tract is divided into two layers: an outer longitudinal layer and an inner circular ...
COVID‑19 is most known for affecting the upper respiratory tract (sinuses, nose, and throat) and the lower respiratory tract ( ... The virus also affects gastrointestinal organs as ACE2 is abundantly expressed in the glandular cells of gastric, duodenal and ... Most commonly, the peak viral load in upper respiratory tract samples occurs close to the time of symptom onset and declines ... Although SARS-CoV-2 has a tropism for ACE2-expressing epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, people with severe COVID‑19 ...
The barium enhances the visibility of the relevant parts of the gastrointestinal tract by coating the inside wall of the tract ... The term barium enema usually refers to a lower gastrointestinal series, although enteroclysis (an upper gastrointestinal ... is ingested or instilled into the gastrointestinal tract, and X-rays are used to create radiographs of the regions of interest ... An upper gastrointestinal series is where a contrast medium, usually a radiocontrast agent such as barium sulfate barium salt ...
However, there is strong evidence that drugs that are absorbed or partially absorbed from the GI tract can prevent candidiasis ... or gastrointestinal candida overgrowth, which are medically unrecognized conditions. (See: Alternative medicine in Candidiasis ...
The organisms were subsequently recognized as normal flora of the human oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract with the ability ...
CT scan of the abdomen may show severe mural thickening, without air present outside the gastrointestinal tract. Treatment of ... which results in a burn injury to the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. The condition results in abdominal pain, fever, ... Recognition of PPCS is important, since treatment usually does not require surgery, unlike gastrointestinal perforation. ... World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. 7 (12): 1055-61. doi:10.4253/wjge.v7.i12.1055. PMC 4564832. PMID 26380051. La ...
These are all compounds that are beneficial to the human gastrointestinal tract. Throughout O. Canarii's geographic ...
Gastrointestinal tract disorders). ...
Central nervous system Peripheral nervous system Heart Lungs Gastrointestinal tract Endothelial cells Like all histamine ...
Absorption of orally administered levothyroxine from the gastrointestinal tract ranges from 40 to 80%, with the majority of the ...
However, some pathologists (e.g., Odze and Goldblum, Surgical Pathology of the GI Tract, Liver, Biliary Tract and Pancreas, 2nd ... Harmon RL, Sugarbaker PH (February 2005). "Prognostic indicators in peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastrointestinal cancer". ... it is important to obtain an accurate diagnosis so that appropriate treatment may be obtained from a Gastro intestinal cancer ... Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery. 19 (4): 743-750. doi:10.1007/s11605-014-2726-7. PMID 25560182. S2CID 24206562. Patrick- ...
... an acid environment is needed to kill the organisms that colonize the gastrointestinal tract; agents, such as proton pump ... especially conditions causing dysfunction of the upper gastrointestinal system. Identifying these conditions before the ...
... is a parasitic ascaridoid nematode that infects the gastrointestinal tracts of equines. P. univalens is ...
The gastrointestinal system is comprised of the stomach, and the small and large intestines. It is responsible for breaking ... The gastrointestinal system is comprised of the stomach, and the small and large intestines. It is responsible for breaking ...
Background: The worldwide incidence of congenital anomalies (‎CAs)‎ is estimated at 3-7%, but actual numbers vary widely among countries. Birth defects are the most common causes of infantile mortality, accounting for ~25 ...
The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract, digestive tract, alimentary canal) is the tract or passageway of the digestive system ... The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract, digestive tract, alimentary canal) is the tract or passageway of the digestive system ... About: Gastrointestinal tract Goto Sponge NotDistinct Permalink An Entity of Type : wikidata:Q4936952, within Data Space : ... 위장관계(영어: gastrointestinal tract)는 사람과 동물에 대하여 입에서 항문까지에 있는 모든 소화계통의 기관을 일컫는 말이다. 입을 통해 들어온 음식은 영양분을 빼내고 에너지를 흡수하기 위해 소화가 되는 과정을 ...
Background: The worldwide incidence of congenital anomalies (‎CAs)‎ is estimated at 3-7%, but actual numbers vary widely among countries. Birth defects are the most common causes of infantile mortality, accounting for ~25 ...
... The digestive tract is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it ... Upper gastrointestinal tract. The upper GI tract consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and stomach. ... Lower gastrointestinal tract. The lower GI tract comprises the intestines and anus. ... The gastrointestinal tract is also a prominent part of the immune system.[2] The low pH (ranging from 1 to 4) of the stomach is ...
... estimates for the UCLA Scleroderma Clinical trial Consortium Gastrointestinal Tract 2.0 instrument. This information can aid in ... Minimally Important Differences of the UCLA Scleroderma Clinical Trial Consortium Gastrointestinal Tract Instrument. Published ... estimates for the UCLA Scleroderma Clinical Trial Consortium Gastrointestinal Tract 2.0 (UCLA SCTC GIT 2.0) in a longitudinal ... Gastrointestinal Disorders. Browse by Series. Browse by Authors. Stay Informed. RAND Policy Currents. Get weekly updates from ...
Inventing New Tools to Peer into the Gastrointestinal Tract. August 19, 2020. ... but metal levels in the gastrointestinal tract vary with diet. Dietary metals affect the colonization of bacteria and the ... of Houston researcher is developing a new set of metal sensors that will be able to function in the gastrointestinal tract, a ... new set of metal sensors being created by Melissa Zastrow are expected to function without oxygen in the gastrointestinal tract ...
The gastrointestinal tract is home to a diverse community of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses, which lines the walls of ... A healthy gastrointestinal tract is crucial to animals overall health: it ensures that nutrients are optimally absorbed, it ... Most mycotoxins are absorbed in the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract (Table 1). This absorption can be high, as in ... A complex battlefield: mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract Most grains used as feed raw materials are susceptible to ...
Functional abnormality of the gastrointestinal tract + Morphological abnormality of the gastrointestinal tract + Abnormal ... Morphological abnormality of the gastrointestinal tract (HP:0012718). Annotations: Rat: (0) Mouse: (0) Human: (1635) Chinchilla ... Abnormal shape of the digestive system ; Morphological abnormality of the GI tract ; Morphological anomaly of the digestive ...
As a consequence, alteration of the microbiome-bile salt homeostasis can play a role in hepatic and gastrointestinal ... Resistance to bile salts permits that certain bile-resistant pathogens can colonize the hepatobiliary tract, and an outstanding ... Resistance to bile salts permits that certain bile-resistant pathogens can colonize the hepatobiliary tract, and an outstanding ... As a consequence, alteration of the microbiome-bile salt homeostasis can play a role in hepatic and gastrointestinal ...
Children with functional nausea have comorbidities outside the gastrointestinal tract that warrant evaluation. Gastrointestinal ... Children with Functional Nausea-Comorbidities outside the Gastrointestinal Tract. Tarbell, S. E.; Sullivan, E. C.; Meegan, C.; ... Research InnovationPublications Children with Functional Nausea-Comorbidities outside the Gastrointestinal Tract ...
Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal Tract And Its Functions Im surprised that when talking to many people, most dont know ... Gastrointestinal tract that is clogged with old fecal matters makes you sick. If your intestine isnt clean-not only will you ... Upper Gastro-intestinal Tract. Our GI tract starts from the mouth. When we eat, the chewing action mixes the food with saliva ... Lower Gastrointestinal Tract. The small intestine is the longest portion of the digestive tract (up to about 21 feet long in an ...
Prophylaxis of the gastrointestinal tract upper part stress injury at urgency patients. Moscow 2004: 1-16. ... Ozonotherapy of the gastrointestinal tract stressinjuries at urgency patients and biocrystalloscopic monitoring of its ... sta es un m todo de profilaxis y tratamiento de la g nesis de la lcera gastrointestinal. Aqu resulta muy importante el ... Los diagn sticos primarios de los defectos que forman lceras en la zona de la mucosa gastrointestinal se pueden realizar por ...
DIAS-BARREIRO, Taiane et al. Score of "eat-ability" as a predictor of malnutrition in patients with gastrointestinal tract ... decreased food intake, loss of appetite, and dysphagia are relevant symptoms in patients with gastrointestinal tract (GIT) ... Palabras clave : Dysphagia; Food intake; Appetite; Malnourished; Gastrointestinal cancer; Weight loss. · resumen en Español · ...
Sources of Arachidonic Acid in Platelets, Bone, Marrow and Gastrointestinal Tract. *Mark ... Gastrointestinal tract, Plasma free fatty acids, Fasting, Dietary fatty acids, Desaturase, Cholesterol, Chylomicron remnant, ... Gastrointestinal tract; Plasma free fatty acids; Fasting; Dietary fatty acids; Desaturase; Cholesterol; Chylomicron remnant; ... Bone marrow cells including megakaryocytes and the mucosa of GI tract produce much more AA than is exported from the liver. ...
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Availability of pharmacokinetic data for horses with gastrointestinal tract disease will ... of lidocaine after IV infusion in anesthetized horses undergoing exploratory laparotomy because of gastrointestinal tract ... Postoperative gastrointestinal tract dysfunction. . Anesth Analg. 2005. ; 100. : 196. -. 204. .. 10.1213/01.ANE. ... Postoperative gastrointestinal tract dysfunction. . Anesth Analg. 2005. ; 100. : 196. -. 204. .. 10.1213/01.ANE. ...
Do the Various Regions of the Gastrointestinal Tract Respond to Chronic Ethanol Toxicity and with Equal Sensitivity? J S Marway ... J S Marway, V R Preedy; Do the Various Regions of the Gastrointestinal Tract Respond to Chronic Ethanol Toxicity and with Equal ...
... Inaya Hajj ... Hussein IH (2017) Integrative approach for teaching histology and histopathology of the gastrointestinal tract using an IBD ... involving the various segments of the gastrointestinal tract (GI). ... Using IBD constitutes an appropriate choice to study the GI tract since that study can involve any segment of the digestive ...
Sigurdsson GH: Is translocation of bacteria and endotoxin from the gastrointestinal tract a source of sepsis in the critically ... However, increased systemic flow did not reach the microcirculation in the gastrointestinal tract. This may in part explain why ... Effects of Vasopressin on Microcirculatory Blood Flow in the Gastrointestinal Tract in Anesthetized Pigs in Septic Shock ... Effects of Dopamine, Dobutamine, and Dopexamine on Microcirculatory Blood Flow in the Gastrointestinal Tract during Sepsis and ...
... may have a greater risk of catching respiratory tract infections (RTIs). GHRS is a new predisposing factor for RRTI and it is ... Our clinical observations suggest that children with gastrointestinal heat retention syndrome (GHRS) ... Recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs) have a negative impact on both childrens health and family wellbeing. ... Exploring association between gastrointestinal heat retention syndrome and recurrent respiratory tract infections in children: ...
Quality of Life and its Related Factors Among Iranian Patients with Metastatic Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer: A Cross-sectional ... Trends in incidence of gastrointestinal tract cancers in Western Iran, 1993-2007.. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2011;13:805-10. [ ... Geographical spread of gastrointestinal tract cancer incidence in the Caspian Sea region of Iran: Spatial analysis of cancer ... Table 3: Relationship between the age and the organs of gastrointestinal tract which has been cancerous ...
Our ability to detect neoplastic changes in gastrointestinal (GI) tracts is limited by the lack of an endomicroscopic imaging ... Endomicroscopic optical coherence tomography for cellular resolution imaging of gastrointestinal tracts. Authors: Luo, Yuemei. ... Endomicroscopic optical coherence tomography for cellular resolution imaging of gastrointestinal tracts.pdf. 627.99 kB. Adobe ... 2018). Endomicroscopic optical coherence tomography for cellular resolution imaging of gastrointestinal tracts. Journal of ...
Gastrointestinal. Pseudomonal infections can affect every portion of the GI tract. The disease is often underestimated but ... Gastrointestinal tract. Young infants with diarrhea may have fever, signs of dehydration, abdominal distension, and signs of ... Respiratory tract. Pneumonia is observed in patients with immunosuppression and chronic lung disease. It can be acquired ... Urinary tract infections. Pseudomonal UTIs are usually hospital-acquired and are associated with catheterization, ...
Quantification of circulating peptides and assessment of peptide uptake across the gastrointestinal tract of sheep. In: Journal ... Quantification of circulating peptides and assessment of peptide uptake across the gastrointestinal tract of sheep. / Backwell ... title = "Quantification of circulating peptides and assessment of peptide uptake across the gastrointestinal tract of sheep", ... Quantification of circulating peptides and assessment of peptide uptake across the gastrointestinal tract of sheep. ...
... study assessed the effect of dietary viscosity on chyme characteristics in different segments of the gastrointestinal tract ( ... study assessed the effect of dietary viscosity on chyme characteristics in different segments of the gastrointestinal tract ( ... study assessed the effect of dietary viscosity on chyme characteristics in different segments of the gastrointestinal tract ( ... study assessed the effect of dietary viscosity on chyme characteristics in different segments of the gastrointestinal tract ( ...
Most swallowed foreign bodies pass harmlessly through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. ... Stomach/lower gastrointestinal tract. Once a swallowed foreign body reaches the stomach of a child with a normal GI tract, it ... Most swallowed foreign bodies pass harmlessly through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Foreign bodies that damage the GI tract ... A foreign body lodged in the GI tract may have little or no effect; cause local inflammation leading to pain, bleeding, ...
Too Much to Swallow: Imaging to Detect Contraband in the Gastrointestinal Tract. ...
  • Los diagn sticos primarios de los defectos que forman lceras en la zona de la mucosa gastrointestinal se pueden realizar por medio de la tecnolog a de biocristaloscopia del sustrato de los organismos. (
  • This study investigates pathways by which the eicosanoid precursor pools in the platelets, bone marrow and the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa are acquired and regulated, and in this context some aspects on the interaction between triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins and platelets. (
  • Bone marrow cells including megakaryocytes and the mucosa of GI tract produce much more AA than is exported from the liver. (
  • Insufficient blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract during sepsis may provoke gut mucosa barrier dysfunction, resulting in bacterial translocation and multiple organ failure. (
  • 6-11 This concept is based on the assumption that the gastrointestinal mucosa receives its share of increased systemic and regional oxygen delivery. (
  • Our ability to detect neoplastic changes in gastrointestinal (GI) tracts is limited by the lack of an endomicroscopic imaging tool that provides cellular-level structural details of GI mucosa over a large tissue area. (
  • the oral cavity, the nasal and genital mucosa, as well as the renal and gastrointestinal systems, also may exhibit signs of bleeding 4 . (
  • Toxins are, therefore, released at a faster rate which helps keep your urinary tract healthy. (
  • Infections that lead to sepsis most often start in the lung, urinary tract, skin, or gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnancy is associated with significant morbidity for both mother and baby. (
  • In addition to the single pulmonary localizations there have been cases described of two or more carcinoid tumors or tumorlets of the lung, gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. (
  • Endocrine cells found throughout the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and in islets of the PANCREAS . (
  • Examples of common organ-specific conditions include type 1 diabetes (pancreas), inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (digestive tract), and multiple sclerosis (brain and spinal cord). (
  • F. tularensis can infect humans through the skin, mucous membranes, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs. (
  • Probiotics also help use vitamins more effectively and detoxify one's intestinal tract. (
  • These fungi live in the highly competitive intestinal tract of large herbivorous animals. (
  • Intussusception results from altered intestinal motility, determining the telescoping of one bowel segment ( intussusceptum ) into the lumen of the contiguous intestinal tract ( intussuscipiens ) [ 1 , 8 ]. (
  • Ascorbic acid is not used due to its cholinergic effect on the intestinal tract which can worsen diarrhea. (
  • The major functions of the GI tract are ingestion , digestion , absorption, and defecation . (
  • The food you eat goes through your gastrointestinal (GI) tract for digestion. (
  • Dietary metals affect the colonization of bacteria and the ability to resist the impact of infectious bacteria, leading to an increased chance of infection or gastrointestinal diseases. (
  • This lack of knowledge severely limits our ability to predict how diet or host metal status will impact treatment of gastrointestinal diseases or infection. (
  • A better understanding of the interactions between bacteria and bile salts may inspire novel therapeutic strategies for gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary diseases that involve microbiome alteration, as well as novel schemes against bacterial infections. (
  • A small bowel enteroscopy is a type of endoscopy procedure that may be used in the diagnosis and management of several different types of digestive condition evaluates gastrointestinal bleeding, small bowel tumors, polyps, or other small bowel diseases. (
  • to identify the protective elements of breast milk that work in the prevention of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases. (
  • Conclusions: Unrestrained eating was associated with increased risk of all-cause, cancer -specific (particularly for gastrointestinal tract cancer and lung cancer ), and respiratory disease-specific mortality, and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease-specific mortality. (
  • NETs are a group of tumors with heterogenous malignancy that evolve from neuroendocrine cells, with the lung being the second target organ after the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Our multidisciplinary teams have vast experience treating cancer, including but not limited to those of the breast, gastrointestinal tract, head and neck, lung, thyroid and prostate, as well as uterine and ovarian cancers, and hematologic cancers. (
  • Did you know there is an estimated 10^31 virus-like particles that exist on the Earth and they are present in the blood, nose, mouth, lung, vagina, gastrointestinal tract, conjunctiva, skin, and the mammalian genome? (
  • The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract, digestive tract, alimentary canal) is the tract or passageway of the digestive system that leads from the mouth to the anus. (
  • The GI tract contains all the major organs of the digestive system, in humans and other animals, including the esophagus, stomach, and intestines. (
  • So, before I talk about gastrointestinal (GI) detox, let me just briefly discuss the anatomy of our gastrointestinal tract which is also our digestive system and what takes place when we eat. (
  • In this week we move on to consider the gastrointestinal tract followed by a more detailed look at the accessory organs of the digestive system. (
  • A healthy digestive system is essential for the body as each part of your digestive system helps to move food and liquid through your GI tract providing your body with nutrients it needs from food and drink to function properly and stay healthy. (
  • Potassium chloride can remain in the digestive system for too long, leading to injuries in the digestive tract (stomach, intestines). (
  • The upper GI tract consists of the mouth , pharynx , esophagus , and stomach . (
  • Typically speaking, perceived stomach pain that occurs in the part of the abdomen nearer to the ribs involves the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract , which includes the esophagus, stomach, and small intestines. (
  • Functional GI and motility disorders which affect the upper GI tract from the esophagus to the stomach. (
  • Gastrointestinal absorption of peptides was examined in sheep fed a forage-based diet. (
  • In many occupations, the respiratory tract is the crucial route of absorption of chemicals as it is also for microbes and organic dusts. (
  • It can involve any segment of the GI tract, as well as other systems that share clinical and pathological characteristics. (
  • Our clinical observations suggest that children with gastrointestinal heat retention syndrome (GHRS) may have a greater risk of catching respiratory tract infections (RTIs). (
  • During this seminar, we will review different imaging modalities in use to evaluate the gastrointestinal tract (GI) in dogs and cats: we will also be focused on clinical cases presented with pathologies affecting the GI tract. (
  • gastrointestinal tract symptoms are the most common clinical manifestations of foodborne illnesses. (
  • Patients may complain of abdominal pain or a palpable abdominal mass or come to clinical attention because of complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding, small bowel obstruction, fistula formation, or bowel perforation [ 2 , 5 ]. (
  • Human clinical research on probiotics has mostly focused on gastrointestinal conditions. (
  • In a normal human adult male, the GI tract is approximately 6.5 meters (20 feet) long and consists of the upper and lower GI tracts. (
  • Herein, we aimed to systematically assess the distribution and quantity of different antimicrobial host factors as well as, for the first time, functional mucosal antimicrobial activity in the upper gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Prophylaxis of the gastrointestinal tract upper part stress injury at urgency patients. (
  • The true incidence of the condition in community may be much higher as usually parents do not consult their doctors when their children develop an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) [ 4 ]. (
  • The pneumonia may be primary, following aspiration of the organism from the upper respiratory tract, especially in patients on mechanical ventilation. (
  • Common benign causes of upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding are stomach ulcer, duodenum ulcer, Mallory-Weiss syndrome, oesophageal varices, etc. (
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding embolisation is a particularly safe and minimally invasive way of treating upper or lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding. (
  • Besides your run-of-the-mill stomach bug or the occasional bout of indigestion , here are some health conditions that cause more persistent stomach pain in the upper gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Epidemiology of Upper Gastrointestinal Damage Associated with Low-Dose Aspirin. (
  • Risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding associated with use of low-dose aspirin. (
  • Efficacy and feasibility of OverStitch suturing of leaks in the upper gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Management of upper gastrointestinal leaks is challenging. (
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy and feasibility of this new treatment option in patients with leaks in the upper gastrointestinal tract . (
  • We performed a retrospective, single-center study of all patients who underwent endoscopic suturing with OverStitch of leaks in the upper gastrointestinal tract . (
  • Endoscopic suturing with OverStitch for leaks in the upper gastrointestinal tract is feasible and effective in patients who have not received prior treatment . (
  • Carafate ( sucralfate ) is an anti-ulcer drug used to treat ulcers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, peptic ulcer disease, to prevent recurrent ulcers after the ulcer has healed, to relieve or prevent ulcers caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAIDs ), and to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease ( GERD ). (
  • An upper endoscopy is a procedure in which a doctor uses an endoscope, a long, flexible tube with a camera attached, to see the lining of your upper GI tract. (
  • This procedure can be used to treat various conditions of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract, such as abnormal growths or bleeding. (
  • Go to Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding for complete information on this topic. (
  • The digestive tract is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients , and expels the remaining waste. (
  • The most usual cause of bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract due to malignancy is tumour rupture (usually a sizeable liver tumour). (
  • Ovagen® is a peptide complex containing amino acids that contribute to the normalization of liver and gastrointestinal tract function. (
  • The gastrointestinal system is comprised of the stomach, and the small and large intestines. (
  • Gastrointestinal is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the stomach and intestines. (
  • The lower GI tract comprises the intestines and anus. (
  • To clean out the small intestines, perform this gastrointestinal cleanse and see pounds of old fecal matters being flushed out. (
  • The gastrointestinal tract (or stomach and intestines) digests food and makes it ready to be absorbed into the bloodstream. (
  • Food flows through your gastrointestinal tract, which extends from your mouth to your bowels, and must be absorbed through the walls of the -stomach and intestines before it can enter the bloodstream. (
  • Kalhoro H, Tong S, Wang L, Hua Y, Volatiana JA, Shao Q (2018) Morphological study of the gastrointestinal tract of Larimichthys crocea (Acanthopterygii: Perciformes). (
  • It's telling the muscles of your GI tract to push what was impacted stool out of your body. (
  • Overall, a uniform texture of your stool will mean your gastrointestinal tract is healthy. (
  • The gastrointestinal tract, still forming, starts to collect sloughed skin and lanugo, as well as hepatic products, forming meconium (stool). (
  • Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants for Human Gastrointestinal Disorders: Health. (
  • Functional GI and motility disorders which affect the lower GI tract from the small intestine/bowel, to the large intestine/bowel or colon, to the rectum. (
  • Many other disorders can affect the digestive tract, with uniquely identifying features which differentiate them from functional GI or motility disorders. (
  • Resistance to bile salts permits that certain bile-resistant pathogens can colonize the hepatobiliary tract, and an outstanding example is the chronic infection of the gall bladder by Salmonella enterica . (
  • Respiratory tract infection (RTI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide especially in low- and middle-income countries. (
  • Recurrent respiratory tract infection (RRTI) is a common disease with a higher morbidity both in winter and spring, especially for children [ 5 ]. (
  • Chronic infection of the lower respiratory tract with P aeruginosa is prevalent among patients with cystic fibrosis. (
  • It is most commonly taken as a decoction to counter infection within the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Since Shiga toxins can cause severe gastrointestinal disease, it was important to document the signs and symptoms that infected patients reported, and monitor for any severe outcomes, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome, that are not usually found with a typical Shigella sonnei infection. (
  • We detected the genome and proteins of ANDV in breast milk cells from an infected mother in Chile who transmitted the virus to her child, suggesting gastrointestinal infection through breast milk as a route of ANDV person-to-person transmission. (
  • Katherine Lamba] Shiga toxins can target certain cells in the human gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and central nervous system. (
  • [ 1 ] Prior to the recently reported increase, the quoted incidence for ampullary carcinoma was 0.2% of all gastrointestinal malignancies and 6% of all periampullary tumors. (
  • Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) (pneumonia predominantly) is one of the leading causes of death in infants and children, especially in developing countries. (
  • Células endocrinas que se encuentran a lo largo del TRACTO GASTROINTESTINAL y en los islotes del PÁNCREAS. (
  • La somatostatina actúa sobre diversos tejidos como la HIPÓFISIS, el tracto gastrointestinal, el páncreas y el RIÑÓN, inhibiendo la liberación de hormonas tales como la HORMONA DEL CRECIMIENTO, la GASTRINA, la INSULINA y la RENINA. (
  • OBJECTIVE: Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) involvement occurs in 90% of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and has a major impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). (
  • Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in infants and children occurs frequently. (
  • Both actions increase the gastrointestinal tract's overall exposure to the toxins. (
  • Exposure routes in the general environment are the gastrointestinal tract, airways and skin in this rank order. (
  • decreased food intake, loss of appetite, and dysphagia are relevant symptoms in patients with gastrointestinal tract (GIT) cancer. (
  • As a consequence, alteration of the microbiome-bile salt homeostasis can play a role in hepatic and gastrointestinal pathological conditions. (
  • METHODS: The Scleroderma Gastrointestinal Tract 1.0 (SSC-GIT 1.0) survey was developed after an extensive literature search, solicitation and consideration of experts' opinions, and 2 focus groups of 16 subjects with SSc and GIT involvement. (
  • A University of Houston researcher is developing a new set of metal sensors that will be able to function in the gastrointestinal tract, a low-oxygen environment, to examine how gut bacteria respond when trace metal nutrients, like iron and zinc, are thrown out of balance either through diet or disease. (
  • Hemorrhagic rectocolitis is an autoimmune disease that affects the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • enteroviruses disease potential beyond the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • the search was performed on Bireme, Lilacs, Medline and Scielo databases, using keywords breast milk, gastrointestinal disease and respiratory disease, with limits of languages (English, Portuguese and Spanish) and period (1996 to 2009). (
  • Recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs) have a negative impact on both children's health and family wellbeing. (
  • Patients may present with a history of jaundice or gastrointestinal tract bleeding as a result of hepatobiliary involvement. (
  • Importantly, a significant portion of unabsorbed toxins remains within the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Lemons and limes are also high in minerals and vitamins and help loosen ama, or toxins, in the digestive tract. (
  • Activated carbon is one of the most common means actively used by humans to restore internal discomfort of the gastrointestinal tract.Activated carbon is a very effective tool for removing harmful. (
  • Motility is a term used to describe the contraction of the muscles that mix and propel contents in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. (
  • acidilactici UL5 was fed to a dynamic gastrointestinal (GI) model known as TIM-1, comprising four compartments connected by computer-controlled peristaltic valves and simulating the human stomach, duodenum, jejunum and ileum. (
  • It is used to treat slowed movement in the gastrointestinal tract associated with diabetes and gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining). (
  • Abnormal structure of the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • At the Interbalkan Medical Centre, Dr Ioannis Dedes has been successfully performing gastrointestinal tract bleeding embolisation procedures f or the last ten years. (
  • Such complications of antithrombotic therapy as gastrointestinal tract (GIT) erosion/ulceration and gastrointestinal bleeding are discussed in detail. (
  • 7. Moroz E.V., Karateev A.E., Kriukov E.V., Chernetsov V.A. Gastrointestinal bleeding with the use of new oral anticoagulants: epidemiology, risk factors, treatment, and prevention. (
  • 11. Laine L. Review article: gastrointestinal bleeding with low-dose aspirin - what's the risk? (
  • Black stools with bright red spots in it can indicate bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Vitamin B-12 is also essential for proper red blood cell production, homocysteine metabolism, and the maintenance of a healthy gastrointestinal tract. (
  • The term "probiotics" describes micro-organisms or other agents that support healthy flora in the human gastrointestinal tract. (
  • On December 29, 1994, physicians in a group medical practice in Dodge County (1994 estimated population: 79,360), Wisconsin, reported to the Public Health Unit of the Dodge County Human Services and Health Department (DCHSHD) that during December 27-29 they had treated 17 patients with acute gastrointestinal illness characterized by diarrhea and abdominal cramps. (
  • Gastrointestinal Events in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Time for the Lower Gastrointestinal Tract! (
  • Pain occurring in the lower abdomen tends to be related to the lower GI tract, which is comprised of the large intestine (colon), rectum, and anus. (
  • You may feel "heavy" in your abdomen and lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract. (
  • Once a swallowed foreign body reaches the stomach of a child with a normal GI tract, it is much less likely to lead to complications. (
  • Children with known GI tract abnormalities are more likely to encounter complications. (
  • It is also indicated for treatment of gastrointestinal spasm secondary to organic disorder. (
  • "Artificial nutrition and hydration" means the provision of nutrients or fluids by a tube inserted in a vein, under the skin in the subcutaneous tissues, or in the stomach (gastrointestinal tract). (
  • Most peptic ulcers are caused by either the bacterium Helicobacter pylori or the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs , which may irritate and alter the protective mucosal layer of the digestive tract. (
  • Trace metal nutrients are tightly regulated in living systems to avoid deficiency or toxic overload, but metal levels in the gastrointestinal tract vary with diet. (
  • But when people use the term 'stomach pain,' many mean pain related to the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Most swallowed foreign bodies pass harmlessly through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. (
  • Foreign bodies that damage the GI tract, become lodged, or have associated toxicity must be identified and removed. (
  • Your colon and other GI tract structures efficiently clean themselves - that's why you produce waste. (
  • reports exist of swallowed toy magnets attracting and adhering tightly to each other through the GI tract, leading to small bowel obstruction or necrosis of intervening tissues, sometimes with severe sequelae. (