Enteric Nervous System
Interstitial Cells of Cajal
Colonic Diseases, Functional
Digestive System Physiological Phenomena
Serotonin 5-HT4 Receptor Agonists
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Esophageal Motility Disorders
Gallstones: an intestinal disease? (1/2083)Current evidence suggests that impaired intestinal motility may facilitate gallstone formation by influencing biliary deoxycholate levels or by modulating interdigestive gall bladder motility (fig 2), although a primary intestinal defect in gallstone pathogenesis has not yet been demonstrated. In the cold war period, most interesting events, from a political point of view, occurred at the border between capitalist and communist systems, near the iron curtain. Similarly, the gall bladder and biliary tract can be viewed as the border between liver and intestinal tract, where many interesting things occur with profound impact on both systems. Combined efforts by researchers in the field of hepatology and gastrointestinal motility should brake down the Berlin wall of ignorance of one of the most common diseases in the Western world. (+info)
Pharmacological studies on root bark of mulberry tree (Morus alba L.) (2/2083)Pharmacological studies were done on the root bark of mulberry tree and pharmacological effects were compared with the clinical effects of "Sohakuhi" in Chinese medicine. n-Butanol- and water-soluble fractions of mulberry root had similar effects except for those on the cadiovascular system. Both fractions showed cathartic, analgesic, diuretic, antitussive, antiedema, sedative, anticonvulsant, and hypotensive actions in mice, rats, guinea pigs and dogs. There appears to be a correlation between the experimental pharmacological results and the clinical applications of mulberry root found in the literature on Chinese medicine. (+info)
Retarded growth and deficits in the enteric and parasympathetic nervous system in mice lacking GFR alpha2, a functional neurturin receptor. (3/2083)Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and a related protein, neurturin (NTN), require a GPI-linked coreceptor, either GFR alpha1 or GFR alpha2, for signaling via the transmembrane Ret tyrosine kinase. We show that mice lacking functional GFR alpha2 coreceptor (Gfra2-/-) are viable and fertile but have dry eyes and grow poorly after weaning, presumably due to malnutrition. While the sympathetic innervation appeared normal, the parasympathetic cholinergic innervation was almost absent in the lacrimal and salivary glands and severely reduced in the small bowel. Neurite outgrowth and trophic effects of NTN at low concentrations were lacking in Gfra2-/- trigeminal neurons in vitro, whereas responses to GDNF were similar between the genotypes. Thus, GFR alpha2 is a physiological NTN receptor, essential for the development of specific postganglionic parasympathetic neurons. (+info)
Effects of duodenal distension on antropyloroduodenal pressures and perception are modified by hyperglycemia. (4/2083)Marked hyperglycemia (blood glucose approximately 15 mmol/l) affects gastrointestinal motor function and modulates the perception of gastrointestinal sensations. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of mild hyperglycemia on the perception of, and motor responses to, duodenal distension. Paired studies were done in nine healthy volunteers, during euglycemia ( approximately 4 mmol/l) and mild hyperglycemia ( approximately 10 mmol/l), in randomized order, using a crossover design. Antropyloroduodenal pressures were recorded with a manometric, sleeve-side hole assembly, and proximal duodenal distensions were performed with a flaccid bag. Intrabag volumes were increased at 4-ml increments from 12 to 48 ml, each distension lasting for 2.5 min and separated by 10 min. Perception of the distensions and sensations of fullness, nausea, and hunger were evaluated. Perceptions of distension (P < 0.001) and fullness (P < 0.05) were greater and hunger less (P < 0.001) during hyperglycemia compared with euglycemia. Proximal duodenal distension stimulated pyloric tone (P < 0.01), isolated pyloric pressure waves (P < 0.01), and duodenal pressure waves (P < 0.01). Compared with euglycemia, hyperglycemia was associated with increases in pyloric tone (P < 0.001), the frequency (P < 0.05) and amplitude (P < 0.01) of isolated pyloric pressure waves, and the frequency of duodenal pressure waves (P < 0.001) in response to duodenal distension. Duodenal compliance was less (P < 0.05) during hyperglycemia compared with euglycemia, but this did not account for the effects of hyperglycemia on perception. We conclude that both the perception of, and stimulation of pyloric and duodenal pressures by, duodenal distension are increased by mild hyperglycemia. These observations are consistent with the concept that the blood glucose concentration plays a role in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility and sensation. (+info)
Regional effects of cholecystokinin octapeptide on colonic phasic and tonic motility in healthy humans. (5/2083)The aim of this study was to assess in nine healthy subjects the effects of CCK octapeptide (CCK-8) on colonic tonic activity, measured by a barostat, and phasic activity, measured by manometry. On 2 consecutive days, recordings were performed in the unprepared proximal and distal colons during intravenous infusion of saline and CCK-8 at 5, 20, and 40 ng. kg-1. h-1. In the proximal colon CCK-8 induced, at the 20 and 40 ng. kg-1. h-1 doses, a tonic relaxation with an increase in barostat bag volume to 156 +/- 25 and 157 +/- 19% of basal (P < 0.01) and a decrease in phasic activity to 72 +/- 7 and 76 +/- 7% of basal (P < 0.01). In the distal colon, CCK-8 induced, at the 20 and 40 ng. kg-1. h-1 doses, a tonic relaxation (increase in intrabag volume to 133 +/- 12 and 149 +/- 15%, respectively; P < 0.01), whereas phasic activity increased (128 +/- 8 and 132 +/- 6%, respectively; P < 0.01). Effects of CCK-8 on tonic and phasic activities are different according to the colonic segment. Because meals induce colonic tonic contraction, our results suggest that CCK, as a hormone, is not an important mediator of the response of the colon to feeding in humans. (+info)
5-HT2B-receptor antagonist LY-272015 is antihypertensive in DOCA-salt-hypertensive rats. (6/2083)We previously demonstrated a change in the receptors mediating 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced contraction in arteries of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-hypertensive rats. Specifically, contraction to 5-HT is mediated primarily by 5-HT2A receptors in arteries from normotensive sham rats and by both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors in arteries from hypertensive rats. We hypothesized that the 5-HT2B receptor may play a role in maintaining the high blood pressure of DOCA-salt-hypertensive rats, and herein we provide data connecting in vitro and in vivo findings. The endothelium-denuded isolated superior mesenteric artery of DOCA-salt rats displayed a marked increase in maximum contraction to the newly available 5-HT2B-receptor agonist BW-723C86 compared with that of arteries from sham rats, confirming that the 5-HT2B receptor plays a greater role in 5-HT-induced contraction in arteries from DOCA-salt rats. In chronically instrumented rats, the 5-HT2B-receptor antagonist LY-272015 (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg iv at 30-min intervals) was given cumulatively 1 time/wk during 4 wk of continued DOCA-salt treatment. LY-272015 did not reduce blood pressure of the sham-treated rats at any time or dose. However, LY-272015 (1.0 and 3. 0 mg/kg) significantly reduced mean blood pressure in a subgroup of week 3 (-20 mmHg) and week 4 DOCA-salt (-40 mmHg) rats that had extremely high blood pressure (mean arterial blood pressure approximately 200 mmHg). Blockade of 5-HT2B receptors by in vivo administration of LY-272015 (3.0 mg/kg) was verified by observing reduced 5-HT-induced contraction in rat stomach fundus, the tissue from which the 5-HT2B receptor was originally cloned. These data support the novel hypothesis that 5-HT2B-receptor expression is induced during the development of DOCA-salt hypertension and contributes to the maintenance of severe blood pressure elevations. (+info)
Erythromycin enhances early postoperative contractility of the denervated whole stomach as an esophageal substitute. (7/2083)OBJECTIVE: To determine whether early postoperative administration of erythromycin accelerates the spontaneous motor recovery process after elevation of the denervated whole stomach up to the neck. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Spontaneous motor recovery after gastric denervation is a slow process that progressively takes place over years. METHODS: Erythromycin was administered as follows: continuous intravenous (i.v.) perfusion until postoperative day 10 in ten whole stomach (WS) patients at a dose of either 1 g (n = 5) or 2 g (n = 5) per day; oral intake at a dose of 1 g/day during 1.5 to 8 months after surgery in 11 WS patients, followed in 7 of them by discontinuation of the drug during 2 to 4 weeks. Gastric motility was assessed with intraluminal perfused catheters in these 21 patients, in 23 WS patients not receiving erythromycin, and in 11 healthy volunteers. A motility index was established by dividing the sum of the areas under the curves of >9 mmHg contractions by the time of recording. RESULTS: The motility index after IV or oral administration of erythromycin at and after surgery was significantly higher than that without erythromycin (i.v., 1 g: p = 0.0090; i.v., 2 g: p = 0.0090; oral, 1 g: p = 0.0017). It was similar to that in healthy volunteers (i.v., 1 g: p = 0.2818; oral, 1 g: p = 0.7179) and to that in WS patients with >3 years of follow-up who never received erythromycin (i.v., 1 g: p = 0.2206; oral, 1 g: p = 0.8326). The motility index after discontinuation of the drug was similar or superior to that recorded under medication in four patients who did not experience any modification of their alimentary comfort, whereas it dropped dramatically parallel to deterioration of the alimentary comfort in three patients. CONCLUSIONS: Early postoperative contractility of the denervated whole stomach pulled up to the neck under either i.v. or oral erythromycin is similar to that recovered spontaneously beyond 3 years of follow-up. In some patients, this booster effect persists after discontinuation of the drug. (+info)
The effect of motilin on the regulation mechanism of intestinal motility in conscious horses. (8/2083)Laparotomy was performed on seven thoroughbreds to attach a force transducer to the proximal jejunum, distal jejunum, and ileum, as well as to the serous membrane of the cecum. Following observation of intestinal motility in conscious horses, they were intravenously injected with motilin (0.6 microgram/kg) to examine its effect on intestinal motility. Strong contractions peculiar to horses were observed in small intestine. Further, motilin caused strong contractions in the proximal jejunum. The results suggested the involvement of motilin in the regulation mechanism of intestinal motility. (+info)
The word 'ileus' comes from the Greek word 'íleos', which means 'intestine'.
The exact cause of PTS is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to inflammation, damage to the vein wall, and abnormalities in blood flow. Risk factors for developing PTS include previous DVT, long-term immobility, obesity, and smoking.
Symptoms of PTS can vary in severity and may include:
* Pain or tenderness in the affected limb
* Swelling in the affected limb
* Skin discoloration (redness or bluing) in the affected limb
* Limited mobility or stiffness in the affected limb
* Cramping or aching pain in the affected limb
* Fatigue or weakness in the affected limb
PTS can be diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as ultrasound or venography. Treatment for PTS typically involves anticoagulation therapy to prevent further clotting, compression stockings to reduce swelling, and pain management with medication or other interventions. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair damaged veins.
Prevention of PTS is key, and this includes early diagnosis and treatment of DVT, avoiding long-term immobility, maintaining a healthy weight, and avoiding smoking. Managing underlying conditions such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, or inflammatory diseases can also help reduce the risk of developing PTS.
Overall, Postthrombotic Syndrome is a common complication of DVT that can have a significant impact on quality of life. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to manage symptoms and prevent long-term morbidity.
The condition can be caused by various factors, including:
1. Neurological disorders: Conditions such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injuries can damage the nerves that control intestinal movement, leading to pseudo-obstruction.
2. Medications: Certain medications, such as anticholinergics and opioids, can slow down intestinal motility and cause pseudo-obstruction.
3. Inflammatory bowel disease: Inflammatory conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis can damage the muscles in the intestinal wall, leading to pseudo-obstruction.
4. Surgery: Intestinal surgery can sometimes result in adhesions or scar tissue that can cause pseudo-obstruction.
5. Infections: Infections such as appendicitis and diverticulitis can inflame the intestines and disrupt their function, leading to pseudo-obstruction.
6. Cancer: Cancer of the intestine or surrounding tissues can obstruct the flow of food through the intestines and cause pseudo-obstruction.
Treatment for intestinal pseudo-obstruction typically involves supportive care, such as fluids, electrolytes, and oxygen, as well as medications to manage symptoms. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove any blockages or adhesions that are causing the condition.
Types of Gastrointestinal Diseases:
1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A common condition characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
2. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the digestive tract, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
3. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): A condition in which stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
4. Peptic Ulcer Disease: A condition characterized by ulcers in the lining of the stomach or duodenum.
5. Diverticulitis: A condition in which small pouches form in the wall of the colon and become inflamed.
6. Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach lining, often caused by infection or excessive alcohol consumption.
7. Esophagitis: Inflammation of the esophagus, often caused by acid reflux or infection.
8. Rectal Bleeding: Hemorrhage from the rectum, which can be a symptom of various conditions such as hemorrhoids, anal fissures, or inflammatory bowel disease.
9. Functional Dyspepsia: A condition characterized by recurring symptoms of epigastric pain, bloating, nausea, and belching.
10. Celiac Disease: An autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to react to gluten, leading to inflammation and damage in the small intestine.
Causes of Gastrointestinal Diseases:
1. Infection: Viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections can cause gastrointestinal diseases.
2. Autoimmune Disorders: Conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the GI tract.
3. Diet: Consuming a diet high in processed foods, sugar, and unhealthy fats can contribute to gastrointestinal diseases.
4. Genetics: Certain genetic factors can increase the risk of developing certain gastrointestinal diseases.
5. Lifestyle Factors: Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress, and lack of physical activity can all contribute to gastrointestinal diseases.
6. Radiation Therapy: Exposure to radiation therapy can damage the GI tract and increase the risk of developing certain gastrointestinal diseases.
7. Medications: Certain medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids can cause gastrointestinal side effects.
Functional colonic diseases include:
1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A common condition characterized by recurring abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits (diarrhea or constipation).
2. Functional dyspepsia: A condition characterized by recurring symptoms of epigastric pain, discomfort, bloating, and nausea, without any identifiable organic cause.
3. Functional constipation: A condition characterized by infrequent bowel movements, hard or difficult-to-pass stools, and sensation of incomplete evacuation.
4. Functional diarrhea: A condition characterized by frequent, loose, and watery bowel movements.
5. Functional abdominal pain: Recurring abdominal pain without any identifiable organic cause.
The exact causes of functional colonic diseases are not fully understood, but they are thought to be related to abnormalities in the functioning of the enteric nervous system, immune system, and gut microbiome. These conditions are often associated with stress, dietary factors, and other lifestyle factors.
The diagnosis of functional colonic diseases is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, physical examination, and laboratory tests (such as stool studies and gastrointestinal imaging). Treatment typically involves lifestyle modifications (such as dietary changes and stress management) and medications (such as antispasmodics, antidepressants, and laxatives) to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.
The definition of constipation varies depending on the source, but it is generally defined as having fewer than three bowel movements per week, or as experiencing difficulty passing stools for more than half of the time during a two-week period. In addition, some people may experience "functional constipation," which means that they have normal bowel habits but still experience symptoms such as bloating and discomfort.
There are several factors that can contribute to constipation, including:
* Poor diet and dehydration: A diet low in fiber and high in processed foods can lead to constipation, as can not drinking enough water.
* Lack of physical activity: Sedentary lifestyles can contribute to constipation by slowing down the digestive process.
* Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), thyroid disorders, and diabetes, can increase the risk of constipation.
* Medications: Some medications, such as painkillers and antidepressants, can cause constipation as a side effect.
* Hormonal changes: Changes in hormone levels during pregnancy, menopause, or other life events can lead to constipation.
Treatment for constipation depends on the underlying cause and may include dietary changes, lifestyle modifications, and medication. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary. It is important to seek medical advice if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated constipation can lead to complications such as bowel obstruction, hemorrhoids, and fecal incontinence.
There are several subtypes of IBS, including:
* IBS-C (constipation-predominant)
* IBS-D (diarrhea-predominant)
* IBS-M (mixed)
The symptoms of IBS can vary in severity and frequency from person to person, and may include:
* Abdominal pain or cramping
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Mucus in the stool
* Feeling of incomplete evacuation after bowel movements
There is no cure for IBS, but symptoms can be managed with dietary changes, stress management techniques, and medications such as fiber supplements, antispasmodics, and antidepressants. It is important to seek medical advice if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as IBS can have a significant impact on quality of life and may be associated with other conditions such as anxiety or depression.
There are several types of diarrhea, including:
1. Acute diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is short-term and usually resolves on its own within a few days. It can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection, food poisoning, or medication side effects.
2. Chronic diarrhea: This type of diarrhea persists for more than 4 weeks and can be caused by a variety of conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or celiac disease.
3. Diarrhea-predominant IBS: This type of diarrhea is characterized by frequent, loose stools and abdominal pain or discomfort. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, hormonal changes, and certain foods.
4. Infectious diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is caused by a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection and can be spread through contaminated food and water, close contact with an infected person, or by consuming contaminated food.
Symptoms of diarrhea may include:
* Frequent, loose, and watery stools
* Abdominal cramps and pain
* Bloating and gas
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fever and chills
* Fatigue and weakness
Diagnosis of diarrhea is typically made through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment for diarrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-diarrheal medications, fluid replacement, and dietary changes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat any complications.
Prevention of diarrhea includes:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Properly storing and cooking food to prevent contamination
* Drinking safe water and avoiding contaminated water sources
* Avoiding raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea
Complications of diarrhea can include:
* Dehydration: Diarrhea can lead to a loss of fluids and electrolytes, which can cause dehydration. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.
* Electrolyte imbalance: Diarrhea can also cause an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, which can lead to serious complications.
* Inflammation of the intestines: Prolonged diarrhea can cause inflammation of the intestines, which can lead to abdominal pain and other complications.
* Infections: Diarrhea can be a symptom of an infection, such as a bacterial or viral infection. If left untreated, these infections can lead to serious complications.
* Malnutrition: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to malnutrition and weight loss, which can have long-term effects on health and development.
Treatment of diarrhea will depend on the underlying cause, but may include:
* Fluid replacement: Drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration and replace lost electrolytes.
* Anti-diarrheal medications: Over-the-counter or prescription medications to slow down bowel movements and reduce diarrhea.
* Antibiotics: If the diarrhea is caused by a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
* Rest: Getting plenty of rest to allow the body to recover from the illness.
* Dietary changes: Avoiding certain foods or making dietary changes to help manage symptoms and prevent future episodes of diarrhea.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:
* Severe diarrhea that lasts for more than 3 days
* Diarrhea that is accompanied by fever, blood in the stool, or abdominal pain
* Diarrhea that is severe enough to cause dehydration or electrolyte imbalances
* Diarrhea that is not responding to treatment
Prevention of diarrhea includes:
* Good hand hygiene: Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food.
* Safe food handling: Cooking and storing food properly to prevent contamination.
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea, such as rotavirus.
Overall, while diarrhea can be uncomfortable and disruptive, it is usually a minor illness that can be treated at home with over-the-counter medications and plenty of fluids. However, if you experience severe or persistent diarrhea, it is important to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may require more formal treatment.
There are several types of esophageal motility disorders, including:
1. Achalasia: A condition in which the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) does not relax properly, making it difficult for food to pass into the stomach.
2. Dysmotility: Abnormal movement of the muscles in the esophagus, which can cause slow or abnormal movement of food through the esophagus.
3. Hypercontractility: Excessive contraction of the muscles in the esophagus, which can cause spasms and difficulty swallowing.
4. Hypocontractility: Weak contraction of the muscles in the esophagus, which can cause regurgitation of food.
Esophageal motility disorders can be diagnosed using a variety of tests, including barium swallows, manometry, and high-resolution esophageal manometry. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disorder and its underlying causes, but may include medications to relax the LES or improve muscle function, or surgery to repair structural abnormalities in the esophagus.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
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- Research on gastrointestinal motility and functional gastrointestinal disorders. (nih.gov)
- and the effect of gastrointestinal diseases and disorders on gastrointestinal motility. (nih.gov)
- The program also supports clinical trials to test new treatments for functional gastrointestinal disorders and epidemiology studies to address risk factors for disease occurrence, prognosis, or natural history. (nih.gov)
- Specialized care for motility disorders. (orlandohealth.com)
- The Orlando Health Digestive Health Institute Gastrointestinal Motility Center offers a multidisciplinary approach to the disorders affecting your body's ability to move food and nutrition through your stomach, intestines and other organs. (orlandohealth.com)
- Nurko S. Motility Disorders in Children. (umassmed.edu)
- The Motility Clinic consists of physicians who have special training and interests in disorders of gastrointestinal motility. (mayoclinic.org)
- However, we have not identified yet the mechanism of action of methane on intestinal motility, and since methane production does not account for all constipation associated cases, there is need for high quality clinical trials to examine methane as a biomarker for the diagnosis or as a biomarker that predicts antibiotic treatment response in patients with constipation related disorders. (jnmjournal.org)
- 4 However, recently, methane has been associated with gastrointestinal disorders, mainly chronic constipation and constipation predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), 4 , 5 as well as metabolic diseases like obesity. (jnmjournal.org)
- Motility disorders and functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are the most common GI disorders among children. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
- It's a privilege to be a resource for children and families facing the most severe, chronic forms of motility disorders and FGIDs. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
- Symptoms of motility disorders and FGIDs can range from mild to severe. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
- The Suzi and Scott Lustgarten Center for GI Motility offers technical services for patients with GI and motility disorders. (chop.edu)
- Effect of neostigmine on gastroduodenal motility in patients with suspected gastrointestinal motility disorders. (qxmd.com)
- Our hypotheses were that, in patients with suspected GI motility disorders, neostigmine increases gastric and small intestinal motor activity, and these effects are greater in patients with cardiovagal neuropathy, reflecting denervation sensitivity. (qxmd.com)
- Camilleri M. Disorders of gastrointestinal motility. (medlineplus.gov)
- Dr. Croffie's clinical and research expertise is in pediatric gastrointestinal motility (movement) disorders and biofeedback treatment of constipation. (iu.edu)
- Areas of Interest: GI motility disorders, anorectal manometry, gastroduodenal manometry, colonic manometry, high resolution esophageal and anorectal manometry, esophageal pH and impedence studies, biofeedback treatment for severe childhood constipation, fecal transplant for recurrent Clostridium Difficil e infection. (iu.edu)
- These simple tests give an overview of the functions of the entire gastrointestinal tract. (mayoclinic.org)
- The composition of gases generated in the intestine shows both inter-individual variability and variability among the different anatomical sites of the gastrointestinal tract. (jnmjournal.org)
- Anoctamin 1 (ANO1) and transmembrane Protein 147 (TMEM147), both in novel, replicated loci, are expressed in the gallbladder and gastrointestinal tract . (bvsalud.org)
- Narcotic (opioid) analgesic agents increase smooth muscle tone in the gastrointestinal tract and decrease peristalsis, which can lead to elevated intraluminal pressure, spasm, and constipation following prolonged use. (drugs.com)
- Therapy with opioids should be administered cautiously in patients with gastrointestinal obstruction, constipation, inflammatory bowel disease, or recent gastrointestinal tract surgery. (drugs.com)
- It encompasses defects that occur during the digestion and absorption of food nutrients by, and infections of, the gastrointestinal tract. (medscape.com)
- Models of Gastrointestinal Tract Motility. (cnr.it)
- Most bacterial nosocomial pneumonias occur by aspiration of bacteria colonizing the oropharynx or upper gastrointestinal tract of the patient. (cdc.gov)
- This refers to the contraction of the smooth muscles in the gastrointestinal tract. (medlineplus.gov)
Irritable bowel sy1
- Pharmacogenetic trial of a cannabinoid agonist shows reduced fasting colonic motility in patients with nonconstipated irritable bowel syndrome. (cdc.gov)
- The Motility Clinic interacts with surgeons from the Division of Colorectal Surgery who have special interest in intractable constipation and fecal incontinence. (mayoclinic.org)
- In patients with severe or acute inflammatory bowel disease, the decrease in colonic motility may induce toxic megacolon. (drugs.com)
- However, their effects on gastroduodenal motility in humans are poorly understood. (qxmd.com)
- In this open label study, the effects of neostigmine (1 mg intravenously) on gastroduodenal motor activity recorded with manometry were assessed in 28 patients with a suspected GI motility disorder. (qxmd.com)
- Thorn SE, Wattwil M, Kallander A "Effects of epidural morphine and epidural bupivacaine on gastroduodenal motility during the fasted state and after food intake. (drugs.com)
- Therefore, we set out to investigate whether intestinal gases including methane and hydrogen could influence the small bowel motility and colonic transit. (nih.gov)
- Enteric glial cells: new players in gastrointestinal motility? (nature.com)
- He developed the Gastrointestinal Motility Laboratory at Riley Hospital, one of the few comprehensive centers in the United States providing esophageal manometry, anorectal manometry and anorectal biofeedback therapy, small bowel and colonic manometry, wireless esophageal pH testing, and esophageal pH and impedance testing to children with various gastrointestinal motor disorders. (iu.edu)
- Bowel motility is one of the most complex and sophisticated functions in the human body. (medscape.com)
- Serotonin also has implications that affect gastrointestinal processes like bowel motility, bladder control, and cardiovascular function. (nih.gov)
- Our specialists are here to help you through every phase of care for your motility disorder. (orlandohealth.com)
- Gastrointestinal Motility" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
- Impaired gall bladder motility was evident in patients with beta-thalassaemia and it may be related to disease duration, serum ferritin and total serum bilirubin level. (who.int)
- METHODS: From November 2017, an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) was proposed at least 3 years after SG to all patients operated on in our institution. (bvsalud.org)
- Exclusion criteria were patients ity could protect the patient from pain [ 6 ], suffering from obesity, diabetes or liver while preserved gall-bladder motility in cirrhosis. (who.int)
- In this study, the gastrointestinal transit conditions in male landrace pigs were studied with a telemetric motility capsule under fasted and postprandial conditions. (ucc.ie)
- These agents decrease gastrointestinal motility, which may delay the excretion of infective gastroenteric organisms and/or their toxins. (drugs.com)
- Comment: Coadministration of anticholinergic drugs and glucagon increase the risk of gastrointestinal adverse reactions due to additive effects on inhibition of gastrointestinal motility. (medscape.com)
- General principles of gastrointestinal function - motility, nervous control, and blood circulation. (medlineplus.gov)
- Doctors often perform pH monitoring and impedance testing along with gastrointestinal endoscopy. (chop.edu)
- Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (ACIs), e.g., neostigmine, are known to increase upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) motility and are used to treat acute colonic pseudoobstruction. (qxmd.com)
- Gall-bladder motility could be ees for blood transfusion, chelation therapy the clue for symptomatic or asymptomatic by subcutaneous desferrioxamine and fol- gallstones, as sluggish gall-bladder motil- low up. (who.int)
- Overall, the study provides new insights of gastrointestinal conditions in landrace pigs, which can lead to more accurate interpretation of in vivo results obtained of pharmacokinetic studies in preclinical models. (ucc.ie)
- Heart rate, blood pressure, gastrointestinal motility, galvanic skin response, and biochemical indicators were measured as physiological responses, and affective and semantic rating scales were used as subjective responses. (cdc.gov)
- Gastrointestinal effects appear to be the most pronounced with morphine. (drugs.com)
- Nitrate in the diet may even enhance host defenses against gastrointestinal pathogens by modulating platelet activity, and possibly even gastrointestinal motility and microcirculation [McKnight et al. (cdc.gov)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Gastrointestinal Motility" by people in this website by year, and whether "Gastrointestinal Motility" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
- This procedure is done during gastrointestinal endoscopy for some children or teens with gastroparesis. (chop.edu)
- Gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination with oral AC is selectively used in the emergency treatment of poisoning caused by some drugs and chemicals. (medscape.com)
- The rate of motility of GIT in MBTs is very slow which can take up to 91 hours. (vin.com)