Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The segment of GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the ESOPHAGUS; the STOMACH; and the DUODENUM.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
The segment of GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the small intestine below the DUODENUM, and the LARGE INTESTINE.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.
Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
All tumors in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT arising from mesenchymal cells (MESODERM) except those of smooth muscle cells (LEIOMYOMA) or Schwann cells (SCHWANNOMA).
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria found naturally in the human intestinal flora and BREAST MILK.
Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.
Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.
Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Instruments for the visual examination of the interior of the gastrointestinal tract.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.
Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Opening or penetration through the wall of the INTESTINES.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
Pathological processes in the ESOPHAGUS.
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the INTESTINE. A polyp is attached to the intestinal wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.
A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
A species of rod-shaped, LACTIC ACID bacteria used in PROBIOTICS and SILAGE production.
Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.
Non-digestible food ingredients mostly of a carbohydrate base that improve human health by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of existing BACTERIA in the COLON.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
c-Kit positive cells related to SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that are intercalated between the autonomic nerves and the effector smooth muscle cells of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Different phenotypic classes play roles as pacemakers, mediators of neural inputs, and mechanosensors.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.
Strong alkaline chemicals that destroy soft body tissues resulting in a deep, penetrating type of burn, in contrast to corrosives, that result in a more superficial type of damage via chemical means or inflammation. Caustics are usually hydroxides of light metals. SODIUM HYDROXIDE and potassium hydroxide are the most widely used caustic agents in industry. Medically, they have been used externally to remove diseased or dead tissues and destroy warts and small tumors. The accidental ingestion of products (household and industrial) containing caustic ingredients results in thousands of injuries per year.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Inflammation of the DUODENUM section of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL). Erosive duodenitis may cause bleeding in the UPPER GI TRACT and PEPTIC ULCER.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).
The consumption of edible substances.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Concretions of swallowed hair, fruit or vegetable fibers, or similar substances found in the alimentary canal.
Pathological development in the ILEUM including the ILEOCECAL VALVE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
A condition caused by the lack of intestinal PERISTALSIS or INTESTINAL MOTILITY without any mechanical obstruction. This interference of the flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS often leads to INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION. Ileus may be classified into postoperative, inflammatory, metabolic, neurogenic, and drug-induced.
The superior portion of the body of the stomach above the level of the cardiac notch.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria used in PROBIOTICS.
Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The sensory fibers innervating the viscera.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Infections of the genital tract in females or males. They can be caused by endogenous, iatrogenic, or sexually transmitted organisms.
A hereditary disease caused by autosomal dominant mutations involving CHROMOSOME 19. It is characterized by the presence of INTESTINAL POLYPS, consistently in the JEJUNUM, and mucocutaneous pigmentation with MELANIN spots of the lips, buccal MUCOSA, and digits.
A type of ILEUS, a functional not mechanical obstruction of the INTESTINES. This syndrome is caused by a large number of disorders involving the smooth muscles (MUSCLE, SMOOTH) or the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.
Infections with BACTERIA of the order Bifidobacteriales. This includes infections in the genera BIFIDOBACTERIUM and GARDNERELLA, in the family Bifidobacteriaceae.
A segment of the COLON between the RECTUM and the descending colon.
Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.
Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.
Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
Abnormal passage communicating with the STOMACH.
A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.
Any of certain small mammals of the order Hyracoidea.
The growth of INTESTINAL POLYPS. Growth processes include neoplastic (ADENOMA and CARCINOMA) and non-neoplastic (hyperplastic, mucosal, inflammatory, and other polyps).
A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.
The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.
Tumors or cancer in the JEJUNUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.
A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.
Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the DIGESTIVE TRACT or the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Polyps can be spheroidal, hemispheroidal, or irregular mound-shaped structures attached to the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the lumen wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
The formation of soft patches on the mucous membrane of a hollow organ, such as the urogenital tract or digestive tract.
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the digestive system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.
A slightly acid milk food produced by fermentation due to the combined action of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of shark in the family SQUALIDAE, used for its oil (SQUALENE) and as fish meal. It also figures heavily in biological research, especially with reference to its RECTAL GLAND in studies of WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A galectin found in the small and large intestine and the stomach. It occurs as a homodimer with two 36-kDa subunits and is localized to sites of cell adhesion where it may play role in assembly of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS.
Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A congenital abnormality characterized by the outpouching or sac formation in the ILEUM. It is a remnant of the embryonic YOLK SAC in which the VITELLINE DUCT failed to close.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Pathological conditions in the INTESTINES that are characterized by the gastrointestinal loss of serum proteins, including SERUM ALBUMIN; IMMUNOGLOBULINS; and at times LYMPHOCYTES. Severe condition can result in HYPOGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA or LYMPHOPENIA. Protein-losing enteropathies are associated with a number of diseases including INTESTINAL LYMPHANGIECTASIS; WHIPPLE'S DISEASE; and NEOPLASMS of the SMALL INTESTINE.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.
A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.

Expression of the type III TGFbeta receptor during chick organogenesis. (1/3143)

Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) is a regulator of embryonic development. The role of specific TGFbeta receptors is emerging, and a unique role for the type III TGFbeta receptor (TBRIII) has been suggested. We report the pattern of TBRIII expression in chicken embryos from 2 to 14 days in ovo.  (+info)

Functions of a chitosan-orotic acid salt in the gastrointestinal tract. (2/3143)

A chitosan (CS)-orotic acid salt (CS-OT) was prepared, and the release of orotic acid (OT) from CS-OT as well as the adsorption of bile acids by CS-OT was investigated in vitro. The amount of OT released from CS-OT was about 2-2.7 micromol/mg CS-OT and this changed depending on the species of CS. CS-OT also adsorbed bile acids and the amount increased incrementally according to the number of amino group contained in CS. Furthermore, CS-OT was given to rats as feed in order to investigate the influence on serum cholesterol levels. A decrease in serum cholesterol levels was observed in the group, which was fed a diet containing CS-OT or CS for 1-2 weeks, but no differences in body weight changes were recognized. Therefore, CS-OT may be applied to treating hyperlipidemia.  (+info)

The pacemaker activity of interstitial cells of Cajal and gastric electrical activity. (3/3143)

Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are the pacemaker cells in the gut. They have special properties that make them unique in their ability to generate and propagate slow waves in gastrointestinal muscles. The electrical slow wave activity determines the characteristic frequency of phasic contractions of the stomach, intestine and colon. Slow waves also determine the direction and velocity of propagation of peristaltic activity, in concert with the enteric nervous system. Characterization of receptors and ion channels in the ICC membrane is under way, and manipulation of slow wave activity markedly alters the movement of contents through the gut. Gastric myoelectrical slow wave activity produced by pacemaker cells (ICC) can be reflected by electrogastrography (EGG). Electrogastrography is a perspective non-invasive method that can detect gastric dysrhythmias associated with symptoms of nausea or delayed gastric emptying.  (+info)

Claudins in Caenorhabditis elegans: their distribution and barrier function in the epithelium. (4/3143)

Claudins ( approximately 23 kDa) with four transmembrane domains are major cell adhesion molecules working at tight junctions in vertebrates, where the intercellular space is tightly sealed (reviewed in ). We examined here the possible occurrence of claudin-like proteins in invertebrates, which do not bear typical tight junctions. Close blast searching of the C. elegans genome database identified four claudin-related, approximately 20-kDa integral membrane proteins (CLC-1 to -4), which showed sequence similarity to the vertebrate claudins. The expression and distribution of CLC-1 was then examined in detail by GFP technology as well as by immunofluorescence microscopy. CLC-1 was mainly expressed in the epithelial cells in the pharyngeal region of digestive tubes and colocalized with AJM-1 at their intercellular junctions. Then, to examine the possible involvement of CLC-1 in the barrier function, we performed RNA interference in combination with a tracer experiment: in CLC-1-deficient worms, the barrier function of the pharyngeal portion of the digestive tubes appeared to be severely affected. CLC-2 was expressed in seam cells in the hypodermis, and it also appeared to be involved in the hypodermis barrier. These findings indicated that multiple species of the claudin homologs, which are involved in the barrier function of the epithelium, exist in C. elegans.  (+info)

Screening of Mongolian plants for influence on amylase activity in mouse plasma and gastrointestinal tube. (5/3143)

Mongolian plants were screened for their influence on alpha-amylase activity in mouse plasma. Methanolic extracts of Geranium pratense, Rhodiola rosea, Ribes pullchelum and Vaccinium uliginosum inhibited the enzyme activity in isolated mouse plasma by greater than 40% and the effect was concentration dependent. Vaccinium uliginosum also showed a depressive effect on elevation of postprandial blood glucose to some extent.  (+info)

PNA-positive glycoconjugates are negatively correlated with the access of neural crest cells to the gut in chicken embryos. (6/3143)

Neural crest cells give rise to many derivatives, including the neurons and glia of the peripheral nervous system, adrenomedulary cells, and melanocytes, and migrate through precise pathways that differ according to their axial level and/or state of specification. The migratory routes taken by neural crest cells are reported to be regulated by extracellular matrix molecules. We examined the possible influence of glycoconjugates on the establishment of barriers to neural crest access to ventral regions leading to the gut, by labeling stage-16-28 white Leghorn (WL) and Silky (SK) embryos with peanut agglutinin (PNA) at vagal, thoracic, and sacral levels. We observed a transitory expression of glycoconjugates that correlate with a barrier to the entrance of neural crest cells into the gut at the thoracic level, which is not present at vagal and sacral levels. In later stages, neural crest cells of melanocytic lineage were observed entering the gut in embryos of the SK chicken, a mutant with an altered pattern of pigmentation. The ventral regions occupied by melanoblasts in SK embryos were free of PNA labeling, while in WL embryos, in which PNA-positive molecules are strongly expressed, melanoblasts were restricted to peripheral regions. We suggest that PNA-binding glycoconjugates are good molecular marker for barriers that control the access of neural crest cells to the gut.  (+info)

Differential and history-dependent modulation of a stretch receptor in the stomatogastric system of the crab, Cancer borealis. (7/3143)

Neuromodulators can modify the magnitude and kinetics of the response of a sensory neuron to a stimulus. Six neuroactive substances modified the activity of the gastropyloric receptor 2 (GPR2) neuron of the stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) of the crab Cancer borealis during muscle stretch. Stretches were applied to the gastric mill 9 (gm9) and the cardio-pyloric valve 3a (cpv3a) muscles. SDRNFLRFamide and dopamine had excitatory effects on GPR2. Serotonin, GABA, and the peptide allatostatin-3 (AST) decreased GPR2 firing during stretch. Moreover, SDRNFLRFamide and TNRNFLRFamide increased the unstimulated spontaneous firing rate, whereas AST and GABA decreased it. The actions of AST and GABA were amplitude- and history-dependent. In fully recovered preparations, AST and GABA decreased the response to small-amplitude stretches proportionally more than to those evoked by large-amplitude stretches. For large-amplitude stretches, the effects of AST and GABA were more pronounced as the number of recent stretches increased. The modulators that affected the stretch-induced GPR2 firing rate were also tested when the neuron was operating in a bursting mode of activity. Application of SDRNFLRFamide increased the bursting frequency transiently, whereas high concentrations of serotonin, AST, and GABA abolished bursting altogether. Together these data demonstrate that the effects of neuromodulators depend on the previous activity and current state of the sensory neuron.  (+info)

Polarization of specific tropomyosin isoforms in gastrointestinal epithelial cells and their impact on CFTR at the apical surface. (8/3143)

Microfilaments have been reported to be polarized in a number of cell types based both on function and isoform composition. There is evidence that microfilaments are involved in the movement of vesicles and the polarized delivery of proteins to specialized membrane domains. We have investigated the composition of actin microfilaments in gastrointestinal epithelial cells and their role in the delivery of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) into the apical membrane using cultured T84 cells as a model. We identified a specific population of microfilaments containing the tropomyosin (Tm) isoforms Tm5a and/or Tm5b, which are polarized in T84 cell monolayers. Polarization of this microfilament population occurs very rapidly in response to cell-cell and cell-substratum contact and is not inhibited by jasplakinolide, suggesting this involves the movement of intact filaments. Colocalization of Tm5a and/or Tm5b and CFTR was observed in long-term cultures. A reduction in Tm5a and Tm5b expression, induced using antisense oligonucleotides, resulted in an increase in both CFTR surface expression and chloride efflux in response to cAMP stimulation. We conclude that Tm isoforms Tm5a and/or Tm5b mark an apical population of microfilaments that can regulate the insertion and/or retention of CFTR into the plasma membrane.  (+info)

The gut-brain axis is the biochemical signaling that takes place between the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and the central nervous system (CNS). The term gut-brain axis is occasionally used to refer to the role of the gut flora in the interplay as well, whereas the term microbiome-gut-brain axis explicitly includes the role of gut flora in the biochemical signaling events that take place between the GI tract and CNS. Broadly defined, the gut-brain axis includes the central nervous system, neuroendocrine and neuroimmune systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis), sympathetic and parasympathetic arms of the autonomic nervous system, including the enteric nervous system and the vagus nerve, and the gut microbiota. Interest in the field was sparked by a 2004 study showing that germ-free mice showed an exaggerated HPA axis response to stress compared to non-GF laboratory mice. As of October 2016, most of the work that had been done on the role of gut flora in the ...
Mammalian guts harbor trillions of microbes, which play important roles in diverse aspects of host biology, including nutrition, immune system development, and behavior. Changes in gut microbial composition have been linked to host health and disease [1-4]. Previous studies have shown that host diet, age, sex, genetics, and environmental exposure all drive normal gut microbial variation [4-12]. However, to date, most studies have been focused on human populations or laboratory animals in controlled settings, and much remains to be learned about the ecological forces shaping gut microbial diversity and their relative strengths in nature. Studies of wild animal populations provide important insights into how environment, host biology, and their interactions affect gut microbiota in nature where hosts and microbes have coevolved.. Diet is believed to be a key selective factor in shaping gut microbiota in wild animals. For example, large differences in gut microbial communities have been found among ...
Introduction: The occurrence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has significantly increased in the last few years. One of the common problems in this group are eating disorders and ailments from the gastrointestinal systems. According to some studies, these problems have a significant impact on the occurrence and severity of symptoms in the neurological system, so it is crucial to increase the attention paid on the role of diet in the treatment of this disease. One of the theories connects ASD with disorders of the digestive system and the intestinal bacterial flora. This theory is based on the gut-brain axis, which means the interaction between the gastrointestinal and nervous systems. Objectives: To demonstrate the differences in behavior habits, interest in nutrition, and frequency of consumption of food products between children suffering from ASD and healthy children. Materials and methods: The study was conducted among 44 children suffering from ASD and 33 healthy children as a control ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The microbiome and autoimmunity. T2 - a paradigm from the gut-liver axis. AU - Li, Bo. AU - Selmi, Carlo. AU - Tang, Ruqi. AU - Gershwin, M. Eric. AU - Ma, Xiong. PY - 2018/6/1. Y1 - 2018/6/1. N2 - Microbial cells significantly outnumber human cells in the body, and the microbial flora at mucosal sites are shaped by environmental factors and, less intuitively, act on host immune responses, as demonstrated by experimental data in germ-free and gnotobiotic studies. Our understanding of this link stems from the established connection between infectious bacteria and immune tolerance breakdown, as observed in rheumatic fever triggered by Streptococci via molecular mimicry, epitope spread and bystander effects. The availability of high-throughput techniques has significantly advanced our capacity to sequence the microbiome and demonstrated variable degrees of dysbiosis in numerous autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis and autoimmune ...
Your brain and microbiome are communicating constantly to keep your body healthy and well. Find out how the gut-brain axis works and understand another way your microbiome impacts your health.
The gut microbiota influences the health of the host, especially with regard to gut immune homeostasis and the intestinal immune response. In addition to serving as a nutrient enhancer, L-tryptophan (Trp) plays crucial roles in the balance between intestinal immune tolerance and gut microbiota maintenance. Recent discoveries have underscored that changes in the microbiota modulate the host immune system by modulating Trp metabolism. Moreover, Trp, endogenous Trp metabolites (kynurenines, serotonin and melatonin), and bacterial Trp metabolites (indole, indolic acid, skatole, and tryptamine) have profound effects on gut microbial composition, microbial metabolism, the hosts immune system, the host-microbiome interface, and host immune system-intestinal microbiota interactions. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates the regulation of intestinal immunity by Trp metabolites (as ligands of AhR), which is beneficial for immune homeostasis. Among Trp metabolites, AhR ligands consist of endogenous
The gut-brain axis is the latest Lockdown Series video. Dr Robert Silverman, chiropractor, clinical nutritionist, international speaker and author, discusses the intertwined functions of the digestive microbiome and the brain. He looks at the function of the vagus nerve, suggests action plans for improving digestive health and provides Monday Morning applications to take back to your practice and achieve the clinical outcomes you want. View the presentation here.. ...
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Restore optimal gut environment leads to great gut health with carbon rich alkaline liquid lignite extracts to strengthen tight junction cells
Recent research suggests that the human gastrointestinal microbiota is greatly involved in yielding, storing and expending energy from the diet; therefore,
Jarro-Dophilus Mood contains documented probiotic strains plus clinically tested, natural PharmaGABA in a unique formula that supports the Gut-Brain Axis, promotes mood balance, and helps with digestive discomfort associated with occasional stress.* GABA is a neurotransmitter that helps balance mood, improves adaptability to stress and supports relaxation and calmness.* GABA occurs naturally in various foods. The Gut-Brain Axis The Gut-Brain Axis is a bidirectional communication highway between the brain and digestive tract. Studies have shown that better gut health can have a positive influence on mood.* EnteroGuard Protects Probiotics and Resists Stomach Acid via Food-Grade, pH-Sensitive Coating.
Background Several aquaporins (a family of integral membrane proteins) have been recently identified in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, and their involvement in the movement of fluid and small...
Download gastrointestinal system stock photos. Affordable and search from millions of royalty free images, photos and vectors. Thousands of images added daily.
Gastrointestinal Tract Development,GIT Links]]: [[Gastrointestinal Tract Development,Introduction]] , [[BGD_Lecture_-_Gastrointestinal_System_Development,Medicine Lecture]] , [[Lecture_-_Gastrointestinal_Development,Science Lecture]] , [[Endoderm]] , [[Gastrointestinal Tract - Stomach Development,Stomach]] , [[Gastrointestinal Tract - Liver Development,Liver]] , [[Gastrointestinal Tract - Gall Bladder Development,Gall Bladder]] , [[Gastrointestinal Tract - Pancreas Development,Pancreas]] , [[Gastrointestinal Tract - Intestine Development,Intestine]] , [[Tongue_Development,Tongue]] , [[Sensory_-_Taste_Development,Taste]] , [[Neural_Crest_-_Enteric_Nervous_System,Enteric Nervous System]] , [[Gastrointestinal_Tract_-_Carnegie_Stage_13,Stage 13]] , [[Gastrointestinal_Tract_-_Carnegie_Stage_22,Stage 22]] , [[Gastrointestinal Tract - Abnormalities,Abnormalities]] , [[Movies#Gastrointestinal_Tract,Movies]] , [[Gastrointestinal Tract - Postnatal,Postnatal]] , [[Normal_Development_-_Milk,Milk]] , ...
European Commission - this page describes research project 108-Development and application of high throughput molecular methods for studying the human gut microbiota in relation to diet and health. It was funded within Key Action 1 - Food, Nutrition and Health - of the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources, Fifth Framework Programme for RTD.
The science of psychobiotics, reviewed in a recent paper in Trends in Neurosciences, explores emerging strategies for planting brain-altering bacteria in the gut to provide mental benefits and the challenges ahead in understanding how such products could work for humans.. Now that we know that gut bacteria can speak to the brain, in ways that affect our mood, our appetite, and even our circadian rhythms, the next challenge for scientists is to control this communication.. While its been known for over a century that bacteria can have positive effects on physical health, only studies in the last 10-15 years have shown that there is a gut-brain connection. In mice, enhanced immune function, better reactions to stress, and even learning and memory advantages have been attributed to adding the right strain of bacteria.. Human studies are more difficult to interpret because mood changes in response to probiotics are self-reported, but physiological changes, such as reduced cortical levels and ...
Objectives: To comprehensively review the scientific knowledge on the gut-brain axis. Methods: Various publications on the gut-brain axis, until 31 July 2017, were screened using the Medline, Google, and Cochrane Library databases. The search was performed using the following keywords:
Background & Aims: Chronic gastrointestinal ischemia (CGI) is more common than previously thought. Visible light spectroscopy (VLS) allows for noninvasive measurements of mucosal capillary hemoglobin oxygen saturation during endoscopy. We evaluated the response of patients with occlusive CGI to treatment after evaluation by radiologic imaging of the vasculature and VLS. We also identified factors associated with response to treatment in these patients. Methods: In a prospective study, we collected data from 212 patients referred for evaluation of suspected CGI from November 2008 through January 2011. Patients underwent an extensive evaluation that included visualization of gastrointestinal arteries and assessments of mucosal perfusion by means of VLS. Treatment response was evaluated in patients with occlusive CGI. Factors associated with response to therapy were assessed by using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Occlusive CGI was diagnosed in 107 patients (50%); 96 were ...
Swisse Ultinatal Probiotic Powder For Baby nourishes and restores friendly intestinal gut flora and beneficial bowel flora to support a healthy gastrointestinal system, immune system and digestive system
More information and ongoing research is becoming available, linking the role of food in affecting mood, our gut microbiome and mental health.
Summary: A new study identifies gut bacteria that appears to interact with brain areas associated with mood and behavior.. Source: UCLA.. Researchers have identified gut microbiota that interact with brain regions associated with mood and behavior. This may be the first time that behavioral and neurobiological differences associated with microbial composition in healthy humans have been identified.. BACKGROUND Brain-gut-microbiota interactions may play an important role in human health and behavior. Previous research suggests that microbiota, a community of microorganisms in the gut, can influence behavior and emotion. Rodent models have demonstrated the effects of gut microbiota on emotional and social behaviors, such as anxiety and depression. There is, however, little evidence of this in humans.. For this study the researchers sought to identify brain and behavioral characteristics of healthy women clustered by gut microbiota profiles.. METHOD. Forty women supplied fecal samples for ...
All metazoan guts are in constant contact with diverse food-borne microorganisms. The signaling mechanisms by which the host regulates gut-microbe interactions, however, are not yet clear. Here, we show that phospholipase C-β (PLCβ) signaling modulates dual oxidase (DUOX) activity to produce microbicidal reactive oxygen species (ROS) essential for normal host survival. Gut-microbe contact rapidly activates PLCβ through Gαq, which in turn mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ through inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate generation for DUOX-dependent ROS production. PLCβ mutant flies had a short life span due to the uncontrolled propagation of an essential nutritional microbe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the gut. Gut-specific reintroduction of the PLCβ restored efficient DUOX-dependent microbe-eliminating capacity and normal host survival. These results demonstrate that the Gαq-PLCβ-Ca2+-DUOX-ROS signaling pathway acts as a bona fide first line of defense that enables gut epithelia to dynamically control ...
article{8518117, abstract = {The aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between the structure of gut microbial communities fed with different diets (i.e. high-protein-HP-versus high-fiber-HF-diet) and their functional stability when challenged with mild and acute doses of a mix of amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline. We made use of the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME (R))-a continuous model of the gastrointestinal tract-coupled with 16S-targeted Illumina and metabolomics (i.e. UHPLC-HRMS) analyses. Independently of the diet, the sudden exposure to an acute stress led to a modification of the microbial community structure, selecting for species belonging to Bacillus spp.; Clostridium cluster XIVa; Enterococci; Bacteroides; and Enterobacteriaceae. The antibiotic treatment led to a decrease in the number of operational taxonomic units (at least -10\%). Cluster analysis of untargeted metabolic data showed that the antibiotic treatment affected the ...
The gut brain connection is strong. Research indicates a rise in gastrointestinal disorders correlates with a rise in mental illness. Fix mental health through microbiome testing.
Interactions of diet, gut microbiota, and host genetics play important roles in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we have investigated the molecular links between gut microbiota, insulin resistance, and glucose metabolism in 3 inbred mouse strains with differing susceptibilities to metabolic syndrome using diet and antibiotic treatment. Antibiotic treatment altered intestinal microbiota, decreased tissue inflammation, improved insulin signaling in basal and stimulated states, and improved glucose metabolism in obesity- and diabetes-prone C57BL/6J mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). Many of these changes were reproduced by the transfer of gut microbiota from antibiotic-treated donors to germ-free or germ-depleted mice. These physiological changes closely correlated with changes in serum bile acids and levels of the antiinflammatory bile acid receptor Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) and were partially recapitulated by treatment with a TGR5 agonist. In contrast, ...
Carlos González Quilen, PhD student at MoBioFood Research Group, investigates how diets rich in fats and carbohydrates can alter the intestinal b...
Animals. C57BL/6J ob/+ mothers and their ob/ob, ob/+, and +/+ offspring were raised under a 12-h light cycle, in a specified pathogen-free state. Weaning and adult mice were fed PicoLab chow diet (Purina) ad libitum. All experiments involving mice were performed under protocols approved by the Washington University Animal Studies Committee. All animals were killed at the same time of day.. PCR Amplification of 16S rRNA Genes. Ceca were recovered immediately after the mice were killed. The contents of each intact cecum was recovered by manual extrusion and was frozen immediately (-80°C) until use. A frozen aliquot (≈100 mg) of each sample was added to tubes containing 500 μl of extraction buffer (200 mM Tris, pH 8.0/200 mM NaCl/20 mM EDTA), 210 μl of 20% SDS, 500 μl of phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (24:24:1), and 500 μl of 0.1-mm-diameter zirconia/silica beads (BioSpec Products, Bartlesville, OK). Microbial cells were disrupted mechanically at 23°C with a bead beater (BioSpec ...
Learning Needs: 5320: Psychiatric disorders, anxiety; 5220: Gastrointestinal disorders; 5110: Allergies, sensitivities, intolerances; 5120: Autoimmune diseases, arthritis, lupus; 5200: Disordered eating; and 5350: Substance abuse, alcoholism.. Speaker Biography: Janelle Smith developed a keen interest in the intersection of gastrointestinal disease and mental health after going undiagnosed with celiac disease for five years, all the while being treated for mental illness. Today she is consulting dietitian and Medical Advisory Board Member to the Celiac Disease Foundation (CDF). She recently was featured in Todays Dietitian to illuminate the important role of the dietitian for improving mental and emotional health for individuals with gluten-related disorders. Janelle is also dietitian of eating disorders and chemical dependency programs at La Ventana Treatment Centers in Santa Monica, and owner of her private practice Janelle Smith Nutrition. She specializes in differentiating gastrointestinal ...
Microbiota is classified as an ecological community of microorganisms that share a specific host. Within the human body it is estimated that there are tr
Sophisticated genomic techniques now allow scientists to estimate the strains, not just the species, in samples of the human guts microbe collection. Differences in the strains of microorganisms present might account for the variable influence the guts microbe community has on human health and disease. Understanding the effects of various strain combinations on such functions as metabolism, immunity and drug reactions might suggest ways to manipulate the gut microbiome to improve health.
Research in the Mark Donowitz Lab is primarily focused on the development of drug therapy for diarrheal disorders, intestinal salt absorption and the proteins involved including their regulation, and the use of human enteroids to understand intestinal physiology and pathophysiology. We study two gene families initially recognized by this laboratory: mammalian Na/H exchangers and the subgroup of PDZ domain containing proteins present in the brush border of epithelial cells called NHERF family. A major finding is that NHE3 exists simultaneously in different sized complexes in the brush border, which change separately as part of signal transduction initiated by mimics of the digestive process. Relevance to the human intestine is being pursued using mini-human intestine made from Lgr5+ stems cells made from intestinal biopsies and measuring function via two-photon microscopy.. Research Areas: gastrointestinal system, gastroenterology, pathophysiology, diarrhea, drugs, physiology ...
If youve done much research on gut health, you already know that antibiotics, even when prescribed and used correctly, can really do a number on your digestive health.
Gastrointestinal systems differ largely with respect to the presence of a meaningful symbiotic microbial population and its location. Simple-stomached animals (Figs. 1A and B) do not have an extensive microbial population to greatly alter nutrient recovery, whereas ruminants (Fig. 1C) and nonruminant herbivores (Fig. 1D) support symbiotic populations prior to and after formal digestion by the small intestine, respectively. All GI systems accomplish the same sequence of events but are anatomically and functionally modified to accommodate predominating food and microbial populations.. ...
The stomach flu is caused by a virus that attacks your gastrointestinal system. Learn the best ways to beat it, including rest, fluids, and pain relievers.
Over the last two decades, safety concerns about low/no-calorie sweeteners (LNCS) have been described in the archival scientific literature including elevated risk of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, excessive weight gain, cardiovascular disease, safety, and disruption of the gut microbiome. A recent review by Lobach, Roberts, and Roland in Food and Chemical Toxicology examined 17 research articles on modulation of gut bacteria by LNCS along with other selected publications. In the conclusions of their paper, they claim that LNCS 1) do not affect gut microbiota at use levels and 2) are safe at levels approved by regulatory agencies. Both of these claims are incorrect. The scientific literature on LNCS clearly indicates that it is inappropriate to draw generalized conclusions regarding effects on gut microbiota and safety issues for compounds that vary widely chemical structure and pharmacokinetics. Scientific studies on the sweetener sucralose, used here as a representative LNCS, indicate ...
This module contains many fun & successful teaching tricks by having students build the digestive and accessory organs of the Gastrointestinal System. Students can see the inter-relationship of these organs with each other as they build them on their flat board. Many times textbooks only show the organs in a two-dimensional view, this activity puts your students ahead when they build these organs and show how they fit together in the abdominalpelvic cavity. Great windows for pathology application can also be used doing this activity ...
We provide best online free sample on Systemic Anatomy and Physiology: Endocrine, Urinary and Gastrointestinal Systems. Our team with degree in Biology helps students compose accurate solutions for given assignment. We are available all time of the day to help students write best solutions in minimum time.
A trusted herbal supplement that works to alleviate occasional upset stomach and bloating, intestinal gas, while supporting the health of the spleen and gastrointestinal system.
The complexities and unique attributes of ICD-10-PCS coding of procedures performed on pediatric patients, specifically the Procedures in the Mouth, Throat and Gastrointestinal System.
The gastrointestinal system is the systems of the body that are primarily responsible for processing foods, absorbing nutrients...
Need help with your Nursing homework? In this interactive object, learners review the parts of the gastrointestinal system and then check their knowledge in a matching exercise.
Lernen Sie flexibel mit dem Video-Kurs Year 1 - Spring Semester: Gastrointestinal System I. Den Kurs können Sie am PC ✓, Tablet ✓ und auf dem Smartphone ✓ nutzen. Mit Offline-Funktion und interaktiven Quizfragen. So erreichen Sie Ihre Ziele noch schneller. Jetzt gratis testen!
When can microbiome be harmful?. Gut bacteria of every individual is unique and the body of that individual would listen only to his or her set of microbiome. When diverse conditions change the basic structure of this microbiome, the problem starts! This is when you eat out at some place where stale food is served or when you go to completely different location where the dietary habits are totally different from your normal one then the chances are there that your microbiome changes its form and that wont be as beneficial to you as your original gut flora. This is the reason why many people fall sick when they change the location or are travelling and have the water from different regions. Water plays a major role in changing the gut flora and hence people prefer to carry bottled water whenever they are travelling to foreign regions.. How to get more of gut bacteria?. The health benefits of gut bacteria suggest that you should have more and more of this bacteria in order to enjoy good health. ...
The differences in gut microbiota between the sexes reflects this sexual division of labour, says Stephanie Schnorr. It appears that women have more bacteria to help process fibrous plant foods, which has direct implications for their fertility and reproductive success. These findings support the key role of the gut microbiota as adaptive partners during the course of human evolution by aligning with differing diets.. Finally, the Hadza gut microbe community is a unique configuration with high levels of bacteria, like Treponema, that in western populations are often considered signs of disease, and low levels of other bacteria, like Bifidobacterium, that in western populations are considered healthy.. However, the Hadza experience little to no autoimmune diseases that would result from gut bacteria imbalances. Therefore, we must redefine our notions of healthy and unhealthy bacteria, since these distinctions are clearly dependent on the environment we live in. Genetic diversity of ...
Happy Brain, Happy Gut ! How does it work? The brain and the gut communicate via gut-brain axis, a mode of bidirectional signaling between the digestive tract and the nervous system. There are several central mechanisms by which gut bacteria can communicate with the brain. First, imbalances in gut bacteria can trigger inflammation by increasing the permeability of the intestinal lining, which allows toxins to seep into the bloodstream. Research has linked pro-inflammatory markers (cytokines) and increased intestinal permeability with anxiety and depression. Secondly, bacteria can produce neurotransmitters, which are carried through the blood to the brain. Bacteria can also stimulate specific nerves in the gut that then transmit information to the brain. Fortunately, you can support gut health (and therefore mental health) by eating a diet thats rich in probiotics -- the friendly gut bacteria that support digestion and a balanced microbiome, and are known to boost immune and neurological ...
Immunology in the gut mucosa:. The human gut can be the scene for devastating conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, which arises through an improperly controlled immune response. The gut is often the bodys first point of contact with microbes; every mouthful of food is accompanied by a cargo of micro-organisms that go on to encounter the mucosa, the innermost layer of the gut. Most microbes are destroyed by the harsh acidic environment in the stomach [1], but a hardy few make it through to the intestines.. The intestinal surface is covered with finger-like protrusions called villi, whose primary function is the absorption of nutrients [2]. However, these structures and the underlying tissues also host the bodys largest population of immune cells. Scattered along the intestinal mucosa are dome-like structures called Peyers Patches. These are enriched in lymphoid tissue [3], making them key sites for coordinating immune responses to pathogens, whilst promoting tolerance to harmless ...
View Notes - 5. Viral Infections of the GI Tract from LMP 232 at University of Toronto. Viral Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract A spew with a view Gastrointestinal Tract Defences Saliva
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Overview Our labs mission is to develop novel and highly sustainable therapeutic interventions for chronic diseases in order to improve human health. We do this by investigating the role of lipid mediators in modulating physiological and pathophysiological processes, and then using this knowledge to design novel interventions to modulate these processes. Therapeutic Modification of Gut Bacteria Recent studies have suggested a critical role for gut microbiota in human health. Difference in bacterial species associated with the gut appear to be causally linked to adiposity and insulin resistance, which have in turn been linked to oxidative stress and inflammation and eventual vascular disease. Because the exact species of bacteria and bacterial metabolites that modulate health are only now beginning to be elucidated, we have taken an alternative approach of genetically modifying bacterial species associated with the mammalian gut to produce therapeutic metabolites (small molecules like lipids and
The living culture of bacteria in our gastrointestinal tract, known as the gut microbiome or microbiota, consists of four pounds of biomass and is part of the 3 percent of our body weight that is made of microbes. While a third of that microbiome is consistent in all humans, the rest is unique to each individual.. The residual effects of our gut health can be as profound as changing the function of our brains. It turns out that the old axiom of going with your gut feeling is not just a colloquialism; it actually has some scientific basis.. Researchers have discovered the diversity of healthy gut bacteria in our microbiome often fluctuates and changes based on certain types of food consumed or a lack thereof. So, the choices we make in deciding what to put in our bodies can have a drastic effect on the makeup and health of our gut.. When our bodies dont receive the nutrients they need, the microbes in our gut send metabolites through the enteric nervous system, or ENS, a multi-layer lining in ...
... in the upper gastrointestinal tract[edit]. Following a meal, the stomach and upper gastrointestinal contents ... Dietary fibers can act by changing the nature of the contents of the gastrointestinal tract and by changing how other nutrients ... Dietary fibers can change the nature of the contents of the gastrointestinal tract and can change how other nutrients and ... Insoluble fiber - which does not dissolve in water - is inert to digestive enzymes in the upper gastrointestinal tract and ...
Gastrointestinal Tract[edit]. The cholecystokinin B receptor is stimulated by CCK and gastrin in the stomach during digestion. ... regulatory peptides of the brain and gastrointestinal tract. This protein is a type B gastrin receptor, which has a high ... digestive tract development. • signal transduction. • gland development. • regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity ... both sulfated and nonsulfated CCK analogs and is found principally in the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract ...
Gastrointestinal tract[edit]. Main article: Foreign body in alimentary tract. One of the most common locations for a foreign ... "Gastrointestinal Obstruction in Small Animals - Digestive System - Merck Veterinary Manual". Merck Veterinary Manual. Retrieved ... Symptoms of gastrointestinal obstruction include vomiting, abdominal pain (aggression), acute infection and depression due to ... It is possible for foreign bodies to enter the tract from the mouth, or from the rectum. ...
Less commonly there may be bleeding from the mouth or gastrointestinal tract.[1] The risk of death once infected is about one ... typically occurs by direct or indirect exposure to animal excrement through the respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts. ...
Gastrointestinal tract. Peristalsis, gastric acid, bile acids, digestive enzyme,. flushing, thiocyanate,[2] defensins,[2] gut ... In the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract, movement due to peristalsis or cilia, respectively, helps remove infectious ... Kobayashi H (2005). "Airway biofilms: implications for pathogenesis and therapy of respiratory tract infections". Treatments in ... making up a substantial portion of the mammalian gastrointestinal flora.[20] Some species like B. fragilis for example are ...
Gastrointestinal tract. *Upper:. *Esophagogastroduodenoscopy. *Lower: Enteroscopy. *Colonoscopy. *Sigmoidoscopy. *Proctoscopy. ...
Main article: Gastrointestinal wall. Like the other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, the human stomach walls consist of a ... The stomach is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several ... The enveloped portions form the basis for the adult gastrointestinal tract.[26] The sac is surrounded by a network of vitelline ... The presence of the inner oblique layer is distinct from other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, which do not possess this ...
Gastrointestinal tract. *Upper:. *Esophagogastroduodenoscopy. *Lower: Enteroscopy. *Colonoscopy. *Sigmoidoscopy. *Pouchoscopy. ...
Gastrointestinal tract *Reduce bowel motility. *Increase cholesterol in bile. *Melanin *Increase pheomelanin, reduce eumelanin ...
J. A. Dominitz, et al., American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, "Complications of Colonsocopy"[permanent dead link], ... American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy information. *colonoscopy app. Colonoscopy app is now available for android ... Sivak Jr., Michael V. (December 2004). "Polypectomy: Looking Back". Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. 60 (6): 977-982. doi:10.1016/ ... The most serious complication generally is gastrointestinal perforation, which is life-threatening and in most cases requires ...
gastrointestinal tract toxicity *serious or fatal gastrointestinal tract perforations. *skin toxicity *bullous, blistering, and ...
8 - gastrointestinal tract. 9 - buccal opening. 10 - blastocoele. A trochophore (/ˈtroʊkəˌfɔːr, ˈtrɒ-, -koʊ-/;[1][2] also ...
Skin, gastro-intestinal tract Lyngbya Saxitoxin Nerve synapse Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Lyngbya, Cylindrospermopsis ... Recreational exposure to cyanobacteria can result in gastro-intestinal and hay fever symptoms or pruritic skin rashes.[2] ...
The largest structure of the digestive system is the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). This starts at the mouth and ends at ... Further information: Gastrointestinal physiology. The lower gastrointestinal tract (GI), includes the small intestine and all ... Lower gastrointestinal tract. Main article: Gastrointestinal tract. ... Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract. ISBN 978-0-443-06811-9. .. *^ Cotran, Ramzi S.; Kumar, Vinay; Fausto, Nelson; Nelso ...
Gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, eye Faeces, parasite itself worldwide ingestion of intermediate hosts ... female urogenital tract (males asymptomatic) microscopic examination of genital swab worldwide sexually transmitted infection ...
The enveloped portions form the basis for the adult gastrointestinal tract.[21] The sac is surrounded by a network of vitelline ... The esophagus is thus one of the first components of the digestive system and the gastrointestinal tract. After food passes ... Sections of this gut begin to differentiate into the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, such as the esophagus, stomach, and ... This makes it distinct from many other structures in the gastrointestinal tract that only have a serosa.[5] ...
Health of the gastrointestinal tract. *Enzyme induction/inhibition by other drugs/foods: *Enzyme induction (increased rate of ... Disease states affecting liver metabolism or gastrointestinal function will also have an effect. ...
Alberts, SR; Goldberg, RM (2009). "Chapter 9: Gastrointestinal tract cancers". In Casciato, DA; Territo, MC (eds.). Manual of ... "World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology. 6 (10): 381-92. doi:10.4251/wjgo.v6.i10.381. PMC 4197429. PMID 25320654.. ... "Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology. 5 (6): 481-8. doi:10.3978/j.issn.2078-6891.2014.055. PMC 4226830. PMID 25436129.. ... Highlights from the "2010 ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium". Orlando, FL, USA. January 22-24, 2010". Journal of the ...
Gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract disorders. *Ingrown genitalia. *Undeveloped/missing lungs. *Distorted digestive tract ... Other effects included: deformed eyes, hearts, alimentary, and urinary tracts, and blindness and deafness.[8] ...
The barium enhances the visibility of the relevant parts of the gastrointestinal tract by coating the inside wall of the tract ... also called an upper gastrointestinal study or contrast radiography of the upper gastrointestinal tract, is a series of ... Robinson, C; Punwani, S; Taylor, S (Dec 2009). "Imaging the gastrointestinal tract in 2008". Clinical Medicine. 9 (6): 609-12. ... Nightingale, Julie; Law, Robert (2012). Gastrointestinal Tract Imaging: An Evidence-Based Practice Guide. Elsevier Health ...
Juvenile polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract; or. *Any number of juvenile polyps in a person with a family history of ... polyposis syndrome is a syndrome characterized by the appearance of multiple juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract. ...
Barnert J, Messmann H (2008). "Management of lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding". Best Practice & Research. Clinical ... Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding in 1,112 patients admitted to an urban emergency medical center. Gayer C1, Chino A, Lucas ... Diverticular bleeding is the most common cause of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding.[9] However, it is estimated that 80% ... DiMarino, Anthony J.; Benjamin, Stanley B. (2002). Gastrointestinal Disease: An Endoscopic Approach. SLACK Incorporated. p. 863 ...
The human gastrointestinal tract is around 9 meters long. Food digestion physiology varies between individuals and upon other ... Animals have a tube (gastrointestinal tract) in which internal digestion occurs, which is more efficient because more of the ... Absorption occurs in the stomach and gastrointestinal tract, and the process finishes with defecation.[1] ... A crop, or croup, is a thin-walled expanded portion of the alimentary tract used for the storage of food prior to digestion. In ...
... and throughout the gastrointestinal tract.[15][40] Locations of action[edit]. Pancreas[edit]. Ghrelin inhibits glucose- ... is a peptide hormone produced by ghrelinergic cells in the gastrointestinal tract.[1][2] Ghrelin functions as a neuropeptide in ... "Ghrelin cells in the gastrointestinal tract". International Journal of Peptides. 2010: 1-7. doi:10.1155/2010/945056. PMC ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 292 (5): 1376-84. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00536.2006. PMID 17290011.. ...
The gastrointestinal tract and associated dorsal mesentery are subdivided into foregut, midgut, and hindgut regions based on ... McMinn RH (1994). "The gastrointestinal tract". In McMinn RH (ed.). Last's anatomy: regional and applied (9th ed.). London: ... as it spans the gastrointestinal tract from duodenojejunal flexure to mesorectal level. In 2012 it was discovered that the ... fat wrapping-creeping fat-involves extension of mesenteric fat over the circumference of contiguous gastrointestinal tract, and ...
Mayer RJ (2008). "Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer". In Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J (eds.). ... Cancer of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract. PMPH-USA. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-55009-101-4. Archived from the original on 2015-10-30 ... Han Y, Chen W, Li P, Ye J (2015). "Association Between Coeliac Disease and Risk of Any Malignancy and Gastrointestinal ... Even by those using the British English spelling "oesophagus" Kelsen, David (2007). Gastrointestinal oncology: principles and ...
Upper gastrointestinal tract. In Liu J-B, Goldberg BB (eds): Endoluminal Ultrasound. London, Martin Dunitz Ltd, 1998;147-200. ... Alexander AA, Miller LS, Schiano TD, Liu-J-B. Lower gastrointestinal tract. In Liu J-B, Goldberg BB (eds): Endoluminal ... "American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: List of Current Fellows". Retrieved June 8, 2011. "New York Organ Donor ... Miller LS, Schiano TD, Liu J-B. Pancreaticobiliary tract: In Liu J-B, Goldberg BB (eds): Endoluminal Ultrasound. London, Martin ...
Bummer, Paul (2012). Gastro Intestinal Tract and Oral Drug Absorption. University of Kentucky.. ...
... such as the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, and the urogenital tract. The lamina propria is a thin layer of ... especially from the gastrointestinal tract. Progression of epithelial cancer often relies on deep and regional lymph node ... "Blue Histology-Gastrointestinal Tract". The University of Western Australia. Mescher, Anthony (2009). Junqueira's Basic ... "Regulation of cell number in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract: The importance of apoptosis". Journal of Cell Science. 107 ( ...
... Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whales National Marine ... Gastrointestinal Tract (marine mammals). (n.d.). Retrieved August 3, 2017, from http:// ...
Carnivorous mammals have a simple digestive tract because the proteins, lipids and minerals found in meat require little in the ... There are environmental signals, signals from the gastrointestinal system, and metabolic signals that trigger hunger. The ... whereas larger meals are tougher on the digestive tract and may call for the use of laxatives.[8] However, psychiatrists with ... The digestive tract of an herbivore is host to bacteria that ferment these complex substances, and make them available for ...
... it is usually in the gastrointestinal tract.[35] The incidence of bleeding into the gastrointestinal tract was reported to be ~ ... Sharma N, Cappell MS (September 2015). "Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Manifestations of Ebola Virus Infection". Digestive ... Sharma, Nisha; Cappell, Mitchell S. (1 September 2015). "Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Manifestations of Ebola Virus Infection ...
... allowing them to shrink the size of the gastrointestinal tract relative to body mass and to increase the brain mass instead.[ ... and their digestive tract is functionally very similar to that of humans.[101] Chimpanzees are primarily frugivores, but they ... Some comparative studies of human and higher primate digestive tracts do suggest that humans have evolved to obtain greater ...
Entamoeba histolytica is a unicellular parasitic protozoan that infects the lower gastrointestinal tract of humans. The ... SP is released in or around the nucleus of the solitary tract upon integrated activity of dopamine, serotonin, opioid, and/or ...
Gastrointestinal (GI). tract. Upper GI tract. *Nausea/Vomiting. *Heartburn. *Dysphagia (Oropharyngeal, Esophageal) ...
From there it is transferred to the gastrointestinal tract, which is mostly suspended from the roof of the mantle cavity by ... London: The Religious Tract Society.. *^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Octopus". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge ... The tract consists of a crop, where the food is stored, a stomach, where food is ground down, a caecum where the now sludgy ... from the terminal organ of the reproductive tract (the cephalopod "penis") into the female's mantle cavity.[55] The ...
Absorption of orally administered levothyroxine from the gastrointestinal tract ranges from 40 to 80%, with the majority of the ...
There are many diseases that affect the gastrointestinal system. Doctors who study the gastrointestinal tract are called ... The gastrointestinal tract is the gut and other organs that help us digest food. ... The gastrointestinal system is the body system that eats and digests food; it is also called a digestive system. By breaking ... Le 'systema gastrointestinal o le apparato digestive es le systema corpore que ede e digere alimento; etiam es nominate systema ...
Upper gastrointestinal series/Small-bowel follow-through/Lower gastrointestinal series. *Cholangiography/Cholecystography ...
a true active gastrointestinal bleed: vomiting blood, vomiting coffee-grind like material, defecating blood or black tarry ... and you are concerned that Gastrointestinal malignancy may be the cause for their anemia;[4][5][6][7] ... Lower GI tract. Small bowel. *Bariatric surgery *Duodenal switch. *Jejunoileal bypass. *Bowel resection ... "Fecal occult blood testing in hospitalized patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding". Journal of Hospital Medicine. 12 (7 ...
Anatomy of torso, digestive system: Gastrointestinal tract, excluding mouth (TA A05.3-7, TH H3.04.02-04, GA 11.1141) ...
Human gastrointestinal tract * sw:Human gastrointestinal tract. Human rights * sw:Human rights. Hundred Years' War * sw:Hundred ...
... and the gastrointestinal tract cause vomit containing blood, hence the Spanish name for yellow fever, vómito negro ("black ...
... gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts.The various diseases often overlap in clinical and histological presentation and, ...
... because the gastrointestinal tract protects itself against carcinomas by shedding its outer layer continuously.[citation needed ... "Basal and inducible CYP1 mRNA quantitation and protein localization throughout the mouse gastrointestinal tract". Free Radic ...
"Understanding the Physics of Functional Fibers in the Gastrointestinal Tract: An Evidence-Based Approach to Resolving Enduring ... "High-Amylose Resistant Starch Increases Hormones and Improves Structure and Function of the Gastrointestinal Tract: A ... which indicates that they are absorbed from the intestinal tract.[19] M cells within the Peyer's patches physically transport ...
Shackelford's Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. Elsevier Health Sciences. 2012: 1851. ISBN 1455738077. (原始内容存档于September 8, 2017 ... 上消化道(英语:Upper gastrointestinal bleeding) *呕血. *黑粪症(英语:Melena) ...
... or possibly the gastrointestinal tract.[5] The virus then remains latent in the gastrointestinal tract[6] and can also infect ... "JC virus DNA sequences are frequently present in the human upper and lower gastrointestinal tract". Gastroenterology. 119 (5): ... "Potential transmission of human polyomaviruses through the gastrointestinal tract after exposure to virions or viral DNA". J. ...
Aid natural growth and development (Deen & Hark, 2007) Maintain optimal functioning of nervous, gastrointestinal and ... intestinal tracts and eyes, mouth and stomach linings, primarily acting as a barrier against harmful bacteria and virus's (Deen ...
... does not cause damage to the gastrointestinal tract.[2] Lactose intolerance is due to the lack of the ... "A biopsy-based quick test in the diagnosis of duodenal hypolactasia in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy". Endoscopy. 38 (7): ... identifying presence of lactase enzyme on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy instruments.[43] However, for research applications ...
GAG - gamma globulin - gamma interferon - ganglion - GART - gastrointestinal (GI) - gene - gene therapy - genetic engineering ... genital ulcer disease - genital warts - genitourinary tract - genome - genotypic assay - germinal centers - giardiasis - ...
A 2018 study found higher instances of breast cancer, melanoma, uterine, gastrointestinal, cervical, and thyroid cancers ... "Association between respiratory tract diseases and secondhand smoke exposure among never smoking flight attendants: a cross- ... gastrointestinal cancer (0.47% compared to 0.27% - a 74% increase), thyroid cancer (0.67% compared to 0.56%) and higher rates ...
Anticholinergics can cause dry mouth and urinary tract symptoms.[2] They are also associated with increased risk of heart ... Roflumilast and cilomilast may be associated with side effects such as gastrointestinal issues and weight loss. Sleep ...
Heart, gastrointestinal tract, brain, other organs: rarely affected.. CausesEdit. The cause of GPA is unknown, although ... In general, rhinitis is the first sign in most people.[11][12] Involvement of the upper respiratory tract, such as the nose and ... and medium-size vessels in many organs but most commonly affects the upper respiratory tract and the kidneys.[6] Therefore, the ... gastrointestinal involvement, chronic kidney disease, and the absence of ears, nose, and throat symptoms.[7] ...
Around 1886, Senn successfully tested the diagnosis of gastrointestinal perforation by inflation with hydrogen gas. Senn used a ... the intestinal tract,[6] and the treatment of leukaemia with x-rays.[2] ... of hydrogen gas into his intestinal tract. An assistant sealed the tube by squeezing the anus against it. The hydrogen was ... "Senn on the diagnosis of gastro-intestinal perforation by the rectal insuffation of hydrogen", Annals of Surgery, vol. 8, iss ...
... with gastrointestinal upset occurring in more than 30%.[62] Cranberry juice is thus not currently recommended for this ... A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.[1] When it affects the lower urinary ... A urinary tract infection may involve only the lower urinary tract, in which case it is known as a bladder infection. ... Urinary tract infections may affect 10% of people during childhood.[6] Among children, urinary tract infections are most common ...
Gastrointestinal tract disorders. Hidden categories: *Infobox medical condition (new). *All Wikipedia articles needing ... Alimentary tract of infant showing intestinal necrosis, pneumatosis intestinalis, and perforation site (arrow). Autopsy. ...
The gastrointestinal system is comprised of the stomach, and the small and large intestines. It is responsible for breaking ... The gastrointestinal system is comprised of the stomach, and the small and large intestines. It is responsible for breaking ...
Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Crohns Disease. Hugh J Freeman1,2 1Department of Medicine (Gastroenterology), University Hospital ... Crohns disease may involve any site within the gastrointestinal tract. Usually pathology is present in the ileum and/or colon ... If changes typical of Crohns disease are detected in the upper gastrointestinal tract, then a careful assessment is required ... Although upper gastrointestinal involvement is increasingly recognized as a significant cause of morbidity in Crohns disease, ...
... Goto Sponge NotDistinct Permalink An Entity of Type : skos:Concept, within Data Space ...
Bacterial Succession in the Broiler Gastrointestinal Tract.. Ranjitkar S1, Lawley B2, Tannock G2, Engberg RM3. ... and increases in the abundances of these bacteria might be associated with growth reduction and gastrointestinal (GI) disorders ...
The gastrointestinal disorders regarded as potentially premalignant are the benign epithelial growths and the inflammatory and ... Gastrointestinal Tract Ulcerative Colitis Gastritis Gastric Carcinoma Gastric Ulcer This is a preview of subscription content, ... Other etiologic factors in the development of carcinomatous precursors in the gastrointestinal tract remain obscure. ... The gastrointestinal disorders regarded as potentially premalignant are the benign epithelial growths and the inflammatory and ...
Gastrointestinal Stasis: The S.... Feb 10, 2013 Its an all too familiar story. "My bunny stopped eating, and then she just ... emergencies enteritis euthanasia eyes FAQ feces feet finding a vet fly strike For veterinarians fun fundraising GI tract ... shop Spanish spay/neuter special needs stasis stories from our readers teeth toys training translations travel urinary tract ...
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system ... "gastrointestinal tract" at Dorlands Medical Dictionary *^ Gastrointestinal+tract at the US National Library of Medicine ... Lower gastrointestinal tractEdit. The lower gastrointestinal tract includes most of the small intestine and all of the large ... Upper gastrointestinal tractEdit. Main articles: Esophagus, Stomach, and duodenum. The upper gastrointestinal tract consists of ...
Gastrointestinal function is modulated by a complex series of neurohormonal interrelations. There is a great deal of evidence ... G. Gabella, Innervation of the gastrointestinal tract. Int. Rev. Cytol. 59:129(1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Nagura H., Kimura M., Kubota M., Kimura N. (1994) Neuroendocrine-Immune Interactions in the Gastrointestinal Tract. In: Berczi ... "Immunology and Immunopathology of the Liver and Gastrointestinal Tract," S.R. Targan, and F. Shanahan, eds., Igaku Shoin, New ...
... gb-gplus-shareSurgical pathology of the gastro-intestinal tract. ... Surgical pathology of the gastro-intestinal tract. Arthur ... J. B. Lippincott company, 1936 - Biliary tract - 311 pages. 0 Reviews ...
An upper GI (gastrointestinal) X-ray is a safe procedure that uses radiation to take a picture of the upper GI tract. Its also ... Barium appears white on the images, and when it fills the organs of the GI tract, it makes them visible. Gas in the stomach and ... As your child swallows and the barium moves through the GI tract, its path can be seen on a monitor. At some points, still ... A rare complication is obstruction of the GI tract.. Helping Your Child. You can help your child prepare for an upper GI series ...
The regulation of mineral absorption in the gastrointestinal tract.. Powell JJ1, Jugdaohsingh R, Thompson RP. ... Gastrointestinal Laboratory, Rayne Institute, St Thomas Hospital, London, UK. [email protected] ...
The gastrointestinal tract is the most important of the three major routes of entry (and clearance) of xenobiotics and biologic ... Chapter 4 Gastrointestinal Tract Development and Its Importance in Toxicology. Alma M. Feldpausch, Joseph V. Rodricks, Rosalind ... The gastrointestinal tract is the most important of the three major routes of entry (and clearance) of xenobiotics and biologic ... Toxicology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Second Edition Edited By Shayne Cox Gad. ...
... The digestive tract is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it ... Upper gastrointestinal tract. The upper GI tract consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and stomach. ... Lower gastrointestinal tract. The lower GI tract comprises the intestines and anus. ... The gastrointestinal tract is also a prominent part of the immune system.[2] The low pH (ranging from 1 to 4) of the stomach is ...
How weird is that? So in this video, were going to do an overview of the gastrointestinal tract. Ill talk about each of the ... So those are all the key components of our gastrointestinal tract. There are some other accessory organs that are involved here ... The minute you eat something and swallow it and it passes in through your gastrointestinal tract, thats the external ... This, I think, is one of the more boring parts of the GI tract, because all we do here is just propel our bolus. We just pass ...
... tract begins in the mouth and works its way down the esophagus, through the stomach, small and large intestines and rectum, ... The gastrointestinal (GI) tract begins in the mouth and works its way down the esophagus, through the stomach, small and large ... Upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeds from the upper GI tract are significant causes of morbidity and mortality and are much ... Causes of Bleeding in the Upper and Lower Gastrointestinal Tract. *Download PDF Copy ...
Functional gastrointestinal disorders are characterised by persisting gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g. pain, bloating) in the ... inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract with several shared clinical features, but with largely distinct risk ... Hypnotherapy for functional gastrointestinal disorders. DTB 2005; 43: 45-8.. Inducing remission in inflammatory bowel disease. ... For other gastrointestinal disorders, study quality was poor. In all trials, quality of life improved significantly, but this ...
Tachykinins also contribute to transmission from spinal afferents that innervate the gastrointestinal tract and have roles in ... In the gastrointestinal tract, tachykinins are peptide neurotransmitters in nerve circuits that regulate intestinal motility, ... Tachykinins and their functions in the gastrointestinal tract Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008 Jan;65(2):295-311. doi: 10.1007/s00018- ... In the gastrointestinal tract, tachykinins are peptide neurotransmitters in nerve circuits that regulate intestinal motility, ...
The microbiome of the chicken gastrointestinal tract - Volume 13 Issue 1 - Carl J. Yeoman, Nicholas Chia, Patricio Jeraldo, ... The microbiome of the chicken gastrointestinal tract. * Carl J. Yeoman (a1) (a2), Nicholas Chia (a2) (a3) (a4), Patricio ... Panda, AK, Rama Rao, SV, Raju, MVLN and Shyam Sunder, G (2009). Effect of butyric acid on performance, gastrointestinal tract ... 16S rRNA gene-based analysis of mucosa-associated bacterial community and phylogeny in the chicken gastrointestinal tracts: ...
Individuals with known or suspected parasitic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including amebiasis, giardiasis, hookworm ... Persons with proven or highly suspected parasitic infections involving the gastrointestinal tract (including amebiasis, ... Gastrointestinal parasites are either worms (helminths) or one-celled animals called protozoans which live in the human ... The precis of this protocol is to allow the evaluation, treatment and study of patients with a variety of gastrointestinal ...
... Krzysztof Kurek,1 ... A. Keranen, "Gangliosides of the human gastrointestinal mucosa," Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 409, no. 3, pp. 320-328, ... A role of sulfatides in gastrointestinal mucosal defense?" Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 12, supplement 1, pp. S52 ... M. E. Breimer, "Distribution of molecular species of sphingomyelins in different parts of bovine digestive tract," Journal of ...
... form of anemia encountered in clinical practice and is an extremely common manifestation of chronic occult gastrointestinal ... Gastrointestinal tract evaluation in patients with iron deficiency anemia Semin Gastrointest Dis. 1999 Apr;10(2):53-64. ... The treatment and prognosis of patients with iron deficiency anemia and the majority of gastrointestinal tract lesions are ... As such, the evaluation of patients with iron deficiency anemia is generally focused on the gastrointestinal tract. Importantly ...
Ultrasound of the Gastrointestinal Tract by (ISBN: 978-3-642-31982-2); Published by Springerin Oct 2013. Compare book prices on ... updated and extended edition of this book offers a thorough guide to ultrasound imaging of acute and chronic gastrointestinal ... updated and extended edition of this book offers a thorough guide to ultrasound imaging of acute and chronic gastrointestinal ...
... Chronic GVHD can affect the liver and GI tract. Symptoms can mimic those cause by other ... Home , Transplant Basics , Graft-versus-Host-Disease (GvHD) , Liver, Gastrointestinal Tract and GVHD ... Watch a Video about Chronic GVHD of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Liver (40 minutes) ... ...
Upper gastrointestinal tract. The upper GI tract consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and stomach. ... Lower gastrointestinal tract. The lower GI tract comprises the intestines and anus. ... The gastrointestinal tract is also a prominent part of the immune system.[3] The low pH (ranging from 1 to 4) of the stomach is ... The gastrointestinal tract has a uniform general histology with some differences which reflect the specialization in functional ...
Chemical compound and disease context of Gastrointestinal Tract. *Protective effect of prostaglandin E2 in the gastrointestinal ... lung and gastrointestinal tract [34].. *The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is essential for vascularization of the gastrointestinal ... Vascular IgA and C3 deposition in gastrointestinal tract of patients with Henoch-Schoenlein purpura. Touchard, G., Maire, P., ... Association of an isomeric species of carcinoembryonic antigen with neoplasia of the gastrointestinal tract. Edgington, T.S., ...
w:Gastrointestinal_tract. The Gastrointestinal Tract (GI) is composed of the alimentary tract from the mouth to the anus. ... Upper gastrointestinal tract. The upper Gastrointestinal tract consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and duodenum ... Upper gastrointestinal tract. The upper gastrointestinal tract consists of the mouth cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach,and ... Lower gastrointestinal tract. The lower gastrointestinal tract comprises the most of the intestines and the anus. ...
Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Gastrointestinal Tract - Diagnosis up Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Gastrointestinal Tract - Types of ... Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Stages and Grades. Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board, 10/2019 ... Here are more details on each part of the TNM system for a GI tract NET:. Tumor (T). Using the TNM system, the "T" plus a ... For a GI tract NET, there are 4 stages, I through IV (1 through 4). The stage provides a common way of describing the cancer, ...
... procedure allows for in vivo quantification of gastrointestinal pH with position of the capsule in the gastrointestinal tract ... the information from this preliminary study, may be to regulate gastrointestinal pH while improving gastrointestinal motility, ... gastrointestinal pH, impact upon stool specific gravity, and gastrointestinal motility in normal subjects. ... On Gastrointestinal Function In Normal Humans Excerpts By Jeffrey Bland, Ph.D. Linus Pauling Institute of Science & Medicine ...
Section Five: Nutritional Perspectives on the GI Tract. Chapter 20. Hyperlipidemia and the Gastrointestinal Tract. (Premchand ... Chronic Disease and Disability: The Pediatric Gastrointestinal Tract. $310.00. Donald E. Greydanus, M.D. (Editor). Department ... Section Four: Pain and the GI Tract. Chapter 17. Perspectives on Acute Abdominal Pain in the College Student: A Clinically ... Section One: Inaugural Perspectives of the Pediatric GI Tract. Chapter 1. Dealing with Craniofacial Anomalies. (Laura Garcia- ...
... tract, which includes your stomach and intestines, has one of the most important ... Your gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which includes your stomach and intestines, has one of the most important roles in your body. ... Inflammation of the Gastrointestinal Tract: The Two Primary Conditions. If you have chronic inflammation of the ... You might be surprised to learn that a clogged colon can also cause your gastrointestinal tract to become inflamed, leading to ...
  • The organs of the gastro-intestinal tract play an essential role in sustained physical activity, but their consideration in exercise-related literature has, to this point, been limited. (
  • Physical Activity and the Gastro-Intestinal Tract is the first book to explain the function and response to exercise of the gastro-intestinal system, in cases of both health and disease, and helps to shed light on the role they play in acute and chronic exercise. (
  • With each chapter including a thorough bibliography and signposts to further reading, Physical Activity and the Gastro-Intestinal Tract provides a complete reference for understanding how exercise affects the function of the digestive organs. (
  • Can Mycotoxins Effect Gastro-Intestinal Tract Function? (
  • However, recent literature and work from our lab has implicated physiological and immunological effects at lower and more common levels of contamination that ultimately affects gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) functionality. (
  • In Ayurvedic medicine, the gastro-intestinal tract (GI) is the most important part of the body, as it is thought to be the seat of doshas. (
  • This statistic depicts the market value of non-prescription drugs to treat diseases of the gastro-intestinal tract in Italy in 2018, by category. (
  • The influence of carbon monoxide (CO) and CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) in the gastro-intestinal tract. (
  • A second research area deals with the influence of carbon monoxide (CO) and CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) in the gastro-intestinal tract. (
  • Extra nodal involvement is present in the majority of cases, with a peculiar tendency to invade the gastro-intestinal tract in the form of multiple lymphomatous polyposis. (
  • In the gastrointestinal tract, tachykinins are peptide neurotransmitters in nerve circuits that regulate intestinal motility, secretion, and vascular functions. (
  • By that I mean that the primary problem is not a hairball, but rather a problem with sluggish motility of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) leading to dehydration and impaction of material in the stomach and cecum. (
  • the impact of orally consumed Aloe vera juice on gastrointestinal function by evaluation of colonic bacterial activity, gastrointestinal pH, impact upon stool specific gravity, and gastrointestinal motility in normal subjects. (
  • Gastrointestinal (GI) motility function and its regulation is a complex process involving collaboration and communication of multiple cell types such as enteric neurons, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and smooth muscle cells. (
  • The enteric nervous system of several species, including the mouse, rat, guinea pig and humans, contains cannabinoid CB 1 receptors that depress gastrointestinal motility, mainly by inhibiting ongoing contractile transmitter release. (
  • Cannabinoid pretreatment induces tolerance to the inhibitory effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists on gastrointestinal motility. (
  • Up to now, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood although decreased gastrointestinal blood flow, neuro-immuno-endocrine alterations, increased gastrointestinal motility, and mechanical bouncing during exercise are postulated. (
  • Commonly, gastrointestinal lesions are associated with a mild to severe fluid accumulation in part due to motility disturbances. (
  • Her recent basic science and clinical work reflect her continuing interest in fetal gastrointestinal development and the mechanisms of gastrointestinal (GI) absorption and motility during the last trimester of gestation. (
  • Many human infants born prematurely, or those with surgical conditions such as intestinal atresia (where the bowel ends abruptly and is discontinuous) or gastroschisis (where the bowel floats outside the baby's abdomen) suffer after birth from prolonged gastrointestinal dysfunction with impaired motility and nutrient absorption. (
  • The gastrointestinal disorders regarded as potentially premalignant are the benign epithelial growths and the inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the mucous membrane. (
  • Chapter 6 describes the correlation between certain diseases and the gastrointestinal pH. (
  • The 2nd, updated and extended edition of this book offers a thorough guide to ultrasound imaging of acute and chronic gastrointestinal diseases: acute abdomen, appendicitis, diverticulitis, inflammatory bowel disease, neoplasms and masses, infections and more. (
  • If the inflammation is chronic, this is a hallmark symptom of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), one of the five most prevalent gastrointestinal diseases in the United States. (
  • Digestive diseases, also known as gastrointestinal diseases, are disorders that affect your esophagus, stomach and small and large intestines. (
  • Even though the gastrointestinal tract contains variable amounts of gas that precludes ultrasound beam passage, and some parts of the GI tract may be incompletely evaluated, ultrasonography has become an important tool in diagnosing gastrointestinal diseases. (
  • BackgroundIn ancient medicine, extracts of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa were used against diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. (
  • Individuals with the disease present with GI tract symptoms which often are serious and/or debilitating and may mimic those occurring in malignant lymphoproliferative, inflammatory, or autoimmune bowel diseases. (
  • Dietary metals affect the colonization of bacteria and the ability to resist the impact of infectious bacteria, leading to an increased chance of infection or gastrointestinal diseases. (
  • This lack of knowledge severely limits our ability to predict how diet or host metal status will impact treatment of gastrointestinal diseases or infection. (
  • The gastrointestinal tract ( digestive tract , digestional tract , GI tract , GIT , gut , or alimentary canal ) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces . (
  • All bilaterians have a gastrointestinal tract, also called a gut or an alimentary canal. (
  • The gastrointestinal tract, (GI tract, GIT, digestive tract, digestion tract, alimentary canal) is the tract from the mouth to the anus which includes all the organs of the digestive system in humans and other animals. (
  • The gastrointestinal or digestive tract , also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut , is the system of organs within multicellular animals which ingests, digests, and egests food , and in the process, extracts energy and nutrients. (
  • Definition of Terms: The gastrointestinal or alimentary canal is a continuous tube that extends from the mouth to the anus. (
  • If changes typical of Crohn's disease are detected in the upper gastrointestinal tract, then a careful assessment is required involving radiographic, endoscopic and histologic studies to determine if pathology is present in more distal intestine. (
  • In: Carneiro F., Chaves P., Ensari A. (eds) Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract. (
  • Some features in the formation and course of psychosomatic pathology of the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • That's a lot of terrain for your food to travel, and a lot of pathology can take place amid this tubular and coiled gastrointestinal topography. (
  • It is the HM of the GI tract that contains the largest reservoir of microbes in humans, containing about 10 14 microorganisms from at least 1000 distinct microbial species, and outnumbering human somatic cells by about 100 to 1 ( 1 , 7 ). (
  • In addition, certain LAB species, in particular from the genus Lactobacillus , are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and may have probiotic effects in humans and animals ( 2 ). (
  • Functional gastrointestinal disorders are characterised by persisting gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g. pain, bloating) in the absence of any identifiable underlying structural or biochemical explanation (Drossman 2000). (
  • Tell your doctors right away if you are having symptoms of gastrointestinal GVHD. (
  • If you're diagnosed with IBD, or suspect you have inflammation of your gastrointestinal tract, diet and lifestyle changes can often be effective in relieving your symptoms and the underlying inflammation. (
  • This article reviews the surgical management of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors, including the preoperative control of hormonal symptoms, extent of resection required, postoperative outcomes, and differing management strategies as determined by whether the tumor has arisen sporadically or as part of a familial disorder, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. (
  • In particular, acute strenuous exercise may provoke gastrointestinal symptoms such as heartburn or diarrhoea. (
  • Aspirin can cause numerous side effects in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, ranging from unpleasant GI symptoms without gastric mucosal lesions to ulcer bleeding and even death. (
  • When there is a problem with the gastrointestinal system, various signs and symptoms will present. (
  • This is one of the gastrointestinal symptoms that must not be overlooked. (
  • Individuals with ITCLD-GT commonly complain of chronic GI tract symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding. (
  • Several patients presenting with these symptoms have been diagnosed with and unsuccessfully treated for peripheral T-cell lymphoma, an inflammatory bowel disease (either Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis), or the autoimmune GI tract disorder, celiac disease. (
  • However, the complete human digestive system is made up of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue , salivary glands , pancreas , liver and gallbladder ). (
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas (islet cell tumors) and of the luminal gastrointestinal tract (carcinoids) are a heterogeneous group of epithelial neoplasms that share certain common characteristics. (
  • The purpose of this article is to review the important aspects of the diagnosis, preoperative treatment, and operative treatment of neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas and the luminal gastrointestinal tract. (
  • The fluid pattern is observed as an anechoic lumen and enhances the evaluation of the digestive tract and adjacent structures (i.e., the pancreas). (
  • Ethanol abuse produces functional and structural changes in the gastrointestinal tract, such as in the stomach, small intestine, liver, and pancreas. (
  • This randomized phase II trial studies how well temozolomide and capecitabine work compared to standard treatment with cisplatin or carboplatin and etoposide in treating patients with neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract or pancreas that has spread to other parts of the body (metastatic) or cannot be removed by surgery. (
  • Other accessory organs of the gastrointestinal tract include the liver, the gallbladder, and the pancreas. (
  • This section of notes gives an overview of how the pancreas develops as an exocrine organ associated with the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • The mouth , esophagus , stomach and intestines are part of the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • [2] The human gastrointestinal tract consists of the esophagus , stomach , and intestines, and is divided into the upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts. (
  • The upper gastrointestinal tract consists of the mouth , pharynx , esophagus , stomach , and duodenum . (
  • The upper GI tract consists of the mouth , pharynx , esophagus , and stomach . (
  • The gastrointestinal (GI) tract begins in the mouth and works its way down the esophagus, through the stomach, small and large intestines and rectum, before terminating at the anus. (
  • The upper GI tract consists of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, and the first part of the small intestine - the duodenum. (
  • Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) Crohn's disease (CD) refers to disease found in the esophagus, stomach, jejunum, or proximal ileum. (
  • The wall of the GI tract from the lower esophagus to the anal canal has the same basic, four-layered arrangement of tissues. (
  • The gastrointestinal tract takes food from your mouth through the esophagus, small and large intestines. (
  • Exposure to acetaldehyde has been shown to be one of the most significant factors causing cancer in the upper gastrointestinal tract (mouth, the pharynx, the esophagus, the stomach). (
  • Gastrointestinal causes of dysphagia include condition6s like achalasia(dilatation of the lower end of the esophagus), pharyngeal pouches(in which a big sack develops in the upper part of the esophagus, as a result of this, swallowing both liquids and solids becomes difficult). (
  • Disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract -- the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, duodenum and proximal small intestine -- are relatively common. (
  • The disease occurred most frequently in association with shock, which was present in 80 per cent of the cases with the gastrointestinal lesions. (
  • The administration of 15 ml per kg of bodyweight after removing the stomach gas using an orogastric tube may enhance the visualization of lesions of the upper segments of the digestive tract. (
  • Caseous ulcerative yellow lesions were restricted to the upper gastrointestinal tract , with the exception of 1 bird, which had lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract and in the liver. (
  • This accumulation causes various lesions (e.g. polyps, thickened mucosal folds, small areas of redness, and superficial ulcerations) in the mucosal layer lining the GI tract. (
  • The regulation of mineral absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • The major functions of the GI tract are ingestion , digestion , absorption, and defecation . (
  • The colon is also one of the more boring parts of the GI tract, because really all we have going on here is absorption, but not of nutrients per se, more like things like water, or ions, or vitamin K, just things like that are absorbed in the large intestine, so not a very high yield place for acquiring nutrients. (
  • Chapter 4 describes the effect of gastrointestinal pH on bacterial flora, absorption of vitamins and electrolytes, and on the activity of digestive enzymes. (
  • Within the GI tract, these products affect several regulatory functions by interacting with receptors releasing hormones, affecting stomach emptying and GI transport and absorption, transmitting neural signals to the brain, and modifying the microflora. (
  • This review discusses the interaction of dietary proteins during digestion and absorption with the physiological and metabolic functions of the GI tract, and illustrates the importance of this interaction in the regulation of amino acid, glucose, lipid metabolism, and food intake. (
  • The function of the gastrointestinal tract includes digestion, transportation, and absorption of food. (
  • The present invention relates to a localized controlled absorption formulation of a statin in which rapid release of the active ingredient preferentially occurs in the lower gastrointestinal tract including the colon. (
  • The understanding of the underlying mechanisms of neonatal gastrointestinal dysmotility and impaired absorption are essential if effective treatments are to be devised. (
  • We have defined levels of the peptide throughout the gastrointestinal tract during the last trimester and have compared both normal and IUGR fetuses. (
  • Both are chronic, relapsing, inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract with several shared clinical features, but with largely distinct risk factors, genetic, immunological, anatomical and histological features, and response to therapy (DTB 2003). (
  • Postoperative Disorders of the Gastrointestinal Tract. (
  • A tract is a collection of related anatomic structures or a series of connected body organs. (
  • [3] The GI tract includes all structures between the mouth and the anus , [4] forming a continuous passageway that includes the main organs of digestion, namely, the stomach , small intestine , and large intestine . (
  • Barium appears white on the images, and when it fills the organs of the GI tract, it makes them visible. (
  • The digestive tract is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients , and expels the remaining waste. (
  • One main theory: Maybe bad "alpha-synuclein" protein can travel from nerve fibers in the GI tract up the vagus nerve, which connects the body's major organs to the brain. (
  • The vagus nerve (VN), the longest nerve of the organism, makes the link between the central nervous system and the body by innervating major visceral organs such as the heart, the lungs, and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. (
  • The GI tract releases hormones as to help regulate the digestion process. (
  • The complex symbiotic inter-relationship between the GI-tract microbiome and its host is strongly influenced by diet and nutrition, and when optimized can be highly beneficial to food digestion, nutrient intake, and immune health ( 1 - 6 ). (
  • Digestion involves the mixing of food, its movement through the digestive tract, and chemical breakdown of the large molecules of food into smaller molecules. (
  • For those patients who achieve long-term survival following esophagectomy, altered digestion and malabsorption may lead to a range of adverse gastrointestinal sequelae, including micronutrient deficiencies. (
  • The interaction of dietary proteins and their products of digestion with the regulatory functions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a dominant role in determining the physiological properties of proteins. (
  • The characteristics of proteins that influence their interaction with the GI tract in a source-dependent manner include their physico-chemical properties, their amino acid composition and sequence, their bioactive peptides, their digestion kinetics and also the non-protein bioactive components conjugated with them. (
  • How Gastrointestinal Tract Performs the Essential Role in Digestion? (
  • In this report, we will focus on the gastrointestinal tract, including what functions it serves, how exactly digestion works - from start to end, what makes the digestive tract work and also take a look at the different parts that make up the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • The lower GI tract comprises the intestines and anus. (
  • The lower GI tract constitutes all other parts of the GI tract beginning at the midsection of the small intestine - the jejunum to the anus. (
  • Recent data indicate that lower GI tract GVHD is a complicated process mediated by donor/host antigenic disparities. (
  • Here, we discuss new insights into the biology of lower GI tract GVHD and focus on intrinsic pathways and regulatory mechanisms crucial to normal intestinal function. (
  • There is a great deal of evidence for the neurohormonal influence on various aspects of the immuno-inflammatory response of the gastrointestinal mucosa. (
  • Hemorrhagic necrosis of the gastrointestinal tract probably represents a conglomeration of microinfarcts of the mucosa secondary to markedly decreased local blood flow. (
  • The mucosa, or inner lining of the GI tract, is a mucous membrane. (
  • [13] The exact demarcation between the upper and lower tracts is the suspensory muscle of the duodenum . (
  • The GI tract features several diverse "macro" environments, including the oral cavity, the stomach, the small intestine (including the three major regions, the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), and the large intestine (colon). (
  • This protocol offers diagnosis and standard medical treatment for various parasitic gastrointestinal infections. (
  • The aim of this review is to provide a brief overview of the bacterial processes that facilitate horizontal gene transfer, and to propose how this phenomenon may be taking place in the lower human gastrointestinal tract, specifically the large intestine, intensifying the antibiotic resistance crisis we are currently facing and setting the stage for future resistant infections. (
  • Gastrointestinal is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the stomach and intestines . (
  • Your gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which includes your stomach and intestines, has one of the most important roles in your body. (
  • A healthy gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays a vital role in ensuring the health and welfare of an animal. (
  • A healthy gastrointestinal tract (GIT) provides a true physical barrier that keeps out harmful compounds either ingested by your horse, or produced by pathogenic bacteria. (
  • G. Gabella, Innervation of the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • The gastrointestinal system is comprised of the stomach, and the small and large intestines. (
  • The tract itself is divided into upper and lower tracts, and the intestines small and large parts. (
  • Gastrointestinal parasites are either worms (helminths) or one-celled animals called protozoans which live in the human intestines. (
  • 3] It gives a better diagnostic yield over radiology, particularly in the investigation of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, inflammatory conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract like oesophagitis, gastritis and duodenitis as well as the diagnosis of Mallory-Weiss tears and vascular malformations. (
  • The gastrointestinal tract contains trillions of microbes , with some 4,000 different strains of bacteria having diverse roles in maintenance of immune health and metabolism . (
  • For example, dietary composition ultimately affects the structure, organization, function, and speciation of the HM occupying the GI tract, in part by supplying multiple substrates for microbial metabolism. (
  • To determine the role of gastrointestinal carriage in Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess, we studied 43 patients. (
  • This finding indicated that gastrointestinal carriage is a predisposing factor for liver abscess. (
  • To determine whether K. pneumoniae liver abscess originated from the gastrointestinal tract of patients, we concomitantly tested all liver aspirate, saliva, nasal swab, fecal, and blood samples by using bacterial culture before patients were treated with antimicrobial drugs. (
  • Global Markets Directs, \'Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer Pipeline Review, H2 2013\', provides an overview of the indications therapeutic pipeline. (
  • This report provides information on the therapeutic development for Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer, complete with latest updates, and special features on late-stage and discontinued projects. (
  • It also reviews key players involved in the therapeutic development for Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer. (
  • Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer Pipeline Review, Half Year is built using data and information sourced from Global Markets Directs proprietary databases, Company/University websites, SEC filings, investor presentations and featured press releases from company/university sites and industry-specific third party sources, put together by Global Markets Directs team. (
  • A snapshot of the global therapeutic scenario for Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer. (
  • A review of the Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer products under development by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources. (
  • Coverage of the Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer pipeline on the basis of route of administration and molecule type. (
  • Identify and understand important and diverse types of therapeutics under development for Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer. (
  • Devise corrective measures for pipeline projects by understanding Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer pipeline depth and focus of Indication therapeutics. (
  • An early gastrointestinal reaction was graded using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2. (
  • Stem Cells, Pre-neoplasia and Early Cancer of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract is an integrative text on both the current state of translational research on every cancer development of the upper gastrointestinal tract as well as on novel clinical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. (
  • PurposeThe following review summarizes important and recent findings on the role of CB receptors and their ligands in the GI tract with emphasis on GI disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and colon cancer. (
  • Nutrition in patients with cancer of the upper gastrointestinal tract is essential for a good quality of life. (
  • The role for aspirin or any other NSAID in cancer prevention still offers hope across some of the other upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies," Dr. (
  • Insufficient ability to remove acetaldehyde caused by point mutation provides a human model for acetaldehyde exposure, helping to explain the high incidence rates of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers in alcohol drinkers. (
  • It can detect signs of problems such as ulcers, gastric reflux, hiatal hernia, or blockages or narrowing of the upper GI tract. (
  • Our in vivo results demonstrate that these micromotors can safely pass through the gastric fluid and accurately activate in the GI tract without causing noticeable acute toxicity,' he says. (
  • The density of bacteria along the GI tract can vary greatly, from 10 3 /ml near the gastric outlet to 10 10 /ml at the ileocecal valve to 10 11 to 10 12 /ml in the colon ( 6 ). (
  • Contrary to reported oncogenic properties of Brk in other epithelial tissues, Brk appears to have tumor suppressor-like functions in the mouse gastrointestinal epithelium. (
  • Staging for a GI tract NET is based on the location of the primary tumor. (
  • Lopes J.M. (2017) Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor, Upper Gastrointestinal Tract. (
  • Gastrointestinal Toxicology, Second Edition describes the mechanism for entry and clearance of xenobiotics, as well as the barriers, immunologic and metabolic issues, and functions present in the GI tract. (
  • This wide diversity of environments harbors an even wider diversity of bacterial species, and an estimated 500 to 1,000 different species are present in the GI tract, with an aggregate biomass of ca. 1.5 kg ( 90 ). (
  • The lower gastrointestinal tract includes most of the small intestine and all of the large intestine . (
  • éntera ) is the segment of the gastrointestinal tract extending from the pyloric sphincter of the stomach to the anus and, as in other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine . (
  • This volume of the series Handbook of Zoology deals with the anatomy of the gastrointestinal digestive tract - stomach, small intestine, caecum and colon - in all eutherian orders and suborders. (
  • - Gastrointestinal mucosal biopsies are an active part of the pathologist's day and have increased in the past few years as endoscopic screening has become more commonplace. (
  • In patients presenting with any gastrointestinal discomfort after discharge, one or a combination of examination findings, laboratory tests, radiological studies (plain radiographs and CT), and endoscopic examination were performed to check whether any stent-related complication developed. (
  • Endoscopic and bioptic findings in the upper gastrointestinal tract in patients with Crohn's disease. (
  • The new motors, aimed controlling and enhancing site-specific delivery in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, consist of water-powered magnesium-based tubular micromotors coated with an enteric polymer layer,' Wang explains to Nanowerk. (
  • VNS is one of the alternative treatments for drug resistant epilepsy and depression and one might think that VNS could be used as a non-drug therapy to treat inflammatory disorders of the GI tract, such as IBD, irritable bowel syndrome, and postoperative ileus, which are all characterized by a blunted autonomic balance with a decreased vagal tone. (
  • Appearing in this volume are also considerations of the microbiome and its actions and influence on the function of the GI tract and on the toxicity and pharmacodynamics of ingested substances (including nutrients, toxins, and therapeutics). (
  • You might be surprised to learn that a clogged colon can also cause your gastrointestinal tract to become inflamed, leading to leaky gut, inflammation, an inability to absorb and synthesize key nutrients, and, ultimately, a worsening of brain and organ function. (
  • 2. Lamina propria Is an areolar connective tissue containing many blood and lymphatic vessels, which are the routes by which nutrients absorbed into the GI tract reach the other tissues of the body. (
  • This fluid passes through the gastrointestinal tract, and the developing baby digests the nutrients and hormones that it contains. (
  • Here, we highlight nutrients important to gastrointestinal tract (GIT) barrier function and health, including specific amino and fatty acids. (
  • Luminal nutrients have positive effects on your horse's gastrointestinal tract, without being absorbed into the blood. (
  • Trace metal nutrients are tightly regulated in living systems to avoid deficiency or toxic overload, but metal levels in the gastrointestinal tract vary with diet. (
  • Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a diverse group of epithelial tumors that can originate from almost any organ derived from the primitive endoderm, including pancreatic islet cells (pancreatic NETs), diffuse neuroendocrine cells distributed throughout the gut (gastrointestinal carcinoids), the respiratory epithelium (bronchial carcinoids), the thymus (thymic carcinoids), and parafollicular cells distributed within the thyroid gland (medullary thyroid carcinoma). (
  • Although little is given on technique, emphasis is placed on sound physiological principals necessary to correct prior, immediate, or delayed surgical complications or gastrointestinal malfunction. (
  • Until the last quarter century, many treatment modalities, particularly the surgical ones (open/laparoscopic), have been used for the primary management of some benign and malignant conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract and their complications (1-4). (
  • Rosch, "Arterial embolization for massive upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding in poor surgical candidates," Gastroenterology, vol. (
  • This, I think, is one of the more boring parts of the GI tract, because all we do here is just propel our bolus. (
  • Involuntary contractions of the smooth muscle help break down food, mix it with the digestive secretions, and propel it along the tract. (
  • The new study has been published in the September 20, 2016 online edition of ACS Nano ( 'Enteric Micromotor Can Selectively Position and Spontaneously Propel in the Gastrointestinal Tract' ). (
  • This video illustrates the operation principle of enteric magnesium micromotors that can selectively position and spontaneously propel in the gastrointestinal tract by using the pH-sensitive coating that dissolves in intestinal fluid. (
  • Can gastrointestinal tract birth defects have any complications? (
  • The aim of the present study was to share with the readers our experience of using self-expandable metallic stents (SEMSs) for the treatment of complications involving the upper gastrointestinal tract, such as fistula and stricture. (
  • Physical activity may reduce the risk of diverticulosis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and inflammatory bowel disease although this cannot be substantiated firmly. (
  • Crohn's disease may involve any site within the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Although upper gastrointestinal involvement is increasingly recognized as a significant cause of morbidity in Crohn's disease, the treatment options are limited , largely anecdotal and need to be the subject of detailed epidemiologic investigation and clinical trials. (
  • When your GI tract becomes inflamed, it can lead to abdominal pain and cramping, diarrhea (sometimes bloody), ulcers and reduced appetite. (
  • A lot of action going on in the stomach, one of my favorite parts of the GI tract. (
  • self-expandable metallic stents (pictured) are prosthetic metal tubes inserted by fibre optic cameras in order to treat cancers of the gastrointestinal tract ? (
  • Exposure to acetaldehyde is linked to more than three million new gastrointestinal cancers per year globally, which represents approximately 25 per cent of all cancers (visit to test your exposure to acetaldehyde). (
  • This short communication will focus on emerging ideas concerning the contribution of the GI-tract microbiome to human neurological disease with emphasis on Alzheimer's disease (AD) wherever possible. (
  • Lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the predominant cause of morbidity and mortality from GVHD after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. (
  • their discovery, subtypes, function, locations in the GI tract, and some disorders associated with their loss or disease, and highlights some controversial issues with regard to the importance of ICC in the GI tract. (
  • Self-expandable metallic stent application for the management of upper gastrointestinal tract disease. (
  • The gastrointestinal tract - a central organ of cannabinoid signaling in health and disease. (
  • Sandy Rideout is a Functional Medicine Consultant whose focus and passion is on gastrointestinal tract disease and disorders and how they have a systemic effect on all other systems in the body. (
  • The extent to which the effects on gastrointestinal function of cannabinoid receptor agonists or antagonists/inverse agonists can be exploited therapeutically has yet to be investigated as has the extent to which these drugs can provoke unwanted effects in the gastrointestinal tract when used for other therapeutic purposes. (
  • Moreover, LAB have great potential to serve as delivery vehicles of health-promoting or therapeutic compounds to the human GI tract ( 20 , 48 ). (
  • The whole human GI tract is about nine metres (30 feet) long at autopsy . (
  • In addition to the occurrence of L. plantarum in our diets, this microbe is frequently encountered as a natural inhabitant of the human GI tract ( 2 ). (
  • Intriguingly, genome sequence comparison revealed that the closest relatives of L. plantarum include Listeria innocua and L. monocytogenes , which also naturally inhabit and persist in the human GI tract ( 19 ). (
  • The precis of this protocol is to allow the evaluation, treatment and study of patients with a variety of gastrointestinal parasites. (
  • The goal of this course is to become more efficient and, as a result, more effective, in the diagnosis and homeopathic treatment of gastrointestinal conditions. (
  • Those needing to understand the structure, function, and methods of studying the GI tract will find this volume a singular source of reference. (
  • After a short introduction (chapter 1) methods of measuring gastrointestinal pH are described in chapter 2. (
  • Material and Methods: Biopsy proven cases of liver cirrhosis with no previous history of upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy (UGIE) were included in the study. (
  • However, methods to visualize fungal hyphae in the GI tract in vivo are challenging which limits the understanding of environmental signals in controlling this morphogenesis process. (
  • The results show that deoxynivalenol doses used in our study, even when applied for a short period, resulted in its presence in gastrointestinal tissues. (
  • Apart from the original tissues from which leptin and its receptor were cloned, expression of these proteins has been found also in many other tissues, including gastrointestinal tract (Bado et al. (
  • The book reviews the technical aspects and clinical applications of DWI in imaging of the GI tract, and provides specific technical details (imaging protocols, artefacts, optimization techniques) for each GI tract division. (
  • Written in a condensed, easy-to-understand style by academic clinical surgeons, this book has to be one of the best primers on practical pathophysiology of postoperative gastrointestinal problems involving the stomach (Chapter 1), small bowel (Chapter 2), and colon (Chapter 3). (
  • Prospective evaluation of a clinical guideline recommending hospital length of stay in upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage. (
  • And ultrasound could potentially find structural errors from gastrointestinal tract birth defects while the baby is still forming, and blood test can detect if certain women are more at risks for birth defects. (
  • Ultrasound of the GI tract offers additional and complementary information to that provided by simple and contrast radiography and other imaging modalities. (
  • In a normal human adult male, the GI tract is approximately 6.5 meters (20 feet) long and consists of the upper and lower GI tracts. (
  • In an adult male human, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is approximately 5 metres (20 ft) long in a live subject, or up to 9 metres (30 ft) without the effect of muscle tone , and consists of the upper and lower GI tracts. (
  • Your GI tract even releases hormones that are involved in the digestive process. (
  • Untreated gastrointestinal birth defects can have serious birth defects, especially if left untreated. (
  • Can gastrointestinal tract birth defects be diagnosed before birth? (
  • Many gastrointestinal tract birth defects cannot be diagnosed until birth or shortly after, though. (
  • After the respiratory tract, the GI tract constitutes the second largest body surface area, described to be somewhere between 250 and 400 m 2 , or comparable in size to a tennis court. (
  • Gastrointestinal function is modulated by a complex series of neurohormonal interrelations. (
  • Concomitant with these observations of the abilities of the extract of the Aloe plant as a bacteriostatic substance when administered topically are the historical reports that Aloe vera, when ingested orally, also has a systemic influence both on improvement of gastrointestinal function and possibly even other important physiological relationships. (
  • The physiological effects of orally administered Aloe vera juice on gastrointestinal function has not been studied under controlled conditions. (
  • Recent advances in GI research made a better understanding of ICC function and their role in the GI tract, and studies based on different types of techniques have shown that ICC, as an integral part of the GI neuromuscular apparatus, transduce inputs from enteric motor neurons, generate intrinsic electrical rhythmicity in phasic smooth muscles, and have a mechanical sensation ability. (
  • Absence or improper function of these cells has been linked to some GI tract disorders. (
  • Future research on exercise associated digestive processes should give more insight into the relationship between physical activity and the function of the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • The primary function of the gastrointestinal tract, or the digestive system as you may also know it as, is to process the foods and liquids that we consume. (
  • The condition and function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are essential to our well being. (
  • Three amino acids are important for gastrointestinal tract health and barrier function: glutamine, arginine, and threonine. (
  • Providing supplementary threonine results in improved growth performance, health, immunity and gastrointestinal function. (
  • In this study, we compared the colonization ability of two Lactobacillus strains that were identified as autochthonous to the human gastrointestinal tract ( Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (MM4-1a) and ( Lactobacillus mucosae FSL-04) with that of an allochthonous strain ( Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1). (
  • In conclusion, this study showed that autochthonous Lactobacillus strains can be established more efficiently, albeit temporarily, in the human gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that evolutionary and ecological characteristics could be valuable criteria for the selection of probiotic strains. (
  • Lactobacillus plantarum is a flexible and versatile microorganism that inhabits a variety of environmental niches, including the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. (
  • Both L. salivarius and clostridia deconjugate bile acids, and increases in the abundances of these bacteria might be associated with growth reduction and gastrointestinal (GI) disorders occurring in the critical period of broiler life between days 20 and 30. (
  • In just 2 capsules daily for 30 days, Natural Cleanse can help to flush your colon clear of toxic build up (including impacted fecal matter, toxins, bacteria and parasites) while soothing the inflammation of your GI tract lining to reduce leaky gut. (
  • There is currently expanding interest in the ability of these high density GI-tract bacteria to influence host innate-immune, neuromodulatory-, and neurotransmission-functions ( 3 , 4 , 11 - 14 ). (
  • This review discusses recent information concerning QS among bacteria of the GI tract, with a particular emphasis on pathogenic species that cause infection in the GI tract. (